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AND THE BLACK SEA
Did the Mycenaeans know the Black Sea, and was there a Mycenaean presence on and around it? The idea that prehistoric Greeks travelled as far as Colchis, i.e. the region on the Northwest coast of the Black Sea, is by no means a new one. At least Greek poets of the classical period who equated it to the mythologicalland of Aia shared this view. But modern philology concluded that the identification of legendary Aia with Colchis came only as a consequence of Milesian colonization 1. On the other hand, the question why Troy became such important a site during the Bronze Age has been frequently explained by its geocommercial position controlling access to the Black Sea. One of the first scholars who hold this view was W. Leaf in his book on "Romeric Geography" which was published in 1912. Since then it has been supported by several scholars - most recently by M. Korfmann who particularly emphasizes Troy's rôle as an anchorage of ships waiting for favourable meteorological conditions in order to pass the Dardanelles 2. If this conclusion is correct, ships coming from and going to the Black Sea should have stopped at Troy from the time, at latest, when the town was founded somewhen in the early 3rd millennium B.C., and they should, in increasing numbers, have continued to do so until prehistoric Troy was destroyed in the later 12th century B.C. It would be very strange if no Mycenaean ships would have been amongst them since, as is weIl known, a considerable quantity of Mycenaean pottery was found in the ruins of Troy VI, and Mycenaean vases were still imitated by potteries of Troy VII 3. Although pottery by itself cannot prove the nationality of merchants who brought it, hardly anyone would deny that Mycenaeans are the first to be credited to have gone there. Far less confident, however, man y scholars will be as to the conclusion that Troy was important for
1 On the literary tradition of the land of Aia cf., a.o. K. MEULI, Odysee and Argonautika (1921); A. LESKY, "Aia", Wiener Studien 63 (1948), p. 22-68; cf. also M. F. VIAN, "Poésie et géographie: les retours des Argonautes", CRAcInscr 87 (1987), p. 248-266. Skeptical remained only Demetrios of Skepsis who hold the opinion that the Argonauts did not come further than into the Propontis (ap. Strabo 1.45). Cf. W. LEAF, Troy, A Study in Homeric Geography (1912), p. 26; M.P. NILS SON, Homer and Mycenae (1933), p. 25f; B. HROUDA, Anadolu Arastimalari (lahrbuchfür Kleinnasiatische Forshungen) 10 (1986), p. 20lf; E.F. BLOEDOW, "The Trojan War and LH III C", PZ 63 (1988), p. 45, 51; M. KORFMANN, "Troy. Topography and Navigation", in Troy and the Troyan war. A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984 (1986), p. 1-16; "Ausgrabungen an der Bucht vor Troia", Tübinger Blauer 1988, p. 47-52; "Seefahrt zwischen Schwarzem Meer und Âgais im 2. und 3. Jahrtausend v.u.z.?", Papers read at the VIth International Congress of Aegean Prehistory, Athen 1987 (in print); cf. also J. LATACZ, "Neues von Troja", Gymnasium 95 (1988), p. 391,410. For a summary on the Mycenaean pouery found at Troy cf. E. FRENCH, "Ceramic Relations between Troy and Mycenae in the LB A", Papers read at the IVth lntern. Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory, Sheffield 1977 (unpublished); C.B. MEE, "Aegean Trade and Seulement in the Second Millennium B.C.", Anatolian Studies 23 (1978), p. 121-156, esp. 146f.
83f. 3). "Presence micenee in anatolia". So far no single sherd of Mycenaean pottery has been found to the North of the Rhodope range. Alt-Kreta (19372). W. who argues that the finds from Ma~at "lassen sich in ihrer exponierten Fundlage durch die Schwarzmeer-Seefahrt erklaren. 24. five Mycenaean flasks and one stirrup jar were found (Pl. J. RE.-G. by A. Unfortunately Mycenaean sherds from Akalan which were mentioned by Fimmen in 1924 have not been confirmed and were possibly misidentified as such 6. Papers Presented at the 1nternational Symposium on the AncÎent History and Archaeology of Bulgaria. 528f. Swords and Double Axes from Bulgaria". (n.353 with note 28 where "cinque frammenti micenei appartenenti ad una pisside triansata di fabbrica fine" are mentioned. AJA 89 (1985). p. by M. "More about the Thracian-Aegean Contacts in the Late Bronze Age Metal Types". BOUZEK. p. (n. 173-198. however.H. BUCHHOLZ. "Bronze Rapiers. Cf. 129 n. Tusa and L. at least until now. wace er wirklich zum Transport der erwahnten Objekte benutzt worden. This is Ma~at where. LIV. The Aegean. pl. sorne more fragments of Mycenaean vases are mentioned 4. p. BUCHHOLZ. cit. 5). Masat Hüyük (1978). a contrary view is ho Id by J. Pulpudeva 5 (1986). 532. spear heads and double axes. prove Late Bronze Age contacts between Thracia and the Aegean 9. a-c).G. 12. A different situation is encountered at the West Coast. T. Poul ter (1983). University of Nottingham 1981. Since Mycenaean pottery is. no doubt. FRENCH. 349. ln Wirklichkeit sind mykenische und kyprische Funde in der Hethiterhauptstadt überraschend gering an Zahl". "Mycenaeans in the Black Sea ?". at least a vague contour is beginning to emerge out of a still foggy ambiente. Marazzi. Anatolien und Âgais". esp. 148. 9 with n. sorne rapiers. MEE. Vagnetti (1986). Atti dei Congresso di Palermo 1984. HOOKER. p. p. H. Wiener Studien NF 13 (1979). There are. Anatolia and Europe: Cultural Interrelations in 5 6 7 8 9 . This is also stressed by H. p. p.T. auch Bogazkoy hatte berühren und dort entsprechend sllirkere Spuren hinterlassen müssen. No further Aegean finds . local imitations of Aegean prototypes.a fact which does not support the presence 4 For the Mycenaean pottery at Ma~at cf.T. access to it from the Black Sea coast was possible. Thracia Ponti ca 1 (1982). BlITEL. within the central part of Asia Minor. 43-134. nr. it may be worthwhile to attempt to summarize our present state of knowledge. On these see J. who finds that the M~at material "may be signposting a direction in which our thoughts could go". Gymnasium 85 (1976). mainly. Imports of Mycenaean pottery are still extremely rare around the Black Sea. so far there is only one site from which it has been reported. When looking for firm evidence of Mycenaeans penetrating into the Black Sea.the still unpublished Sarkoy hoard from the Northwest coast of the Sea of Marmara apart 8 . pl. likewise the meaning of a clay ram statuette which is reported to have been found at Samsun and to bear an Aegean inscription remains doubtful 7. but. But most of them come from inland sites . S. The problem is how they reached this site: Ma~at lies about 130 km off the Southern Black Sea coast. op. Part l. Inscriptions in the Minoan Linear Script of Class A (1961).c. D. Cf. 21ff. 148-150. p. cil. in Traffici Micenei nel Mediterraneo. 558. being either imports or. BOSSERT.208 Stefan HILLER Mycenaeans not so much as being a terminal of Aegean traffic but rather as an intermediary port on their way to the Black Sea. ln any case it should have been more easy to carry pottery from the coast than to have it imported via an inland route. BRICE. 23 V 3. "Bios and Iliad". p. together with Hittite vessels (and also sorne Cypriote imports). zumal der Überlandweg durch das anatolische Hochland. As the following remarks may show. D. p. it has to be admitted that this is comparatively spare. there is indeed a reasonable chance that the Ma~at vessels came via the Black Sea. Likewise for iLSimportation via the Black Sea argues K. op. PANAYOTOV. colour pl. totally absent. "Das zweite vorchristliche Jahrtausend im ostlichen Mittelmeer und im Vorderen Orient. "Doppelaxte und die Frage der Balkanbeziehungen des agaischen Kulturkreises". 54f. ed. in Ancient Bulgaria. which. But it may be added that it has increased during the last years . p. p. Thracia 5 (1980). ed.are reported from the region south of the Black Sea.and although more questions may be raised hereby than can be answered so far. OZGÜZ. L. Hattusa included 5. 29. Here we come about the crucial point.
b) 14. FROST. Nessebar and Sozopol. Proceedings of the fourth International Congress of Thracology. a. A. There is. 44 nr. SAMSARIS. by M. The ingot from Cerkovo . 69-72. TONCEVA. "Les ancres en pierre du littoral Bulgare de la Mer Noire". 1979 (1982). d) Il. p. There is yet one more point of evidence in favour for an Aegean presence at the Bulgarian part of the Black Sea coast. 280) H. 79 nr. does not mean that all these anchors were lost by ships coming from South. 104.e. p. Only a single double axe found at Bulgarovo near Burgas 10 has a fair chance to have come there by sea . 52. cit. Against this mainly negative evidence stands the weight of sorne 150 stone anchors which have been detected mainly at Cape Kaliakra. 10 11 12 13 262 (generally). 00. G. 167-173. Rotterdam 1984. 11 and 12. 3ff. LV.it seems to be of copper . also D. p. Frost states as to the Bulgarian anchors that their weight "coupled with the indigenous shapes indicates a flourishing sea-trade based on Thracian ships. POROGEANOV. they are. in Thracia Pontica 1. however. 13. Cf. p.N. Thracia 3 (1974). p. PANAYOTOV.H. (n. (1985). 41ff (spears. p. HARDING. p. For the present however. Gornoe delo i metallurgia v drevnejsej Bulgarii (1978). op. This is provided by two (or more ?) oxhide ingots which were found sorne years ago at Cape Kaliakra (Pl. Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory. 11. 280-289. PANAYOTOV. the former along with stone anchors having the characteristic triple perforation. POROJANOV. in the Eastern Mediterranean 14 Also for these a thorough publication is obviously lacking. Thracia Pontica 1 (1979). (n. Mollot. Lekove (1973). 189 map. 9). Apart from that their provenience remains an open question. de Vries (1989). p. By their shape and functional device they resemble those which are known from many coasts of the Mediterranean. "Navigation et commerce de la population du littoral européen de la Mer Noire de la Thrace ancienne avec les peuples de la Méditerranée Orientale (XVI-XII s. 41. by M. 49. cf. 241. p.G.1979 (1982). Paris 1970. Stone Anchors in Antiquity: Coastal Settlements and Maritime Trade-Routes ca 1600 . fig.M. Pl. fig. in Sociétés et compagnies de commerce en Orient et dans l'Océan Indien. Under the Mediterranean (London 1963). 128 n. mentioned by several authors.an assumption that invites bath consideration and testing".5 kg.E. op. Papas read at the 5th Intan. 5). p. this however. "Thracia Pontica à l'âge du bronze récent et ses rapports avec le monde Egéen et l'Asie Mineure". cil. 55-61. Il (Hermones type). cit.. 21f. . 127f (axes). Generally they are considered to date from the Late Bronze Age . 176-188. double axes). but also other places 12. 9). Sheffield 1980 (unpublished). K. unless we accept that stones anchors in the Black Sea were contemporaneous with stone anchors in the Mediterranean .but also a later date cannot be safely excluded 13. op. op.)". p. (1980). ed. BUCHHOLZ. BOUZEK. UV. p.. g. The period is. HARDING. 54 and p. p. E. so far no comprehensive study on these anchors. "Stone Anchors as Indicators of Early Trade Routes". BUCHHOLZ. 240f (Mycenaean objects from Bulgaria). 54. Papas read at the VIth International Congress of Aegean prehistory. we have to contend ourselves by staring that shape and use of these anchors clearly betrays a Mediterranean or. p. (n.THE MYCENAEANS AND THE BLACK SEA 209 of Mycenaean ships sailing along the coast and visiting nearby located settlements. 107-113. cf. Thracia Pontica 1. K.bears an incised the Second Millennium B.. TONCEVA. e. LAZAROV. n. l.P.G. "Stone anchors as dues to Bronze Age Trade routes". "Les influences mycéniennes sur les Thraces". the Aegean included.o. cil. there (p. p. 204. av. probably during the Bronze Age. however. cil. Wien 1980 (1984). as to my knowledge.C. 90 n. CERNYCH.F. Cf. op. cit. 152ff (swords). Athens 1987 (in print). 238. in Dritta Internationaler Thrakologischer Kongress. 30ff (swords). cit. p. in Thracians and Mycenaeans.1050 B. less certain. 47. the one from Cape Kaliakra is said to consist of 50 % of copper.. 176 with n. D. Actes du huitième colloque international d' histoire maritime. è.241.7. Simple and cheap in production as the y were. p. it weights about 1. 54. fig. G. p. McCASLIN. a) and at Cerkovo near Karnobat (Burgas. Best and N. more strictly. they may have been locally imitated immediately after they had been imported by foreign ships for the first rime. an Aegean impact. II. HARDING op. 32 % of gold and 18 % of silver. op. LV.to a lesser degree possibly also a further double axe with an oval shaft-hole which was brought to light at Rojak in Varna District (Pl. p.C. The Mycenaeans and Europe (1948). 3. Perhaps scientific analysis of the stones used can help here in future. fig.
BOUZEK. Bug. op. Type B. 9). d-e) 24. 16. the Hermones type axe from Kerc can be regarded only as an indication of an indirect Aegean influence. p. 73-82. Both types." BUCHHOLZ. HARDING. "Keftiubarren und Erzhandel im zweiten vorchristlichen Jahrtausend". "Oxhide Copper Ingots in Crete and Cyprus and the Bronze Age Metals Trade". op. 90 nr. (n. HAWKES. c) and one at Berezan and Jekaterinoslav respectively 22. p. MUHLY. J. cil. p. As A. p. Dnjepr and Donec. op. op. No materials reflecting an Aegean connection have. . 9). Double axes of basically Aegean shapes have been found at Kozorezovo 18 in the Ukraine (Pl. STECH-WHEELER. Troy obviously took an active pan in the production of and the commerce with these tools.F. BOUZEK. op. LV.F. 139-152. 9). cil. also p. Harding has observed. p. however. 141-159. 5-14. PZ 37 (1959). so far been reported from the Roumanian and Russian part of the Black Sea West coast.. HARDING. cil. p. 5). Cf. HARDING. According LoHARDING. p. 67: "in Bulgaria and Macedonia Kilindir-type axes were being produced. cil. 9). 81-100. C. op. 52. T. Thus both the knowledge of stone anchors and of the shape of oxhide ingots should have reached the West Pontic area via the sea route. p. 1-40. ISliluto Ilaliano di Numismalica 26 (1979). "Mycenaean Greece and Europe: The Evidence of Bronze Tools and Implements". Iraq 39 (1977). BSA 37 (1936). 5). From Troy itself four double axes and one mould of corresponding shape are reported. 261. esp. op. Hawkes in his still valuable article published in 1936n remarked that "in South Russia double axes appear in Bronze Age hoards directly recalling 'Treasure P' from the sixth city of Troy" 23.210 Stefan HILLER mark comparable to Aegean Linear signs (Pl. nr. six of them were found at Scetkovo. BSA 81 (1986). 5). The production centre of the Kilindir and Hermones axes is still under discussion. N. as to my knowledge.-G. 183-202. (n. which have more or less the same distribution. As to these specimens c. p. appear to belong to the Late Bronze Age. BOUZEK. when we come to the North where two main areas of Mycenaean impact can be distinguished . "Mediterranean Trade in Copper and Tin in the LaLe Bronze Age". "Ingots and the Bronze Age Copper Trade in the Mediterranean: A Progress Report". Annali. 46. 158. 78 nr. 9).F. (n. LV. cil. "The Cape Gelidonia Shipwreck and the Bronze Age Metals Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean". which has an oval shaft hole. "The Double Axe in PrehisLoric Europe".which. cf. the Bulgarian ingots could also indicate the transport of Balkan ore to the (East) Mediterranean. 45 nr 12. including the Krim peninsula. however. And the so-called "Aegean" sign stamped on the Cerkovo ingot does not need indicate anything else but that Aegeans were involved in their manufacture at sorne stage 17. LV. "The Copper Oxhide IngoLs and Lhe Bronze Age Metals Trade". whereas the latter is of the Hermones variant.242 with n. 49ff. p. cil. BUCHHOLZ. in any case the region around Burgas is metalliferous 16. 30.a Western one comprising the mouth and hinterlands of the rivers of Dnjestr. MADDIN. two at Kozorezovo (Pl. p. p. op. 44. op. 192. Cil. Like stone-anchors also metal ingots have appeared all around· the Aegean 15. p. C. yet only two of which have been published (Pl. p. HARDING. Journal of Field Archaeology 4 (1977). 353-363. (n. 9). fig. Expedilion 17 (1975). (n. b). 41-45. 42. 7. p. R. p. cil. (n. 31-39. cil. cil. cil. . the former of which belongs to the so-called Kilindir type. BUCHHOLZ. p. 94 nr. The'same 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 H. p.D. if the second suggestion is correct. BUCHHOLZ. 5). their centre of gravit y clearly lies within the Aegean and most of them were found not far off-shore.H. (n. Northern Greece 20 as well as the lower Danube area 21 have been supposed. 193. 45. op. p. (n. superfluous to say that the only one existing is that from the Aegean through the Marmara Sea. Apart from these objects there are roughly ten more double axes of the normal Aegean variety. op. esp. op. STOS GALE. n. This picture changes. BUCHHOLZ. where the older literature is referred LO. cil. (n. PPS 41 (1975). 17. 52.. LV. (n. for the distribution of metal ores in the Burgas region. GALE and Z. does not necessarily mean that the existing ox-hide ingots from Cape Kaliakra and Cerkovo are imports. p.A. c) and at Kerc 19 on the Krim peninsula.
G. Materialy i Issledovanjy po Arkheologii SSR 130 (1965). 407. (n. the chariot as a mean of warfare was not really essential for the steppe tribes to whom horse-riding was more adequate. p. 27. op. (n. op. M. no unanimity has been achieved so far among the experts as to the date of the hoard 33. (n. 29 (1981). Slov.2. p. 348ff. cit. cit. p. CROUWEL. p. 207-213. H. LESKOV. this was recognized first by A. For Greece see BOUZEK op. For celts in the Northern Pontic Area cf. H. That South Russia was reached by influences from the Balkan area carrying 'Mycenaean' elements with them is demonstrated by a "Stangen-Knebel" from Belz (Pl. GIMBUTAS. Mykenae (1978) p. 533f. fig. nr. c). SULIMIRSKI. Handbuch der Vorgeschichte. 298ff. op. p.and loop omament. HüTIEL. 320 and LXII. KARO. Sov. 17H. cit. 26). where also the Trojan mould is discussed and Balkan parallels are listed. "Barrow Grave 6 at Komarow". LX. cil.G. 150 fig. (n.A. HüTTEL. p. cit. 4. d) near Sokal (Ukraine) 34 which exhibits the wide-spread circle.45. Grundzüge in ihrer Entwicklung. op. 43ff. MÜLLER-KARPE. Since.11. d'archéocivilisation et d'ethnologie offerts à André Varagnac (1971). 405. 29f. op. vLADAR. b) 31. 5Hf. cit. HÜTTEL. 224. Donec area) the ornament of which is closely related to that of a Mycenaean gold disc (Pl. 47f. the main 25 26 W. 15. p. f) 25. Littauer 28 has been convincingly refuted by H. J. 29). Jung. BOUZEK. p. p. T. pl. SULIMIRSKI. A. 6.. p. Leskov who also identified them as parts of horse-bits 27. apart from that. pl. op.und spatbronzezeitliche GuJ3formen im nordlichen Schwarzmeergebiet. Another group of implements which is found in Greece and the Northern Pontic area is represented by harnessing accessories. p. (n. "Evidence for Horse Bits from Shaft Grave VI at Mycenae. J. LITTAUER. 405. BOCKAREv and A. H. 685. p. 84. p. "Aegean Trade with Eastern Europe and ilSConsequences". Bd. 70. 20Hf. MÜLLER-KARPE. Arch. "Archaic round cheekpieces with studs".M. cit. On the discussion cf. 46 fig. HüTTEL. Die Schachtgraber von Mykenai (1930). 29). 532. SULIMIRSKI. The criticism raised against Leskov's interpretation by J. SCHLIEMANN. op. nr. IV (1980). 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . (n. It is of sorne interest here since celts were very popular in the North Pontic area as weIl as in the Balkan region whereas in Greece only few examples of that type of tool have been discovered 26. with note 4. V. "Ancient circular cheek pieces from Trakhtimirova". as he thinks. 9). LVI.-G. (n. Prahistorische Bronzefunde XiX. fig. esp.THE MYCENAEANS AND THE BLACK SEA 211 may be concluded from a celt mould which cornes from Troy VII (Pl. cit. p. ln this connection the spiral ornament on the pin-head from the Borodino Treasure 32 (found near Odessa) may be mentioned: it can be compared to similar designs on brooches from Mycenae (Pl. DÙRPFELD. also BOUZEK. This view is supported by a bone disc from Iljitevka (Krasnolimansk. 7a. p.2 (1981). HÜ1TEL. in Mélanges de préhistoire. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 4 (1964). LVI.M. p. cit. Here two pairs of bone cheek pieces from the Shaft Graves at Mycenae are paralleled by morphologically and structurally identical pieces from Trachtemirov near Kiev (Pl. 175 and p. he was followed in this interpretation by T. yet descent from a broader Balkan background remains no less possible. PZ 48 (1973). 25). LVI. Bronzezeitliche Trensen in Mittel. Bronze Age Cultures in Central and Eastern Europe (1965). 151 section 4. 6-8. "Zur Problematik osteuropaischer und südostlicher Einflüsse in der Kulturentwicklung der Âlteren Bronzezeit im Gebiet der Siowakei". M. LVI. 723 fig. p. 303. 712 fig. 707ff. 9). 707ff.2. immediately comparable is a gold disc from Mycenae. 29). G. op. 65ff. Hüttel who also discussed the problem of the relation between the Greek and the Ukrainian examples 29.A. Crouwel and M. 412. 83f. op. The Spears. cil. 20ff..S. p. the knowledge of this type of equipment reached the Ukraine from somewhere else. LESKOv.3. 9). Prahistorische Bronzefunde XVI. HARDING. fig.6. p.1 (1980). 64. Arch. 182. 28 n. although a Near Eastern source is possible the close realationship between the Mycenaean and the Trachtemirov bits strongly recommends Mycenae as mediator 30. MOvSHA. (n. 182. T.und Osteuropa. Vovoe v Sovetskoi Arkheologii. The higher qua lity of the Mycenaean piece points again to Mycenaean Greece as supplying the model. (n. 1964. Troja und /lion (1902). 9). pl. a). LV. On the Borodino-Treasure cf.
At aIl nine swords (cf. (n. JAPARIDZE. esp. 9). p. op. O. 29). 25). Pl. GIMBUTAS. 2). 31). cit. however. But. fig. cit. p. cit. op. 47ff. b) 43. by their general shape they are relatives to Mycenaean type A rapiers respectively to their Balkan offspring. (n. 75. op. op. "The Trialeù culture in the light of the lalesl discoveries and its relation ta Anterior Asia and the Aegean Sea". Since long swords are exception al in the Kaukasus region an ultimately Aegean ancestry is most likely. LATACZ. cit. p. Vari. p. cit.M. Samtavro. (n. at least in my opinion. the concrete function of which is however enigmatic 37.") thinks that "faience beads were one of the commodities exported by the Trojans to Central Europe". Bouzek who distinguishes between examples constituting one type (A) of long sword with pronounced central rib and long tang (5 examples: from Hovil. 262. 715 map 3. he remarks as to lhe Caucasus faience beads: "The faience industry was weIl established there. Gimbutas has seen many years ago there is a close relationship with two spear heads from Prosymna 44. 13-158. 35. (n. op. 376. BOUZEK. Ill. p. where faience beads are counted among 'Mycenaean' objects. On the finds from the Trialeti culture regarded as related to Aegean objects cf. BOUZEK. SCHLIEMANN. cit. Chir-Dir 3. The same Can be attested to sorne extraordinary spear heads with angular shoulders and a fine ridged midrib: they correspond to Aegean specimens of group G in O. 9). p. p. 51. who refers to 157 faience beads found at Troy VI ("in the layer of ca. (n. The question of the faience beads is. And: "They attest weIl to the rôle of a Mycenaean agent played by the city and of the distributor of beads and other Mycenaean goods in the countries accessible by the Pontic route" 40. (n. 62. (n. fig. 32). too. op. op. 146. loo. 26). no list assembling the existing specimens has been 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 On the origin of this wide-spread technique and its distribution cf. Into a broader horizon of cultural contacts. Progressing further to the East we come to the Kaukasus area. (n. Regarding its wider distribution we may speak of a "MycenoBalkanian koine" 36. cf. 1977. and p. p. Here we encounter a situation different again from the preceding one. SULIMIRSKI. cit. 358f. Sulimirski. HÜTIEL. Vol. and another one (B) with triangular butt (4 specimens: from Miston. 87: "die im Karpato-mykenischen Stil verzierten Knebel von Bele und Budapest-Lagymanyos". BOUZEK. Andrjukovskaja) 42. Relations with the Bronze Age Aegean are recognized primarily in two kinds of weapons: rapiers and spear heads. cit. Samtavro and Lib).. cit. 720. 'marginal' to which centre. 1 suppose thal these nine swords are identical with those menùoned by J. 31). however. p. J. "Lanze und Speer im Spalminoischen und Mykenischen Griechenland". For comparison a similar bone object from the IVth shaft grave at Mycenae may be referred to. in Actes du VIlle Congrès International des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques. (n.39-43. 89ff. cit. op. also p. belongs the appearance of faience beads in South Russia as weIl as in the Kaukasus area. cit. 93. cit. J. p. p. "Zu den altbronzezeitlichen Goldfunden". Jahresbericht des Institutsfür Vorgeschichte der Univ.212 Stefan HILLER concentration of which is in Transylvania and Hungary. p. a Near Eastern one should. 0 HOCKMANN. whereas J. Hockmann's classification system (cf. 112ff. p. . LVII. leaving open. 41Of. Pl. As M. 26). not be excluded 39. GIMBUTAS. 32). MüLLER-KARPE. 58. p. (n. This view is also held by HARDING. as to my knowledge. (n. but this probably reflects the industry of Mesopotamia rather than any connections with the Aegean". the last one to be briefly discussed. op.M. nevertheless it should be regarded as being originally Mycenaean 35. Khodja-Daoud. op. JbRGZM 27 (1980). p. op. Belgrade 1971 (1974). Bouzek has called it a "marginal area of distribution" 38. a) have been listed by J. they come from tombs of the so-called Trialeti culture which spread throughout Georgia to the south of the Kaukasus range 41. Frankfurt a. KARO. SULIMIRSKl. p. in lhe laler second Millennium. op. (n. no. 1425 RC. 9). too vexed a problem as to be dealt within this connection. LVII.
46 47 48 49 50 . 720 with n.(b) Kirovakan (Transkaukasia): SULIMIRSKI. however. A. pl. 25). This brings us back to the unquestionably most well-known ship which may ever have crossed the Black Sea and also to its crew: the ship Argo and the Argonauts. As a waming against too great an optimism 1 may. and. op. MELLlNK. op. conceived as being located somewhere far-off in the East. where also sorne double axes occur. (n.(c) Pervomajskoe-Galaski near Groznyi: SULlMIRSKI. If there ever was a Mycenaean excursion comparable to that of the Argonauts. and vice versa". still unpublished silver vessel from Kirovakan in Armenia which represents a kind of over-dimensioned Vapheio cup 47. LEVEQUE.". (n. Pietrowski in 1948. 9).P. cil. 6.B. op. in the North-East.. op. p. 1.P. p. comparabLe to H6ckmann's type C is a further spear head. op. 226. finally. 6. 60: "Die Anführung dieses ArgonautenEpos durch Kirke (Od. however. P. But herein he ignores what M. n. p. SULIMIRSKI. barrow grave XV: GIMBUTAS. p. It dates to the 15th or 16th century B. cit. p. 12. cil.A. "here the famous cycle of myths corresponds to the Mycenaean rernains.F. Ille et Ile millénaires (1948). (n. cf. 51. 93 fig. op. . Nilsson has irnpressively shown: Iolkos which is the starting place of the Argonauts has a clear geographical and historical setting. 26). LESKY. fig. Cf. . RA 1986. As reLated may be regarded the spear heads from Amarat and Tachkoprü. Stratigraphie comparée et chronologie de l'Asie Occidentale. "Archaeology in Asia Minor". s Cf. Can we. Lesky who has convincingly argued this was of the opinion that an at first still undefined and imaginary country far-off in the East was identified with Colchis only after Greek colonization had found a firm foot in the Black Sea area 49. SCHAEFFER. for Jolcus was the northernmost Mycenaean town" 50. 224 F. cit. 26).P.e. . Geschichte der griechischen Lileratur (19572). along with cheek pieces of horse bits and related bone carvings which have Early Mycenaean parallels. cf. IV Symposium de Tsxoltubo. "La Colchide du VIle au IVe siècle av. (n. 720 with n. (n. It can. this being one of the earliest clearly intended quotations of Greek poetry within poetry 48. 262: "there is nothing in the Caucasus which can be Laken as a Mycenaean product. find sorne points in favour of a Mycenaean origin of this legend . As he observed. MüLLER-KARPE.2 and 228. cil. Nilsson's basic book on the "Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology" ? That there existed an early Argonaut poem is attested by the famous passage in the Odyssey where ship Argo is called "cared for by aIl". cil. from Chir-Dir. difficult to date.70) steLLt ich aIs ein literar-historich bedeulSames Zeugnis dar". offensive weapons which again depend from Early Mycenaean models. more double axes. è. Mycenaean influence is also shown by an impressive.in analogy to M. 547. (n. Apart from that. (n. Iolkos was indeed the rnost convenient place to leave from. it has been suggested that Homer's knowledge 45 1 know of three or four examples.(d) Meskheti: JAPARIDZE. fig. AA 1986) may change this view. 116: "excavated by B. NILSSON. the examples known to me are (a) Trialeti. 26). 398f. 32). which also resemble Hockmann's Type F. p. Still unpublished as to my knowledge. n. Géorgie. The Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology (1932) p. Meanwhile. AJA 92 (1988). p. op. 2. That the finds from the South and West coast can reasonably be taken as indicative of a Late Bronze Age penetration of Mycenaeans into the Black Sea has been stated above. cil. p. M. 6. be shown that the legendary land of Aia was. moreover.THE MYCENAEANS AND THE BLACK SEA 213 published and no closer analysis has been made 45. also M. SCHAEFFER. accessible to me only in the unsufficient drawings of e. 137. refer to HARDING. 41). occur in the North West. the Kaukasian foot rings found at Troy (cf. as a consequence it would be perverse to argue for a land route in the case of the Northern and Eastern objects which show an Aegean affection. sorne of which are rather late (Kilindir and Hermones types) while others may be earlier. Judging merely from drawings the Trialeti pieces might be taken to be true imports 46. but the Vapheio-type spool handles are smalL and serve for the attachment of a basket handle". p. and metal ingots in the West. after aIl. ever since. 15. Yet A. cit. 43. stone anchors. ln conclusion as to the material evidence a in rnany regards distinct picture arises: clay vessels belonging to the later Mycenaean period (LH III A/B) are found in the South. 720 with n. but further ones may exist. op. and is a large two-handled vessel.
HILLER. . As has been recognized long ago. a-mu-ta-wo: PY N 831.73. 186ff. Several authors feh that sorne steppe influence can be detected in the Early Mycenaean art.g..F. The Pylos texts faU into the Late Mycenaean period. KoÀxtôeîoç has to be left open since other transcription cannot strictly be excluded . p. the Mycenaean name ko-ki-da and its derivation ko-ki-de-jo represents KoÀXi&xç resp. TH Ug 9 i-wa-so : PY Cn 655 mo-qo-so : KN Dc 1381 ru-ke-wo( -wo-wi-ja) : PY Nc 1053 These names (for sorne of which it has to be admitted that they can be transliterated also in other ways) cannot. and KoniOac. "Osservazioni su moduli formulari della serie F di Cnossos". Within Greek mythology the Argonauts are placed before the Trojan war. originally at home in Thessaly. For the same reason a clustering of heroic personal names. above aIl Pylian. has been proposed by O. It could. p. cf. Whether. however. cf. of course. GUIDI. That it could go back to the Mycenaean period may be concluded from the fact that there is a striking correspondence between names in Mycenaean. 72. with earlier bibliography. KN V 756. 147ff. however. that means that they should belong. Transactions of the Philological Society 1983. Studien zur Geographie des Reiches um Pylos nach den mykenischen und homerischen Texten (1972). LANDAU.214 Stefan HILLER of the Propontis region which is contained in the so-called Catalogue of the Trojans may originally have belonged to an early Argonaut epos 51. R. M. lends further confidence to the assumption of a Mycenaean origin of the Argonaut epos.xiliac.the Borodino hoard faU. other interpretaùons which have been proposed are ropyiOac. a3-wa-ta : KN Vc 7612 a-ta-ma-ne-u : PY Cn 655 ke-re-te-u : Py Ea 59 etc. texts in Linear B. LAZENBY. The Argonauts are traditionally regarded as Minyans who were at home in Southern Thessaly and Northern Boeotia. Mykenisch-Griechische Personennamen (1958). S. the Trialeti weapons. e. The interpretation as KOÀ. finally. There seems. From the perspective of archeology Mycenaean contacts with the Black Sea reflect a broader range of time. there is a remarkable coincidence of ri ver names both in Thessaly and in the Thessalian offspring of the Neleid dynasty 52. ln sorne way it seems that in the sixteenth century these relations were vice versa. could be expected to reappear in Mycenaean Pylos. This is illustrated by the following list: Aiaia (the island of Aia) Aiates (the Lord of Aia) Athamas (father of Phrixos) Kretheus (brother of Athamas) Amythaon (son of Kretheus) Iason (leader of Argonauts) Mopsos (seer of Argonauts) Lynkeus (spy of Argonauts) cf. to be sorne concentration in the earlier Mycenaean period into which the Ukrainian cheek pieces. cf. to an earlier chronological horizon. cf. Aevum 61 (1987). cf. p. the same is true for the Pylian Neleides. 63. But how early is it ? We don't simply know. and . p. KILLEN. in the well known gold sheets from the Vth 51 52 53 T. a3-wa-ja : PY En 74 etc. J. This is in a general correspondence to the overaU picture of Mycenaean contacts with the North which were clearly stronger in the earlier rather than in the later Mycenaean period. cf. prove anything else but their mere existence already in the Mycenaean period. ALLEN. HOPE SIMPSON and J. p. "Mycenean Possessive Adjectives in -e-jo".although KoÀxiôaç is by no means unlikely or impossible according to Mycenaean scribal rules 53.T. The Homeric Catalogue of Ships (1921). 181. according to ancient tradition. be of sorne importance that for the greater part they are attested in the Pylos tablets.possibly .W. That this is reaUy the case. For Thessalian geographical names in the Western Peloponnesos cf. The Catalogue of the Ships in Homer' s /lias (1970). cf. For ko-ki-de-jo as being derived from ko-ki-da cf. p.
Jd1 77 (1962). the Fatjanovo Culture of Central Russia. PraktArchEt MU HL Y. Studies in Honor of T. This reminds us of the suggestion that also the boar tusks helmet is supposed to have originated in South Russia as it may be concluded from corresponding finds in several graves at Mariupol 55. p.U 'toû 1976. 25-36.D. "The Ivory Horse Bits of Homer and the Bone Horse Bits of Reality". . xpuooû lCu'tà 'toùç 1tpcotjJ. Homerische He/me (1972). e.T.H. p. This ornament which is a newcomer to the Shaft Grave period has no immediate Aegean descent. The Cjurupinsk spear head is illustrated in SULIMIRSKI. (n. 11-37. J. "Der PfeilgHiuer aus dem VI. 321.THE MYCENAEANS AND THE BLACK SEA 215 Shaft Grave showing wild animaIs in repoussée technique 54. Muhly who argued in favour of an immigration of steppe people to Greece at the beginning of the Shaft Grave period 59. p. whether the gold from the Shaft Graves does not have really something to do with early Mycenaean contacts to the Pontic area which is well-known to be rich in gold.1 and la. cit.T. in note 153 he relates this phenomenon to the the spreading of the war-chariot at about 1650/1550 B. this is to be kept in consideration when a possible clue is looked for as to the legendary Golden Fleece 61. p. LVII. p. This is also the case for horse burials. 26). Bonner Jarhbücher 67 (1987). i. 321f. S. and the Gorbunovo culture in the Middle Urals".P. H. Likewise the socalled arrow smootheners which appear in Greece for the first time during the later middle Helladic period have been referred to parallels in the Pontic area 56. MU HL Y. op.-G. p. the Catacomb and Middle Dnepr cultures of the Ukraine.UlCllvutlCoùçxpovouç". 634/5. (n. daB die Volker aus den ostlichen Gebieten des Schwarzen und Kaspischen Meeres kamen". It is. supposes the opposite direction: "Furthermore. Foltiny has pointed out. "On the Shaft Graves at Mycenae". p.: "Die Richtung der festellbaren Einzelbewegungen zeigt wohl an. ed. p. this wide-spread distribution which may indicate a transfer of those implements from the Russian steppe area to the South-West. LXXIII. p. p. in the North Caucasian. BUCHHOLZ. (n. however. it might be legal to wonder. DICKINSON.B. VERMEULE. SULIMIRSK1. 712 fig. Powell and R. 28. cit. 26). op. 713 who.D.K. MU HL Y. cil. Sack (AOAT 203 ). The Art of the Shaft Graves of Mycenae (1975). "Metals and Metallurgy in Crete and the Aegean at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age". op. On the prob1em of the provenience of the shaft grave gold cf. p. Jones. c) 58. KORRES. (n. 54).S. But after aIl. 54). 1-58.A. pl. 319. esp. Stefan HILLER 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 E. esp. p. however. 34. (n. "Ta 1tPO~À. G. p. Cf. 25). p. could it have come from the region under discussion? 1 think there is no need to go as far as 1. locally made on the Aegean model might have been the many 'arrow-straighteners' or 'arrow-shaft smoothers'. Temple University Aegean Symposium 5 (1980). Mulhy does 60. cit. more general O.o.lljJ. a characteristic feature of the cultures in the VolgaUral area is the double burial of horses which is also known form Mycenaean Greece 57. L BORCHHARDT. 311-323. 2. p. 23f. Schachtgrab von Mykene und die helladischen Pfeilspitzen". ln this relation special attention should be paid to an unusual kind of spiral ornament which is common to both a spear head from Cjurupinsk near Herson (Ukraine) and several shaft grave implements (Pl. MU HL Y. as also J. esp. by M. op. MÜLLER-KARPE.. 20.co'ta'touç 1tPCO'tOjJ. J. cit. a. FOLTINY. as S. op.C. The Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation (1977). 53f. 501ff. found in the remains (mainly graves) of several East European cultures in almost ail parts of the country.
pl. p. 11. p. 525). [no 32]. 303. p. cit. 532. pl. 4. LVIII : Mycenaean Pottery from Ma~t Hüyük (after OZGÜZ. fig. cit. LV. op. Prosymna. c : Pl. 69. vol. [no31]. 1). p. fig. cil. p. 378). vol. p. pl.3. 298. 48. B). op. Bone cheek pieces from Trachtimirov and Mycenae (after HÜTIEL. c (left) and LVIII were produced by Dr. Sarntavro and Khodja-Daoud-Koprü (after DICKINSON. op. LIV. fig. LVII. op. fig. 9. LVII. op. fig. 1. Double axes and mould of a celt from Troy (after H. IV. a (right). Reinhold (Rom). C.216 Stefan HILLER LIST OF ILLUS1RA TIONS * Pl. Zur Herkunft der kretischen Doppelaxt . p. Rapiers from Mycenae. 43. a-c. p. op. op. [no 61]. b] and GIMBUTAS. LVI. [n 32]. A. Il d. SCHAEFFER. a: Pl. 222 and GIMBUTAS. cit.. LV. LV. op. p. 2. 712. cit. Bone cheek piece from Belz and bone object from Mycenae (after SULIMIRSKI. 226. fig. op. fig. LVI. [no31]. 2. b : Pl. IV. Amarat. c : Pl. [no25]. op. op. BUCHHOLZ. LVI. cit. fig. fig. vol. 7. fig. cil. SCHAEFFER. cit. op. IV. JAPARIDZE. p. and HOCKMANN. 8. 20. pl.-G. cit. Mycenae and Chir-Dir (after GIMBUTAS. d-f: Pl. op. sword-hilt from Mycenae (after SULIMIRSKI. [no45]. [no31]. 49). 14. c: Pl. cil. d : Pl. Spear head from Cjurupinsk.2. LV. cit. op. op. op. [no29]. cit. and Müller-Karpe). 225. 91. [no5]. op. 228. cit. 94. 2. to whom 1feel deeply indebted for his generous help. 224. fig. [no5]. op. cit. cit. 52. [no32]. Meskheti. [no25]. LVI. Spear heads from Trialeti. Bone disk from Iljitevka and gold plate from Mycenae (after VLADAR. 95. and SCHLIEMANN. 15. LVII. after Istorija na Bulgaria 1 ). 43. cit. . 712. l. cit. 7). fig. [no25]. fig. LIV. [no26]. and MüLLER-KARPE. p. LV. op. cit. 21t). 224. and SCHLIEMANN. Ingot from Cape Kaliakra (after BUCHHOLZ. Tach Koprü. op. 9. 5) Map showing distribution of finds * The drawings for Pl. Double axes from Kozorezovo and Stetkovo (after MÜLLER-KARPE. pl. a-b: Pl. Double axe from Rojak near Varna (after BUCHHOLZ. a: Pl.3. [no45]. cil. fig. 405) Silver pin from the Borodino-hoard and gold plate from Mycenae (after MüLLER-KARPE. b: Pl. [no43]. and p. [no41]. e. Il) and from Cerkovo (near Karnobat/Burgas. and SCHLIEMANN. fig. op. cit. [no 26]. LIV. [no4]). [no31] p. cit. 376. pl. 537 B [a. d: Pl. a-c : Pl. 2.
- .- -..LIV ... . d . ' . -.
':..LV ". b c •• s 6 d e f . a .~'.:."'.. .::Jr'. ':.
LVI 15 a b c d .
il! J -..~ 10 ..LVII -94~m - a .~ f .. •.. ... l .o 5 -0 b .
/t ( Keramik Barren Beingerat Waffen Doppelaxt r < - .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Il 12 13 14 MAS AT TROJA BULGAROVO TSCHERKOVO ROJAK KALIAKRA BORODIN BELZ TRACIITIMIROV KOZOREZOVO CJURUPINSK ILnCEVKA KERTSCH TRIALETI • .