ATTACHMENT by Ven.
Ajahn Sanong Katapunyo
Wat Sanghathan, Thailand
Translated by: Fuengsin Trafford and edited by Andrew Campbell, from talks originally given in Thai.
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Introduction Cremation Before the last breath Creating a Sign Attachment Cutting the tie Haunting oneself The way to heaven The cycle of birth and death Purifying body and mind Death with purity To extinguish the fire of the elements Application of wisdom To Analyse the elements - to analyse the aggregates Inception - dissolution Knowing one's mind One mind The end of suffering Practice of Samadhi Glossary
Kind permission to reproduce this work was granted by Ajahn Piboon of Wat Sanghathan, 107 Handsworth Wood Road, Birmingham, B20 2PH. These teachings were prepared and edited for display in HTML by:Paul Trafford (see contact details).. Please accept his apologies for any mistakes in the transcription.
At the same time they reflected on the Arahat. As we cannot find the answer of this riddle. may the topknot never fall to the ground. So how can all of these rituals be performed effectively so that the deceased can benefit from them? Everybody wants to dedicate the merit for the deceased.. So questions arise in our mind. monks give sermons and chant before the actual burning of the body. and reflected that they will soon be on their way to
. though their whereabouts are unknown to us.. husbands. incense and a candle in their hands. At the time of a departure people cannot help worrymg about another's welfare. They hold the meeting for the Dhamma and above all to venerate the Buddha's topknot. If he or she is a grandparent. "If I will become a Buddha. for the deceased's refuge and remembrance.. As a result worry and anxiety increase followed by suffering in our mind. brothers and sisters. " How are they?" "Are they happy or unhappy?" These questions keep us imagining and guessing about all sorts of things. " There were stories in some temples about certain monks who visualised Chulamani in their meditation and who remarked how magnificent it looked and this remark was used as a model to build a pagoda. In order to get there.. It is the fibre which stems from all forms of love. At that moment Indra saw what happened and picked it up with a crystal bowl and with his power of merit turned it into a crystal pagoda called . the attachment will increase. So both correct and incorrect things have been done which later on both become doctrines and beliefs which are followed from generations to generations. When the final moment of life comes.
Creating a Sign
In the past every dying person wished to go to heaven. may it do so." He then cut his hair with his sword and threw the topknot into the air. All celestial beings gather at the Chulamani on every holy day which falls on the 8th and the 15th of waxing moon. to make people realise that a dead person cannot take anything but merit with him or her.
According to the custom of cremation which was practised by ancestors and which is followed from generations to generations.. As time goes on.. The closeness to parents. In the past Buddhists believed that heaven existed and determined to visit Tavatimsa after death. wives. The day the Buddha was ordained he made a wish. relatives and friends brings about attachment as well as care and concern towards one and other. would try to send him or her to heaven to pay respect to Phra Chulamani which is in a very pleasant land for celestial beings within Tavatimsa heaven under Indra. The various rituals surrounding death and cremation may be used to illustrate aspects of the Dhamma. So anything possible whether it is a personification or an exposition in terms of an idea will be used.Attachment is deeper than anything.. Indra is supposed to have received the Buddha's topknot. There is no pagado in the whole world which could match Chulamani's beauty. the King who rules the heaven.. In the end it will be like a loop constricting their minds. "Chulamani. They will circumambulate it with lit candles. the only way to deal with it is to try to do everything that is considered the best for them. but if I will not be able to realise Buddhahood. the grandchildren who knew that the dying person had not yet realised Nibbana. children. they tried to pass away in peace with a banana leaf envelope containing a flower. we are bound to be permanently separated from our loved ones. We who are left behind cannot stop being concerned about them.
They will be imprisoned all their lives. So they loose their freedom. the noose will be very tight. Everyday this chain is tying people who have money and who are attached to it. it was believed that he would have travelled the path of happiness. This word later on became "Arahang." It is so tight that people cannot free themselves. There was an old expression: "A celestial mansion and a royal chariot are awaiting such a person. worry and anxiety are connected with property. suffering. Happiness. would be put in the dying person's hands." In fact one should reflect on the Buddha. they have to live together until the end of their lives. The second chain which ties people around their wrists represents the attachment between wives and husbands. This can be compared with a tongue which clashes with teeth. As long as they are human beings who do not donate money to a useful cause. decay and death. A banana leaf folded like an envelope. In the long run there will be more suffering than happiness because everyone cannot attain the state of one pointedness of mind. The first one is around our feet." These sayings which were repeated by ancestors are still used now in order to prepare people for death. Their concern for money and property is greater.
Before the last Breath
In the past when a person is going to die. They are so distressed that they cannot go to the temple to take precepts and listen to the Dhamma."
What prevents us going to heaven? It is because we cannot go there. the Dhamma. This is the chain of suffering." This is called "creating one's own image ". father. Sometimes people are happy but now and again they are miserable because husbands and wives have to live together all the time. incense and candle. The banana leaf envelope containing a flower. money or land. he or she was told to take refuge. containing a flower. to visualise a scene of tranquillity without other thoughts. Where did we get stuck? It is said that three nooses which are sometimes called " The golden chains " tie us. Concern and worry follow as a result. old age. the Sangha and the Arahant. If the dying could keep reflecting on this word "Arahant" until he breaths his last. the Arahat or Arahant who is beyond all the defilement and suffering from birth. love and hatred. a white cord is tied around the bride and groom' s wrists together as a symbol of their union. As one is going to die one must cut all attachment. Some people are so burdened by their wealth that they have no time to take precepts or go to the temple to listen to the Dhamma. This kind of attachment which leads to unhappiness is called " The chain around the wrists. One who haslittle is less attached and one who has nothing has no attachment at all. This is called "being Incapable of cutting the attachment". His or her mother. The second one is around our wrists and the last one is around our neck.
. incense and candle are for offering to "Phra Chulamani. to make one's mind peaceful. In other words. One who Possesses more is more attached.pay respect to "Phra Chulamani. The first chain signifies our property whether it is a house. They are tied together until their dying days. Thus the attachment is formed and they will not be able to leave each other. Therefore people are tied by two chains which are so tight that they finally loose their freedom. brother or sister would remind the dying relative to think of the Buddha. At the wedding ceremony.
the Dhamma and the Sangha. Therefore monks call every lay person "Yome. the
." Though the Buddha was a young man. a royal attendant went to inform the Buddha (then Prince Siddhattha) and asked him to visit his lovely new born son." We also have another tie. we can develop mindfulness of the Buddha. The one around our feet can be cut by donating money to a useful cause. which is the attachment to the spiritual community. the Sangha and death." The monks who are ordained will call anyone who visits the temple whether a man or a woman "Yome. He knew that he was completely bound by the three chains. Sometimes instead of having just one chain around their wrists. they go out to look for more. So it is absolutely necessary to cut them. Some people have never been to the temple. and from three braids only this one will be left. These practises can cut some braids. From now on I am a father who faces a very serious responsibility. They know nothing about the Buddha. It is said that if one cannot cut these ties. gambling.
The Buddha taught us to avoid evil and to do good. The Buddha had a son called "Rahula. taking precepts and meditating. they cannot recollect. He also told us to abstain from wrong actions such as killing animals. Rahulam!" which meant a noose around the neck. We envisage that it is impossible to take anything with us even our own body after death. The one around his wrists represented his wife and the one around his neck represented his son. adultery and oppressing others.The third chain is around one's neck. The Prince immediately exclaimed "Rahulam. drinking. It is called "Rahulam Bhandhanam" which means a noose around the neck. We can give a quarter of our money to charity so that it will be recalled later. Even if we have attachment. "The noose is permanently around my neck. the Dhamma. we are worried about our temple. People who have a tendency to perform demeritorious deeds will eventually visualise their previous unskilful actions before death.
Cutting the Tie
As has been explained earlier we can say that attachment. giving and meditation. as they will produce awful mental images which will disturb our mind and leave us without peace. As soon as we sit down to contemplate on the Buddha. worry and sorrow are so powerful that they can affect our mood and permeate our consciousness thus preventing illumination and peace of mind. Some thinks about animals! Some reflect on their past actions which worry them." When Princess Yasodhara Bimba gave birth to the baby. the chains must be cut. The one which is at home is the worldly child and the one at the temple is the spiritual community. The last chain was so tight that the attachment would still be with him after his death. worldly attachment will be too tight to be able to free oneself. People nowadays are tied more firmly by the three chains as time goes on. The only thing that will accompany us is the merit. First of all. Our present grief is caused by attachment. nuns and Anagarigas or think about the precepts. he had the wisdom to realise what the bond meant. We then have two children. The one around his feet represented his throne. Instead of worrying about our attachment to property. one will never realise Nibbana. so I cannot go anywhere. we are worried about monks. if they are reminded to think of the Arahat. Some people are preoccupied by their evil deeds. Before they die. We have the connection through practising generosity. Otherwise. Instead of worrying about our children and grandchildren.
The Buddha will be reflected upon instead. They will not have to go to hell. they must go around three times which symbolise the Triple Gem. A mansion and a royal chariot are waiting." Naturally the children and grandchildren did not wish their relatives to die but the five aggregates could not last any longer." Some people said that the celestial being came three times for them but they postponed the journey by expressing their wish to perform meritorious deed first. Somebody has already come to take me with him so I cannot remain here any longer. Those dying would say "Look after your brothers and sisters well. these images will be replaced by unpleasant forms and faces. Having morality. I cannot stay alive anymore. Arahant. These bad images will affect our mind and take away peace and tranquillity. he or she will be guided to heaven by his or her ethical conduct. If it is from left to right. In some temples there is no room to circumambulate the place of cremation.Dhamma and the Sangha. the Dhamma and the Sangha in mind. their children used to surround them and put the envelope in their hands for an offering to Chulamani. How can a monk lead ? He will give a sermon encouraging morality. The ritual of cremation is performed to symbolise the way the dead person is led away from this life. generosity. The cortege must circumambulate the crematorium either from right to left or from left to right according to the Abbot's idea. This is called "Human prosperity going to heavenly prosperity and then to successful attainment of Nibbana". Only the Buddha image is perceived. unwholesome scenes will appear in front of the person and consequently he or she will be convinced that they are either ghosts or other horrible things. For example. Nowadays there is not enough time to do it because people have no mindfulness. it can be compared with physically following him in any direction he goes. Everything is already divided.
The Way to Heaven
It can be illustrated that the reason behind putting the banana leaf envelope into the dying person's hands is to show him or her the way to heaven. When darkness falls. For a lay person who takes five precepts. If we have morality and concentration development. For anyone who is ordained as a nun with eight precepts. Yome. Therefore the Triple Gem will lead the procession. holding an incense stick and a candle which both signify the Dhamma. at the same time they would say "Mother. it must be led by a monk who embodies morality and the taking of precepts. There will be both good and bad signs visualised before passing away. the coffin will circumambulate the crematorium from left to right. In fact it is the five precepts which take the lead. If it is from left to right. Eventually this type of person will always have fear and suspicion. In former times they did not go to the hospital. meditation and the Triple Gem as refuges. They finally went after the third time. one who is frightened of ghosts is likely to be haunted by himself or herself always. the Buddha's teaching. the coffin is put on a royal chariot drawn by a monk. When one follows the monk's teaching. The person who is meritorious will visualise good signs. Fear will be overcome and the frightening forms which are imagined to be ghosts will disappear. Arahant" so as to remind the dying person of the Buddha. you have noticed that during cremation in Bangkok. Father. the Buddha. Before passing away. after her death it is said that she is shown the
. Fear cannot be overcome when that person has no Dhamma and thus no refuge. Some dying people would announce something like : "The royal chariot has arrived with someone to fetch me. we will not have fear and horrible mental images. The celestial beings are very beautiful. the other person who has accumulated bad kamma in this life will visualise bad signs. He or she can be compared with someone who is so burdened with guilt from evil deeds that concentration of mind leading to mental strength cannot be gained. The white sacred cord is tied to the coffin. I am going now.
At some temples. Our amount of tears shed is larger than the entire water of an ocean because death makes people cry and so does pain and disappointment. a monk will lead the cortege holding the sacred cord which is attached to the coffin. So it is necessary to tie them. property. incense and a candle is put in the hands. condensed from a clean and pure substance. the procession moves around the crematorium from right to left. behind the guide of morality signifies that if one follows the precepts. The same cord is used to tie around the neck. It means that we are going around and around in the wrong direction. the Dhamma and the Sangha who represent morality. taking rebirth in the cycle of existence. when one develops intuitive vision and manages to cut the three chains of greed. In front of the funeral procession are representations of the Buddha. The undertaker will cut all these three cords around the feet. Finally these cords will have to be cut before the cremation.way by the eight precepts. This practice represents the cycle of birth. holding the sacred cord which is tied to the coffin. wives and husbands.
Purifying Body and Mind
After circumambulations. one will reach the Brahma world. where old age and death are inevitable. After death everyone will be treated in the same way by undertakers. the procession goes from left to right. the body will be placed on the funeral pyre.
The Cycle of Birth and Death
So the body is tied by a sacred cord at the ankles to stop the feet spreading out. The cord around one's neck stands for attachment to children. She is supposed to go to a higher realm such as Nimmanarati or Paranimmitavasavatti heaven. and stretched to link with the wrists and feet for the convenience of lifting the body easily. If the hands and feet are spread out. Some says it should be done this way to be correct. So it is necessary to be led after death. heavenly prosperity and successful attainment of Nibbana. it is believed that he or she has a high degree of mindfulness which will enable such an individual to go to heaven. On the other hand. anger. In contrast. it can be said that one has realised the state of Nibbana. delusion that include affection. If the dying person can put his or her hands together. around the wrists with hands joined together for the same reason. namely human prosperity. wrists and neck. Being led around. The face will be washed with coconut juice as it is considered to be very pure water. the body will be a frightening sight. coconut juice is natural as it is condensed with purity and is appropriate for washing and cleaning the dead person's face. If one can attain a state of absorption during meditation. Freedom will be gained from loosening the grip of the three chains. At the time of the circumambulation of the crematorium three times. If the person does not know how to pay respect to the Buddha. one will be on the right way. attachment to children. and the one around the feet means attachment to property. Even distilled water is artificially produced through scientific methods. This way of movement illustrates three kinds of prosperity. It depends on the Abbot's idea to choose the type of ceremony whether walking clockwise or anticlockwise. Living one's life brings a lot of suffering. his or her hands will be put together in the manner of veneration. Furthermore. So bended hands are clasped together. This ritual can be compared with
. hatred. An banana leaf envelope containing a flower. old age. The one around the wrists symbolises attachment to wives and husbands. at some temples. A monk will walk in front. decay and death. There is nothing as clean as coconut juice.
hands and feet after passing away owing to their success in cutting the ties when they were alive. It was said that there is a kind of fire which can burn these. when we attend a cremation. The three chains which stand for greed. This point again illustrates the Dhamma. If we are still not clean.the water of spirit. In this way. we must think. Nobody tied a cord around his neck and his hand did not need to be tied either." Our bodies were burnt not for a single lifetime but countless times.
Death with Purity
An Arahat's body like the Buddha's did not need binding around his neck. generosity and meditation before we die and of purifying ourselves first. and we should contemplate this. The reason why we are burnt at the end of every lifetime is because we are not capable of burning defilements. His body needed no tie. it is considered to be a bad departure. hatred and delusion together with attachment were completely severed. No deodorant was required for the odourless body. that is burning evil deeds. one must wash and clean oneself first. This signifies that the dead person will not come back. Giving." The variety of cremation customs should be interpreted as an exposition of the Dhamma. It means that we must purify our body and mind before death by taking precepts first. hands and feet because it was regarded as the body of the One who had lost all attachments. stupidity and ignorance so that we will not have to come back to be burnt by them again. generosity and meditation. If there is no monk to lead the cortege. leading to an understanding of the Ultimate Reality. The fire will be lit to burn the body. That fire is perseverance seen in our attempts to make merit. It is called "burning defilement". but we have not thought about it in this same way. There was no need to wash his face with coconut juice when he was already pure. Therefore they died with purity which was called "Realising the state of Nibbana. taking precepts and mental training. we must listen to the teachings of an enlightened person. "which is the coconut Juice. It was said that "The fire does not burn us only in this life but in countless lives. can be said to "purify" us until we are as clean as the water. Everything which is done has a meaning. will never look back and will certainly go away. there will be the chance to make use of the essence of one's mind which already contains mindfulness and wisdom. After washing the face with coconut juice. So in this life what kind of things can one use to wash and clean oneself? Generosity. These practices will wash and clean us before we die. take precepts and meditate. who teaches us indirectly to realise ourselves the benefits of practising morality. laziness. His body was not treated in the same way as other people." These things are used as examples. In fact the Buddha did not have to follow these ceremonies because he had overcome all the evil deeds. our body will not be cremated. If a dead person has no royal chariot awaiting. For us to realise the Dhamma we should interpret everything as the exposition of the Dhamma. The fire can be compared with the Buddha's fire. of morality and the Dhamma. This illustrates that a human's life has finally come to the end. Yome. it means that the dead person lacks morality. morality and meditation are the answers.
. the body is overturned with the face down and pressed on top by a piece of wood. It is like there is no monk to lead the way out of suffering. In order to gain wisdom. It is clear that the Buddha and Arahats had no binding of neck. It also explains that before death.
How can one stop this troubled mind which generates the heat? ' Sangkhara' is the key factor. After that the fire of elements (the fire which is burning the body) will be put out. To extinguish the fire of the elements means that a monk performs a ceremony by chanting the virtue of the Buddha and the Dhamma. Before. when you sit and listen to the sermon. We are told to use the meditation technique of mindfulness of the breathing by saying "Bud" when breathing in and "Dho" when breathing out which is tranquillity development or insight development to eliminate anxiety. Anger is regarded as a form of heat. Both kinds of defilements also create heat and from this the world will be viewed in a pessimistic way. In the past. Delusion is also interpreted as the passionate mind which prevents us getting on with others. This signifies "Wishing him or her a good rebirth. Then he makes a wish and sprinkles the water on the bones. we will not be able to keep cool." Why do we call it " kos"? The first meaning of "kos" is the container of bones and the second is ten million. This can be compared with our mind which has no mindfulness and is not meritorious. the human form was reduced to ashes and a piece of cloth was placed nearby for a monk to take it away. So the Bangsukoon of the dead person is performed. It is full of worry and anxiety which generates heat in an uncontrollable manner. Afterwards the bones are placed in the "kos. if your mind is full of discomfort. we lack mindfulness and concentration. If they are not cool enough. Therefore these two qualities have to be applied for putting an end to delusion. sitting and lying down with an agitated mind will also bring anguish since it feels like being full of heat. the human form was made to depict birth and death. The blessing water symbolises the quenching of all delusions. they cannot be picked up. Even if we live with someone. no amount of rain would put the fire out. in order to extinguish the fire of the elements. It is called "To extinguish the fire of the elements. If we do not calm down. In the present time where cremation sites are crowded. "How happy it is to extinguish! Where is the point of extinction so that we may obtain the final bliss?" It is said that "to extinguish inside the mind" is to put an end to worry and anxiety and that supreme happiness will follow. many
." Usually it took three days before the fire was put out. Nowadays. They are intentional activities which give out heat when we think about this person and that person and are concerned about this matter and that matter. Craving is seen as a grasping mind which only generosity can counter. there is nothing left after one's death. we will not understand that person. Activities such as eating. In the former time it was said that if a monk had not chanted and made blessing with water. The second meaning symbolises we may have died many. there will be no happiness. and finally intentional activities." Some people realised that they will die between three to seven days before their death. it is impossible to continue this practice because there are crematoriums. After the fire dies down." This means. the bones become cool and ready for collecting. It was really hot and would not be quenched. Only when the day of extinguishing the fire of the elements came would it die down. it has to be the day after the cremation. Yome. It is pointed out that when we are deluded. Only virtue remains in the world. to make blessing water. morality and meditation as the practices of getting rid of the heat in our mind in the same way as extinguishing the fire which burns the body at cremation.
To Extinguish the Fire of the Elements
As long as worry and anxiety still exist in one's mind. So this should be quoted: "Anicca Vata Sankhara Uppada Vayadhammino Uppajjitva Nirujjhanti Tesam Vupasamo Sukho. The memory of the virtuous actions of our grandparents is to be described and followed by younger generations. contentment is nowhere to be found. It is necessary to cultivate generosity. Worry and anxiety are bound to follow.Alas.
times before. husbands. However before cremating our body to eliminate suffering."
. It is also called "To be skilful in putting out the fire of the four elements and the five aggregates thus preventing it to cause more suffering. Greed is the source and Generosity is the finality. The moment we know the source and the finality.To Analyse the Aggregates
I am going to give a discourse in the way of "The exposition in terms of ideas. In the same way as the monk sprinkles blessing on the bones to quench the fire of elements. Here is a quote from the Pali language. Nothing has changed. illness. Samadhi is the finality. When the same person is well equipped with transcendental wisdom and mindfulness of body and mind. old age. "Anicca Vata Sankhara Uppada Vayadhammino Uppajjitva Nirujjhanti Tesam Vupasamo Sukho. Delusion which makes people forget. it is regarded as a good sign or blessing. We must make an effort to draw a parallel to calculate what we can take with us. This is called "to analyse the elements. There will be no more illness. Therefore they tighten the grip of the chains. Attachment to our homes. property and children prohibited us from keeping the precepts. wisdom and knowledge not ignorance. Some are still drunk during the cremation. heavenly prosperity and successful attainment of Nibbana. Eventually we have to walk around anticlockwise and face the perpetuity of birth. we should extinguish the fire of defilements in our heart first. Hence birth. Whenever we still have to eat." In this state the mind will retain human prosperity. The kos suggests that we must try to tread the deathless path and to stop rebirth. we must attempt to take the deathless path which quenches the fire of all defilements. This knowledge which is acquired will enable us to quench the burning fire and gain inspiration to study further until our faith in the Triple gem is well established. walk. a person is without any more discomfort. old age. The three chains will prevent us from taking everything as we are bound tightly. The moment the body is cremated. grandchildren and home is the source. How much relief it is after the death of this body.
To Analyse the Elements . old age. therefore suffering is still with us. decay and death. As a result we will succeed in developing mindfulness before death in the same way as it is portrayed by someone putting an envelope in our hands to take it with us to venerate Chulamani.
Application of Wisdom
On our visit to the temple we should seek mindfulness." To analyse the elements in this context means that there is the source and the finality in that same person. it is called " Mindfulness directs the mind." This means how happy it is to cool down the heat of an anxious mind. pain and weariness. death. wives. grasping and clinging to the idea of Self. Anger is the source and calmness is the finality. to illustrate a topic of the Dhamma. lie down and are sick. decay and death do not only belong to our parents but also to us. children. They still have no idea how to apply this topic of the Dhamma and to remove their own suffering. sit. Even some undertakers are ignorant and follow the custom blindly. Keep trying. nobody can cultivate that kind of mindfulness because people have not understood Buddhism through the application of wisdom and mindfulness that can help us to investigate clearly various aspects and questions of the Dhamma. we are not yet dead. If we have parents and grandparents who set us an example by performing virtuous deeds. Unfortunately in modern times.
Knowing One's Mind
. Consciousness is awareness as it resides within the five aggregates to form the body. kidneys and intestines inside it will decay. muscles and joints. the nose contacts an odour. All these organs are made from food. Some people think that there is no benefit to performing meritorious deeds. Thus he or she set an example for them to follow. one part of water. nails. flesh. the ears contact a sound. intentional activities which can cause merit and demerit with impulses and emotions. We should train ourselves to contemplate and analyse the five aggregates to realise that we possess nothing. give up and set forth to take refuge in the Dhamma before the end of our lives.Dissolution
There is only inception and dissolution for people in the worldly sense. We should undertake to realise. They will become one part of earth. we will continue to search for the state of existence and the five aggregates which are: body. each part is separated from the whole. Sometimes it is too late.
Inception . water and air. These are called "The six types of consciousness" which can cause happiness. fire and air. skeleton. he or she can make us realise the Dhamma by reminding his or her children and grandchildren to reflect on this merit. their bodies are too weak to make it. Finally may all of you have confidence in the Triple Gem and realise that the Buddha's teaching is the wonderful thing that can help our mind to gain happiness and rise above suffering. like and dislike if intentional activities take place. perception which includes memory." So we should endeavour to finalise the process. What are we made of? We are made of blood. Our complacency means we miss the opportunity to prepare the body and mind for virtuous deeds. For example. to realise Anatta. one part of fire and one part of wind. We continue to live in order to do good and perform meritorious deeds and dedicate the merit to our late parents. misery. When the breath stops. the meaning of the Dhamma is to know the source and then how to bring about the finality of suffering in the mind. they can see through it. water. It is a very delicate process. but if we contemplate this matter in detail we will understand that it is the truth "Anicca Vata Sankhara. They are unable to reflect on the Buddha because delusion and carelessness make them too slow. As long as we still have no wisdom to analyse these aggregates. after all. but where have we gone? In fact what is called " We" is awareness. there is gustatory consciousness. when the eyes contact a form there is visual consciousness.We must analyse our human body to see what we really possess before understanding this topic. only birth and death or the beginning and the end. Only when we escape the cycle of birth and death can we escape the death of the body. To do this we must first put an end to suffering in our minds. skin. or when our fortune and perfection are exhausted and we cannot possess this body any more. The body is not our "Self". the tongue contacts sapids. there is auditory consciousness. It is regarded as doing good for both ourselves and our late relations. there is olfactory consciousness. All the liver. There is no 'We'. teeth. We will not be sad and have regrets as death is natural for all conditioned things including our body. hair of the head. feeling. and consciousness which gives rise to emotions. It is clear that everything is impermanent. If the person who had passed away had made merit and was very charitable. liver. Wishing to go to the temple. The body is composed of the elements of earth. Afterwards when they are full of distress. kidneys and intestines. it becomes a woodfire without consciousness and will start to rot. hair of the body. To sum it all up.
the indeterminate dealing with all the training of mind. how this person is. Usually most of us are not interested in our own mind but interested in others'. This celestial being within one's consciousness signifies brightness. One does not know how to perform it within oneself and one does not know how to use oneself to cultivate merit. Therefore when there is a cremation we will have a clear comprehension about the profound Dhamma. No one can escape the natural law which is Dhamma. not knowing how to create peace within the mind. This is called "Coming from the state of consciousness.all the unwholesome Dhamma which is of unskilful or immoral consciousness. On the other hand one who cannot train his or her own mind is unhappy or cannot find peace and tranquillity and has never experienced any wholesome state or wholesome consciousness. happy. "Kusala Dhamma" . sit. The Buddha said." This means the technique of concentration of mind leading to peace. "Akusala Dhamma" . praised. we will take rebirth as a woman." Therefore training one's mind is an exercise for realisation of the Dhamma which is peace. how that person is. Everyone has to face old age. In other words. Before we can understand our own mind. Most people do not understand their own mind and as a result they cannot protect it. cheerfulness and peace in the mind. In the case of understanding one's mind. angry. hell or Nibbana must be equipped with the state of full awareness." The cultivation of the wholesome state of mind is called "Kusalam Cittam Uppannam. illness and death after birth.all the wholesome Dhamma. is of great merit. or lie down. walk. The mind which favours charity or meritorious deeds will lead to rebirth in the land of good people. They are unhappy. tense. Our nose likes to contact the smell outside. The chanting which we listen to is the Buddha's teaching which points the way for everyone to realise their mind. "Abyakata Dhamma" . If the mind takes delight in a male form we will become a man. grieving. have hallucinations or worry and are anxious all day. the word "Bhavana" should be understood first. "Only when there is awareness of mind will it become first wholesome and then very wholesome consciousness!" One who wishes to know the nature of happiness and suffering and who can enter heaven. frustrated. It shows that our eyes look outwards. the profitable states. To meditate brings great merit. to appreciate its own movement. The same practice should be applied for five minutes for each of these postures. Actually how we acquire our human form stems from our mind.The purpose of listening to seven sections of the Abhidhamma is to dedicate the merit and peace to one's dead relations. If one does not meditate one will not know how to perform meritorious deeds. most of us lack mindfulness and have very little awareness of our states of consciousness because the mind always clings to outside objects as we always look outwards. For example we look out for whether others are good or bad.
. which is about understanding one's mind. Altogether we only have external sensefields so we do not understand our internal sensefields. Death is natural for all. If the mind is satisfied with a female form. lucky. So to know one's mind is meritorious. unfortunately. We can meditate just by saying "Bud" when we breath in and say "Dho" when we breath out and do so whether we stand. This is for cultivating a wholesome state of mind which is portrayed by the form of a celestial being who dwells in the consciousness. the training of the mind itself. unhappy. The mind which has an inclination to do evil will bring rebirth in the land of bad people. So one listens to the chanting. irritable. Our ears contact the sound outside.
people are burdened with a great deal of mental problems due to lack of peace. For example. Conversely. "Peace" which accompany happiness and high spirits will be fully understood.
The End of Suffering
People who are not deluded by old age. greed. If we can see right through our mind immediately when this happens. This state of mind can purify the evil deed. Here we are! These are the results of the positive states of consciousness. sitting. Not to give in to anger is also meritorious. worry. but when awareness takes place in our mind we are conscious of being furious and resentful of others' expressions when we look and listen to them. how it happens and know how to stop it. meditate and gain more Samadhi to be aware of the mind in both positive and negative states and observe all kinds of thoughts." It means. to be in high spirits in all postures whether we are sitting. all the merit will concentrate in the one mind. eating. it is to understand the mind only. Eating. It is not their fault but the result of the confusion of our mind. Just listen to the seven chapters of "Kusala. It is called "Mahakusalam Cittam" which means the mind which is permeated by the Dhamma and merit.. We must try to chant.." The mind will be restful. imagining will be accompanied by tranquillity.rise and the way to eliminate them." Yome!. As soon as we realise this. merit..000 categories of the Dhamma show us the way to rise above suffering in our mind. to be aware of one's own mind is meritorious. The Arahat is born out of a peaceful mind and also Nibbana. demerit. We will realise that our consciousness is negative and intense suffering has arisen. So when we listen to chanting and the Dhamma. restlessness and grief. They are all about the mind. we will realise that it is our mind which causes trouble.namely craving. then the meanings of the words "merit". it is called "Kusalam Cittam. it will be worthwhile. if we are born under the power of emotions so that we lack the real comprehension of our own mind. Anytime we fail to control the restless mind for just five minutes. sorrow and is devoid of contentment. People who are deluded are disturbed by non-stop thinking and peace of mind will not be found. As a result. happiness and unhappiness. As we are full of greed... anger and delusion . Why is the mind positive? Because we train our mind. When we cannot stop thinking we are tense and perhaps cannot sleep. delusion. how much delusion we have.. Therefore the Buddha wanted us to learn about our own mind first so that we will eventually develop mindfulness as the means to get rid of suffering within it. So it is called "Nibbhanam Paramam Sukkham" which means Nibbana is bliss. lying down or just thinking and imagining. lying down and thinking. decay and death and are able to accumulate the merit must realise that The Buddha. Where does suffering come from? It comes from the mind! The unwholesome state of mind which is " Akusala Dhamma " This type of mind brings tension. we will be overwhelmed with distress. Eventually it will become "Kusalam Cittam. Dhamma and Sangha actually originate in their mind. we will be called an ignorant person who is not aware of anger. We can understand how our three types of unwholesome consciousness . free from excessive thinking. love and hatred. tension. When we listen to them chanting and giving the discourses of the Dhamma.Nowadays societies lack the Dhamma and there is little study of the subject.. How can we be aware of the mind? The moment there is awareness in our mind. All the Buddha's 84. Even if we try to meditate at least within one life in order to understand our mind. Only if we can make our mind peaceful for a little while will serenity occur. hatred
. So it is demeritorious. understand and study it! Monks chant to help us to develop a meritorious state of mind. we may have a short temper and never can control our anger.
Preparation of body and mind
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Make alternative arrangements for the completion of one's duty and work to prevent worry and anxiety about it intruding in ones meditation practice. Even if we do not know anything else in this life. What will happen when we cannot concentrate and start to think continuously about going here and there? In that case we should keep on repeating "Buddho. not too tight that it crushes the body while sitting. but after regular and gradual daily practices. sitting. nervous tension will vanish followed by a refined mind containing wisdom. one will have the problem of restlessness of the mind. when we breath in we are aware that we are breathing in. If one cannot do it. Finally may all brothers and sisters who are attending this cremation take an interest in the mind and study about it. If one cannot sit crosslegged on the floor. when we breath out we are aware that we are breathing out. The Buddha also studied his mind in the same way as everything originates from the mind whether it is merit. There are no limitation with regards to the place of practice. This is the right time to observe our mind." In the end the thinking will be exhausted and stopped. The mind will be more and more tranquil. Mindfulness will be gradually developed. At that moment it is not coarse any longer.
. the mind will be free and refined for once. lightness. Any quiet location without disturbance will help the mind to be calm and concentrated easier and quicker. the mind will not be refined and thinking will go on and on. Merit is not to be found anywhere else but in making one's mind tranquil and by knowing its different states. At the same time. Time and place The development of concentration for mental exercises can be done in every occasion and posture whether it will be eating. For example. Clothing should be loose enough for comfort.
How to sit
Sit cross-legged with the right leg on top of the left one. we are not sharp enough to catch up with these defilements. It is called "Kusalam Cittam Uppanam". Peace will arise and suffering in one's mind will be eliminated without any difficulty. walking. if it suits her. we can understand the Dhamma which occurs in our mind. So let us study a little about the mind. When Samadhi is gained. in our own mind. we can be aware of what we are thinking of and know how to stop it. To make great merit means training oneself for the awareness of different states of mind. Buddho. it is all right to sit on a chair." All problems centre in this one mind and we should solve the problem right there. At that moment peace. Later on we will be sharp enough to notice all states of consciousness such as anger and stillness. If this is done.and delusion in this lifetime due to the lack of mindfulness. A lady can also sit folding both legs to one side. Samadhi will be developed. demerit. In the beginning. freedom and clarity will appear and suffering will be eradicated. At the end of the day we give in to them and thus are completely ensnared by delusion. you have to try to practise by observation. Chant according to one's ability. It is called "Capable of eradicating suffering. happiness will be the end result. heaven or hell. wholesome states of mind or "Kusala Dhamma". making one's mind wholesome at every moment. If you want to experience the whole process. lying down or whilst engaging in all kinds of work.
An Introduction to the Practice of Samadhi
It is not difficult to learn how to meditate. If we have no Samadhi. peace and turmoil. The right hand is on top of the left with the thumbs touching. meditate straight away.
Develop sharp awareness of every breath. the tip of the nose and the nostrils every time the breath touches them. provides a fair number of essential Buddhist terms. Close the eyelids but open your minds' eye. eyes. When breathing in and out deeply. Lift the right hand up in front of the chest followed by the left. demerit. Fix attention at the tip of the nose. temper. Oneness. The Noble Eightfold Path (Thai: Ariyasab) the sublime or noble treasure
Ariya Dana. Visualize your face. When breathing in say. Anicca.y
Sit upright. wrong. "Bud". face in a straight line. Come out of Samadhi with that awareness of the contemplation of the outer and the inner body. teacher (Thai: Ajahn) decision. resolution.
. The Sublime Path of the Hole life 2. move the right hand gently and place it on the right knee and the left hand on the left knee. Anatta. Anapanasati. Adhitthana. Arammana. "Dho. When breathing out say. Before the end of a meditation session. Akusala.
When you breath in. with the eyes closed loosely as though being asleep. Concentrate your mind in this resolution. Join the palms together like an unopened lotus flower. When breathing in and out in a shallow way. At the height of the awareness. If the mind feels peaceful. be aware of the breathing in.
How to begin Let go of the various thoughts and imaginations in the mind. Visualise your face.
This glossary. the third stage in the realization of Nibbana mindfulness of in and out breathing not self. evil a Non-returner. continue to meditate. contemplate your body from the end of the hair at the top to the toes at the bottom and then the other way around. Ariya. then please try Glossary of Pali and Buddhist terms at Access to Insight
Various Related links are here
Acariya. Be aware of the edges of the body and then the whole body. Visualize yourself as you sit in whichever posture (whether the right leg is on top of the left one and the right hand on top of the left one with the thumbs touching. Ariya atthaangika magga. be aware of the deep breathing. Hope it is useful for you!
If you can't find the term you are looking for. Egolessness Impermanence sense objects. and object of consciousness (in Thai: mood. Develop the awareness of the in and out breath." until your awareness knows only "Buddho. will unwholesome. Be aware of all the 32 organs of the body. emotion) The worthy one Noble: 1. chin." Always visualise illumination in the nostrils every time the breath touches them. or sitting upright with eyes closed). mouth. self determination. the tip of the nose. bad. when you breath out. hair. be aware of breathing in and out like this. Arahant/Arahat. which originally accompanies the introductory text. eyebrows. Make a wish to maintain the virtue of practising the Dhamma. be aware of the breathing out. ears. Anagami.
a divine being of the Form Sphere or the Formless Sphere. an aeon. feeling. deity Devata. The Law. The Doctrine. The Teaching of the Buddha. nature. category Pancakkhandha. The five causally conditioned elements of existence forming a being or entity. morality Dukkha. inhabitants of the higher heavens. god. The Enlightened one Buddho. unsatisfactoriness Ekaggata. donation Deva. forebearance. (in Hinduism. Suffering. Asava.
giving. Ego Ignorance. ill. the control and evolution of the mind. benevolence. pain. impurities
. Avijja Bhavana. woe. Buddha. alms-giving. virtue.
A volitional action aggregate. misery. The Awakened One. corporeality. a state of serene contemplation attained by meditation
Kamma. charity. subjects of meditation exercises Kappa (Pali)/ Kalpa (Sanskrit). endurance Kilesa. Happy and blameless celestial beings. god. mental formations and consciousness Kammatthana. Ultimate Reality. gift. perception. thought. a recitation of the Buddha. delusion mental culture. Compassion Khanti. Iddhipada. The five Aggregates. ecstasy. patience. world cycle Karuna. The Creator. a state of consciousness
Dana. Sota patti phala. Anagami phala. generosity. an example of a mantra Citta. liberality. fruition of stream entry 2 Sakadagamiphala. not knowing better. fruition of the worthy one or perfected one Noble Truth mental intoxication. the 37 qualities contributing to Enlightenment Bodhisatta (Pali)/Bodhisattva (Sanskrit). fruition of once returning 3. tolerance. (Thai: Thevada) a shining one. development. Nibbana. thoughtfulness. Kandha. nescience. righteousness. defilememt Self. discomfort. deity Dhamma (Pali) Dharma (Sanskrit) The Dhamma. mind. alms. the act of meditation or contemplation. The Universal Self).Ariya Phala. Jhana. fruition of non returning 4 Arahatta phala. Atta. one-pointedness (of mind) concentration success. Iddhi.
Ariya Sacca. defilement. the Truth. A Buddha to be. one who has resolved to attain Enlightenment for the helping of all sentient beings. trouble. trance. absorption. a shining one. meditation
Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma. active thoughts. in Buddhism. The Supramundane esp. psychic power The Four Paths of Accomplishment meditation. Brahma. sorrow.
the Unconditioned. Samathabhavana. Phala. ignorance. insight evil.
wholesome. worldly supramundane. virtue an abode of a Buddhist monk or novice greed.Kusala. form.
Ratanattaya. Mantra. Lokiya. pavilion. the extinction of the fires of greed. wisdom. mental factors. Lobha. wrong action. wicket. Cycle of Existence the Cause of Suffering Community. The twelve links of conditioned co-production fruit. a world. Magga. Phassa. real knowledge. bad. Metta. effect. thinking faculty sacred or magical formula Loving kindness. shape. the Order Compounded things. wayside shelter. tranquility the Round of Rebirth. a chapter of (not less than four) Buddhist monks. homage. confidence hall. Loka. the Cessation of suffering foundation. Perfections. help. mentality. good action. Sankhara. study and meritmaking hall. Lokuttara. Sangha. Kuti. mental impression (Thai: Samphas) worship (external and mental. consequence contact. virtue. volitional
Majjima patipada. Nissaya. the Buddha. Meditation The Middle Way (The Eightfold Noble Path) mind. Nama. contemplation. name. Manta. plane of existence mundane. and the Order) matter. support. result. Right Vision 2 Right Thoughts 3 Right Speech 4 Right Action 5 Right Livelihood 6 Right Effort 7 Right Mindfulness 8 Right Concentration. veneration. conditioned things. the Three Jewels (viz. The Way The Eightfold Noble Path: 1 Right Understanding. Saddha. Papa. Nekkhama. friendliness delusion.of hatred and ignorance. protection (in Thai: habit) renunciation wisdom. Moha. Mana. Samadhi. Puja. Nana.
Nirodha. Nibbana. Panna. the Supreme Goal of Buddhism. dullness knowledge. corporeality faith. honour. devotional offering merit. righteousness (Thai: Tham boon) the Triple Gem. Samsara. Rupa. transcendental The Path. the final emancipation Liberation. covetousness the World. Samudaya. demerit. Parami. insight mind. Sala.good will. absorption Concentration development. stages of spiritual perfection achieved by a Boddhisatta on his path to Buddhahood The Dependent Origination. Mano. touch. Patticcasamupada. meritorious action. Punna. the doctrine.
. The Law of Causation. preaching hall Concentration. material body. meritorious.
Yome (Thai). feeling a prince. monastic daily routine or service. 2. Sila.
Uposatha hall. expedient equanimity. desire. Tepitaka. Wat (Thai). exertion Monastery. the monastic regula consciousness effect. insight development effort. neutrality 1. service. one who has attained the first stage of sainthood craving. observance. method. vigour.Sati. fruit. in this case Generosity a monastery. Vipassana. Satipatthana. kamma resultant insight intuitive vision.
activities mindfulness (the Four) Foundations of Mindfulness Morality a Stream Enterer. Vinaya. energy. clinging means. Upadana. Sutta and Abhidhamma generally known as the Pali Canon the common characteristics of component things attachment. introspection. Sotapanna. thirst the Three Baskets. Upekkha. release discipline. cited as one of the previous births of the Buddha in order to illustrate the practising of one of the Ten Perfections. even-mindedness. contemplation. temple deliverance. endeavour. Vedana. temple appellation used by a monk for his parents or his patron or supporter
Vihara. Vipaka. Observance of the Eight Precepts.
. Uposatha. result. resource. Viriya. Bi-weekly recitation of the Vinaya rules by a chapter of Buddhist monks a hall in a monastery in which ceremonies are performed duty. Vimutti. Upaya. the three divisions of the Buddhist Canon: Vinaya. sensation.