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INDUSTRIAL SKILL TRAINING CENTRE, IKEJA
Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) (Safe shut down of Hazardous Energy Sources)
Employees servicing or maintaining machines or equipment may be exposed to serious physical harm or death if hazardous energy is not properly controlled. Craft workers, machine operators, and maintenance personnel are among the workers who service equipment and face the greatest risk. Lockout/tagout program establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout or tagout of energy isolating devices. It will ensure that machines or equipment are isolated from all potentially hazardous energy, and locked out or tagged out before employees perform any servicing or maintenance. Workplace activities considered to be “Servicing and/or maintenance” of machinery and equipment” include: adjusting, inspecting, modifying, constructing, re-tooling, lubricating, removing jams, cleaning etc.
Lockout/tagout is a method of controlling personnel injury/equipment damage associated with repairs and maintenance of equipment by de-energizing machines that use electricity or other sources of energy to prevent the operator from being exposed to serious and life threatening situations. Such accidental exposures can cause severe scalding or burns, extremities or clothing to be caught in a machine’s moving parts, or fatal electric shock. A wide variety of energy sources may need to be locked out during service or maintenance. This includes but is not limited to: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Electrical equipment Hydraulic Pneumatic Mechanical Gravity Thermal Chemical Fluids and Gases Water under pressure Steam
The goal of any employer is to maintain a safe and healthy work environment in order to protect each employee from potentially hazardous or unsafe conditions. Requirements and
regulations pertaining to Lockout/tagout are found in the Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147). Guidelines and procedures outlined in this section have been developed to ensure that a machine or piece of equipment is isolated from all potentially hazardous energy sources before servicing is performed. The above standard does not apply to: a. Work on cord and plug connected equipment - Work on cord and plug connected electric equipment for which exposure to the hazards of unexpected energizing or start up of the equipment is controlled by the unplugging of the equipment from the energy source and by the plug being under the exclusive control of the employee performing maintenance or repair. b. Hot tap operations, under special conditions - Hot tap operations involving transmission and distribution systems when they are performed on pressurized pipelines c. Oil and gas well drilling and servicing.
Lockout Device: A device that utilizes a lock and key to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevents a machine or equipment from being energized.
Tagout Device: A prominent warning device, such as a tag, that can be securely attached to equipment or machinery for the purpose of warning personnel not to operate an energy isolating device and identifying the applier or authority who has control of the procedure.
Tagout Devices Lockout/Tagout: The placement of a lock and tag on the energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, indicating that the energy isolating device shall not be operated until removal of the lock/tag in accordance with an established procedure. (The term "lockout/ tagout requires the combination of a lockout device and a tagout device).
d. Also. 4 . b. Maintenance Supervisor The maintenance supervisor will develop written equipment specific procedures and review the proficiency of their subordinates in following developed procedures. Authorized Employees “Authorized Employees” are responsible for locking and tagging out equipment and machinery in accordance with procedures outlined in this section. To insure that contracting employees are given correct and proper notification of required lockout/tagout procedures used in area of engagement and that the contracting company adheres to these guidelines. f. Responsibility/Resources Employed Safety Manager/ Maintenance Manager Safety manager/Maintenance manager is responsible for developing the written lockout/tagout program and ensuring that training is scheduled. To insure that “Authorized Employees” are properly trained and implement the lockout/tagout system according to developed procedures.“Authorized Employees” are responsible for notifying “Affected Employees” before these procedures are implemented. are instructed in the purpose and use of lockout/tagout procedures. To insure that “Affected Employees” recognize the various types of equipment used by “Authorized Employees” and understand the use and purpose of lockout/tagout equipment. whose work operations may be in the area. To insure that only “Authorized Employees” lockout or tagout machines or equipment. The Maintenance supervisor will also be responsible for following emergency procedures for lock and tag removal in the absence of an employee who attached the lock and tag. He/she serves as the first contact for issues concerning the lockout/tagout program. To insure that specific lockout/tagout procedures are developed for all pieces of equipment and machinery in which the unexpected energization. start up or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. and any other employee.Lockout/tagout device The objectives of the Lockout/tagout Program include: a. To insure that every new or transferred employee. e. c. and when the equipment is placed back into service.
e maintenance personnel An employee who normally works on or near a machine that must be locked out for maintenance. c. Authorized Employee 2. and safely discharge any stored energy. You can only remove YOUR OWN danger tag. You must NEVER touch a device. Other Employee Authorized employee: Affected employee: Other Employee: An employee who services or performs maintenance on machines or equipment i. Upon request. Your danger tag is then filled out and attached to the correct isolating device (such as a valve or switch). train "Affected" and "Authorized Employees". b. That an employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device. d. OHS Department OHS is responsible for auditing departments that have implemented lockout/tagout programs. Only the name of the person tagging the equipment should be on the danger tag. Does not have to be dismantled or altered to achieve lockout. OHS will assist departments in developing equipment specific lockout/tagout procedures. It has a hasp or other means to attach a lock. and assist with lockout/tagout equipment selection. Conditions for using lockout Machinery or equipment is “capable of being locked out” if the following conditions are met: a. 5 . or your supervisor. Affected Employee 3. Rules for Lockout/Tag-outs You must attach a danger tag before starting work on any equipment that could injure you if it is energised. You must remove your danger tag when you have finished work on the repair. must isolate the equipment from its energy source. or b. It has a built in locking mechanism c.e machine operators Person who works in an area where lockout/tagout procedures are being used. Application of Lockout/tagout Lockout/tagout program applies to the control of hazardous energy during schedule maintenance of machines and equipment or during normal machine operations if there is likelihood: a. which has a danger tag attached to it. That an employee is required to place any part of their body into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where work is actually performed upon the material being processed (point of operation) or where an associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle. a. b.Affected Employees “Affected Employees” are responsible for recognizing the various types of lockout/tagout equipment used by “Authorized Employees” and ensuring that this equipment is not tampered with or removed by anyone but the “Authorized Employee”. i. The lockout/tagout rule covers the following employees 1. To do this you. You MUST NEVER remove someone else’s danger tag.
When an energy isolating device is not capable of being “locked out”. b. Designed to deter accidental or unauthorized removal e. chains.Conditions for using tagout a. and the only devices used for controlling energy. key blocks. Requirements for lock-out/tag out devices The locks. adaptor pins. easily recognizable. Designed to withstand environmental conditions for the duration of their application The employer will provide the locks. tags. or other hardware. shape. Do not be use these for other purposes. Distinctive in appearance. If employer can demonstrate (prove) that using a tagout system will provide full employee protection. Standardized according to one or more of the following: colour. selflocking fasteners. type. clearly visible c. tags. and other hardware that are identified and required will be the only devices used to lockout or tagout for personnel protection. Lockout/tagout devices are to be singularly identified. wedges. or format b. size. Designed to convey all information required for the application d. Labelled Lockout Hasp Ball Valve Lockout Devices Plug lockout devices Floor mounted tagout 6 . The locks and tags used for personnel protection will be: a.
The machine has no potential for stored or residual energy or re-accumulation of stored energy after shut down which could injure employees. 7 . DO NOT OPEN c. Identifiable Lockout/tagout devices must have the identity of the employee and must warn against hazardous conditions. The machine or equipment has a single energy source which can readily be identified and isolated. DO NOT START b.Circuit circuit-breaker-lockout-device Qualities of Tags and Locks Durable a. Substantial a. and e) Similar to the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece. Messages must include: a. 2. and c. all environment-tolerant nylon cable tie. Must prevent removal without excessive force or unusual techniques such as bolt cutter or cutting tools b. DO NOT ENERGIZE. OR e. DO NOT CLOSE d. DO NOT OPERATE General Energy Control Procedures OSHA regulations state that it is not necessary to document a specific procedure for a particular machine or piece of equipment when all of the following conditions are met: 1. Constructed and printed so exposure will not cause deterioration of the message on the tag. Tags shall not deteriorate when used in a corrosive environment. Capable of withstanding environmental conditions for the maximum period of use b. Must be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal a) Non-reusable type b) Attachable by hand c) Self-locking d) Non-releasing with a minimum unlocking strength of less than 50 pounds.
Once an employee has completed their work on the locked out piece of 8 . 6. Procedure for Equipment/Machinery Not Requiring a Specific Procedure: STEP 1: Notify all “Affected Employees” that lockout/tagout is going to be utilized and the reason why. a Multiple Employee Lockout procedure will be used. 7. No accident involving the unexpected activation or re-energization of the machine or equipment during servicing or maintenance. STEP 2: If the machine or equipment is operating. The equipment is now locked/tagged out.). etc. The following steps will be followed to properly lockout/tagout equipment that has more than one employee performing maintenance and service: Multiple Employee Lockout using a multi-lock hasp A multi – lock hasp will be placed on the equipment and each employee may put its own locks and tags by following a written procedure developed for the particular piece of equipment. 4. STEP 4: Lockout/Tagout the energy isolating devices. The isolation and locking out that energy source will completely deengerize and deactivate the machine or equipment. Procedures for Multiple Employee Lockout/Tagout: Employees may at times be required to repair/service equipment that requires the expertise of more than one (1) person. The servicing and maintenance does not create hazards for other employees. shut it down by the normal stopping procedure (depress stop button. and as a check on having disconnected the energy source. operate the push button or other normal operating control to make certain the equipment will not operate. valve. open toggle switch. 8.3. STEP 6: Return the operating control to the "neutral" of "off" position after the test. The lockout device is under the exclusive control of the Authorized Employee performing the servicing or maintenance. 5. or other energy isolating device(s) so that the equipment is isolated from its energy source. For these applications. STEP 3: Operate the switch. A single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition. STEP 5: After insuring that no personnel are exposed. The machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance.
5. Lack of procedures. Special lockout locks are not to be used on toolboxes. 9 . they will be retrained on proper lockout/tagout procedures. etc. 2. An attempt will be made to phone the employee who applied the lock or tag. 3. he/she will be instructed that their lock or tag needs to be removed and that they must report to work to remove the lock or tag. Verification that the employee who applied the lock or tag is not at work. the following procedures will be followed: 1. If telephone contact is made with the employee. they will remove their lock and tag from the equipment. Procedures for Lock or Tag Removal: Each lockout or tagout device will be removed from energy isolating source by the employee who put the device on the equipment. Wrong use of tags. 6. machine components are operationally intact. The equipment will be put into use when the last employee may have removed his/her lock. Specific procedures should be written for each piece of equipment. EXCEPTION: When the employee who applied the lock or tag is not available to remove it. instructed on the situation that arose and the steps taken to remove the lock and tag. Supervisor will be contacted and notified of the situation 2. lockers. and that affected employees in the area have been notified that the lock and tag are being removed. Checklist for Lockout/Tagout Have all energy sources been identified (many types of equipment have more than one)? Have all energy sources been shut off or released? Have all lines been bled of air or hydraulic pressure? Have all valves or switches been locked in the off position? Are adequate tags and labels posted to notify other worker and inform area of authorized person’s name? Have employees and supervisors in the area been informed of shutdown? Have brakes been applied or time been given to stop all centrifugal movement before guard is removed? Has equipment been blocked appropriately? Is there a plan for re-energizing the equipment when work is finished? Has all staff that operate or are performing work on the equipment been trained in Lockout/tagout? The most common problems of lockout/tagout 1. The staff that do normal repairs or operate the machines daily are usually well trained. the course of action will continue to Step 4. it is the other staff you need to look in to 3. 5. Before the employee who applied the lock or tag that has been removed returns to work.equipment. 4. Working under someone else’s lock. The Supervisor will inspect the work area to ensure that non-essential items have been removed. If telephone contact is not made. No employee may remove a lock or tag belonging to another employee or contractor. Wrong use of lock. unless specifically directed by maintenance supervisor. 4. all employees have been safely positioned or removed. Training for all employees. Do not use these danger tags for anything except servicing and maintenance.
) 8. This is for your safety to make sure no new energy sources have been added and that all energy sources have been identified. Not identifying all energy sources. routine tool changes. Employees need to know the difference between service/maintenance and routine adjustment/normal operations 10 . 6. minor.If the lock on the equipment is not yours you are violating the law and putting yourself at risk of injury. but not the steam! 7. You turn off the electricity. Maintenance vs. Annual audit of procedures and review of findings.
The correct way is the safe way. 13 . that the time and effort taken in fetching the correct tool from the stores or in servicing a worn tool is considerably less than the time taken in convalescing from an injury. The incorrect way is wrong. the greatest hazards posed by thesetools results from misuse and improper maintenance. These tools allow us to work faster and increase the number of different jobs that we can accomplish.HAND TOOL SAFETY Introduction A hand tool may be powered or not powered. Also when a tools is not put away safely then accidents can occur. By using protective equipment. and following proper work practices. you can operate hand tools safely and with confidence. However. Always have it in mind.
b. Don't use broken or damaged tools. abrasions. Go back to the tool house and get the right tool in the right size for the job. 2. remember the following safety procedures: 1. never toss it to them. Don't use your wrench as a hammer. and punctures. Don't carry tools up ladders.Hand tools can cause many types of injuries: a. Tools can slip. dull cutting tools. often causing needless and permanent blindness. steel toed shoes. 9. Broken bones and bruises. Select ergonomic tools for your work task when movements are repetitive and forceful. Don't use a screwdriver as a chisel. Keep close track of tools when working at heights. or the right tool is used improperly. 6. amputations. etc. Use the right personal protective equipment (PPE) for the job. gloves. Never carry sharp or pointed tools such as a screwdriver in your pocket. Pass a tool to another person by the handle. Carry tools securely in a tool belt or box. joints and ligaments are increasingly common if the wrong tool is used. Carpal tunnel syndrome (inflammation of the nerve sheath in the wrist) and injuries to muscles. 5. hard hats. remember what a single slip can do to fragile human flesh. Use a hoist or rope. A hammer that falls from a ladder is a lethal weapon. To avoid such injuries. A falling tool can kill a co-worker. Eye injuries. Repetitive motion injuries. 8. c. Make sure your grip and footing are secure when using large tools. 3. 14 . Injury from continuous vibration can also cause numbness or poor circulation in hands and arms. d. Use the right tool for the job. Cut in a direction away from your body. or screwdrivers with worn tips. 4. Cuts. Follow company instructions for selecting and using safety eyewear. or even be thrown by careless employees. can stress human muscles and ligaments. causing severe injuries. Flying chips of wood or metal are a common hazard. 10. etc. fall from heights. Using the same tool in the same way all day long. If hand tools are designed to cut or move metal and wood. day after day. 7.
or drift pins that have mushroomed heads. Make sure saw blades. Store tools properly when you stop work. Storage of hand tools a. Hand tools should not be left lying in places where persons have to work or pass. shields. A dull blade or blunt point can lead to injury. Replace or repair all wooden handles that are loose. • Be used in dangerous proximity to other persons or moving machinery. By following these precautions. Unless adequately protected. d. Tools should be used in the correct manner. Improper storage of tools can cause damage to tools and injuries to people. especially those sharp edged or sharp-pointed tools. b. Cut-resistant gloves made of stainless steel can help protect against the effects of a misplaced blade. 2. e. there should be a proper way (also the safe way) of using a certain piece of tools. impact-resistant gloves with gel or rubber palms can reduce vibration. Be on the lookout for signs of repetitive stress.g. they should be properly secured during transport. chests or other suitable containers. eye protection—in the form of safety glasses or goggles—must be worn at all times. knives. Tools should be properly stored. Do not use impact tools such as chisels. chisels are for chiselling etc. which it is designed. e. g. 3. sharp tools should be kept in sheaths. Always keep your tools in top condition. b. Remember. h. f. When not in use. screwdrivers-are for driving screws. 15 . Tools should not be carried in manner that the sharp edges or the sharp points facing you or other persons. an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! The type of personal protective equipment (PPE) you need when using hand tools depends on the tool being used. On jobs that require long periods of hammering. Only insulated or non-conducting tools should be used on or near live electrical installations if there is any risk of electrical shock. the following apply: a. c. When using hand tools. sharp-edged and sharp-pointed tools should not be carried in pockets. abrasion. or other tools are directed away from aisle areas and other employees working in close proximity. and repeated impact. Handling and use of sharp-edged and sharp-pointed tools should not: • Be thrown from person to person. or on scaffolds or other elevations from which they might fall on persons below. Like other machines. It is also important to protect your hands from cuts. a tools must be used only to perform the job. or cracked. Select the right tools designed for specific purposes.1. you can help prevent injuries and provide a better workplace for everyone. At a minimum. i. wedges. splintered. Early detection might prevent a serious injury.
By using the correct size. Adjustable wrenches must be adjusted tightly to the fasteners and then pulled. c. j. Wrenches Wrenches come in an endless variety of styles such as socket. d. g. Sharp-edged and sharp-pointed hand tools should be stored in such a way that: • They cannot fall. open-end. Sharp edges or points of tools to be carried or stored. such as cracking. severe wear or distortion. Turn power off and use electrically insulated wrenches when working on or around electrical components. Inspect wrenches periodically for damage. e. Choose a wrench that properly fits the fastener you wish to turn. Do not expose a wrench to temperatures that could weaken tool hardness. Wrenches are designed to turn or hold bolts. b. the wrench is less prone to slip or round off the fastener corners. These wrenches do not have the strength of a box-end or socket wrench. Do not use open-end or adjustable wrenches for final tightening or loosening frozen fasteners. socket or heavy-duty box wrench. nuts or multiple threaded fasteners. adjustable and torque. f. Never alter a wrench. Avoid using an extension to improve the leverage of a wrench. Use metric wrenches for metric bolts and American inch wrenches for inch-sized bolts. Use a torque wrench to tighten the fastener to the exact torque required. combination. i. and • They cannot cause danger to the person removing them. c. should be protected d. a.Do not carry tools in your pockets. Always try to pull on a wrench (instead of pushing) in case the fastener loosens. 16 . Do not over torque a fastener. just to name a few. k. putting the force on the fixed end. They are sized to keep the leverage and load in an acceptable balance. h. Apply penetrating oil on frozen fasteners before using a striking face box.
a. such as lineman. Plier uses include gripping. including loss of fingers or eyesight. diagonal cutting. chisels. wrenches. 17 . cutting. b. Pliers are a versatile tool. an estimated 8 per cent of all workplace compensable injuries are caused by incidents associated with hand tools. locking tongue and groove. screwdrivers. Do not increases a plier’s handle length to gain more leverage. instead choose larger sized pliers. In fact. Never subject pliers to temperatures that could decrease tool hardness. pliers. turning and bending. Hand tools may look harmless. Pliers Pliers come in all shapes and sizes. slip joint. but they are the cause of many injuries. and other hand tools are often underrated as sources of potential danger. These injuries can be serious. needle nose.Always try to pull on a wrench (instead of pushing) Do not use oversize spanner and packing Hammers. but must be used according to how they are designed.
a. Watch the object you are hitting. d. j. f. stones or concrete. ball-peen. they are also the most abused tools. Be sure the plier’s jaws can grasp properly when bending rigid wire. Always use a hammer of the proper weight and size for the task. g. Hold the hammer with your wrist straight and your hand firmly wrapped around the handle. e. d. g. Look behind and above you before swinging the hammer. Do not use one hammer to strike another hammer. Screwdrivers Screwdrivers are intended for turning a variety of threaded fasteners. (Unfortunately. Watch the object you are hitting. f. Screwdriver tips come in a variety of different shapes 18 . Do not substitute a plier for a wrench when turning nuts and bolts. sledge and setting are just a few of the hammers we use in the workplace and home. Strike a hammer blow squarely. h. Hammers handles shall be well fitted and securely fastened by wedges or other acceptable means. Hammers and Striking Tools Hammers are one of the most used tools in our toolboxes. Hammers are designed according to the intended purpose. soft-face. i. Do not hammer with pair of pliers. in or out of materials. Strike a hammer blow squarely. c. e. Hammer with cracked head and Hammer with a loose handle. such as machine or wood screws. b. chipping. Look behind and above you before swinging the hammer. stones or concrete. Cut hardened wire only with pliers designed for that purpose. Always use non-sparking pliers when in the presence of flammable vapours or dusts. Do not use one hammer to strike another hammer.c.) Nail.
f. g. e. Robertson) that hold screws with recessed square holes are also useful in such situations. hard-to-reach areas. The slotted tips are the most common. e. square and various others are also used. hex. File narrow surfaces diagonally. j. h. Use both hands when using a screwdriver—one guides the tip and the other to turn the handle. Always remove sharp edges and tidy up the job. Keep files in racks and avoid the chipping of the teeth which will result in poor quality workmanship c. Never expose screwdrivers to temperatures that could reduce tip hardness. Always use a screwdriver tip that properly fits the slot of the screw. Files a. Check that the work piece is firmly gripped in the vice.. Files must never be used without a proper handle. d. Throw away screwdrivers with broken or worn handles. it is important to match the type of screwdriver you use to the type of job you are doing. Never use a screwdriver as a pry bar. chisel. b. As with any tool.g. stirrer or scraper. Always use non-sparking screwdrivers in the presence of flammable vapours Use a screw-holding screwdriver (with screw-holding clips or magnetic blades) to get screws started in awkward. a. h. d. Turn power off and use electrically insulated screwdrivers when working on or around electrical components. Wooden handles should be renewed if they show signs of splitting. Always check that the handle is firmly attached to the tang. Use magnetic or screw-holding screwdrivers to start fasteners in tight areas. Straighten tips or redress rounded edges with file. e. punch. f. i. Final tightening requires both hands on the screwdriver handle. 19 . c. Files should be provided with well-fitting handles. Apply pressure only on the cutting strokes. b. however. Hold the file correctly and distribute the weight evenly over its whole length. f. Safety Tips To Know When Using Screwdrivers are stated below. g. Square-tipped screwdrivers (e.and sizes.
The mushroomed heads must be properly rounded off. c. i. f. e.e. g. d. struck head is not mushroomed or chipped). The proper type and size of chisel should be selected for the job. cutting edges are sharp. Always wear safety glasses or goggles when using chisels. The head of the chisel must be free of grease and burrs. for shearing and chipping. Always drive chisels outward and away from your body. which permits the bevel of the cutting edge to lie flat against the shearing plane. Chisels should be fitted with hand protection 20 . h. Chisels should be fitted with hand protection. at an angle.Do not use a file without a proper handle Chisels a. Hold the chisel. Cold chisels for cutting metal should not be used for cutting timber. b. Use the tools only if they are in good condition (i.. Never use chisels for prying opening lids.
When cutting. Marking Out Tools a. c.). Keep all marking – out clean and slightly oiled. and well away from all other tools. Use the right type of saws for cutting different materials (e. steel. d. Check that the clamps are tight on the scribing block 21 . d. timber. c.g. Handle the tools carefully – no knocking or rubbing of the surface. Securely place work piece in a vise or other suitable support. Take care to clean the tools and the work piece before starting to mark out. All saws should be kept sharp and clean. etc. b. use slow. Don’t hold work pieces in your hand when using a saw.Hacksaws a. deliberate strokes. Forcing the cut can make the blade buckle and snap and/or jump out onto your hand. b.
22 . do not use these tools near flames or flammable materials. the sound will be dull or “dead. Powder Tool Safety A powder tool works like a loaded gun. Before an abrasive wheel is mounted. In environments where fuel-powered tools are used. the wheel must be tightened with a nut without distorting the flange. polishing. the fluid must retain its same characteristics. if a hydraulic tool is used in a very hot environment. Abrasive wheel tool. even with the extreme temperature change. cutting. Fuel-powered Tools Safety Fuel-powered tools usually are operated with gasoline. When mounting. the fluid used to power hydraulic tools must be approved and fire resistant. effective ventilation is mandatory. Any limitations set forth by the manufacturer on the fluid or equipment must not be exceeded. you must follow the manufacturer recommendations and wear eye. and face protection. Many types of grinding wheels will emit a high-pitched ringing sound when tapped with a light. and store gas in approved containers only.” Do not use damaged or “dead” abrasive wheels. In addition. Abrasive Wheel Tool Safety Grinding. For example. trained employees may operate powder tools because they pose many safety risks. Even worse. It also must retain its same operating characteristics at the highest temperature to which it is exposed. When wheels are cracked or damaged. ear. and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems since they may discharge particles. they may become disengaged from the mounting.Hydraulic Tools Safety Fluid powers hydraulic tools. Always turn off a tool and allow it to cool before refueling. To reduce the chance of fire or explosion. To use them. it should be inspected closely and sound-tested or ringtested to be sure it is free from cracks or defects. Some manufacturers also require signs to be posted in areas where the tools are used. Only approved. non-metallic tool. it could fly apart in operation. and the wheel must be able to move freely. A powder tool is often used to shoot nails into a work-piece. If a wheel is defective. The most serious hazards associated with these types of tools are the inhalation of fumes and the risk of explosion. most manufacturers of powder tools require employees to wear hard hats because of the ricochet possibility.
Examples of pneumatic tools include drills. hammers. 5. 23 . Pneumatic Tool Safety Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air. and sanders. A type of pneumatic tool and Pneumatic unit.54 shows a pneumatic nail gun. Fig. nail guns. riveting guns. grinders.Mounting of abrasive wheel.
” In other words. The retainer protects the tool from being ejected during operation. chips. and excessive noise. f. a. Cleaning with compressed air is dangerous. b. Set up screens or shields in areas where nearby workers may be exposed to flying fragments. safety shoes or boots and hearing protection. Pneumatic tools that shoot nails. where necessary. You should not use the compressed air for cleaning. rivets. e. staples. Pneumatic shock tools should be equipped with safety clips or retainers to prevent dies and tools from being accidentally expelled from the barrel. d. 24 . or similar fasteners and operate at pressures greater than 100 psi must have a safety device to keep fasteners from being accidentally ejected. For air hoses more than 1/2 inch (12mm) in diameter. Post warning signs where pneumatic tools are used. unless the muzzle is pressed against the work surface. Pneumatic Nail Gun. Wear safety glasses or a face shield and. Restrict the use of pneumatic tools to the competent persons who have been given adequate instructions and training on proper use of such tools. the equipment you use for the hose and its corresponding equipment must be designed specifically for the pneumatic tool you are using. Portable pneumatic tools should be used only for the work for which they are designed. dust. “the hose and hose connections used for conducting compressed air to utilization equipment shall be designed for the pressure and service to which they are subjected. Airless spray guns that spray fluids such as paint at 100 psi or greater must have safety devices that prevent accidental pulling of the trigger. c. Also.OSHA requires that each pneumatic tool must have a tool retainer installed on each piece of pneumatic utilization equipment. a safety excess flow valve must be installed at the air supply to reduce pressure in the event of hose failure.
Do not use compressed air to blow debris or to clean dirt from clothes 25 .
Power zone 26 . Of course. not all manual handling tasks are hazardous. Manual Handling Operations Manual handling covers a wide range of activities including lifting. and operating machinery and equipment. But it is significant that around a quarter of all workplace injuries are caused by manual handling. This should indicate the need for caution when lifting and carrying materials. Most jobs involve some form of manual handling. chain blocks etc. moving and placing of objects. It can be done manually (MANUAL material handling) or with the aids of equipment (MECHANICAL material handling) such as trolleys. using hand-tools. Material handling involves lifting. The first consideration when looking at an activity involving manual handling should be whether the manual handling is necessary. assembling. especially when it is recognized that there is some danger involved every time material is moved. Quite often it is only being done in the way that it is because.Material handling Safety Introduction Materials handling embraces the movement of all the materials used in the workshops. pushing. “it has always been done that way”.the aim being to make your work easier and much safer. throwing. typing. between mid-thigh and mid-chest height. Many of the accidents that happen in workshops are caused by mishaps during handling and moving materials. Power Zone The power zone for lifting is close to the body. pulling. most workers are at risk of manual handling injury. forklift trucks. It should be apparent that any piece of material used in engineering workshops has to be moved about many times. carrying and supporting of loads by way of physical effort. This shows the importance of material movement in the workshops. This zone is where arms and back can lift the most loads with the least amount of effort. It may be possible to change the system of work to remove the need for the manual handling. The objective of material handling should be the speedy movement of materials between all operation stages throughout the workshops. It includes repetitive tasks such as packing. holding. cleaning and sorting.
27 . back injuries are far the most serious and common problem in manual material handling. Causes of Injuries a. c. minimization of potential ergonomic problems etc. Physical conditions of individuals. alternatives for material handling systems. Back injuries are not limited to industrial or construction activities. However. bars. The visual environment refers to lighting. g. and brushes to the legs and feet. Incorrect gripping. Training should include the recognition of dangers in manual material handling. but are widespread among many occupational environments including office work. Incorrect lifting techniques. hooks. handle and handhold designs. Engineering Controls Engineering controls refer to items such as improvement on mechanical. learning of proper lifting practice to avoid unnecessary stress to the body. and thermal environments. and other devices. colour and labelling. strained sprained backs etc. Carrying too heavy a load. Potential ergonomic problems minimized through proper design or workstations. Poor job design. Administrative Controls These refer mainly to items such as training. cuts. Failure to wear protective clothing.Hazards Accidents related to manual material handling can result in a variety of injuries such as crushed fingers. Material handling alternatives include various equipment and job aids. The provision of proper training is very important in reducing injuries resulting from manual material handling. and floor worker interfaces. visual. chain blocks. such as the use of trolleys. broken toes. f. the provision of personal protection equipment and proper job assignment. Manual material handling injuries can be attributed to a number of factors: b. d. e. Control Measures Applying both administrative and engineering control measures should minimize the potential for injury cause by manual material handling. The mechanical controls include container design.
All members of the team should lift together to spread the load evenly. How far the load is carried. but remembers there can be only ONE captain to the team and only he gives the orders. Handholds should be made large enough to accommodate larger hands and should not dig into fingers and palms. The worker must twist the torso to lift and move the load. The load must be carried a distance (more than 3 feet). How high or low is the lift (vertical distance). Does the task involve large vertical movement? c. How often the lift is repeated. The lift must be made from below the knees or above the shoulder. 28 . How the load is gripped. When the factors are such that the worker can assume an “ideal” body posture during the lift. involve (b). The load does not have handles or is slippery. Does the task involve strenuous pushing or pulling of the load Manual Handling and Lifting Techniques Lifting Heavy Loads How much weight a worker can safely lift depends on a number of factors. How far from the body the load is held (horizontal distance). Does the task involve long carrying distances? d. How much the worker must twist to lift and move the load. Team lifting Team lifting is employed when manhandling heavy loads. which allows the arms and elbows to be close to the torso during the lift. The lift is occasionally. Assessment of Work Procedure for Manual Handling The Task a. All the men in the team should be of similar physique and build. Factors affecting how much weight a worker can safely lift include: Lifting factors More weight can be safely lifted when: The load is close to the body and not too large/bulky. The lift is at waist height. The amount of weight that can safely be lifted is reduced when: The load is farther away from the body or is large/bulky. The lift is performed repeatedly (several times a minute). performed only The lift does not carrying. The lift is performed in front of the body.Proper Handholds Proper handholds make lifting easier and reduce the risk of injury. Does the task involve holding loads away from the trunk? b. The load has handles. the worker is able to lift greater loads. forcing the arms and elbows away from the torso during the lift.
Make sure it is in plain view with adequate lighting and is free of obstructions or spillage that could cause tripping or slipping. Make sure the load is free. If the load is thought to be more than one person can handle. Determine how heavy it weighs. to minimize the effects of acceleration. Bend your knees and keep your back straight. Lift gradually with your legs (not your back). Gets firm footings make sure that the floor is not slippery. DO NOT continue lifting when the load is too heavy. n. One person should act as leader and give the commands to lift. i. j. l. g. Never overexert yourself when lifting. o. If it is not. k. Watch out for the fingers and hands when carrying a load so that they will not struck against other objects. grease. Inspect the load to be lifted for sharp edges. If team lifting is required. Lift without twisting the body. Wear gloves when lifting or handling objects with sharp or splintered edges. get help or use a mechanical lifting device. b. Keep the load close to the body. an additional person shall be assigned to the job. Recognize the fact that gripping power will weaken over long distances. Inspect the route over which the load is to be carried. Make sure the gloves are free from oil. f. lower. d. c. 29 . without jerking. and wet or greasy spots. m. ask somebody to help or use team lifting. h. If the load is too big or too heavy for one person to carry. make sure that personnel are similar in size and physique. etc. Consider the distance the load is to be carried. not locked down or struck. or other agents that may cause a poor grip. e.Some Proper Lifting Practices are recommended below: a. Size up the load and make a preliminary “heft” to be sure the load is easily within lifting capacity.
b. continue to breathe normally through the lift.General Lifting Principles General Lifting Principles a. Select a secure grip so that there is no danger of slipping during the lift. Abdominal muscles support the spine when lifting. with one foot slightly in front of the other for balance. Bend your hips and knees instead of bending at the waist. d. Know where you are going to set the item down and make sure it and your path are free of obstructions. Examine the object for sharp corners. Tighten abdominal muscles. Keep your feet apart for a stable base. 1. This allows the leg muscles to take the load and not the spine. Ensure correct hold. How to Lift Safely Before lifting. or if possible. vi. Lift steadily don't jerk the load. Get a firm footing. Keep your back straight and avoid twisting or bending to the side. 30 . Ask for help if needed. Stand close to the load with your feet spread apart about shoulder width. concentrate on the lift and not on the breathing. f. Keep the load close. take a moment to think about what you're about to do. divide the load to make it lighter. The closer it is to your spine the less force it exerts on your back. Brace yourself for the lift. Point feet in the direction of travel. Know your limit and don't try to exceed it. c. g. Then follow these steps. slippery spots or other potential hazards. e.
3. Begin slowly lifting with your LEGS by straightening them. Never twist your body during this step.2. Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift. 4. Tuck your chin while keeping your back as vertical as possible. Squat down bending at the knees (not your waist). 31 .
keep the object as close to the body as possible. there is a dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region of the back. Once the lift is complete. Remember. keep your back as vertical as possible and bend at the knees. To place the object below the level of your waist. turn using your feet-not your torso.5. Non-Powered Hand Trucks When not in use. follow the same procedures in reverse order. As the load's center of gravity moves away from the body. not in the aisles or in other places where they constitute tripping hazards or obstruct traffic Manual Pallet Jack Floor Hand Truck Pallet + walk + no stack + manual Manual lifting and/or travel Four or more wheeled hand truck with handles for pushing or hitches for pulling 32 . trucks should be parked in a designated area. If you must turn while carrying the load.
Two-Wheeled Hand Truck Dolly Three or more wheeled hand truck with a flat platform in which. bend your knees. e) Never walk backwards with a hand truck. Keep the truck under control at all times. 33 . since it has no handles. f. b. the load is used for pushing Non-pallet + manual + no stack Load tilted during travel Guidelines for using a hand truck. The operator should only balance and push. Position your body between the handles. Load only to a height that will allow a clear view ahead. or fall. d. e. b) Place the load well forward so the axle will carry the weight. Make sure the tires are inflated and at the proper pounds per square inch (p. To properly lift the load. Place heavy objects below lighter objects. Do not run. shift. c. keep the truck in front of you. keep the truck behind you. or fall. using your right hand for the right handle and left hand for the left handle.i. Keep the centre of gravity of the load as low as possible. a. When going up. a) Keep the centre of gravity of the load as low as possible. while keeping your back straight.s. f) When going down an incline. Centre the load so the axle will carry the weight. Position the load so it will not slip. d) Let the truck carry the load. c) Position the load so it will not slip. g) Move the truck at a safe speed.). shift. Guidelines for using a wheelbarrow.
a. supervised. d. Marking of Lifting Equipment Lifting equipment. and carried out in a safe manner by people who are competent to do so. e. Positioning and Installation Lifting equipment must be positioned or installed to prevent risk of injury. from the equipment or the load falling or striking people. 34 . “Such a definition covers a wide range of equipment. c. e. b. Let the wheelbarrow carry the load. Portable lifting stands. Similarly the load and anything attached to it must be suitable and of adequate strength. d. Organization of Lifting Operations Lifting operations must be planned. Almost every workplace contains parts or tools that are too heavy to lift safely by hand. The operator should only balance and push. Strength and Stability The lifting equipment must be sufficiently strong. Types of Lifting Devices for Material Handling The most common lifting devices used today for handling material are stated below. Cranes. including accessories. as must equipment. without waste of time or effort. Chain Blocks. safe working load.g. stable for the proposed use. Equipment for lifting people must be appropriately marked. and without causing damage or injury to man or machine.g. must be visibly marked with any appropriate information to be taken into account for its safe use. nor must people be at risk of falling from the equipment or struck by it. Lifting equipment can be defined as “work equipment used at work for lifting and lowering loads includes attachments used for anchoring or supporting the load. b. e. Forklift Trucks. Key Requirements of Lifting Equipment a.g. Lifting Equipment for Lifting Persons Such equipment must not present a risk of crushing or tripping. Mechanical Handling Operations Introduction The aim of lifting equipment is to lift material effectively. c. which must not be used for lifting people but might be in error.
Principles of lifting device Mobile Crane Portable lifiting Stand Chain Blocks Gantry Crane Forklift 35 .
Often a special lifting jib is fixed over the place where most of the lifting needs to be done. both the forks and the rear of the vehicle swing wide on corners. Mobile Cranes are used in many industries and construction sites to move heavy and oversized object that other material handling methods cannot. All cranes use cables and pulleys or hydraulics to raise and lower the desired load. remember that any roof attachment used has to carry the total load to be lifted plus the weight of the block. it is necessary to have a support above the load. As a result. Adjustable boom angles. c. A hoisting mechanism attaches to the trolley and exerts 36 . b. Ability to swing loads around an axis of rotation. Forklift trucks Forklift trucks are commonly used in the workplace and industry in moving and stacking goods on pallets. chain blocks are frequently used in workshops for the overhead lifting of smaller loads. Forklift truck drivers have to be trained and practice for some time before they can get used to the difference. Lifting. Forklift trucks can be powered by different kinds of fuels such as LPG batteries. In selecting the support to be used. Hoist trolley travel. e. They provide both vertical and horizontal movement of heavy and oversized loads. Adjustable boom lengths. diesel. to which the block can be fixed. Crane travel. Overhead travelling cranes usually have three main drive mechanisms for: a. Overhead cranes have a railed support structure called a bridge and a wheeled trolley that travels across the bridge horizontally. c. To lift a load with chain blocks. Mobile Cranes Mobile cranes are used to hoist loads to meet various construction and industrial needs. d. Forklift trucks have one major difference from ordinary road vehicles that they are operated with rear wheel steering. b. and manual pull exerted. Ability to lift and lower loads.Overhead Crane Chain Blocks (Tackle) Although a crane is necessary to lift heavy loads. The basic operational characteristics of all mobile cranes as follows: a. Ability to travel about the job site under their own power. Overhead Cranes Overhead cranes are among the most commonly used lifting devices in many industrial workplaces.
or movable. the legs of a gantry crane are secured to the ground. clamps etc. lifting operations are planned. Lifting equipment also. winches. where equipment is used for lifting people it is marked accordingly. should be similarly marked. Safety Precautions in the use of Lifting Devices Always ensure that all lifting equipment is: a. include devices such as ropes. Where appropriate. Never exceed any safe working loads. tying. positioned or installed to prevent the risk of injury. d. eg safe working loads.. Striking of persons or objects by the load as a result of inadequate visibility of the operator. These cranes are powered similarly to hoists. also. you must ensure that: a. chains. slinging etc b. Sufficiently strong. c. eg slings. Overhead cranes are used in shop environments to maximize the use of overhead space. b. eg all necessary precautions have been taken to eliminate or reduce any risk.force for raising and lowering. slings. it is thoroughly examined. hoists. which are used for moving materials vertically. c. b. chain blocks etc. electrically. mobile cranes and wall cranes. stable and suitable for the proposed use. or by air. Lifting Equipment and Lifting Gears There are many kinds of lifting equipment such as cranes. The load is attached to the hoist with an attachment such as a sling or a hoist chain. eyebolts etc. before lifting equipment (including accessories) is used for the first time. There are several types of overhead cranes. eg from the equipment or the load falling or striking people. the setup is basically the same with the overhead crane. Visibly marked with any appropriate information to be taken into account for its safe use. 37 . manually. Gantry Cranes Gantry Cranes are similar to overhead cranes. Overturning of mobile cranes due to improper operations. except that the bridge carrying the trolley is supported on two or more legs running parallel on fixed rails. Failing down of elevated materials due to improper fixing. Otherwise. and it should be safe for such a purpose. Structural failure of lifting equipment due to overloading. Similarly. Accessories. shackles. storage bridge cranes. including gantry cranes. supervised and carried out in a safe manner by people who are competent. lifting points) must be suitable. c. Additionally. the load and anything attached (eg timber pallets. Hazards Hazards involving the use of lifting equipment include: a.
000 new chemicals are produced each year. and this trend will continue as chemicals have a direct impact on the improved quality of life. of which 150-200 are considered likely to cause cancer. or gas.Chemical Safety Introduction Over the past decade there has been a vast increase in the use of chemicals. solid. b. Health risks resulting from exposure to chemical hazards at work. Basic principles of prevention. It is imperative that everyone who could potentially come into contact with chemicals should know and understand the risks. What is a Chemical? What is a chemical? Everything is a chemical. It is estimated that 5. and little was done. These chemicals are mostly found as mixtures in commercial products such as 38 . Today over 400 million tons of chemicals are produced annually.000-10. e. Little was known. Chemical fire and explosion hazards. any pure substance or any mixture. about the hazards associated with chemicals and chemical processes. c.000 commercial chemicals are hazardous. and the methods available for reducing them. d. Chemical emergency procedures. Fifty years ago only 1 million tons of chemical were produced annually. Chemicals are available either in natural or synthetic form. The management of a chemical control programme. and to employers and workers and their representatives. Over 1. This section covers the following topics: a. Anything made of matter is therefore a chemical be it liquid. however. Chemistry is the study of matter and its interactions with other matter.000 are marketed. many risks associated with the unsafe use of chemicals at work. Therefore safety and health in the use of chemicals offers a challenge to governments. and of the 5-7 million known chemical substances over 80. There are.
hazards to reproduction g. chemical consumer products. c. What is a hazardous chemical? A hazardous chemical is a chemical for which there is significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.g. Biological toxicity can be complicated to measure because the "threshold dose" may be a single organism. reversible or irreversible. The following properties contribute to risk to health resulting from acute. the effective toxicity is then a combination of both parts of the relationship. For a chemical to exert an effect there has first to be exposure. irritant e. while the exposure depends on the way the chemical is used. sensitizing What is Toxicity? Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism. heat and cold. beta. can cause non-heritable birth defects h. non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light..g. bacterium or worm can reproduce to cause a serious infection. mercury. very toxic or toxic b. and gamma radiation. chemical. birth defects from excessive exposure to a teratogen during pregnancy or cancer from excessive exposure to a carcinogen). Toxic Entities There are generally three types of toxic entities. However. sound and vibration. Physically toxic entities include things not usually thought of under the heading of "toxic" by many people: direct blows. b. If 39 . concussion. and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and alpha. all chemicals can be poisonous and cause injury or death. A similar situation is also present with other types of toxic agents. The toxic effects can be immediate or delayed. food additives. The toxic effects vary from mild and reversible (e. But they can be used safely: the effect depends on the dose and exposure. Biological toxic entities include those bacteria and viruses that are able to induce disease in living organisms. hydrofluoric acid. and poisons from living things.. How chemicals affect us The harmful effects of chemical substances depend on the toxicity and the exposure to that chemical. most medications. Toxicity is a property of the chemical substance. corrosive d. harmful c. Chemicals include inorganic substances such as lead. repeated or prolonged exposure: a. Theoretically one virus. etc. local or systemic. One to two million of such products or trade names are available. and chlorine gas. There are no safe substances. organic compounds such as methyl alcohol. asbestos. biological and physical: a. It is possible by limiting these to handle and benefit from the properties of chemical substances in an `acceptably safe' way. cancer causing f. fuels for power production. in a host with an intact immune system the inherent toxicity of the organism is balanced by the host's ability to fight back.agricultural chemicals. a headache from a single episode of inhaling the vapours of ethyl acetate that disappears when the victim inhales fresh air) to serious and irreversible (e.
b. occupational and economic perspective. Factors that determine the chemical effects on a worker Acute effects . Identify the substances present in the workplace. sustaining many of our activities. To prevent chemical risks. endanger our health and poison our environment. and increasing agricultural productivity. Chronic effects usually require repeated exposure and a delay is observed between the first 40 .Chronic effects The effects may be acute: after a short exposure an immediate effect may be experienced. permanent and serious health impairment to mild skin irritation at the other end. e. no matter how toxic the chemical. it is necessary to: a.there is no contact between a living organism and a chemical. preventing and controlling diseases. especially if not properly used. one can not ignore that these chemicals may. c. Be aware of their risks for health and the environment. before implementing them. and Evaluate the advantages and inconveniences that these alternatives may present from a legal. Exposure to chemicals: dose-effect relationship Chemical health hazard Chemicals have become a part of our life. Identify alternatives that bear lesser risk. environmental. Chemical health hazard is the potential of a chemical to cause harm or adversely affect health of people in the workplace. However. Adverse health effect ranges from fatality. d. the organism cannot possibly be harmed. Understand both employers’ and employees’ perception of risk. Fig 1.
c. which can have a latency period of many years. d. Local and Systemic effects Routes of entry of workplace chemicals into the body a. Absorption (through the skin or eyes) c. swallowing) Other routes of entry include a. Acute local effects may include corrosive injuries from acids and bases or lung injuries from inhaled gases such as ozone. Ingestion (eating.an increase in the blood alcohol level. A substance may have acute and chronic effects.exposure and appearance of adverse health effects. b.stomach irritation and stomach upset. Systemic effects . Inhalation (breathing in) b.Systemic effects Hazardous substances may cause local effects. Intravenous (injection into the vein) 41 . Local effects . Both acute and chronic conditions can result in permanent injury. 2.drunkenness. phosgene and nitrogen oxides. a.permanent liver damage. Acute effects . Systemic effect refers to an adverse health effect that takes place at a location distant from the body's initial point of contact and presupposes absorption has taken place. headache and a hangover. Local effects . which can cause damage to brain cells. Chronic effects . Transfer across the placenta to the unborn baby b. Fig.
Routes of entry of chemical into the body Table 1. kidneys on chronic exposure. Lungs Allergenic Dry burning throat. Poisonous. welding processes. 3. affected organ and type of toxicity of some common industrial chemicals. paints and inks Cadmium metal and some of its compounds Dusts. heavy chemicals Industrial processes involving polyureth ane manufact ure. Intramuscular (injection into the muscle) d. Chemical Physical form Method of entry Organ(s) that can be affected Class of toxicity Symptoms Examples of industries where the chemicals are used Metal industries. vapours. The physical form. Subcutaneous (injection under the skin) Fig. route of entry. Dusts Inhalation Ingestion Lungs. vomiting.c. chest pain. headaches Toluene diisocyanate Vapour Inhalation Industrial asthma due to lung effects Dermatitis Solid Spillage on skin Skin Allergenic 42 . causing kidneys damage to lungs. throat.
Target Organ Effects of Chemicals 1. a. 5. The main physical forms are stated below. 8. 43 . the damage it causes. or into food. Reproductive toxins affect reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on foetuses (teratogens). However. This form is the least likely to cause chemical poisoning. 4. 3. 7. of the body. 6. 2. Fig. Hepatotoxins damage the liver. or dermal layer. Neurotoxins adversely affect the nervous system. certain chemical solids can cause poisoning if they get onto your skin. Hematopoietic Agents decrease haemoglobin function and deprive the body tissues of oxygen. Eye hazards affect the eye or visual capacity. Agents which damage the lung irritate or damage pulmonary tissue. Solid. Cutaneous hazards affect the skin. Target organ of chemical Forms of chemical found in the workplace The physical form of a chemical can affect how it enters your body and to some extent. Nephrotoxins damage the kidneys.4.
Some chemical substances exist as a gas when they are at a normal temperature. and fogs. bags of cement). Fumes/vapour d. Solvents e. Dust is made of tiny particles of solids. Many hazardous substances. Common forms of Chemical That Cause Health Risks a. d. such as acids and solvents. smokes. Gases. 5. This is the gas phase of a material that is found as a liquid under normal conditions. handling glass fibres that produce toxic dust). Fig. some chemicals in liquid or solid form become gases when they are heated. Vapour. Tiny droplets of liquid which are suspended in the air are called mists. or from work processes that create dust (for example. Gases g. Pesticides f. Dusts b.b. Other physical forms are aerosols. However. Dust. fumes. Metals Labels 44 . c. Exposure can be either from materials that normally exist in dust form (for example. wood into sawdust. are liquids when they are at normal temperature. e.g. and e. Acids and bases c. Liquid. Chemicals can change their physical form.
for example “Wonderglu” or “Supabat”. 4. regional. the correct preventive actions be chosen. and national classification and labelling systems are already established some of them are stated below: 45 .The hazard classification and labelling process is an essential tool for establishing an effective information transfer so that the degree of the hazard the chemical represents for man and the environment can be recognized. dry area keep material away from food avoid contact with skin and eyes rinse contaminated articles and floors thoroughly with water 5.hazards: dangerous to health.directions 1. avoid elevated temperatures in case of fire do not inhale smoke Labelling systems International. and safe use achieved. especially when swallowed! may decompose above 110�C (230�F) and � � form poisonous gases safety . keep container tightly closed and store in cool. which does not tell you anything about the chemical — it is simply the brand name used to advertise the chemical. and (2) the chemical (generic) name which tells you the exact ingredients (the ingredients are often in small writing on the label). SODIUMTRICHLOROACETATE (NaTA) Dangerous to health safety . and correspond to the exact chemical that can be found in the container. Labels must be attached to the container. 3. 7 Labelling of chemicals It is important to know that most industrial chemicals have two names: (1) a trade name by which the chemical is commonly known. 2. The label is the basic tool to keep the user informed on the classification of a product’s hazard and the most important safety precautions. Fig.
Hazard Statements: Additional label elements included in the GHS are: a. Safety Data Sheets contain identification information about the substance (composition.a. Symbols (hazard pictograms) b. Label under EU regulation The globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) The globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) is an internationally recognized system set to replace the various classification and labelling standards used in different countries. The GHS establishes consistent criteria for classification and labelling of chemicals on a global scale. Supplemental information. etc. as well as 46 . physical. Information on GHS labels The required information in the GHS labels includes: a. transport. information on specific protection and prevention measures throughout the whole process (production. b. The classification and labelling system of the European Union which is used beyond the EU countries. including substances and mixtures.). The United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods is widely recognized and used among the UN member states. Safety data sheets (MSDS) Safety data sheet (or SDS) is the name given to the Material Safety Data Sheet of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Precautionary statements: b. The globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) Fig.). measures to undertake in case of an accident (spillage. fire-fighting measures. may also be used as models for national systems. Signal Words: “Danger” or “Warning” c. It covers all hazardous chemicals. Several functioning national systems. and c. d. Product identifier: c. chemical and toxicological hazards).9. etc. such as those of Canada and USA. storage.
including the use of fume hoods 47 . Regulatory information 16. Hazard communication Labelling of chemicals Chemical Safety Data Sheets 8. Training Use of chemicals Emergency situation First aid training Provisions and legislation concern Substitution Substitution of a less toxic material Change in process to minimize contact with hazardous chemicals Isolation or enclosure of a process or operation Use of wet methods to reduce generation of dusts or other particulates Engineering Controls General dilution ventilation Local exhaust. Stability and reactivity 11. Monitoring Working environment Medical monitoring of workers 7. Safe working procedures . Reducing exposure The number of exposed workers Reducing the length of time and/or frequency of exposure 5. Personal protective equipment 6. The information in the SDS should be presented using the following 16 headings in the order given below: 1. Ecological information 13. Physical and chemical properties 10. Fire-fighting measures 6. Toxicological information 12. First-aid measures 5. Composition/information on ingredients 4.contact details of the supplier. Disposal considerations 14. Other information PREVENTIVE MEASURES 1. Substitution Replace the hazardous chemical with another less dangerous one 2. Identification 2.Codes of Practice 4. Transport information 15. Accidental release measures 7. Engineering control Enclosed process Ventilation 3. Exposure controls/personal protection 9. Handling and storage 8. Hazard identification 3.
e. c. 48 . Gloves. b. Face shields. Dust masks. Rubber boots. goggles and safety glasses. Observing re-entry intervals in sprayed places Use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene Personal protective equipment against chemicals includes: a. Respirators. Special attention to high-risk groups c. f. d. Plastic or rubber overalls and aprons.Closed system Housekeeping Management controls a. and g. Restricted entries b. Job rotation d. Hard hats.
which include electrical failure. Prevention and Protection Measures Introduction In the manufacturing industry. Hazards Generated by Machinery Hazards occur in areas where machine work areas (machine operating output) and human work areas overlap. manufacturing is not possible until a worker operates a machine.Machinery Hazards. And yet. contact. Danger can also arise from the software element. Secondly through non machinery hazards. Machinery has the potential to cause severe and fatal injuries. pressure. As a result. production consists of processing. noise. Concept of Machine Safety The relationship between workers and machines and the environment in which they operate has thus changed on a global scale. In modern times. causing the relationship between machines and production to continue and evolve into many forms today. assembling. 2. safety demands that machines and production facilities should be used safely regardless of where they are used or who uses them. Firstly by machinery hazards. extremes of temperature. and transporting materials. including traps. Hazards occur in areas where machine work areas and human work areas overlap 49 . entanglement or through ejection of materials or machine parts. computer control and human error by the person carrying out the task at the machine Human Workspace Hazard Zone Machine Workspace Fig 1. machines use large amounts of energy to absorb the burden from workers to assist in production. Danger from machinery can arise in two main ways. Trained workers based on experience in operating the machines create more stable quality. exposure to chemicals. global standards for safety are required for today's production sites. This means that all dangerous parts must be guarded. Across changes in the operating environment. vibration and radiation. This is required not only in the workers. impact. 1. but also in the machines and hardware technology. It is estimated that half of machinery accidents arise during maintenance.
ia.com Fig.Source: http://www. Safety Procedure for Machinery 50 .omron. 2.
Risk Reduction Processes from the Designer’s Perspective Typical Machinery Hazards 1. 3. Mechanical Hazards Electrical Hazards Thermal Hazards Hazards Generated by Noise Hazards Generated by Vibration Hazards Generated by Radiation Hazards Generated by Materials and Substances 51 .Fig. 6. 5. 2. 3. 4. 7.
e.8. Spatial separation between human and machine workspaces (Isolation principle. Entanglement: Injuries resulting from the entanglement of hair. People can be injured by machinery in five different ways. for example sparks. Safety by Design 52 . Operator training and supervision 5. 2. Repair. Temporal separation (stoppage principle: Safety by Design) 3.deliberate deviation from rules/procedures (ii).g. Contact: Injuries can result from contact of the operator with sharp and abrasive surfaces. Impact: Injuries can result from being struck by moving parts of the machine. jewellery. Hazards combinations Machinery Hazards Injuries Many serious accidents at work involve the use of machinery. for example in-running nips. Hazards Generated by Neglecting Ergonomic Principles in Machine Design 9. Traps: The body or limb(s) become trapped between closing or passing motions of the machine. Some machines can injure in more than one way. Safety protection like guards. Authorised Behaviours : Maintenance. Inspection activities 3.of commission (failure to perform an act correctly) (iii). c. In some cases the trap occurs when the limb(s) are drawn into a closing motion.g not turning off power) 2. Unsafe (Unauthorised) Behaviours : (i). Accidental Events: e. chips. The following strategies are generally used to achieve this goal: 1. Violations . Missing or loose machine guards. The provision of personal protective equipment. 3. Machine maintenance and inspection 6. Reaching in to remove debris or loosen a jam Not using lockout/tagout Unauthorized persons doing maintenance or using the machines. Safe Systems of Working 4. Contact with Dangerous Parts of machinery can be achieved by: 1. Operators/users not properly trained. machine layout) 2. swarf. items of clothing in moving (particularly rotating) parts of machinery. Alternatively. Errors . The five ways are: 1. tripping / slipping –collision with or falling into equipment Machinery Hazards Prevention Preventing machinery hazards begins by eliminating mechanisms that facilitate hazardous conditions. contact with hot or electrically live components will cause injury on contact. 5. 4. b. Ejection: Injuries can result from elements of the work-piece or components of machinery being thrown out during the operation of the machine. molten metal splashes and broken components Causes of Machinery Accidents a. Hazards associated with the environment in which the machine is used 10. d. Errors of omission (failure to act e.
both general lighting to the workplace (natural or artificial. Examples of this are. feel e. Are of the correct type. Safe systems should be designed to ensure that people exposed to the work activities are not at risk. Remove the risk of accidental start up. Cables and pipes . b. include: Controls: The design and provision of controls which: a. e. d. Such maintenance should be part of systematic schedules of work. particularly lifting equipment and air receivers there is a statutory duty to carry out inspections. A safe layout will take account of: a.to facilitate access for operation. Have distinguishing features (size. supervision. provision of arrestor devices to prevent unexpected strokes and movements.c). Have a directional link (control movement matched to machinery movement). reducing the need to handle work pieces in the danger area. and enclosure of the moving parts of the machine. colour. Spacing . Machine Layout: The way in which machines are arranged in the workplace can reduce accidents significantly. but avoiding glare) and localised for specific operations at machines. adjustment and cleaning. f. In some cases. Permit to work systems should be in place where individuals may have to enter hazardous environments.should be placed to allow safe access and avoid tripping. and fail safe electrical limit switches. Other areas. Distinguished by direction of movement. Failure to Safety: Designers should ensure that machines fail to safety and not to danger. 53 . c. Machine Maintenance and Inspection Depending upon the use equipment is put to. pregnancy or disability.t. which should be covered at the design stage. b. Supervision should be such that best practice is always complied with. with sufficient headroom. c. Operator training and supervision Training should take account of the nature of the hazard. provision of automatic feed devices.Safety by design is the process by which the designer of the work equipment eliminates hazards at the design stage with consideration for the elimination of dangerous parts or making dangerous parts inaccessible. the experience of the operator and any other points of vulnerability such as young people. maintenance. Safe Systems of Working Where machinery is in operation systems of working must be put in place that prevents danger to operators or other persons who may be exposed. Positive lock off devices should be provided to prevent unintentional restarting of machinery. Lighting . it should be regularly inspected and maintained. The safety of operatives during cleaning and maintenance operations should be designed into machinery. fitting of catches and fall back devices. Are in the correct position.
It is important for employees to understand that guards are provided to protect them from injury. In effective guard Effective guard Most modern machine designs incorporate proper machine guards to prevent access to dangerous parts of the machine. 3. Where access to the danger area is not required during normal operation: a. 2. where practicable 54 . The following gives a hierarchy to be used for the selection of machine guards/controls: 1. 5. and employees must be trained to recognize machine hazards and prevent injuries whether or not guards are in place. severed fingers. Injuries arising from exposure to unprotected moving machine parts include Crushed hands and arms. Be securely attached Create no new hazards Withstand operational conditions Allow for safe routine maintenance Allow for safe operator adjustments Withstand environmental conditions Provide protection from falling objects Prevent contact with hazardous conditions Create no interference in the conduct of work Hierarchy of Control to be used for the selection of machine guards The type of machine guard used will depend very much on the type of machine part which needs guarding. Fixed guard. 7. Guards are engineered to give as much protection as possible. 6. For this reason. 8. employers must do everything they can to properly guard machinery. such as the motor connections and nip points. These injuries may range from minor to severe and cause the employee pain. However. 9. they are often exposed to areas that are typically guarded. lost wages and lost work time.Machine Guards A machine guard is a rigid cover that shields workers from moving machine parts and flying debris. 4. blindness etc. the access requirements to the part and the feasibility of the guard. suffering. many older and rebuilt machines do not necessarily offer the proper protection from moving parts. Machine guards must meet the following minimum general requirements to protect workers against mechanical hazards: 1. Also. when workers are servicing and maintaining machines.
e. b. Cutting Shaping Boring Forming of stock 3. Automatic guard c. Adjustable guard e. b.b. Interlocked guard b. Other Moving Parts: 2. Trip device d. d. c. d. Where Mechanical Hazards Occur a. Distance guard c. Trip device 2. Two-handed control 3. The Point of Operation: b. Parts of machine to be guarded Parts of Machine to be safeguarded include: 1. such as: a. The Point of Operation: Where work is performed on the material. Where access to the danger area is required during normal operation: a. Self-adjusting guard f. Power Transmission Apparatus: c. c. Power Transmission Apparatus: All components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work such as: a. Rotating parts Feed mechanisms Reciprocating parts Transverse moving parts Auxiliary parts of the machine Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to the worker: 55 .
e. Rotating members Reciprocating arms Moving belts Meshing gears Cutting teeth Any parts that impact or shear The basic types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions Motions a. In-running Nip Points c. Cutting b. Shearing d. b. c. Punching c. Bending SHEARITE CUTTING BLADES 56 .a. d. Rotating b. Reciprocating Transversing NIP POINT Actions a. f. d.
Clutches h. Collars b. Fans g. Cams d. Shafts 57 . Flywheels i. Spindles e. Meshing gears f. Couplings c.Hazardous Mechanical Motions Rotating motion a.
Rotating and fixed parts Rotating and tangentially moving Parts rotating in opposite direction Reciprocating motion Transverse motion Examples: Conveyor lines Lengthy belts 58 .
Adjustable d. Restraints g.Hazardous Mechanical Actions Cutting Bending Punching Shearing Methods of Machine Guarding There are many ways to safeguard machines. and the physical layout of the work area. Radiofrequency (capacitance) d. Fixed b. Gates 59 . Pullbacks f. Interlocked c. Photoelectric (optical) c. Self-adjusting Devices a. the type of material. the size or shape of stock. the method of handling. Electromechanical e. Presence-Sensing Devices b. The two principal methods of guards are stated below: Guards a. and production requirements or limitations will help determine the appropriate safeguarding method for the individual machine. The type of operation.
or pneumatic power d. Fixed 2. plastic. Interlocked Guards a. c. or other substantial material d. the tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shuts off or disengages b. Permanent part of the machine. Not dependent upon moving parts to perform its intended function. Usually preferable to all other types because of its relative simplicity and permanence. b. When opened or removed. Location/Distance Miscellaneous aids can help reduce exposure a. Interlocked 3. Constructed of sheet metal. Adjustable 4. Self-adjusting Fixed Guards a. screen. Electrical. Replacing the guard should not automatically restart the machine 60 . 1. Awareness barriers Protective shields b. wire cloth. mechanical. Machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place c. bars. Hand-feeding tools and holding fixtures Guards Guards are physical barriers which prevent access to danger areas. hydraulic.Other safeguarding strategies may include: a.
Pullback 61 . Provide a barrier which is synchronized with the operating cycle of the machine in order to prevent entry to the danger area during the hazardous part of the cycle. Radiofrequency (capacitance) d. It may stop the machine if a hand or any part of the body is inadvertently placed in the danger area. Devices A safety device may perform one of several functions. Opening is only large enough to admit the stock. c. Electromechanical e. d. a. Type of Safety Devices a. c. Guard is pushed away as stock is introduced. Guard returns to rest position after stock passes through. Presence-Sensing Devices b. Restrain or withdraw the operator's hands from the danger area during operation. Require the operator to use both hands on machine controls. Photoelectric (optical) c. Openings are determined by the movement of stock b.Adjustable Guards Allow flexibility in accommodating various sizes of stock Self-adjusting Guards a. or d. b.
Awareness barriers b. Holding tools e. Ropes c.f. i. Restraint Safety Trip Controls Two-Hand Controls Gate Location & Distance The machine or its dangerous moving parts are positioned so that the hazardous areas are not accessible or do not present a hazard during normal operation a. h. Walls b. Barriers/Fences c. Shields d. Height above worker d. punching) e. Examples: a. g. Size of stock (single end feed. but may provide the operator with an extra margin of safety. Push sticks or blocks 62 . Controls (positioned at a safe distance) Miscellaneous Aids May not give complete protection from machine hazards.
BS EN294:1992. BS-EN953:1998. principles for design and selection”. 5. List at least five types of machine guards l. List 5 machinery parts that pose hazards when unguarded or improperly guarded. k. Three basic areas require machine safeguarding. List the four general types of guards. 3. “Guidance on safe use of machinery” – although not a standard this is a BSI published documented based on BS5304:1998 and contains a wealth of useful guidance and practical examples of guard designs. amended in 2007. List at least two types of safeguard devices. 6. “Safety of machinery – Interlocking devices associated with guards. List at least three types of devices used to safeguard machines. What are the four types of equipment/machine actions that can injure the worker? e.Quiz a. List three of the requirements for safeguards. f. “Safety of machinery – Guards – General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards”. j. The main standards are: 1. Machine guarding protects operators and prevents injury from…… b. BS EN1088:1995. BS EN811: 1997. PD5304:2005. i. Name them: c. BS EN ISO14121-1:2007. “Safety of machinery – Principles for risk assessment” 2. Standards should be researched and consulted where they exist. What are the three types of equipment/machine motions that present hazards to the worker? d. “Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the lower limbs”. GUIDANCE AND STANDARDS There are numerous standards for machine guarding and machine specific standards. g. Describe at least two of the main causes of machine accidents. What are the requirements for effective guards? h. “Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs”. 4. 63 .
Exposure to noise over a long period of time can cause permanent hearing loss. This condition is called temporary threshold shift.NOISE SAFETY Introduction Not all sound is noise — noise is sound that people do not like. Industrial noise exposure can be controlled — often for minimal costs and without technical difficulty. Short-term exposure to excessive (too much) noise can cause temporary hearing loss. most workers do not realize they are going deaf until their hearing is permanently damaged. Hearing loss from exposure to noise in the workplace is one of the most common of all industrial diseases. the longer you are exposed to the noise. Noise can cause accidents by interfering with communication and warning signals. lasting from a few seconds to a few days. foundries and textile industries. the longer it takes for your hearing to return to “normal”. The goal in controlling industrial noise is to eliminate or reduce the noise at the source producing it. Hearing loss that occurs over time is not always easy to recognize and unfortunately. 64 . Suspect hearing loss if a person complains that he or she cannot hear something when you can. Workers can be exposed to high noise levels in workplaces as varied as construction industries. Temporary hearing loss After spending a short time in a noisy workplace. However. Noise can be annoying and it can interfere with your ability to work by causing stress and disturbing your concentration. 1. it may take several hours for a worker's ears to recover. you may have noticed that you cannot hear very well and you have a ringing in your ears. Noise can also cause you to lose your hearing. Noise can cause chronic health problems. A. This may cause social problems because the worker may find it difficult to hear what other people are saying or may want the radio or television on louder than the rest of the family. Health effects of noise exposure What are the health effects of exposure to too much noise? The health effects of noise exposure depend on the level of the noise and the length of the exposure. The ringing and the feeling of deafness normally wear off after you have been away from the noise for a short time. After leaving work.
Noise increases stress. for example if they have to shout. Hearing tests are the only reliable way to find out whether a worker is suffering from hearing loss. are becoming unclear. The reactions of new workers or visitors to a noisy workplace can be indicators of a noise problem. in some cases. Exposure to noise over a long period of time decreases coordination and concentration. Workers often adapt themselves (“get used to”) to hearing loss produced by harmful noises at work. C. Masking noise 65 . sleeping problems and fatigue (feeling tired all the time). or leave “in a hurry”. Excessive exposure to noise can also reduce job performance and may cause high rates of absenteeism. b. after you have been exposed to excessive noise for too long. Permanent hearing loss can never be repaired. Unfortunately. In order to hear the radio or television they may need to turn up the volume so much that it deafens the rest of the family. including heart. they may begin to read lips as people talk. cover their ears. Permanent hearing loss Eventually. exposure to noise in the workplace can cause a variety of other problems. which can lead to a number of health problems. but have difficulty listening to someone in a crowd or on the telephone. such as warning signals. This type of damage to the ear can be caused by long-term exposure to loud noise or.B. your ears does not recover and the hearing loss becomes permanent. This increases the chance of accidents happening. including chronic health problems: a. For example. by short exposures to very loud noises. he or she may first notice that normal talking or other sounds. Workers exposed to noise may complain of nervousness. hearing tests can be difficult to obtain and need to be performed by a trained health-care professional. d. Noise is suspected of being one of the causes of heart disease and stomach ulcers. “Getting used to” noise means you are slowly losing your hearing. c. Other effects In addition to hearing loss. stomach and nervous disorders. When a worker begins to lose his or her hearing.
Measuring noise Noise in the workplace may be disturbing because of its frequency as well as its volume. Decibels Sounds have different intensities (loudness). an increase of 3 dB from 90 dB to 93 dB means the volume of the noise has doubled. However. Therefore. The decibel scale is not a typical scale — it is a logarithmic scale. from 80 dB to 90 dB) means the noise intensity has increased ten times. then you must measure the noise from each source separately. etc. the level of noise they make together is 83 dB (not 160 dB). your ears will tell you that the sound has approximately doubled in volume. Therefore when you consider the amount of noise the two sources make together. irritates the ears much more than a noise with a low pitch. the level of noise has doubled. a 10 dB increase at any level (for example. if you shout at someone instead of whispering. compressors. in reality. An effective way to measure the noise in your workplace is with a sound meter. For example. such as a whistle. noise comes from different sources. a high-pitched noise. However. even if the volume is the same in both cases. Basically this means that a small increase in the decibel level is. it can be difficult to get the meters and the trained personnel to use them. your ears will feel that the volume has been cut in half. Inside a typical workplace. such as tools (machinery and materials handling).2. if sound is increased by 3 dB at any level. a big increase in the noise level. If you want to identify all of the noise problems in the workplace. Similarly. A. if sound is reduced by 3 dB. there is a simple method that will help you to understand if there is a noise problem in your workplace: 66 . your voice has more energy and can travel a great distance. For example. therefore it has more intensity (loudness). Unfortunately. background noise. For example. if two different sources of noise in a workplace each create 80 dB by themselves. For example. Intensity is measured in units which are calls decibels (dB) or dB(A).
of hours exposed Sound level dB 8 6 4 3 2 1. Safe noise levels Is there a safe level of noise? A safe level of noise basically depends on two things: (1) the level (volume) of the noise. workers should not be exposed to noise levels above 95 dB for more than four hours per day. Exposed workers should be provided with ear protection while exposed at this level and rotated out of the noise areas after four hours of continuous work. Exposure to higher noise levels may be allowed for periods of less than eight hours of exposure time. you must add up the levels of noise you are exposed to throughout the day and see if they exceed 85-90 dB. then the noise level in your workplace is too high and should be reduced! B. 68 . (2) through the use of barriers. If you cannot speak in a normal tone and have to shout to communicate. The eight-hour per day exposure limit found in a noise standard is the total amount of noise that a worker may be exposed to over an eight-hour period.25 or less 90 92 95 97 100 102 105 110 115 3. For example.Simple method for assessing noise exposure Stand at arm's length from a co-worker. and (3) at the worker. and (2) how long you are exposed to the noise. The exposure may be from continuous (constant) noise. No. Of course before using ear protection and rotation every effort should be made to reduce noise using engineering controls. The following chart gives recommended limits of noise exposure for the number of hours exposed. Methods of noise control How can noise be controlled? Workplace noise can be controlled: (1) at the source. Note: workers should never be exposed to more than 140 dB of impulse noise (usually a very loud noise that occurs only once) at any time.5 1 0. The level of noise allowed by most countries' noise standards is generally 85-90 dB over an eight-hour workday (although some countries recommend that noise levels be even lower than this). or from intermittent noise (noise that is periodic at regular intervals but not continuous). Therefore.5 0.
This method of control may require that some noisy machinery be replaced. g. providing mufflers for electric motors.) are purchased. etc. Noise can be controlled at the source by the manufacturer. 69 . the noise level from a pneumatic drill can be reduced by placing a sound-reducing blanket around the drill. etc. enclosing particularly noisy machine parts. changing to quieter types of fans or placing mufflers in the ducts of ventilation systems. A rubber covering can be used to reduce noise from metal falling on to metal. providing mufflers for intakes of air compressors. Therefore controlling noise at its source is the best method of noise control. changing the type of pump in hydraulic systems. f. replacing metal parts with quieter plastic parts. At the source As with other types of exposures. many used machines producing high noise levels (which have been replaced with quieter models) are often exported to developing countries. causing workers to pay the price with hearing loss. h. the best method of prevention is to eliminate the hazard. d. checks should be made to see that they conform to noise standards. Put a silencer on the machine instead of ear protectors on the workers. providing mufflers for the air outlets of pneumatic valves. For example. drills. c. Many machines are now required to conform to noise standards.A. Therefore before new machines (such as presses. reducing speeds gently between forward and reverse movements. Unfortunately. It can also often be cheaper than other methods of noise control. e. i. so that noisy devices never reach your workplace. b. Noise control at the source can also be engineered into an existing device by making adjustments to parts or a whole machine that reduce noise. preventing or reducing impact between machine parts. A length of tubing on the exhaust of the drill will also reduce the noise level. Other engineering methods to reduce noise include: a. stress.
B. The principle is that the noise should be contained under the hood. using belt conveyors rather than the roller type. b. etc. absorbent lining. A machine vibrating on a hard floor is a common source of noise. this can be difficult in many cases. If a small sound source produces a sound level of 90 dB at a distance of 1 meter. increasing the rigidity of containers receiving impact from goods.insulated air compressors. reducing the dropping height of goods being collected in bins and boxes. at 4 meters 78 dB. Mounting vibrating machines on rubber mats or other damping material will reduce the noise problem.Noise . (However. Here are a few points to remember when controlling noise with barriers: 70 . reducing the speed of conveyor systems. lubrication and replacement of worn or defective parts can also be effective ways to reduce noise levels. place sound-reducing barriers between the source and the worker. e. using soft rubber or plastic to receive hard impacts. or damping them with damping materials. then it may be necessary to enclose the machine. c. Regular maintenance. or increase the distance between the worker and the source. the sound level at a 2-meter distance is 84 dB.) The following chart is a simple method of knowing how much sound is reduced by distance. Noise from the way materials are handled can be reduced by measures such as: a. Barriers If it is not possible to control the noise at the source. The hood is made of hard material with a soft. d.
in hot. Earmuffs are less efficient if they do not fit tightly or if glasses are worn with them. then management is putting the responsibility on the worker — it becomes the worker's fault if he or she becomes deaf. the most common yet least effective form of noise control. d. e. h. At the worker Controlling noise at the worker. (2) Plastic-covered acoustical fibres. Earplugs and earmuffs: (1) Formable wadding-acoustical fibres. d. on walls. if possible. or any material that will fit tightly in the ear. C. including rubber. e. f. They are worn over the whole ear and protect the ear from noise. Ear protection is the least acceptable method of controlling an occupational noise problem because: a. the noise should be deflected away from work areas with a sound-insulating or reflecting barrier. access doors and holes for wiring and piping should be fitted with rubber gaskets. Earplugs are worn inside the ear and come in a variety of materials. exhausts and air vents must be silenced and directed away from operators. an enclosure should not be in contact with any part of the machine. humid conditions workers often prefer earplugs (which are less effective) because earmuffs make the ears sweaty and uncomfortable. Generally there are two types of ear protection: earplugs and earmuffs. b. by using ear protection (sometimes called hearing protection) is. the noise is still present: it has not been reduced. workers cannot communicate with each other and cannot hear warning signals.a. management does not always provide the correct type of ear protection: often it is a case of “the cheaper the better”. unfortunately. holes in the enclosure should be minimized. the noise source should be separated from other work areas. (3) Expandable plastics. floors and ceilings. (5) Earmuffs. c. plastic. Earplugs are the least desirable type of hearing protection because they do not provide very effective protection against noise and they can cause ear infection if pieces of the plug are left in the ear or if a dirty plug is used. Both are designed to prevent excessive noise from reaching the inner ear. b. (4) Reusable plastic earplugs. Forcing the worker to adapt to the workplace is always the least desirable form of protection from any hazard. Earmuffs are more protective than earplugs if they are used correctly. Sound-absorbent materials should be used. g. panels of insulating enclosures must be covered inside with sound-absorbent material. 71 . Cotton wool should not be used as ear protection. if ear protection is provided instead of controlling the noise at source. c.
This is painful for the workers and puts them in serious danger of losing their hearing. Questions a. Occupational noise exposure can cause a number of chronic health problems in addition to hearing loss. the noise levels are still as high as 98 dB. Do you think there was still noise exposure for the workers even after the changes were made? d. Were these actions good solutions to the problem? Why or why not? b. Can you think of any better solutions to the problem? e. Case 1 The problem Company XYZ is a manufacturer with five power presses producing noise levels of 102 .Summary Temporary or permanent hearing loss from occupational noise exposure is one of the most common of all industrial diseases. These machines are all in a row in one section of the factory and need to be operated by a worker for eight hours a day. The machines that cut the nails produce a noise level of 95 dB. 72 . Question (1) What solutions to this problem can you suggest? How the problem was solved To solve the problem. However. the least acceptable method is relying on ear protection. Are workers safe if they are exposed to excessive noise for only four hours? c. Why are earmuffs not an acceptable solution to noise exposure? Case 2 The problem Company ABC produces nails. Case-study on occupational noise The following case . Even when only one or two presses are operating. whenever possible. noise can be controlled by a variety of methods.104 dB.studies are based on real situations. although it is better to reduce noise even further. the workers were exposed to acceptable noise levels of 75-80 dB. There are a number of steps you and your union can take towards controlling noise in your workplace. In this way. Workers who operated the power presses were provided with earmuffs and rotated to a quieter section of the factory after a maximum of four hours' continuous work in the power press area. Question (1) What solutions to this problem can you suggest? How the problem was solved The union and the employer discussed the noise problem and decided that enclosing the nailcutting machines would cost less than buying ear protectors for all of the workers. the power presses were moved to a distance of 20 metres from the place where most of the workers were located. Exercise. the most effective of which is controlling noise at the source. Generally 85-90 dB over an eight-hour workday is the allowable level of noise. All workers have been given ear protectors but they do not wear them because it is too hot and uncomfortable.
Workers operating the nail-cutting machines were required to wear earmuffs and were also rotated out of that area after four hours of continuous work there. Were these actions good solutions to the problem? Why or why not? b. Are the solutions to this case better than the solutions that were used for the first case? Why or why not? 73 . Questions a.Inexpensive. with no holes except the door to enter the machine area. The enclosure reached from the floor to the ceiling. Why were the workers rotated out of the enclosed area after four hours of continuous work there? c. The enclosure reduced the noise level outside the machine area to 85 dB. local materials were used to build a full enclosure around the machines. Can you think of any better solutions to the problem? d. A sign was placed on the door to the enclosed area reminding workers to put on their earmuffs before entering the noisy area.
Reasons for Entering Confined Space Entering a confined space as part of the industrial activity may be done for various reasons. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated (such as sloping walls or floors that reduce the area to a point of constriction. A final and most important reason for entry would be emergency rescue. Confined spaces can be found in almost any workplace. g.Confined Space Safety Introduction Many workers are injured and killed each year while working in confined spaces. Process vessels. Silos. Ditches and trenches may also be a confined space when access or egress is limited. Pumping stations and enclosed grit chambers. It is done usually to perform a necessary function. repair. vats. such as welders. b. such as inspection. has limited or constricted means of entry or exit. Potential hazards should be easier to recognize during construction since the confined space has not been used. which would be an infrequent or irregular function of the total industrial activity. and safety monitors. Confined spaces can be below or above ground. or during their construction. When the area meets the criteria for a confined space. Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere. utility vaults. b. The types of hazards involved will be limited by the specific work practices. and vaults. maintenance (cleaning or painting). or similar operations. d. What Is a Confined Space? Confined Space it’s an enclosed space large enough for employee to bodily enter and perform assigned work. d. b. and is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. It is not possible to provide a comprehensive list of confined spaces. painters. Sewage digesters and sewer silos. 74 . Tunnels. Entry may also be made during new construction. Some places may become confined spaces when work is carried out. Examples of confined spaces include: a. f. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard. To effectively control the risks associated with working in a confined space. Generally speaking. and hoppers. One of the most difficult entries to control is that of unauthorized entry. manholes. A confined space can be more hazardous than regular workspaces for many reasons. Pits. Contains a material that has the potential for engulfment of the entrant. d. electricians. c. h. dikes c. Storage tanks. c. An estimated 60% of the fatalities have been among the would-be rescuers without proper training and equipment. etc. a Confined Space Hazard Assessment and Control Program should be implemented for your workplace. e. all ventilation and other requirements should be enforced. a. especially when there are large numbers of workers and trades involved. a confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that: a. fabrication or subsequent modification.
Open – top confined space or b. A limited-access confined space. emergency exit procedures. the quality or even the amount of air that is present in the tank may be affected. For example. with or without a cover. posing a breathing hazard to anyone entering. sewers and silos are considered limited-access confined spaces. When certain substances are present. and life support systems required. pits and some storage tanks are considered open-top confined spaces. and all other reasons for entry. a. 75 . These spaces generally have a depth that restricts the normal movement of air. Even the interior of a water tank can be hazardous because of the possible build-up of certain gases. Categories of Confined Spaces There are generally two categories of confined spaces. Limited-Access Limited-access confined spaces are those that are enclosed and have a very small opening for entry and exit. must be well planned before initial entry is made and the hazards must be thoroughly reviewed. Open-Top Confined Open-top confined spaces have an entry on the top. For example. The standby person and all rescue personnel should be aware of the structural design of the space.This.
Permit-required b. Has any other recognized serious health hazards. Confined spaces are of two types: a. Non-permit required.Open-top and Limited-Access confined spaces Both types of confined spaces also can contain mechanical equipment. Types of Confined Space The employer is required to determine if there are any confined spaces that present or could pose a hazard in the workplace. A dangerous or potentially hazardous atmosphere. b. causing injury or death. Non-Permit Required Confined Space is an area that does not contain any hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm. the small openings can restrict the flow of air into the space. A Written Permit System contains all the conditions that must be evaluated to ensure safe entry into a Permit-Require Confined-Space. Employers must develop a written permit-required confined space programme and train and certify employees required to enter a permit-required space. or c. Even a space that contains air can be deadly if a worker spends too much time in the space and the worker’s breathing causes carbon dioxide to build up. such as a pump or mixing device. Because movement is so restricted in confined spaces. Has a shape that could cause workers to be trapped. employees can become stuck. someone could accidentally start the equipment while an employee is inside the space. Permit System Written Permit System: It is basically just common sense “ideas” that result from knowledge and experience gained through studying the dangers of confined space work. Also. Permit-Required Confined Space has any of these dangers: a. which could cause additional hazards. Training should include information about specific types of confined spaces and hazards employees will encounter at 76 . For example. contains material that could bury (engulf) workers. Employers must make sure that there are no atmospheric or other major dangers. or they can be injured by the tools they take into the space with them.
Communication procedures and equipment i. Name of permit space to be entered. you may be required to purge and/or ventilate the PRCS to establish acceptable conditions for entry. the entry supervisor must terminate the permit as soon as the operations covered by the permit are completed or when a condition arises that is not covered by the permit. such as levels of breathable air. attendant.e. isolating. including atmospheric testing. employers must ensure that certain work practices are followed. Hazards present. b. you would double block and bleed or line break the pipe and then lock and tag it so it can’t be reopened until the confined space work is completed. In general. in the case of pipes. Actions such as cleaning. These conditions will vary depending on the hazardous. decontaminating.the means by which the hazards will be isolated from the confined space. Permit-required confined space entry requires a team of employees filling clearly defined roles. Also. an electric or power switch). The Permit System must acknowledge these actions in the written procedures and provide guidelines for maintaining safe working conditions while they are being performed. j. This includes atmospheric hazards as well as mechanical. Once isolation methods are used. c. b. Employees must protect themselves by wearing proper PPE and by using specialized equipment that does not cause additional hazards. toxic. This includes “lock out/tag out. h. such as lockout/tagout or ventilation procedures. and the inspection uncovers the need for a repair. These are the authorized entrant. f. Or. Entry permits must contain the following information: a. For a permit-required confined space to be safe. such as for hot work. then lock or tag it so the energy cannot be restored until it’s safe to do so. Purging. the written Permit System should contain: a. like Danny’s situation. d. It would also include the usual concern of LEL and oxygen content along with work performed in the confined space that could alter the environmental conditions.a list of the hazards present in the confined space must be identified. Special equipment and procedures. before entering the space. c. Acceptable entry procedures. e. if the purpose of the entry is to inspect the space. names of authorized entrants. Date and authorized duration of work. At the least. g. and explosive materials and mechanical processes commonly found at your worksite.their worksite. and names of others involved in the entry. Name and signature of the supervisor authorizing the entry. and welding may affect the conditions in a confined space. and the tester’s initials or signature. Any test results. For example. entry supervisor. the employer must issue a second permit for repair work. 77 . and engulfment hazards. Means of isolation. explosive.” when you physically disable a potential energy source (i. and rescue personnel. including personal protective equipment (PPE). Purpose of entry and known hazards of the space. Additional permits needed. and record keeping. the duration of the permit must not exceed the time required to complete the assigned task or job identified on the permit. Measures taken to isolate the space and control hazards. such as fires. purging. Acceptable environmental conditions – List the acceptable environmental conditions that must be maintained during entry.
Authorized Attendant The authorized attendant is essentially a guard who helps keep the authorized entrant safe. b. Alert the attendant when a prohibited condition exists or when warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist. there must be adequate space for all entrants. and effects of exposure. or when an alarm is activated. Authorized Entrant An authorized entrant is an employee who actually has permission to enter the workspace. including requirements that entrants should: a. this person should be completely trained in the hazards that the entrant may encounter within the space. d. Each role has specific duties that help ensure everyone involved in the process remains safe. including eye and ear protection. entry supervisor. Also. including information on the mode of entry for the hazard and the signs. when a prohibited condition exists. and rescue team. symptoms. the amount of time it takes to exit the space in the event of an emergency must be taken into account when determining the number of occupants. c. 78 . These roles are the authorized entrant. OSHA is very specific about the skills and duties required of authorized entrants. Know the hazards they may face during entry. The importance of this person’s duties cannot be overstated. The authorized attendant is the authorized entrant’s primary safety device. e. However. However. Maintain communication with attendants. authorized attendant. when the warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist. Exit from the permit space as soon as possible when ordered. Properly use appropriate PPE.Personnel Authorised to enter into Confined Space Permit-required confined space entry requires a team of employees filling clearly defined roles. More than one authorized entrant is allowed to enter a confined space at a time.
The authorized attendant helps ensure the safety of the authorized entrant. Maintain communication with and keep an accurate account of those employees entering the permit-required space. b. Accidents occur among workers because of failure to recognize that a confined space is a potential hazard. as long as they are properly trained and equipped for these other roles. Inform the authorized entrant and the entry supervisor in the event that unauthorized persons have entered the space. It should therefore be considered that the most unfavourable situation existing every case and that the danger of explosion. procedures. and c. e. they can be even more hazardous in a confined space than in a regular worksite. Atmospheric hazards. c. Perform no-entry rescues when specified by the employer’s rescue procedure. such as permits. An entry supervisor may also serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant. and death to the worker. Order evacuation of the permit space when a prohibited condition exists or when a worker shows signs of exposure. There are three types of confined space hazards: a. General hazards. Remain outside the permit space during entry operations unless relieved by another authorized attendant. Taking appropriate measures to remove unauthorized entrants. Ensure that unauthorized persons stay away from the permit spaces. h. and asphyxiation will be present at the onset of entry. are in place. b. tests. Summon rescue and other service during an emergency. b. i. All hazards found in a regular workspace can also be found in a confined space. f. poisoning. d. d. and equipment. Terminating entry and cancelling permits when entry operations are completed or if a new condition exists. Physical hazards. supervisor or foreman often fills the role of the entry supervisor. Also. 79 . including the signs and symptoms of exposure and their behavioural effects. the supervisor’s duties include: a. The employer. Verifying that specified entry conditions. the role of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of a single entry situation. However. Perform no other duties that interfere with the task of attending the space. Entry Supervisor The entry supervisor is the person most responsible for verifying that the space is as safe as possible to enter. In addition to knowing the hazards that may be faced during entry and the signs and symptoms of exposure. The duties outlined for the authorized attendant include requirements that this person must: a. are in working order. Ensuring that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained. c. Confined Space Hazards The hazards encountered and associated with entering and working in confined spaces is capable of causing bodily injury. such as telephones or radios. illness. Verifying that rescue services are available and that the means of summoning them. g. Know existing and potential hazards. e.
or vapour incursion. electrical and mechanical devices must be put under lockout or tag-out to alert others that the device should remain off. Generally. and an emergency plan for removing injured or incapacitated workers must be in place. barriers within the space. number and size of openings. This hazard occurs when insufficient preparations are made to ensure that the employee on the inside can exit quickly. Entry and exit hazards Entry and exit hazards Entry and exit time is of major significance as a physical limitation and is directly related to the potential hazard of the confined space. Toxic hazards. and entry and exit hazards. The following should be considered: type of confined space to be entered. injure. Alternatively. To protect against these types of hazards. When workers cannot speak to or signal each other. another means of communication must be used. or impair an employee’s self-rescue or lead to acute illness or death to workers and rescuers who enter confined spaces. and the time requirement for exiting in event of fire. In dark areas. (Chemical Exposures) 80 . access to the entrance. Isolation may be accomplished by physically or manually blocking components so that they cannot accidentally start up or by disconnecting pipes or feed lines to prevent the flow of substances. such as a radio or alarm system.General Hazards General hazards are further broken down into mechanical hazards. Atmospheric Hazards Atmospheric hazards are hazards in the environment of the confined space that may incapacitate. a type of lighting that is safe for the environment must be used so that the worker is visible to those on the outside. b. communication hazards. or in addition to lockout/tag-out. The extent of precautions taken and the standby equipment needed to maintain a safe work area will be determined by the means of access and rescue. Mechanical hazards Mechanical hazards are those that occur when electrical or mechanical equipment is accidentally activated. the occupancy load. and the time required to rescue injured workers. atmospheric hazards are categorized as: a. All possible means of entry and exit must be examined. When visual contact is impossible. devices must be isolated. accidents can occur. Communication hazards Communication hazards occur when the person inside the confined space is unable to communicate with those on the outside and vice versa. Flammable hazards.
Combustible gases or vapours will accumulate when there is inadequate ventilation in areas such as a confined space. Also. they will seek lower levels as in pits. hydrogen. Toxic hazards. sewers. . An atmosphere becomes flammable when the ratio of oxygen to combustible material in the air is neither too rich nor too lean for combustion to occur. and by-products of work. and finely divided airborne dust in industry. and since many gases are heavier than air. The product stored (removing decomposed organic material from a tank can liberate toxic substances such as hydrogen sulphide [H2S]). many substances will spontaneously ignite when exposed to air or water. and death. in producing polyvinyl chloride. . and d. chemical reactions. In a closed top tank. vaporization of flammable liquids. methane. Asphyxiating hazards. explosions. The manufacturing process (for example. Flammable hazards. propane. concentrations of combustible dusts. natural or manufactured gases or vapours from liquid hydrocarbons can be trapped in confined spaces. A flammable atmosphere generally arises from enriched oxygen (above 21%) atmospheres. Often the smallest spark from a tool can ignite the atmosphere within a tank. butane.c. the substances to be regarded as toxic in a confined space can cover the entire spectrum of gases. b. hydrogen chloride is used as well as vinyl chloride monomer which is carcinogenic). vapours. Flammable gases such as acetylene. causing burns. 81 . and various types of storage tanks and vessels. Irritant hazards. The sources of toxic atmospheres encountered may arise from the following: a. it should also be noted that lighter than air gases may rise and develop a flammable concentration if trapped above the opening.
5% available oxygen. asphyxiation. it can be decreased by certain chemical reactions (rusting) or through bacterial action (fermentation). These substances may be inhaled. leaves. It has a distinct odour of rotten eggs at low concentrations but can cause olfactory fatigue (a deadened sense of smell) at high levels. It is a flammable. such as welding. disease. wells. breathable substances. the petroleum industry. or. paint manufacturing. as well as the entire body. Secondary irritants can harm the parts they touch. Be aware of any chemicals used in or generated by your specific industry. or brazing. such as the skin. They can be found in plastics plants. The operation performed in the confined space (for example. chemical plants. including liquids or gases. An oxygendeficient atmosphere has less than 19. dizziness. tanneries. meaning they harm only the parts that they touch. Irritant gases vary widely among all areas of industrial activity. Any atmosphere with less than 19. c. Irritant Hazards Irritants are found in many forms. An oxygen-deficient oxygen and/or contain excessive levels of harmful. unconsciousness. 82 . and death. and 1% argon with small amounts of various other gases. causing rapid loss of consciousness. sewage treatment plants.c. and possible death. and death. The oxygen level is also decreased if oxygen is displaced by another gas.5% oxygen should not be entered without an approved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). absorbed through the skin or eyes.1% nitrogen. such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. or may enter the body through a cut in the skin.9% oxygen and 78.) decomposes. It can displace oxygen to the point of oxygen deficiency in a confined space. explosive. Primary irritants cause no systemic effects. etc. Methane (CH4) is a natural gas produced from the decay of organic matter. unconsciousness. without harming the entire body. and other locations where organic material (dead animals. The oxygen level in a confined space can decrease because of work being done. such as carbon dioxide in bakeries and breweries. and odourless gas. This type of environment occurs naturally in sewers. a chemical can cause skin problems and be absorbed into the body and cause diseases like cancer or infertility. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from incomplete combustion processes in equipment such as gasoline engines. Toxic substances can cause illness. Cleaning solvents and residues remaining in vessels can also be dangerous. cutting. CO is a colourless and odourless gas that displaces oxygen in the blood and can cause headaches. colourless. refrigeration industries. welding or brazing with metals capable of producing toxic fumes The three most commonly found toxic gases in confined spaces are stated below: a. breathable substances. For example. and mining operations Asphyxiating Hazards The normal atmosphere is composed approximately of 20. H2S can block respiration. and storage bins. causing dizziness. b. Asphyxiating atmospheres are those that lack oxygen and/or contain excessive levels of harmful. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is encountered in sewers. and asphyxiation.
and other hazards can affect workers.Physical hazards Physical Hazards are non-chemical hazards that affect the body. temperature extremes including atmospheric and surface. including vibration. such as welding. all of these hazards may be increased by the addition of moving parts or mechanical equipment inside. While some substances have an odor that would warn you of their presence. and c. Similarly. fumes. The Material Stored or Used in the Confined Space. For example. explosions. poor visibility. For example. b. when work. radiation. The material stored or used in the confined space. The material stored or used in a confined space might be an obvious hazard. and a worker entering an empty pipe may be engulfed by water rushing into the pipe. For example. floods or tides can affect sewer systems. decomposition can create a number of hazardous vapours. falls. if a tank is used for fermenting organic materials. a storage tank that is entered at dawn may turn deadly when the rising sun raises the interior temperature. becoming stuck in a tight spot. or being buried by material stored in the space. slips. such as a carbon filter in a water tank. entanglement. The Activity Carried Out in the Confined Space The activity carried out in a confined space also can create a number of problems. The external environment. most employees would not suspect that the carbon filters in a water tank are capable of absorbing available oxygen. 83 . The External Environment The external environment also can create hazards. structural hazards. many do not. Also. such as a caustic chemical. Again. barrier failure resulting in a flood or release of freeflowing solid etc. thus creating a breathing hazard. The activity carried out in the space. Causes of Confined Space Hazards Hazards specific to confined spaces generally have three causes: a. or an unrecognized hazard. is performed inside a confined space. heat. Employees entering these spaces must be aware of all possible sources of injury or death. too much noise.
Equipment for Confined Spaces Equipment used in confined spaces includes the PPE that authorized entrants and rescuers must wear, as well as any tools that are used inside the space. Because of the hazards that exist in confined spaces, equipment must be specialized. For example, typical ear, eye, and head protection is often appropriate in confined spaces. However, caustic chemicals or fire and explosion hazards may require you to wear special protective suits, gloves, and facemasks. To facilitate rescue, entrants must often wear a harness with a hoist that allows workers to be pulled to safety. When atmospheres cannot be purged or when safe environments cannot be maintained, authorized entrants must wear breathing equipment. An air-purifying respirator is used when air exists in the atmosphere but is too contaminated to breadth without filtering. An airsupplying respirator is used when there is not enough air to safely filter and breathe. This device may have an air tank that the entrant wears or a supply line leading to an external tank. Work tools used inside the space must not create additional hazards. For example, tools used in explosive atmospheres must not create sparks or flames. Also, wet atmospheres require electrical tools that use low voltage or are plugged into power sources that have circuits equipped with ground fault interrupters. Employers are responsible for providing necessary equipment, but it is your responsibility to use it. To successfully perform work in confined spaces, you must strictly follow the requirements for entry, including using the proper equipment. Disregarding the rules because you will be in the space for “just a minute” can be fatal.
Safe Systems of Work If you cannot avoid entry into a confined space make sure you have a safe system for working inside the space. Use the results of your risk assessment to help identify the
necessary precautions to reduce the risk of injury. These will depend on the nature of the confined space, the associated risk and the work involved. Make sure that the safe system of work, including the precautions identified, is developed and put into practice. Everyone involved will need to be properly trained and instructed to make sure they know what to do and how to do it safely. The following checklist is not intended to be exhaustive but includes many of the essential elements to help prepare a safe system of work. a. Record keeping includes securing proper permits and recording the details of any problems or accidents that occur. b. Is A ‘Permit-To-Work’ Necessary? A permit-to-work ensures a formal check is undertaken to ensure all the elements of a safe system of work are in place before people are allowed to enter or work in the confined space. It is also a means of communication between site management, supervisors, and those carrying out the hazardous work. Essential features of a permit-to work are: 1. Clear identification of who may authorise particular jobs (and any limits to their authority) and who is responsible for specifying the necessary precautions (e.g. isolation, air testing, emergency arrangements e.t.c); 2. Provision for ensuring that contractors engaged to carry out work are included; 3. Training and instruction in the issue of permits; 4. Monitoring and auditing to ensure that the system works as intended. c. Suitability of Personnel: Do they have sufficient experience of the type of work to be carried out, and what training have they received? Where risk assessment highlights exceptional constraints as a result of the physical layout, are individuals of suitable build? The competent person may need to consider other factors, e.g. concerning claustrophobia or fitness to wear breathing apparatus, and medical advice on an individual’s suitability may be needed. d. Isolation: Mechanical and electrical isolation of equipment is essential if it could otherwise operate, or be operated, inadvertently. If gas, fume or vapour could enter the confined space, physical isolation of pipe work etc needs to be made. Isolation can include lockout/tagout of power sources, blanking and bleeding feed lines, disconnecting belt and chain drives, and securing moving parts with chains or blocks. In all cases a check should be made to ensure isolation is effective. e. Decontaminating by various cleaning methods removes hazardous substances. f. Cleaning Before Entry (Purging): This may be necessary to ensure fumes do not develop from residues etc while the work is being done. Purging clears the existing atmosphere by displacing it with water, vapour, or forced air. Ventilation with an exhaust fan maintains the atmosphere. Purging or ventilating with pure oxygen, however, is a serious fire and explosion hazard and is prohibited. g. Check the Size of The Entrance: Is the entrance big enough to allow workers wearing all the necessary equipment to climb in and out easily, and provide ready access and egress in an emergency? For example, the size of the opening may mean choosing airlinebreathing apparatus in place of self-contained equipment, which is more bulky and therefore likely to restrict ready passage. h. Air Quality Testing This may be necessary to check that it is free from both toxic and flammable vapours and that it is fit to breathe. You should never trust your senses to determine the safety of the atmosphere. The air within the confined space should be tested from outside of the confined space before entry into the confined space. Care should be taken to ensure that air is tested throughout the confined space side-to-side and top to bottom. Qualified personnel with specialized testing equipment must perform atmospheric testing. The sampling should show that:
The oxygen content is within safe limits - not too little and not too much. A hazardous atmosphere (toxic gases, flammable atmosphere) is not present. Ventilation equipment is operating properly. i. Provision of Mechanical Ventilation: Natural ventilation (natural air currents) is usually not reliable and not sufficient to maintain the air quality in confined space. Mechanical ventilation (blowers, fans) is usually necessary to maintain air quality. This is essential where portable gas cylinders and diesel-fuelled equipment are used inside the space because of the dangers from build-up of engine exhaust. If mechanical ventilation is provided, there should be a warning system in place to immediately notify the worker in the event of a hazard or a failure in the ventilation equipment Care should be taken to make sure the air being provided by the ventilation system to the confined space is ‘clean’. Ease of air movement throughout the confined space should be considered because of the danger of pockets of toxic gases still remaining even with the use of mechanical ventilation. Do not substitute oxygen for fresh air. Increasing the oxygen content will significantly increase the risk of fire and explosion. The use of mechanical ventilation should be noted on the entry permit. Confined Space Atmospheric Testing Continuous Monitoring Permissible Record Monitoring Results/Time
CONTINUOUS MONITORING TEST(S) TO BE TAKEN PERMISSIBLE ENTRY LEVEL
1. Percent of Oxygen 2. Lower flammable limit 3. Carbon Monoxide 4. Aromatic Hydrocarbon 5. Hydrogen Cyanide 6. Hydrogen Sulphide 7. Sulphur Dioxide 8. Ammonia 9. Other(s)
19.5% to 23.5% Under 10% 25 ppm 1 ppm - 5 ppm 4.7 ppm (S) 10 ppm* 15 ppm** 2 ppm* 5 ppm** 25 ppm* 35 ppm** To be stated
a. 8 hr. time-weighted avg.: Employee can work in area 8 hrs (longer with appropriate respiratory protection). a. **Short-term exposure limit: Employee can work in the area up to 15 minutes.
Warning: carbon monoxide in the exhaust from petrol-fuelled engines is so dangerous
j. inside metal tanks) suitable precautions to prevent electric shock include use of extra low voltage equipment (typically less than 25 V) and.g. residual current devices. 87 . Provision of Special Tools and Lighting: Non-sparking tools and specially protected lighting are essential where flammable or potentially explosive atmospheres are likely. where necessary.that use of such equipment in confined spaces should never be allowed. In certain confined spaces (e.
or lack of oxygen. Emergency Procedures in Confined Space When things go wrong. The engineering control commonly used in confined spaces is mechanical ventilation. l. These include engineering controls. hard hats.) If a potential flammable atmosphere hazards are identified during the initial testing. For example. fume or vapour present. Lifelines attached to harnesses should run back to a point outside the confined space. often because of the nature of the confined space and depending on the hazard. Oxygen content should be less than 23% but maintained at levels greater than 18%. Personal protective equipment (respirators. (These numbers can vary slightly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. workers need protective gear. Control of Hazards in Confined Space The traditional hazard control methods found in regular worksites can be effective in a confined space. However. they should be checked and monitored repeatedly for problems. Mechanical ventilation is usually used to Keep the concentration of any explosive or flammable hazardous substance less than 10% of its Lower Explosive Limit AND b. Provision of Breathing Apparatus: This is essential if the air inside the space cannot be made fit to breathe because of gas. Only after the air testing is within allowable limits should entry occur. ear plugs) is commonly used in confined spaces as well. training and practice drills. Fire and Explosion Prevention Work where a flame is used or a source of ignition may be produced (hot work) should not normally be performed in a confined space unless: a.k. Make sure that the oxygen content in the confined space is not enriched. This includes a full body or chest harness and may also require respirators. goggles. m. All flammable gases. boots. special precautions not normally required in a regular worksite may also need to be taken. gloves. as the gases used for purging can be extremely hazardous. Never try to ‘sweeten’ the air in a confined space with oxygen as this can greatly increase the risk of a fire or explosion. You should consider: 88 . Preparation of Emergency Arrangements: This will need to cover the necessary equipment. The Entry Permit system is an example of an administrative control used in confined spaces. Contingency plans will depend on the nature of the confined space. people may be exposed to serious and immediate danger. Effective arrangements for raising the alarm and carrying out rescue operations in an emergency are essential. gloves. earplugs or muffs. Engineering controls are designed to remove the hazard while administrative controls and personal protective equipment try to minimize the contact with the hazard. the risks identified and consequently the likely nature of an emergency rescue. Provision of Rescue Harnesses: In addition to using ventilation and other measures to get rid of hazards. liquids and vapours are removed prior to the start of any hot work. administrative controls and personal protective equipment. Emergency arrangements will depend on the risks. or other protective clothing. Clearing the space once is not enough. the confined space should be cleaned or purged and ventilated and tested again before entry to the confined space is allowed. Once spaces are cleared of hazards. a poor atmosphere could be caused by a very small amount of chemical residue or an on-going chemical reaction.
sufficiently fit to carry out their task. training in correct operation is essential. and take charge of the rescue procedures. 89 . c. f.g. and capable of using any equipment provided for rescue. e. Rescuers Capabilities: There is need to have a properly trained people. They may only enter to perform a rescue if they are trained and another attendant is present outside the space. Shut down: It may be necessary to shut down adjacent plant before attempting emergency rescue. Rescuers also need to be protected against the cause of the emergency. ready at hand. raise the alarm quickly in an emergency. Local emergency services: Local emergency services (e.a. First-aid Procedures: Trained first aiders need to be available to make proper use of any necessary first-aid equipment provided. d. Communications: It is necessary to station someone outside to keep watch and to communicate with anyone inside. Information about the particular dangers in the confined space should be given to them on their arrival. Where such equipment is provided for use by rescuers. b.g. fire brigade) should be contacted. breathing apparatus. e. lifelines and fire fighting equipment. Rescue and Resuscitation: Equipment: Suitable rescue and resuscitation equipment should be readily available.. Attendants can perform a rescue that does NOT require entry.
the Work Permit Procedure provides for safe working procedures to be implemented where there may be no formal procedures in place due to the short term or unusual nature of the work. for a specific period of time. The safety of activity.date and time the work will commence and finish. e.Work Permit System Introduction Definition of Safe Work Permit A Safe Work Permit is a written record that authorizes specific work. That is. A Safe Work Permit must identify: a. In these situations. at a specific location.any toxic. through the unusual nature of the work. ventilation and testing requirements. The location where the work will be done . Therefore the Work Permit Procedure provides a means for adequate planning and control for work that would otherwise. d. but has a particularly high element of risk (e. corrosive. flammable materials in the work area. b. A Safe Work Permit is an agreement between the issuer and the receiver. b.as specific as possible. 90 . b. Work that is unusual or out of the ordinary that does not form part of the usual work for employees. The area/plant/persons in the vicinity where the work is being undertaken. The length of the work . All hazards and precautions related to the work have to be determined before the work starts. The work to be done . preparations. or c. The type of work that is being undertaken. which documents the conditions. The person(s) who receives a Work Permit is known as the Permit Holder and is responsible for complying with the conditions of the Work Permit. precautions and limitations before work commences. The hazards involved in the work . c. have little or no planning or control. f. Therefore the Work Permit Procedure applies to the following: a. and b.equipment and/or procedures that must be worn/followed. it is through the application of formal Work Permit Procedures that the employer is able to prove diligence in ensuring: a. The safety of the persons involved in the activity. The Work Permit is a tool that is used to plan and control work that may have particularly high risks attached to either: a.g entering confined spaces or excavating). The persons undertaking the work. isolation. The precautions to be taken to do the work . Work that is normally undertaken by employees.a brief description of it. The person authorised to issue a Work Permit is known as the Authorised Personnel and is responsible for defining work precautions and work conditions and ensuring that they are adhered to.
Any organization that has its own maintenance program and personnel. Organizations that have individual employees working in isolated areas. The date and time when the permit was returned and name of the person who signed it off. d. c. b. Use of Safe Work Permits Safe work permits should be used by: a. b. e. All the steps to prepare the equipment. building or area to be worked on. The date the permit was received and the name of the receiver. c. 91 . Any contractor who allows sub-contractors work to do maintenance or other hazardous work. The emergency and rescue plan. Any industry that has a significant risk because of a particular hazard. if it is necessary. The date the permit was issued and the name of the issuer. d.A Safe Work Permit must also outline: a.
c.used when working at height. Work with high voltage f. For this reason. Blasting h. Confined Space Entry Permit – used when entering confined spaces. Work Clearance – used when the work to be done requires no preparation by the operations personnel. d. Use internal combustion engines in enclosed areas Types of Safe Work Permits: The range of work activities and locations makes impossible for a single type of permit to suit all situations. b. garbage pickup/removal. For example: oiling. Maintenance b. Cold work permits are issued when there is no reasonable source of ignition and all contact with harmful substances have been eliminated or appropriate precautions been taken. meter reading. Work in confined spaces c. etc. e. greasing. f. a. PCBs. Working At Heights Permit. Cold Work Permit – used in maintenance work that does not involve hot work. For example: welding. such as radioactive materials. The heat or sparks can ignite flammable or explosive materials/vapours that may be present close to the work place. Exposure to harmful substances e. The most appropriate type is determined according to the nature of the work to be performed and the hazards to be eliminated or controlled. Work in flammable or explosive atmospheres d. Manager/Supervisor It is the responsibility of Managers and Supervisors to ensure that the Work Permit System is implemented and maintained. Responsibility Employees It is the responsibility of all persons working at Company workplaces to ensure that the relevant Work Permit is issued where appropriate. etc. 92 . there are several different types of Safe Work Permits. Hot Work Permit – used when heat or sparks are present due to the work activities. Special Permits – used to cover special hazards. It is also the responsibility of Managers and Supervisors to ensure that employees are trained appropriately prior to becoming a Permit Authority and that the relevant Authorisation Form has been completed. Excavations g.Safe Work Permits should be used in activities such as: a. grinding. etc. cutting.
the second for the workers directly involved in the task and the third for the safety department. Written instructions alone are often insufficient in the effective use of a permit. A Safe Work Permit should be issued only by a competent person. a list of the hazards involved in the activity and the precautions to be taken. who is completely familiar with the work and the work area.Each one of the five types of permits described above provides a checklist for the person preparing the equipment. Safe Work Permits are usually made out in three copies: one retained by the issuer. The issuer should review the place where the work will be performed prior to issuing the permit. 94 . Practical training exercises for the people who issue and receive permits should be considered. The workers’ copy is returned to the issuer when the work is completed.
Fall Arrest Devices Hazards There are four main types of hazard associated with work at height: 1. Employer must make every effort to prevent this type of accidents. Handrails. Minimisation or what to be done to minimise the impact should an accident occur? For example use of safety harnesses. then you have to isolate it. Following are just five common systems used when working at height. In workplaces. stairs. If there is no way that you can eliminate a fall hazard. Guardrails And Toe-boards e. temporary working platforms. do as much work on the ground. platforms. overhead power cables). 95 . 3. Elimination or how hazard can be remove altogether? For example. Machine-Lifted Work Platforms d. Scaffolding c. ladders etc. falling objects 3. a fall can occur on any walking and working surface. Ladders b. access to normally inaccessible hazards (e. This should always be the first option. such as floors.Work at Height Safety The majority of serious and fatal industrial accidents involve falling from heights.g. Walking and working surfaces include any areas where workers must place their feet to travel from one place to the next. Isolation or how can the hazard be separated from employees? For example. 2. Hazard Management There are three levels of hazard management working at height 1. a. install guardrails. Only when the first two methods of managing a height hazard are impossible that minimisation option is chosen. falls from collapsing structures 4. falls of persons 2.
Fixed Ladders d. including rain and wind. Secure a work floor that is wide enough not to cause inconvenience in working and fasten it firmly to supports to keep it from sliding down. f. Step Ladders 96 . a. and Take sensible safety precautions. e. Put on a prescribed protective outfit and do not act recklessly. c. wood and in a multitude of designs to be used in a variety of circumstances. and have one worker support the ladder or stepladders and keep watch while the other is at work. decide how to go about selecting the right sort of ladder for the particular job. b. Ladders are made from different materials such as Aluminium. When circumstances do not allow handrails to be placed on a work floor. Do not put articles on a work floor because such things restrict the space and workers may stumble over them and drop something they carry. know how to look after it. and setting up a safety net for preventing an accidental fall.Safety precautions to be observe on elevated workplaces. and do operations on the ground if you can by devising appropriate working procedures. Let two workers do operations that require the use of a ladder or Stepladders if possible. Ladders A ladder is a steps consisting of two parallel members connected by rungs. d. and avoid doing operations at an elevated spot in bad weather. understand how to use it. Pay attention to weather conditions. Always have some breakfast or at least a hot drink such as a cup of tea or coffee before you go to work – AN EMPTY STOMACH CAN OFTEN RESULT IN A SUDDEN ATTACK OF FAINTNESS in even the healthiest person c. b. Fibre Glass. d. Stop working at an elevated spot if possible. Single Ladders b. The checklist below will assist in choosing a ladder. e. for climbing up or down. Extension Ladders c. know when to use a ladder. use such safety precautions as wearing a safety belt. Types of ladder a. g. h. a.
Set the ladder up on a firm. Make sure you have removed any loose tools or other items from the steps or rungs before you move the ladder. 5. Allow at least a 1 metre extension above the step off point (unless some other form of hand hold is provided). Secure the ladder against sliding at the top and bottom while in use (get someone to hold the ladder until another can secure the top). 97 . one out’.Do’s: 1. Use the ladder at a safe angle – ‘four up. 3. 2. 4. even surface (unless a secure method is used to ensure an even distribution of weight between the stiles).
9. Make sure all scaffolding is suitable and safe to use. Is a safety belt or harness needed? 7. Don’t over-reach – your waist should remain within the stiles of the ladder at all times. including both maintenance and demolition work. Is it erected on a firm foundation? 2.6. Remember: ladders and steps are designed for the use of one person only at any one time Scaffolding A scaffold is an elevated. Are all scaffold ties in place? Types of Scaffolds a. 10. Suspended Scaffolds c. Are all guardrails in position and at the correct height? 3. The following are the checklist to consider when working with scaffolds. Don’t use a ladder horizontally as a work platform. Don’t carry a load that will prevent both hands from being able to hold or grab the rungs. Scaffolding can be defined as a temporary structure supporting one or more platforms and which is used either as a workplace or for the storage of materials in the course of any type of construction work. Supported Scaffolds b. and also to the outer edge of the scaffold? 5. 8. Don’t use the rung or step of a ladder to support a plank on which a person has to work. What access is provided between platforms? 6. Manually Propelled Mobile Ladder Stand (Rolling Towers) 98 . 1. Scaffolds can be used on most sites to provide a good working platform at any height. Consider the need to place cones or barricading where the ladder encroaches onto a passage or roadway. temporary work platform. Independent (Tower) scaffolds d. Are there enough planks to form the work platform and are they secured in position? 4. Don’ts: 7. How far is it from the closest plank to the workface.
99 .Independent (Tower) scaffolds Supported Scaffold Independent scaffold Suspended scaffold Ensure that a certified scaffolder is in direct charge of erection. modification or dismantling of any scaffold more than 5 metres above the ground (and a register kept for general inspection).
Handrails. scissor hoists. They may be powered either by electricity or Hydraulic engine. c) Ensure that operator controls are at platform level. materials and people who may be working on it. Before using such a machine. Made sure the top rail for both types of rail is between 0.1 metres above the floor or front of the stair nosing? 2. Made sure the machine will not be overloaded? The following are the precautions to be observed on the use of the elevating platform. Safe access and egress must be provided to the work platform.9 and 1. The platform should be secured against a structure for stability and be installed with an edge protection system. Guardrails and Toe-boards Remember. a) Follow the manufacturer’s operating instructions.Machine-Lifted Work Platforms Work platforms provide a permanent or temporary surface for people to carry out work. free from trip hazards and traps and of an easily negotiable gradient. Ensured a midrail has been fitted for guardrails? 3. d) Lock wheels and use outriggers with adequate sole plates. These are power operated rolling tower. The surface should be non-slip. you must: a. Place emergency override controls at ground level. The surface of the working platform should be of a size and strength to safely support the tools. handrails are to assist balance. guardrails are to prevent falls. Fitted a toe-board of sufficient height anywhere there is a danger of tools or materials being lost over the edge? 100 . Checked that the machine is the correct type and is fit for the intended work? b. b) Follow manufacturer’s guidelines for maintenance and operation of the engine and hydraulic systems. Have you: 1. crane lift platforms and building maintenance units. e) Place on a firm and level surface only. cherry pickers. Be trained to set up and operate that particular type of machine? c. These machines include elevating work platforms.
fall arrest devices and the related rigging of static lines. faintness and serious blood circulation problems can occur which can lead to brain damage or death in under 10 minutes. harnesses. lifeline. and should be relied on only as a last resort for fall prevention. Fall Arrest System Fall arrest system is employed when a worker is at risk of falling from an elevated position.2-metre or more fall hazard exists. into water or another liquid d. connectors. into operating machinery c.2 metres b.2-metre while limiting the forces imposed 101 . nets. Protection against falls must be provided when working on elevated surfaces or when a 1. Workers must use a fall protection system if there is danger of falling a. Fall arresting systems are often used when guardrails. more than 1. Use of belts. Only use these systems if you have been fully trained and there are emergency procedures in place which enable a rescue within a few minutes. deceleration device. Where a fall has been arrested (the worker is held having fallen). Travel restraint. The two basic types of fall protection are: a. or suitable combinations of these items. floors. Personal fall arrest b. anchorage lines and restraints is a skilled and specialised area. and other means cannot control fall hazards or where guardrails or other protection is not in place. Personal fall arrest systems consist of an anchorage.Fall Protection Systems Fall protection systems can consist of devices that arrest a free fall or devices that restrain a worker in position to prevent a fall from occurring. These systems are designed to stop a free fall of up to 1. and may include a lanyard. Into or onto a hazardous substance or object. a body harness.
a subsystem component designed to dissipate the forces associated with a fall arrest event. often including an anchorage connector. b. to which the other components of the PFAS are rigged.such as a lanyard. 102 .a fixed structure or structural adaptation.Body Wear . Personal Fall Arrest Systems These systems must include 4 elements referred to as ABCD's of Fall Arrest: a.8-metre or more. C . B . d. the worker is at risk and needs to be protected. Any time a worker is at a height of 1. D .a subsystem component connecting the harness to the anchorage .Anchorage . c. A .a full body harness worn by the worker.on the wearer.Deceleration Device .Connector .
A travel restraint system must be arranged to keep the worker back from the fall hazard area. safety belt of full body harness b. lifeline e.Travel Restraint Travel-restraint systems prevent falls by restraining a worker from getting too close to an unprotected edge. lanyard c. lifeline anchor. rope grab d. 103 . The system usually consists of a.
Gases can be: b. Fire due to escape of flammable gas/fluid. there is a potential for simultaneous exposure to both mechanical and chemical hazards a. Depending on the particular gas. Inert g. Since the gases are contained in heavy. which may have harmful properties [asphyxiant. Careful procedures are necessary for handling the various compressed gases. Pyrophoric (burns on contact with air) The main hazards from compressed gases are: Explosion of the cylinder due to mechanical damage. Cryogenic h. 105 . c. The gases contained in these cylinders vary in chemical properties. Flammable or combustible c. corrosive]. Over-pressurisation in the event of fire a. and the piping used to confine gases during flow. Corrosive hazards e. Explosive d. Poisonous/toxic f. toxic. Compressed gases present a unique hazard. ranging from inert and harmless to toxic and explosive.Compressed Gas Safety Introduction Compressed gases used in a variety of industrial and laboratory situations. regulators or valves used to control gas flow. weakness or over-pressurisation Exposure to released gas or fluid. the cylinders containing the compressed gases. The high pressure of the gases constitutes a serious hazard in the event that the cylinders sustain physical damage and/or are exposed to high temperatures. b. highly pressurized metal containers. d. the large amount of potential energy resulting from compression of the gas makes the cylinder a potential rocket or fragmentation bomb. Oxygen is particularly dangerous as it can promote fires and explosion and sustains combustion. Compressed gases are unique in that they represent both a physical and potential chemical hazard (depending on the particular gas).
No compressed gas cylinder should be accepted for use that does not legibly identify its contents by name. Poor storage g. Poor handling f. f. Typical cylinder Label Cylinder Label 1. Such identification should be stencilled or stamped on the cylinder or a label. Identification of gas cylinders Identification The contents of any compressed gas cylinder must be clearly identified. Inadequately ventilated working conditions h. Faulty equipment and/or design(e. Cylinder Specification: 2. Additionally. If the labeling on a cylinder becomes unclear or an attached tag is defaced to the point the contents cannot be identified. Impact from falling cylinders Manual handling injuries Causes of Accidents a. and sometimes are not regulated. Cylinders have labels which identify the gas they contain and the label alone should be used for positive identification. Retest Markings: 106 . Gas cylinders are often colour coded. Poor installation c. Date of Manufacture: 4. 5. the cylinder should be marked "contents unknown" and returned directly to the manufacturer. Never rely on the colour of the cylinder for identification. Poor maintenance d. Inadequate training and supervision b. Neck Ring Identification:.e. labels on caps have little value because caps are interchangeable. Cylinder Serial Number 3.g badly fitting valves or regulators) e. but the codes are not standard across different workplaces. Colour coding is not reliable because cylinder colours may vary with the supplier.
air & oxygen b. Oxidants support combustion e. acetylene. propane d. silane. nitrogen. hydrogen. phosphine Description of Common Industrial Gases 107 . chlorine.g. Cylinder Tare (Empty) Weight: The standard EN1089-3. Flammables when mixed with oxidant and ignition source will burn e. carbon dioxide e.6. Application of Compressed Gases Industrial Acetylene Air Argon Carbon Dioxide Helium Hydrogen Nitrogen Nitrous Oxide Oxygen MAPP Gas HPG Fuel Gas Propane Special uses Air Argon Carbon Dioxide Custom Gas Mixtures Emission Gases Helium Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Nitrogen Nitrous Oxide Oxygen Rare Gases Refrigerant Gases Sulfur Hexafluoride Electronic Grade Gases Medical Air Carbon Dioxide Helium Medical Device Gases Nitrogen Nitrous Oxide Oxygen Sterilants Classes of Common Industrial Gases a. chlorine. ensure consistency of colours across Europe. Pyrophorics ignite spontaneously in air e. .g.g. Inerts do not generally react with other materials. Bar Code Label: 7.g. helium c. Cylinder Manufacturer’s Inspection Marking 8.g. asphyxiants(leak displace air) e.g. Corrosives react with materials causing reactions e. sulfur dioxide f. Toxics toxic in small concentrations e. argon. ammonia.
Propane is primarily used in heating applications and as fork truck fuel. Acetylene Gas (C2H2) – a colourless. plasma studies. heat-treating and electronics manufacturing. nontoxic. j. liquid cylinders.Neon is a colorless. h. b. i. colourless. k. Ethylene Oxide . liquid cylinders. odourless. compressed gas at high pressure. steel making. g. odourless. liquefied gas. Argon (Ar) A colourless. MAPP gas is a very versatile fuel gas with a flame temperature (5301° F) second only to acetylene. tasteless inert gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The BTU value of mapp gas also makes it an excellent fuel gas for pre-heating and stress relieving metals. inert gas. Other uses are annealing and heat treating of metals. Helium gas is available in compressed gas cylinders. flammable gas with a garlic-like odour. MAPP (C3H4) – MAPP® is a stabilized mixture of Methylacetylene and Propadiene. e. odorless. cryogenic refrigeration and gas lasers i. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – a non flammable.Widely distributed in hospitals. colourless. and bulk d. Safe Working with Gas Cylinders: 108 . Helium (He) – a colourless. Neon . Nitrogen is often used as an inert gas because of its nonreactive nature with many materials. Airgas is a supplier of carbon dioxide gas in high pressure compressed gas cylinders. f. Propane (C3H8) – a colourless. odourless. Oxygen is also stored and used on airplanes and in electronics manufacturing processes. Acetylene has the highest flame temperature of any common hydrocarbon because of its triple-bond structure H-C=C-H.03% of air. Nitrogen Gas (N2) – makes up 78. odourless gas. It is mixed with air to form the fuel gas for FID gas chromatography (usually Zero Grade) and is sometimes a carrier gas. non flammable.Ethylene oxide is widely used in hospitals as a sterilizing agent for instruments and equipment. flammable. and tasteless gas used for glow lamps. Argon gas is used primarily for applications such as arc welding. fluorescent starter tubes. Hydrogen is used in chemical synthesis to produce ammonia. methanol and other products. It is used in hydrogenation of edible oils and petroleum products. c. Oxygen . electron tubes. signs. Hydrogen (H) is a flammable. Propane is also used in heavy steel fabrication for heating and cutting. Pure propane is odourless so like natural gas it has Ethyl Mercaptan added which gives it its distinctive “smell”. and bulk.a.
Safe Working with Gas Cylinders Work Practices Handling & Use a. or interfere with valve threads. m. b. i. s. Label as faulty and contact the supplier Never attempt to repair a cylinder Never scrap a cylinder Never subject cylinders to abnormally high or low temperatures Never mix gases in a cylinder Never try refill a cylinder Never transport by rolling them on the ground or use them as rollers or supports Never subject to abnormal mechanical shocks which could damage the valve or safety device 109 . c. k. Close the cylinder valve and replace dust caps when cylinder not in use Before connecting a gas cylinder to equipment or pipework make sure regulator and pipework are suitable for the gas and pressure being used Never drop a gas cylinder Never tamper with cylinders or subject them to abnormal mechanical shocks which could damage the valve or safety device Never re-paint. withdraw it from service and set it aside clearly marked. Contact the supplier. r. n. q. d. Securely restrain cylinders to prevent them falling over g. o. f. If a cylinder is involved in an incident. e. Cylinders must never be used to support loads. change markings or identification or interfere with threads Never disguise damage to a cylinder or valve. p. l. j. change markings or identification. or chains or slings. Never lift a cylinder with a magnets. h. Never repaint. Always leave cylinder keys in the valves when working so that they may be quickly turned off in any emergency.
Never apply tape. replace the regulator or change the cylinder Gas Cylinder Use Gas Cylinder Regulators 110 . f. cracks. Cylinders should be inspected daily and prior to each use for corrosion. An emergency response plan shall be developed and implemented wherever compressed gas cylinders are used. Valve protection caps must remain in place at all times except when cylinders are secured and connected to dispensing equipment e. Safe Working with Gas Cylinders a. handled or stored. valves. leaks. b. safety relief devices.Safe Working with Gas Cylinders Daily Inspection a. etc. cylinder valves or other equipment should be taken out of service. if a gas tight seal cannot be achieved metal to metal. At no time should pliers be used to open a cylinder valve. piping. b. Never smoke around compressed gas cylinders. protection caps and stems. jointing compounds or any other sealing material to the valve in an attempt to achieve a tight seal. Leaking regulators. c. Inspection should include the cylinder. d. Maintenance of cylinders and their valves or relief devices shall be performed only by trained personnel. c. Only wrenches or tools provided by the cylinder supplier should be used to open or close a valve.
A regulator is a device that receives gas at a high pressure and reduces it to a much lower working pressure. Valve outlet thread size is different for different products but the same products from different gas suppliers will have the same thread c. the cylinder valve shall be closed and the regulator relieved of gas pressure. It is precision instruments and MUST be handled with care to avoid damage to their sensitive springs. 111 .” and returned to a storage area for pickup by the supplier a. the cylinder clearly marked as "empty. This is necessary not only for safety when the cylinder is under pressure. The main cylinder valve should be closed as soon as it is no longer necessary that it be open. After the regulator is attached. Regulators. hoses and other apparatus shall not be used on gas cylinders having different chemical properties b. Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder. Never use oil or grease on the regulator of a cylinder valve or fitting. gauges. the cylinder valve should be opened just enough to indicate pressure on the regulator gauge (no more than one full turn) and all the connections checked with a soap solution for leaks. a. Cylinders should be placed with the valve accessible at all times. it should never be left open when the equipment is unattended or not operating c. valve seals etc. diaphragms. but also to prevent the corrosion and contamination resulting from diffusion of air and moisture into the cylinder after it has been emptied. The valve cap shall be replaced. Leave the pressure adjustment knob/screw fully out when the regulator is not in use (this ensures a minimum of tension on the springs and diaphragms) b.
Excessive force should be avoided in closing valves. Do not expose it to knocks.Test for leaks at connections with soap and water solution. The adjusting screw of the regulators must always be released before the cylinder valve is opened. Regulators and Fittings a. Only the type of regulator designed for the gas being used should be fitted to the cylinder. Blow out the valve socket before connecting regulator. If gauge pointers do not return to zero when the pressure is released. A second flashback arrestor in the oxygen line will give additional security. e. j. The solution is applied by brush. Valves of empty cylinders should also be closed.. at the end of the day or a work shift. Cylinder valves should be operated by using standard keys. Always open the cylinder valve slowly and smoothly using the special spindle key. Copper or copper-rich alloys should not be used for making fittings for acetylene supply. d. A flashback arrestor should be fitted to the regulator outlet in the acetylene line to avoid accidental flashback. The oxygen pressure for welding should be the same as acetylene to prevent mixing of gases inside the hoses. Do not attempt to repair regulators. the mechanism is faulty and the regulator should be replaced. jars or sudden pressure surges caused by the rapid opening of the cylinder valve. e. ‘Cracking open’ the cylinder valve momentarily.g. k. 112 . Cylinder valves should be firmly closed when they are left unattended for a long time. h. b. c. Long leverage spanners or keys fitted with extension pieces should not be used. Always treat a pressure regulator as a precision instrument. i. f. Copper with acetylene is liable to form a dangerous explosivesubstance. g. Cylinder valves and all other gas connections should be kept from oil and grease. which should be done slowly.
b. d. can result in force of explosion in either cylinder b. incorrect nozzle. e. oil. c. damaged torch valves. damage and test the hose for leaks before use Do not repair hoses unless you have the skill and means to test them in accordance with BS En 1256 Purge hose thoroughly before lighting torch Do not put wrapping tape around hosing as this contains combustible hydrocarbons Do not use copper piping with acetylene hoses as it is potentially explosive Protect hosing from heat. kinked or trapped hose Hoses Correct hose bore size. pressure rating. If flashback arrestor is dropped/damaged replace immediately d. f. grease or mechanical damage 113 . Common reasons for flashback: incorrect purging of hose/torch prior to use. g. incorrect gas pressure. Flashback is the result of mixture of fuel gas and oxygen burning within the hose. flame travels and burns its way towards the gas source at great speed. Flashback arrestors must be fitted on both oxygen and fuel gas regulators c. h. deterioration. Never use hoses that are longer than necessary Never use equipment while hoses are wrapped around the cylinders or trolley Length of hose should be suitable for the task Keep hoses in good condition Examine the hose for cracks. gas passages blocked within the torch.Flashback Arrestors a. Flashback arrestors should only be used with the gas they are labelled for and the pressure they are designed for e. j. i. length and colour coding are essential for safety BS EN 559 Colour code for Hose Blue Oxygen Red Acetylene and other fuel gases(except LPG) Black Inert and non combustible gases Orange Liquefied Petroleum Gas a.
Piping a. Distribution lines and their outlets should be clearly labeled as to the type of gas contained b. Piping systems should be inspected for leaks on a regular basis c. Special attention should be given to fittings as well as possible cracks that may have developed Blow Pipes and Torches a. Leaks are a serious hazard as they are closest to the operator b. Always check condition before use, ensure tip is free of obstruction c. Signs of heat damage around the blow pipe or torch may indicate the equipment has suffered internal damage and is leaking and should be replaced immediately d. Always fit the correct size nozzle for the job (hole size and pressure set at regulator determine gas flow and gas velocity exiting the nozzle, manufacturer gives a pressure rating for the nozzle being use, if the gas exit velocity is slower than the combustion velocity backfire and flashback may occur e. Replace blow pipe or torch if i. Broken bent or loose gas control valve ii. Bent mixer, misshapen cutter head iii. Bent cutter tube iv. Broken of bent cutting oxygen lever f. Leak test all connections and valves prior to use g. If replacing O ring seals always use the correct materials Handling Gas Cylinders a. Wear PPE: gloves, protective footwear, eye protection b. Correct way to move cylinders is to: keep upright, secure and with valves uppermost c. Use mechanical aids such as a trolley where reasonably practicable( do a risk assessment) d. For short distances on even ground the practice of ‘milk-churning’ (manually moving cylinders) can be used only by trained personnel and never for longer distances, in uneven ground, wet or icy conditions, poor lighting, or at speed a trolley should be used e. All personnel involved should have completed manual handling training f. Never attempt to catch a falling cylinder just get out of the way Transporting Cylinders Transporting gas cylinders requires careful consideration and appropriate precautions. These considerations and precautions include: a. Motor vehicle transport of cylinders b. Flammable gas and oxidizer cylinders transport c. Hand truck (dolly) transport of cylinders d. Cylinder transport precautions Motor vehicle transport of cylinders shall only be done with vehicles equipped with racks or other means of securing the cylinders. Cylinders containing liquefied hydrogen or toxic gases shall be transported in open body vehicles. Flammable gas cylinders and cylinders containing an oxidizer must not be transported together, or with poisons or corrosives. However, the transportation of oxygen and acetylene cylinders together is allowed if: a. b. The cylinders are transported in the rear truck bed below the cab level A roll bar is installed over the rear truck bed to prevent the cylinders; from falling out of the truck bed in the event of the vehicle overturning. 114
Poison label materials are not to be transported with food or other items intended for human consumption. Hand truck (dolly) transport of cylinders shall be used for the transfer of compressed gas cylinders from loading area to shop and other areas within the workplace.
Cylinder transport precautions include: a. Cylinders have the valve protection cover in place while being transported (inter- and intra-building transport) b. Cylinders are not to be rolled or lifted by the valve or valve cap for moving c. Cylinder valve shut off and valve caps must be in place during transit from location to location d. Cylinders that are dropped during transit will be taken out of service and returned to the supplier for inspection e. Cylinders will be securely supported at all times during transport f. Smoking is prohibited during loading, unloading, and hand transportation of flammable gas cylinders g. If possible carry in open vehicles or trailers h. If they must be carried in closed vans/cars ensure good ventilation at all times i. If the load compartment is not separated from the driver do not carry toxic gas cylinders (those with a toxic gas label and having yellow as a colour on the cylinder) j. Secure cylinders properly so they cannot move or fall in transit or do not project beyond the edges of the vehicle, normally in the upright position unless instructions for transport state otherwise k. Carry propane cylinders upright and do not carry flammable gas cylinders in the same compartment as toxic gas cylinders l. Unload the cylinders as soon as possible and move to a well ventilated storage area m. If you suspect it is leaking, park the vehicle, investigate the fault and contact the supplier n. If you are involved in an accident advise, any emergency services involved what gas cylinders are being carried
Safe Storage Each Storage area should be subject to unique risk assessment a. It is best to store gas cylinders in the open and on concrete in a fenced compound with some weather protection b. In storage areas oxygen cylinders must be stored at least 3 metres away/separated by a fire wall from fuel gases such as acetylene, propane, methane etc. c. Full cylinders should be stored separately from empties and empty oxygen cylinders should be segregated from empty fuel gas cylinders d. Other products should not be stored in the gas storage areas especially not oil or corrosive liquids, sources of ignition or flammable materials e. LPG cylinders have special requirements including storage 3m away from other gases f. Pyrophoric and toxic gases should be stored seperately in locked, suitable ventilated storage areas with restricted access g. Cylinders should be clearly labelled to show contents and associated hazards h. Store all cylinders upright and secure on a level surface to prevent them from falling i. Acetylene and propane must never be stacked horizontally either in storage or in use j. Cylinders should be located away from any heat/source of ignition and if possible away from the fire exits, elevators, walkways, building egresses, unprotected platform edges, or in locations where heavy moving objects may strike or fall on them k. Storage arrangements should be clearly described in the emergency plan l. Storage area must have good housekeeping and adequate warning signs with fire fighting equipment as necessary
Out door storage areas Emergencies 1. In the event of a leak or suspected leak of gas, evacuate the building or area. Activate the fire alarm by pulling the nearest fire alarm box. 2. Use soapy water to detect leaks. 116
3. Accessing material safety data sheets iv. Identifying the location of the compressed gases and cryogenic fluids stored or used iii. Check the blowpipe has not overheated e. The location of posted emergency procedures. The plan must include the following information: a. Aiding the emergency responders in pre-emergency planning ii. Knowing the site emergency procedures. Check the nozzle is not damaged f. For handling acetylene cylinders should not be moved unless it is clearly established that there is no thermal disassociation c. e. Where a cylinder has been damaged a. c. stored or used. fire extinguisher). Clearly mark any cylinder that has been exposed to excessive heat or physical impact and contact the supplier If a flashback has occurred: a. An emergency plan must be prepared and updated wherever compressed gases are produced. If it has been dropped or physically damaged check it for leakage and deal with as for a leaking cylinder b.g. An indication that hazard identification labelling is provided for each storage area. check the integrity of the whole system 117 . emergency eyewash & shower. Open both blowpipe valves oxygen first to vent the system g. hazard class. Close both cylinder valves c. A list of personnel who are designated and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department/emergency responders and who are responsible for the following: i. d. Close both blowpipe valves oxygen first b. and quantity. b. handled. Check the temperature of the acetylene cylinder for thermal decomposition d. A material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each compressed gas or list with name of gas. stored or used in the area. The type of emergency equipment available and its location (e. Before starting up again. Unwind the pressure adjustment screw on each pressure regulator h.
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