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The process of plastically deforming metal by passing it between rolls is known as "Rolling". In this process the work is subjected to high compressive stresses from the squeezing action of rolls and to surface shear stresses as a result of the friction between the rolls and the metal. Also, the frictional forces help for drawing the metal into the rolls. The initial breakdown of ingots into blooms. and billets is generally done by hot rolling.
They are further hot rolled into plate, sheet, rod, bar. rails or structural shapes. By cold rolling sheet. strip and foil with good surface finish and mechanical strength are produced. Terminology of Shapes 1) Ingot - It is the initial metal molds usually corrugated and other Used in Rolling product obtained by the casting of molten metal. Ingots are cast in of cast iron, with square sections. Ingots may be also of circular, convenient sections.
2) Bloom - A bloom is the product of the first breakdown of the ingot. It is usually of square section with cross sectional area above 225 cm2. It is obtained by hot rolling of an ingot. 3) Billet - Hot rolling of bloom yields a billet, with a reduced cross section. The minimum cross section of a billet is about 16 cm2. But in non ferrous metallurgical terminology, a billet is any ingot which has received hot working by rolling, forging. etc., or the term refers to casting which is suitable for hot working.
4) Slab - A slab refers to hot rolled ingot with a cross sectional area greater than 100 cm2, and with a width at least twice the thickness. 5) Plate and Sheet - The difference between a plate and a sheet is determined by the thickness of the product. In general, plate has a thickness greater than 6 mm and sheet has thickness less than 6 mm.
6) Sheet and Strip - These are rolled products with a thickness less than 6 mm. Strip refers to the rolled product, with a width less than 300 mm, while sheet refers to the product of . width above 300 mm. Types of Rolling Mills Rolling mills can be conveniently
classified with respect to the number and arrangement
of the rolls, as follows-
1) Two High Mill. This is the simplest and most common type of rolling mill. These are
further classified as reversing and non reversing mills. In non reversing mills, rolls of equal size are rotated only in one direction. The rolled stock is returned to the entrance of the rolls
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for further reduction (Figure 3-1Oa). In two high reversing mill the work can be passed to and fro through the rolls by reversing their-direction of rotation. Such mill requires less manual work and works faster compared to non-reversmg mill (Figure 3-1Ob).
(a) lWo-high; pull over
.(a) Two-high; reverwing
(d) Four - high (e) Cluster
Fig. 3·10. Types of rolling mills
. 2) Three High Mill. This consists of three rolls of equal size one above the other. In trus the upper and lower rolls are power driven, while the middle roll rotates by friction. In this back and forth operations can be performed simultaneously (Figure 3-1Oc). '3) Four High Mill. This mill consists of two small diameter working rolls and two large diameter backup rolls, placed one above .the other. Such mills require less power for roiling because of lesser friction of contact area. These are, generally used for sheet rolling (Figure 3-10d). 4) Cluster Mill. In this mill each of the work rolls is supported by two backing rolls. This is useful for rolling of thin sheet or foil to close dimensional tolerances (Figure 3-1Oe).The working rolls are power driven.
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5) Tandem Mill. In this. a series of rolling mills are installed one after the other to facilitate high production. Each set of rolls IS called a stand. Since a different reduction takes place at each stand. the stnp Will be moving at different velocities at every stage in the mill. The speed of each set of rolls is synchronized so that each successive stand takes the strip at a speed equal to the delivery speed of the preceding stand. The uncoiler and windup reel not only perform feeding and coiling up operations but also supply a back tension and front tension to the strip (Figure 3·1 i
Fig. 3-11. Tandem mill
6) Steckel Mill. This mill is similar to tandem mill. except for no working roll is power driven. Only the uncoiler and wind up reels are power driven. In thrs mill the amount of reduction per pass is limited, but hard metals can be reduced to thin gages with close tolerances on thickness. Comparison Between Two high and Four high Rolling Mills 1) Generally two high mills consist of two rollers of same size and diameter, and both perform the rolling action. In four high mills, four rollers, two of which working rolls of smaller . diameter, and two back-up rolls of larger diameter are provided. . 2) Generally two high mills are of reversing type. but four high mills are of non reversing type. 3) Two high mills are used for hot working, and generally for the primary 'breaking down of cast ingots (for cogging to produce blooms), and subsequent reduction to square, rounds, rails, etc., while four high mills are useful for cold rolling of plates, strips and other flat shapes. 4) Friction is more in two high mills because of large diameter rolls, hence require more power, whereas, four high mills use smaller diameter working rolls, due to which friction is less, thus require lesser power. 5) Construction of two high mills is simple, but is to be made robust as it is used for blooming of ingots. while the construction of four high mills is complicated because of four rolls, but need not be so robust as they handle thinner sections.
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HOT ROLLING Hot rolling is the process of rolling a metal above its recrystallization temperature. The first hot working operation for most steel products is done in the blooming mill (also called cogging mill). Blooming mills are usually two high reversing mills, with 50-125 cm diameter, cast or forged rolls, and each weighing upto 20 tonnes. They are driven by a reversing electric motor of upto 20 MW capacity, and also, in order to facilitate rapid reversing the whole structure of the mill and its drive must be massive. Rolling of Steel Ingots For hot rolling of steels. the ingot is heated in a soaking pit to a temperature of 1300"C and fed into rolls. A large alloy steel ingot may require about 25 passes for blooming. In the last finishing stand, the temperature will be in the range of 700 to 900°C, but it should be maintained above the upper critical temperature to produce uniform equiaxed ferrite grains. The product obtained is called.a "bloom". The bloom is then reduced to billet in a 3 high continuous billet mill and further worked to round. hexagonal and other sections. Hot Rolling of Plates Plates are produced by hot rolling of heated slabs or directly from ingots. Sheared plates are produced by rolling in horizontal rolling mills and then by trimming all edges. Mill edge which is the normal edge in hot rolled plates. is produced by hot-rolling between honzontal finishing rolls. Universal mill plates will be rolled in universal mills and later tnmmed on the ends. Microstructural Changes in Hot Rolling In hot rolling, when the metal heated above its recrystallisation temperature is passed through the rollers, the section thickness IS reduced (the physical Change). In process. the original grain structure of the material is elongated and broken up in the deformation zone and the fragments of crystals act as nuclei for new smaller crystals (microstructural Change). This produces a fine-grained structure at the exit end (Figure 3-12a) with higher metal temperature and longer time at that temperature, more rapidly and larger new crystals will grow. The larger the grains, lower the hardness and strength. A satisfactory grain size can be obtained by maintaining the finishing temperature very close to recrystallization temperature. Characteristics of Hot Rolling Hot working gives the following properties/characteristics to a metal1) Hot working brings very little change in the hardness and ductility. Recrystallization is spontaneous, and the resultant fine-grained structure is stranger than the original material. 2) The hot worked metals will have improved properties in the direction of working. This is because the impurities in the basic material segregate into stringers and lie parallel to the direction of metal flow. as the metal is rolled. 3) Metals can be worked to larger reductions in hot working, as recrystallisation and grain
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growth takes place, and no strain hardening takes place, i.e., the metal regains its ductility continuously while working itself.
a) Hot Rolling
b) Cold RolUng
Fig. 3-12. Micro structural changes in rolling
A cJvantages of Hot Rolling 1) Hot rolling breaks up brittle film of hard constituents and brings homogeneity in rolled components. 2) Welding of cracks and blow holes takes place. 3) Grain refinement gives optimum mechanical properties to the alloy. 4) Recrystallisation takes place and hence no work hardening and no internal stresses. 5) There is no need for reheating while working since ductility is not lost. 6) Time required to produce a component is less as compared to cold rolling. Disadvantages of Hot Rolling 1) Surface oxidation under high temperature is evident, resulting in the formation of scale. 2) Decarburisation at the surface layers may take place in carbon steels. 3) Chances of scale inclusion in the rolled product exists. 4) The process is more expensive because of the requirement of heating the component to recrystallization temperature. 5) More care is essential in handling the heated part. COLD ROLLING Cold rolling is the process of rolling metals and alloys below their recrystallization temperatures. Generally they are worked at room temperature.
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Cold rolling is used to produce sheet and strips with fine surface finish and accuracy. Also, the strength of cold rolled product will be high because of strain hardening. The starting material for cold rolling is pickled hot rolled breakdown coil from the continuous hot-strip mill. High speed 4 high tandem mills with three to five stands are used for the cold rolling of steel sheet, aluminium and copper alloys. The maximum reduction possible by cold rolling varies from about 50 to 90%. For achieving the maximum reduction, the reduction in each pass should be kept to a minimum. and should be distributed uniformly over various passes. Generally. the lowest percentage reduction is allowed in the last pass to permit better control of flatness, gage and surface finish. Microstructural Changes in Cold Rolling During cold rolling the as cast crystals are distorted as slip takes place and gets work hardened in the process (Figure 3-12b). The capacity for further cold work must then be restored by an annealing process (and during annealing the temperature must be so controlled as to give a grain size that offers optimum mechanical properties. The degree of cold work In the final pass through the rolls is controlled to give the desired combination of work hardening. strength and ductility. in the product. • Characteristics of Cold Rolling Cold rolling gives the following properties/characteristics to a metal1) Cold rolling mainly brings in greater changes in the properties of hardness and ductility of an alloy. Since, there is no recrystallisation process upon working, the grains remain distorted/deformed with induced intemal stresses. leading to increase in hardness and loss of ductility: 2) Since there is no oxidation and scale formation as in the case of hot rolling. on cold roiling the surface finish improves to a greater extent. 3) Cold rolling to a certain extent improves the tensile strength, beyond which the brittleness increases. 4) Metals and alloys cannot be subjected to larger reductions because of work hardening. Intermittent annealing treatments are essential if further reductions are required. Advantages of Cold Rolling 1) Surface finish is improved. 2) Tensile strength and yield point are increased. 3) Close dimensional tolerances can be achieved. 4) No problem of oxidation and scale formation. 5) Defects like inclusion of scales are not there. Disadvantages of Cold Rolling 1) Internal stresses are induced into the cold worked metal, thus making the metal hard and brittle.
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2) For large reductions, intermittent annealing is necessary. cracks are more.
3) Grain structure is distorted and chances of intergranular 4) Ductility is lost to a greater extent.
5) Blow hole and minor surface cracks in the base metal continue to exist in the cold worked metal and form large scale defects.
Distinction Between Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling
1) Microstructure: get deformed, above recrystallisation In hot rolling, when the material is deformed they are recrystallised temperature, under rolls, the grains also but immediately and refined because they are worked temperature. brings in higher
but in the case of cold rolling the distorted grains do not
get refined since they are worked below the recrystallisation 2) Mechanical toughness,
In hot worked
and does not have much effect on ductility; where as in cold worked metals ductility hardness and brittleness increase. is spontaneous and there is no strain annealing for
lost, and yield strength, 3) Strain Hardening:
In hot rolling recrystallisation
hence can be reduced continuously
to a greater extent, while in cold rolling there thus needs intermittent
is no recrystallisation larger reductions. 4) Oxidation high temperature rolling there temperature
which leads to strain hardening,
and Scaling: conditions
In hot rolling, the metal in red hot condition is possible, whereas since the metal
exposed to the atmospheric
oxygen, and hence oxidation and scaling takes place, and under surface decarburisation and scaling in the case of cold is worked at room problems
are no oxidation
or a much below the red hot conditions. finish and Defects: Fine surface finish and close dimensional control is of surface in
5) Surface possible cracking
in cold rolling which is not possible
in the case of hot rolling. Chances
exist in cold rolling but such chances are not there in hot rolling. Defects like blow
holes and cracks get welded in hot rolling, while in cold rolling these defects get enhanced the rolled parts. Rolling
of Squares, Rounds, Flats and Angle Sections For rolling any metal, first it should be ensured that it is free from surface scale and other defects so as to produce a quality product. After cleaning the surface, the metal is to be heated above its recrystallization temperature and then taken to the rolls. The rolling sequences to be followed for different sections are discussed briefly here. a) Rolling of Square Sections
Figure 3-13 shows the sequences for the rolling of squares. Diamond-diamond and diamond-square roughing passes, diamond leader & square finishing passes are used for rolling of squares.
Fig. 3-13. Rolling of squares
b) Rolling of Rounds Figure 3-14 shows the pass sequence for rolling of a bar or rod. Figure shows the reduction of a 100 mm x 100 mm billet to a 12.5 mm diameter bar using 10 passes of oval and square sections. In this, altemate oval and diamond-shaped roll grooves are used so as to produce the maximum plastic flow in the metal, thus increasing the uniformity of the product. To achieve maximum unifonnity the work-piece is turned through 90° after each pass.
.'........ , .... •......
Fig. 3-14. Rolling of rounds
c) Rolling of Flats Flat shapes are rolled by both hot & cold rolling processes. Figure 3-15 shows the sequence of passes for flat rolling. Hot rolling is carried out in semi-continuous and continuous mills. In these mills, slabs are rolled into plates and sheets. Then, the hot rolled material is pickled, water rinsed and dried. The material is then cold rolled, using proper lubricants, so as to obtain fine surface finish and close dimensional tolerances.
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Fig. 3-15. Rolling of flata Fig. 3-16. Rolling of angles
d) Rolling of Angle Sections Figure 3-16 shows the pass sequence for the rolling of angles. e) Rolling of I-sections Figure 3-17 shows the pass sequence for the rolling of I-sections. For this purpose, a billet of rectangular cross section is cut, above and below, to form the initial rough beam section. In successive passes web and flanges of required thickness are produced.
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Fig. 3-17. Rolling of I.• ections
Fig. 3-18. Rolling of channels
f) Rolling of Channel Section Figure 3-18 shows the pass sequence for rolling a channel section from the initial rcugh channel shape to final proper dimensional channel shape. Manufacture of Seamless Tubes by Rolling a) Push Bench Process Seamless tubes are manufactured generally by 'Push Bench Process'. This uses a square section billet, with a length sufficient to produce the length ~f tube to be rolled. The billet is heated to a of temperature 1300°C in a continuous furnace. The heated billet is placed in the circular container of a quick acting hydraulic press [Figure 3-19(i}]. A cylindrical punch pierces through the billet to a predetermined depth and the billet assumes the cylindrical shape of the container [Figure 3-19 (ii) and (iii)]. This operation is called "punch piercing".
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INITIAL BILLET (i) (ii) PIERCING PROCESS ROLLER /DIES" (iii)
(iv) Fig. 3·19. Seamless tube by push bench process
The product from punch piercing, called the 'bottle', is then slipped on to the bed of a long round steel mandrel bar. The mandrel forces the bottle through a series of roller dies of progressively smaller opening. By this the wall thickness of the bottle is reduced with corresponding increase in length along the mandrel [Figure 3-19 (iv)]. After leaving the last die the tube is tight on the mandrel. It is removed by passing through a reeling mill. The closed front end and the ragged back end of the tube are then trimmed off and the tube is finally sized by passing through sizing rolls. Push benches may use about thirty dies and mandrel of length 7.5 m or more and may operate at speeds 2 mfs. Hence, this method of producing seamless tubes is very fast, also the product is of fine quality and defect free. b) ROil-Piercing Process Roll piercing, also called as "rotary-piercing", is another method of producing seamless tubes. This is done in a rolling mill called 'Mannesmann Mill'. In this process a heated cylindrical billet is rotated between two slightly tapered barrel shaped rolls (Figure 3-20). The axes of rotation of the rolls are inclined at a small angle as shown in figure. Both rolls rotate in the same direction at about 130 rpm. The spinning action
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of the rolls tends to increase the periphery of the or:iginal billet. so that the metal is drawn from the centre of the billet, thus leading to the formation of a cavity. However, to assist the formation of cavity and to ensure the formation of the bore axially a pointed mandrel is inserted as shown in figure. The mandrel also helps to clean up the internal surface of the bore.
Fig. 3-20. Roll piercing
In this process internal cracks may be formed and it is very difficult to obtain an exact axial bore. This process is useful for a limited range of steels. Roll Camber and its Importance in Rolling If a simple two high mill with parallel roll surfaces is used to reduce the thickness of a metal strip, elastic deformation of the rolls may lead to the cambering effect of exit work piece [Figure 3-21 a). Thus, the worked piece would be thicker at the centre (x) than at the outer edges (y), and a strip with wavy edges may be produced. This wi I affect the quality of the work as well the process.
Fig. 3-21. Roll camber
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Therefore, it is necessary to grind the surface ofthe rolls to some predetermined camber [Figure 3-21b] so that the resultant strip will have parallel faces [Figure 3-21 c] depending upon the roll pressure. If the roll pressure is very small, with cambered rolls, it may produce the result shown in Figure 3-21 d. In this the central portion will be wavy and defective. Defects in Rolled Products Rolled products may have various defects like cracks, uneven deformation, waviness, inclusions, etc. All these defects fall under three categories - defects due to roll gap, inhomogeneity in deformation and defects introduced during the ingot stage. a) Defects Due to Roll Gap To produce a flat and even component, the roll gap should be perfectly parallel. Since the rolls have a tendency to bend elastically under pressure, the edge of the sheet may elongate more than the centre, resulting in sheet bowing defect. This causes waviness in the rolled product or edge buckle. This is mainly because, under the bend rolls, the centre portion of the sheet is stretched in tension and the edges are compressed in the rolling direction. This m.ay also lead to "Zipper breaks" or cracks in the centre of the sheet. The remedy for these defects is to contour the roll parallel to its axis so that it is larger in the centre than at the ends. When the rolls deflect under load. they develop a parallel gap. For this, rolls with ground camber or crown are generally used. b) Defects due to Inhomogeneities in Deformation These result in the defective shape and flatness of the rolled products. As the workpiece passes through the rolls, the metal has some tendency to expand laterally (in the transeverse direction of the Sheet). This will be opposed by transverse friction forces, and due to friction hill effect, the sheet under goes more deformation in the centre than in the edges, resulting in slight rounding at the ends. Because there is continuity between the edges and the centre, the edges are strained in tension more than the centre resulting in "edge cracking". Under severe conditions the strain distribution can also result in a "Centre split" of the sheet. These cracking defects can be minimised by using vertical edge rolls which keep the edges straight and prevent a cumulative build up of secondary tensile stresses due to barreling of the edge. Another simple but time consuming procedure is to machine the edges square after each pass. c) Defects due to Defective Ingots Internal defects like fissures in rolled products are due to incomplete welding of pipe and blow holes in the original ingot. Longitudinal stringers of non-metallic inclusions or pearlite banding in steels are due to bad melting and solidification practices. These defects can be minimised by the use of quality ingots. The different types of defects that occur in rolled products can be summerised as follows1) Non-uniform deformation may result in rolling of complex shapes like rails, channels, etc..
2) Fins may be formed on the finished products if the clearance 4) In cold rolling surface cracks may occur if work hardening 5) Non-uniform thickness may be produced
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between rolls is more.
3) In hot rolling surface scaling may take place resulting in rough surface. is excessive. if camber and roll pressure are not matched.
Residual Stresses in Rolled Products
l3esidual stresses may be introduced in both hot rolled and cold rolled products. The amount of residual stresses is small in hot rolled parts as compared to cold rolled parts. The residual stresses due to quenching in hot rolled parts may be due to inhomogeneous deformation or
after the operation.
However, the stresses due to inhomogeneous
tion are quite small, because the deformation is usually carried out well above the recrystalJisation temperature. Residual stresses due to quenching are severe in large sections of rolled products. They occur while cooling the work from hot rolled temperature to the room temperature. These may cause formation of small cracks or flakes at the centre of the cross section. To avoid this, the part is to be cooled in a controlled condition, like burying in ashes or cooling in a temperature controlled oven. The residual stresses in cold rolled products are more severe than in hot rolled products. These are introduced while working itself due to the deformation of the crystals and the work hardening effect. If the reduction per pass is beyond the limits, these stresses lead to the cracking of the products. To avoid these stresses, the parts can be intermittently tempering operations annealed to the parts restore ductility can be subjected and then rolled. After the completion to medium temperature of the cold rolling operation,
to relive the internal stresses.
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