This chapter is concerned with background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statement of the problem, limitation of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, and definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the study In a world or a society that has not regularly without guarantee and protection of victims, building a legal system that is just hard. In a case that occurred in society at that time in case of violation of the rules of society such as acts of adultery, then they use religion as an excuse and a tool to decide on a punishment without consideration of human rights offenders. When the crime that happens then all the people only see the wickedness that is done without giving offenders opportunity to provide a defense argument. They do not consider that the crime itself is not as bad and wickedness of what they have done. This gives the possibility for offenders to suffer psychologically and sociologically. According to Wellek (1995:109-110), literature is a social institution that uses language media. Literature has a social function that does not fully describe the personal nature of social problems such as traditions, conventions, norms,

2 symbols, and myths. De Bonald in Wellek (1995:110) states that literature is an expression that reflects the community feeling and expressing life. Literature, especially novels have close links with the community as a document of historical, social, and as a portrait of social reality. As a social document, the novel is used to describe social history. Novel occurs in a social context that relates directly and indirectly to the economic situation, political, social and concrete. Some novels are written based on the author’s experience or based on the condition of the society in which the author lives. The hottest issue in his society can be also as an inspiration for the author to produce a novel or literary works. In this case, Hawthorne (2004:26-3) in The Scarlet Letter describes the atmosphere of punishment in the puritan society. Adultery punishment becomes a hot issue in the puritan society or New England in the year of 1641, especially in several states. Many arguments come in, from the judicial system, the execution, trials, human rights, the effect of punishment and from the side of the prisoner it self or convicted person of capital punishment. Beside that the execution in death penalty cannot do directly, there are many steps before the execution. The prisoners (convicted person of capital punishment) have to wait in the jail (or death row) until their execution. Moreover life in social punishment brings many problems for the prisoner itself. Social portrait of American history can be read in Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter as well. He took the original documents from the State

3 Port of Salem, who noted the condition of Jonathan Pue puritan society and social punishment of offenders of adultery at the time. Nathaniel Hawthorne is considered as one of the great novelist in the world but the difficulties are drawing up a whole sequence of events. Next is to ensure an attractive setting for the story characters to be portrayed in this novel is a real character. Nathaniel Hawthorne Hester Prynne should describe the character as a people struggling for dignity in a society that is arrogant. Hawthorne wrote about the people of Massachusetts and the patterns they act and behave towards each other, especially against Hester, and life in general. This novel begins when Hester walked to the scaffold in the city to be seen and known to many people because of adultery who has done. Historically, the puritans were protestants who wanted to purify the Church of England from priests and rituals. They try to devote their lives and enhance the value of a typical order of puritans. On a personal level, a puritan would strive hard for perfection itself (self-perfection) by practicing a set of values and beliefs. If it fails, as seen in the case of Hester or Dimmesdale, they will impose penalties to anyone who is not able to achieve such self-perfection. Prison then became an instrument for achieving collective self-perfection. In societies that strive for a self-perfection, the penalty for deviation value is not just physical but also spiritual or emotional. Prison here indicates that the puritan society punishes people within their own ranks who have violated the laws of society: an activation law society. Prison is also a concession to the fact that in a

4 society consisting of people who dedicated themselves for the sake of selfperfection. (http://www. or whipping was the usual punishment in puritan Massachusetts for adultery. but whipping and execution to harsh. This punishment offers a way to punish the adulterers to bear his sins without forcing people to do violent and anarchic. (http://www. Mayor John Hathorne. added wonderful embroidery to it. however.com ). required to wear the red letter A. and in 1644. In 1641 Boston Law provided for death as punishment ( the scaffold then was used only for execution. It is an act to define the . Hawthorne’s ancestor. and he ordered a woman named Hester Craford to be saverely whipped in publick after she gaves birth to an illegitimate child. was magistrate in Salem in 1688. A Plymouth law of 1694 called the display of an A on the dress. not the pillory). and it became the subject of his story . signaling that the ultimate possible punishment offered by the Bible and the law was too harsh.notablebiographies.eyewitnesstohistory.com). it seemed that the puritan communities had found themselves in the difficult place of punishing adultery too lenienly. Hawthorne recorded this case in his journal. But corporal punishment. The admonitions society desire to punish what seemed to be obvious transgession againts society.” in which a Salem woman . because many found the embroidery of the ‘’A’’ letter too light a sentence. Now. “ A letter and the Red Colour . Then these punishment subdided. the prison was still needed. Mary Latham and James Britton were reported in John Winthrop’s journal to have been put to death for adultery.

) Hawthorne's other books include Twice-Told Tales (1837). but returned to the United States and died (http://www. (Hester Prynne. The Admonition of Jesus in the case of adulteress. is forced to wear the letter 'A' for adultery after she has an affair with the puritan minister Arthur Dimmesdale. Hawthorne is more widely known for his novels The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of Seven Gables (1851). “ Let him who is without sin cast the first stone. since it had its own consequences in the guilt. His novel always reached International best seller.openbible. the heroine of The Scarlet Letter.info ). The Dolliver Romance ( 1863) ( unfinished) and The Marble Faun (1860).com). (http: //www.’’ had not become a guiding principle in the law refer to sexual acts.5 punishment more humane. and suffering. The Blithedale Romance (1852). The writer is motivated to choose Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel because firstly. 1872). Though he went on to help lay the foundations of the American short story.notablebiographies. shame. Fanshawe. Nathaniel Hawthorne is considered as one of the great novelist in the world. and Doctor Grimshawe’s Secret: A romance ( unfinished ). it was a crime of the heart that need not be punished by the societ. Nathaniel Hawthorne grew up in New England and published his first novel. . But Hawthorne was moving mind to agree that if adultery was a crime. Septimius Felton or The Elixir of Live ( published in the Atlantic Monthly. From 1853 to 1859 Hawthorne lived in England and in Italy. One of the great American authors of the 19th century. with Preface and Notes by Julian Hawthorne ( 1882). in 1828.

After it was published in 1850. who is convicted of adultery in colonial Boston by the civil and Puritan authorities. At last the writer hopes that this research will lead benefits for the students of Pekalongan University especially for common people who like literature. 1. but frequently as the greatest novel in American literary history. it is a novel in which.6 Secondly. Ironically. psychological drama revolves around Hester Prynne. almost nothing happens. critics hailed it as initiating a distinctive American literary tradition. those explanations above are the reasons why this research and this thesis are necessary to have. The Scarlet Letter is famous for presenting some of the greatest American literature. in terms of action. which combines a solid knowledge of the American legal system with an ability to portray a wide range of characters that have very unique personalities. the language of the novel is easy to understand. While not recognized by Hawthorne himself as his most important work. To sum up. Why the writer chooses The Scarlet Letter as the subject. Hawthorne's emotional.2 Reason for Choosing the Topic In The Scarlet Letter the writer is interested in Hester Prynne’s characterization because many of her actions to respect and protect the honour of . Hawthorne writes in an easy gripping style. the novel is not only as his greatest accomplishment. and why the writer applies psychological approach for this research.

The writer determines the title of this thesis that is The Impact of Adultery Punishment as Reflected in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter: A Psychological Analysis. Furthermore the researcher uses psychological analysis using Sigmund Freud and Skinner’s theory. How do our attitudes and behavior when there are people who are considered guilty and punished. The writer also found that the change views of the main character toward all of her crimes she had done before she got the death penalty and met with her love. In accordance with the reasons. analysis of the novel The Scarlet Letter in a thesis is a new thing in Pekalongan University.7 her love when she was in judgment day. Although he was punished by the people he still had faith that what he did was right in the eyes of God and he survived to this. By studying this novel analysis we can determine an appropriate reward and punishment in the learning process in schools and in society. Nevertheless this novel has been frequently discussed and explored in other schools. The writer thinks that this will be suitable title for this . This novel is very interesting to be analyzed about the life of Hester Prynne is the main character in the struggle to raise their children with the burden sign the letter "A" dark red on his chest which means sinners and condemned. the researcher discusses about the main character that is psychologically very interesting to be analyzed. In addition. We also may often encounter cases in people's lives.

1.3 Statement of the Problem From the reason for choosing the topic above. Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter? 3. they are: 1. How is the characterization of the main character. Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter.8 thesis because the work (The Scarlet Letter) shows a unique characterization of the main character and there are strong moral values in this novel. To describe the impacts of Adultery Punishment in the life of the main character. What are the impacts of Adultery punishment in the life of the main character. Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter? 2. 2.4 Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study appear in answering three questions mentioned above. . What are the moral values contained in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter? 1. the researcher formulates statement the problem as follows: 1. To describe the characterization of the main character Hester Prynne psychologically in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter.

1. objectives of the study. To draw some moral values in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. significance of the study. the writer presents the thesis as follows: The first chapter is the introduction. It consists of synopsis of the novel. the readers (in general) and other researchers. The presentation of the thesis is very important to help the readers to read and understand this thesis. In the end of this study the researcher expects that this study will give the great benefits for the students. formulation of the problem. It consists of type of the study. The fourth chapter is research findings. Here the writer gives background of the study. The third chapter is research methodology. and data analyzing technique.9 3. the effect of punishment. The second chapter is theoretical framework that contains theories underlying the writing of the study. data collecting method. Theoretically The reader will better understanding on psychological analysis. characterization . limitation of the problem.5 Significances of the Study Basically all research activities should posses’ clear purposes. identification of the problem. and presentation of the study. character and characterization. psychological approach and moral values. Here the writer presents the author’s biography. 1. the definition of adultery punishment (it includes social punishment).

The fifth chapter is conclusion and suggestion. 2. for the readers (in general) The readers can get the information about adultery punishment and able to understand the problem contained in there. The readers can get the information about adultery punishment and able in there. It is the last chapter of this thesis. This thesis reviews historical . to understand the problem contained 3. c. for other researchers Other researchers can conduct further research on the literary works as well as in the novel The Scarlet Letter. Practically for the students The students will have better understanding on psychological analysis. b. Pedagogically This thesis explores the educational benefits and pedagogical complication of focusing on morality in literature courses. The writer believes teaching works of literature that raise difficult and complicated moral questions can help students develop critical thinking and writing skill. the impact of adultery punishment. Here the writer tries to conclude the result of the analysis and gives suggestion to the readers who read the thesis. a.10 of the main character. and the moral values of the novel.

It considers the idea that English teachers can. reason. the execution. In the case of the adultery punishment consists of many problems such as judicial system. The interesting theme includes the adultery punishment.11 perspectives on the link between morality and literature pedagogy.7 Definition of Terms Based on the background of the study.6 Limitation of the Study As stated in the identification of the problem above. 1. imagination. and puritan society. without moralizing capitalize on literature’s moral questions to cultivate compassion. the writer discusses the novel intrinsically and extrinsically to find out the impact of the adultery punishment in the life of the main character. and more careful writers. and compiled some pedagogical perspectives on the subject. and independence of thought. love. cleaner thinkers. therefore the writer limits the problem on the Impact of Adultery Punishment in the life of the Main Character as described by Nathaniel Hawthorne in the novel The Scarlet Letter based on psychological approach. This limitation is intended to make the discussion more focus however. the punishment . focusing on how and why to bring up moral issues in literature classes. 1. and thereby help students become better reader. The Scarlet Letter contains some interesting themes to analyze.

because it was a clear breaking of the moral and religious marriage contract between husband and wife. In the title of this thesis is The Impact of Adultery Punishment as Reflected in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter: A Psychological Analysis the writer needs to define some key terms. . effect. The impact The impact (noun) in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English means ( a strong ) influence. the Puritans also viewed adultery as a threat to societal order." for the rest of her life. By maintaining the bonds of marriage. 2.12 row. and people who committed it could be put to death. and the most important thing is the problem of the convicted person itself (prisoner). which are as follows : 1." symbolizing the word "adulteress. The memorable character of Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" is punished to wear a scarlet letter "A. with the intention of giving shame and humiliation. Adultery Hawthorne in The Scarlet Letter states that adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married man or woman and a partner other than the legal spouse. Adultery was a moral violation. Adultery was punished publicly.

1804. He spent his time to produce many famous novels and short stories. in Salem. or even something others would find rewarding but the particular individual does not like. 3. Adulterers might have . The Scarlet Letter is one of the best success that Hawthorne’s producing to devote himself to his writing. the Scarlet Letter was a real form of punishment in Puritan society. Massachusetts. loss of tangibles or activities. He was born on July 4. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter According to Meltzer (2007: 10-18).13 According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English adultery means sex between a marriage person and who is not their husband or wife. withdrawal of attention. 4. Punishment Strater in “Rewards/Punishment’ Debate and Application (http://documentsearch. Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the greatest writers in America. accepted definition in psychology: ‘An aversive stimulus that occurs after some specific response and is intended to suppress that response is known as punishment’ punishment can be anything that decreases the occurrence of a behavior: physical pain. a reprimand.org) explains that theory that punishment’ has a specific.

and a red letter "A" stands as a symbol of the most powerful. 5. Hawthorne is an expert in the use of symbolism. At least two known adulterers were executed in Massachusetts Bay Colony. But the reader see the "A" as a symbol of ambiguity. . At one pole interpretation of "A" stands for adultery and sin. Psychological analysis is used in the analysis of narrative. and this novel is the story of individual punishment and reconciliation. It can analyze character who has a psychiatric disorder or psychological aspects of analysing characters. A Psychological Analysis Adi (2011 : 185) states that psychological (adjective) is relating to psychology or relating to the mind or mental activity. about the interpretation of the novel that spins. At another pole it stands for America and the story suggests national sin and human costs.14 been forced to wear a scarlet "A" if they were lucky. Psychological analysis (in literature) is learning related to psychologist fundamental theories relate to characters in their texts. a fact which is very confusing.

His first novel. Hawthorne decided to write after his graduation from Bowdoin College. Fanshawe. a descendant of a long line of Puritan ancestors including John Hathorne.1 Biography of the Author The following biography is adapted from Meltzer (2007:10-11). one of the first Puritan settlers who arrived in New England in 1630. the effect of punishment. psychological approach and moral values. which molded his life as a writer. was unsuccessful and Hawthorne himself still an . Massachusetts. character and characterization. his mother became overly protective and pushed him toward relatively isolated pursuits.15 CHAPTER II REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the author’s biography. Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4. a ship captain died of yellow fever at sea when Nathaniel was only four. Also among his ancestors was William Hathorne. the definition of adultery punishment. 1804 in Salem. Hawthorne's childhood left him overly shy and bookish. After his father. a presiding magistrate in the Salem witch trials in order to distance himself from his family's shameful involvement in the witch trials. 2.

He left Salem for a temporary residence in Lenox. (http:/ www.com) The Scarlet Letter was an immediate success that allowed Hawthorne to devote himself to his writing. Hawthorne introduced with Herman Melville and became a major supporter of Melville's work. Major Molineux. By 1842. where he completed the romance The House of the Seven Gables in 1851." arguably Hawthorne's most famous short story. Hawthorne returned to Salem in 1845. but he was dismissed from this post when Zachary Taylor became president." and "Young Goodman Brown. which was the center of the transcendental movement. a small town in the Berkshires. After three years Hawthorne was dismissed from his job with the Salem Custom House.notablebiographies. his writing finally gave Hawthorne a sufficient income to marry Sophia Peabody and move to The Manse in Concord. His insufficient earnings as a writer forced Hawthorne to enter a career as a Boston Custom House measurer in 1839. including "My Kinsman. His intense suffering infused the novel with imaginative energy." "Roger Malvin's Burial. Despite the critical acclaim it has received since. however. He wrote several successful short stories. Hawthorne then devoted himself to his most famous novel. although their . While in Lenox. He zealously worked on the novel with a determination he had not known before. where he was appointed surveyor of the Boston Custom House by President James Polk. Hawthorne twice rejected this work when asked to select a compilation of short stories for publication.16 amateurish. The Scarlet Letter.

which he was given for writing a campaign biography for Franklin Pierce. 1864. detailing the account of his travels to the Virginia battlefields of Manassas and Harpers Ferry and to the White House. owned by Louisa May Alcott's family. he would publish an article entitled "Chiefly About War Matters" for the Atlantic Monthly just before he fell ill. Hawthorne was buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord. The Blithedale Romance--based on his years of communal living at Brook Farm--and the romance The Marble Faun were both considered disappointments. Indeed. New Hampshire. He went on to travel and live in France and Italy for a spell. By this time. Hawthorne supported himself through another political post. Massachusetts. His life was described with the words "painful solitude. after a long period of illness. Hawthorne renamed it The Wayside. the consulship in Liverpool." . Hawthorne's subsequent novels. Hawthorne passed away on May 19. after the publication of The Blithedale Romance.17 friendship became strained. he had completed several chapters of what was to be a romance. Hawthorne returned to Concord and bought a house called Hillside. but he returned to The Wayside just before the Civil War began. and this work was published after his died as The Dolliver Romance. in Plymouth. In 1852.

According to Meltzer ( 2007:16-18 ) in 1852 Franklin Pierce was elected president of the United States. but otherwise he had had few intimates and little engagement with any sort of social life. Hawthorne died on May 19. where they spent their time primarily in Rome and Florence. who wrote his campaign biography. the details of his declining health remain mysterious. was appointed to the important overseas post of American consul (advisor) at Liverpool. and took up residence in their first permanent home. England. The Marble Faun (1860). he still praised by American society as one of the greatest writers in America. at Concord. These English years resulted in Our Old Home (1863). His works are well known with regard to the puritanical. A number of outstanding works of Hawthorne published after he died. They returned to England. He served in this post from 1853 to 1857. guilt. Since he refused to submit to any thorough medical examination. a volume drawn from the sincepublished "English Note-Books. Although he had always been an active man. after an absence of seven years. . Although he was not satisfied with his works. and Hawthorne. The Wayside." In 1857 the Hawthornes left England for Italy. and moral complexity as well as a personal feud. Hawthorne's health began to fail him.18 Hawthorne had maintained a strong friendship with Franklin Pierce. They finally returned to the United States. where Hawthorne finished his last and longest complete novel.

who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral. he suffered the difficulties of his profession in earlynineteenth-century America. But he died the second night in Plymouth. hoping to regain his health. and emotional quantities that are expressed in what they say (the dialogue) and what they do (the action). He had gone for the New Hampshire hills with Franklin Pierce. Hawthorne's life and writings present a complex puzzle. 2. A born writer. the author must complete himself with enough knowledge about the behavior of human being and the social custom that will be used as setting. an activity he had always enjoyed. he had nonetheless desired to live fully. To create the convince character. an environment unfriendly to artists (http:/ www.2 Character and Characterization 1. Major Character or main character into two. major character and minor . dispositional. presumably in his sleep.com). New Hampshire. yet he sought the broader experience of Europe. Modest in expectations. Character According to Griffit (2011: 60). The character can be devided character as follows : a.19 1864. Hawthorne once said that New England was enough to fill his heart. characters are people presented in dramatic or narrative work.notablebiographies.

The hero is usually a good man with . b. ‘Round character’ is the the story. struggle.html). The antagonist character is usually immoral or evil because the protagonist is usually good and true. The other hand the characters can be divided into two: round character or developing character and flat character. career. he is usually helped by a close friend or by a reputable person (named companion character). Therefore. Minor character. or aspiration. that plays an important role in good characters. The major character can further be analyzed into three groups: 1) Protagonist (the very central character) The protagonist usually a hero or heroine.booklyn. When a protagonist is oppressed. Minor characters are those who support the main or major character (http:// academic. 2) The antagonist character (the enemy of the protagonist character) The antagonist in a novel usually refers to the enemy or the challenger of the protagonist.20 Major character plays an important role in the novel.english/melani/lit. the protagonist usually has a companion or a partner in pursuing his duty.edu/term.cuny. 3) The companion (the supporter of the protagonist) In a novel. the readers will usually pay more attention to the major character or main character.

These theories of characterization provide the readers with valuable information to comprehend how Nathaniel Hawthorne created and developed Hester Prynne’s characters in the story. For example. He distinguishes between character and characterization. (www. Characterization indicates the qualities of the character. Character indicates person. While Nurgiyantoro says the characterization indicates to qualify of character (1998: 165). In other hand Flat Character described as unchanging characters at the beginning and end of story. Characterization is author’s way in showing the character.com). namely: 1. a character is described to be morally good in the beginning of the story but after that he becomes bad in the middle or in the end of the story. Murphy in Santoso (2007: 13 ) mentions that there are 9 ways in which an author attempts to make his character to understand and come alive for his reader.storyinsight. some theories of characterization help the readers to understand what characterization means.21 character that changes over the course of the story. 2. while characterization indicates characteristic and attitude of the character like what is interpreted by the readers. Personal description . Characterization Characterization often comes up in the readers mind when they deal with certain literary works.

3. through the person thought. 2. Conversation of others We can take the clues of a person’s character through the conversation of other people and what they say about him. his conversation or through the medium of another person. Past life By letting the readers learn something about a person’s past life.22 Personal description means that the author can describe a person appearance and clothes in the story. 4. People talk about other people . the author can give them a clue to events that shape the person’s character. the author can describe his character through the eyes and opinion of another character. whenever he put forward an opinion. Speech Speech may be used to describe a character of one of the persons in the story through what the person says. he is giving us some clues to his character. Whenever a person speaks. This can be done by the direct comment of the author. 5. whenever he is in conversation with others. Characters as seen by another Instead of describing a character directly.

6. the author directly gives his personal comments about the character that he creates. Direct comment In the description of the character. If the readers are subjectively involved in the characters thought. Even the readers can feel as if they were the character themselves. 8. Each reaction toward the problem shows the character tendency and this tendency gives the readers a clue about the character’s personalities.23 and the things they say often give a clue to the character of the person spoken about. 7. they can understand the character’s personalities and position in the story. Reaction Different characters will react differently if they are faced with similar problems. Mannerism The author use mannerism habits or idiosyncrasy in his fictional life which can also describe the character’s personality. 9. . the author want to show personalities of the character in perspective way. Thought By letting the readers come into the most thought of the character in a literary work.

They believed absolutely in the words of the Bible and felt that the Church had become corrupt. the puritans settled into the New England area and lived strictly pious lives. in which the family and the bonds of marriage were the basis of societal order. especially in terms of marriage and keep away from adultery is very important to maintain order in their society. Puritanical ideals regarding sexuality and marriage can still be seen today. Upon migrating to America. Being chased and hunted for their beliefs.24 2. Basically. They keep the spirit of morality. and devoted themselves to religious. Vaughan ( 1972 : xiii ) mentions that the puritans were a devout Christian group who not agree with the Church of England.3 Adultery Punishment Gray (1995 : 4-5 ) states. they demand more comprehensive changes to the national church and advocated a more simple . they came to America. They were called the puritans because they wanted to purify and cleanse both the Church and their own lives. Gray (1995 : 6 ) states. social and moral reform. puritans were a Christian religious group whose pious values formed the foundation of American culture. during the growth of religious life in the 16th century a group of men and women who called puritanical group trying to overhaul the official English church from within.

and people who committed it could be put to death. They are organized society and respect for education. By maintaining the bonds of marriage. with the intention of giving shame and humiliation. In puritan society. Although they have very strict rules about the punishment for the actor of adultery but they appreciate the relationship of husband and wife in marriage. They appreciate art. puritanical society to go to a new world in 1620 they founded the Plymouth colony. the puritans also viewed adultery as a threat to societal order. it consisted of people who are quite wealthy and educated." for the rest of her life. . shy.25 worship. a moral violation of God's will. and behave boring." symbolizing the word "adulteress. poetry in particular. Adultery was a moral violation. They do not ban alcohol. Adultery was punished publicly. Their ideas will change the integrity of the state church that could threaten the position of king and church leaders. Contrary to other views of puritan society that they do not feel pressured. adultery was considered one of the big sin. and enjoy the beautiful environment of the universe. Under pressure. but they do not give awards for the drunks. because it was a clear breaking of the moral and religious marriage contract between husband and wife. The memorable character of Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" is punished to wear a scarlet letter "A. While the second generation founded the colony of Massachusetts in 1630.

This is where generations of his successors witnessed the puritanical society growing up in a very large number for a better life. There are 8 million Americans who can trace their ancestry back to the Puritans who first came to New England between 1629 and 1640.com ). Cotton Mather very influential and popular in resolving cases of community life in the 1680s that brought puritan highly respected in the community. the puritans played an important and vital role in shaping America's values. They directly contributed to many American beliefs about morality. The women have not had ample opportunity in every decision-making in the city council and they also have much to contribute in decision-making in church. work.ehow. They give birth to new generations to continue living in the surrounding Maryland. As a public figure puritan. Virginia and Massachusetts. The law in Massachusetts decided that at every school supported by sufficient funding for operational costs of public tax revenues. of course. Rules and preaching in a church . By being a part of the founding of the original colonies.26 The puritan's beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Puritans wanted their children to be able to read the Bible. and community. Perceptions of the purists at the time was that the marine life and coastal or bay of Massachusetts is more dominated by men. Puritanical society expects of a better life and longer than ever before in New England. patriotism. marriage and adultery can still be seen in America today. Puritan society has many public figures. (http://www.

Severe penalties are given as they are distorted or not carry out God's command. Sermon at the church used to solve community problems. Made famous by author Nathaniel Hawthorne in his book of the same name. The existence of the church as God's house. Those who regularly attend church events in her contribution to the funding requested. At . silence. to calm children when they speak out noise in the church because the church is a sacred place and away from business activities. Puritanical society has very strict rules. Puritans believed that the people who were in the church is doing God's work. fear. This list reflects the puritan views on women quite cleary. the Scarlet Letter was a real form of punishment in Puritan society.27 dominated by men. It was believed that the who were the resource persons pregnant women with a male child had a rosy complexion and that women carrying a female child pale were the resource persons. comfort. while maintaining public worship. Adulterers might have been forced to wear a scarlet "A" if they were lucky. Men and women are given a punishment for actions that damage morale. There are also some cases that resulted in people sentenced to hang. Names of women found in census reports of the Massachusetts Bay include patience. there will be penalties for violating the rules of the church. Therefore. prudence. Children can be given punishment simply because it condemns his parents. hopestill. and be fruitful. The church was guarded by security guards to safeguard the assets of the church.

But you were washed". The sixth commandment (seventh in some traditions) ("Thou shalt not commit adultery") is also a basis. it still acknowledges adultery to be immoral and a sin. People sang and told stories. but see also Biblical law in Christianity. Adultery is considered by many Christians to be immoral and a sin. Jefferson ( 1966:15 ) writes that contrary to myth. The stockade forced the humiliated guilty person to sit in the public square. Jesus taught that indulgence in adulterous thoughts could be just as harmful to the soul as actual adultery. Surely God's punishment is more real than the disciplinary action taken against his fellow man. Puritans did not all dress in black as many believe. Wine and beer drinking were common place. Public whippings were commonplace. Although 1 Corinthians 6:11 does say that "and that is what some of you were. There were celebrations and festivals. Puritanical society actually regretted everything while giving punishment because they believe in the methods of the Old Testament. the Puritans did have fun. while onlookers spat or laughed at them. Children were allowed to play games with their parents' permission. The fundamental rule was to follow God's law. Those that did lived in peace in the Bible Commonwealth. and it is clear that both carry the same weight of guilt: But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman . based primarily on passages like 1 Corinthians 6:9–10.28 least two known adulterers were executed in Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Even in jurisdictions where adultery is not itself a criminal offense. causes her to become an adulteress. except for marital unfaithfulness. if a child is misbehaved spank him. Before . it may still have legal consequences. (Matthew 5:28) and he also says : But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife. 2. it may be a factor to consider in a status of children and the custody of children. particularly in divorce cases. But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.4 The Effects of Punishment Skinner ( 1953:182 ) explains that the commonest technique of control in modern life is punishment. and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery. For example. if the people of a country misbehave.29 lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart. (Matthew 5:28). where there is fault-based family law. The pattern is familiar. knock him down. actors in a adultery can set aside in public life . Some churches have interpreted adultery to include all sexual relationships outside of marriage. it almost always constitutes grounds for divorce. Strater in her journal “Rewards/Punishment Debate and Application” states that punishment is the latest way in controlling human’s behavior. adultery has been considered to be a serious offense by many cultures. bomb them.(Matthew 5:32). if a man does not behave as you wish. Moreover. regardless of the marital status of the participants Historically.

30 choosing a punishment. the longer the delay between the response and the punishment. because in the punishment the individual can understand what he as done before. even though further punishment. A condition of guilt or shame is generated not only by previously punished behavior but by any consistent external for such behavior. the effectiveness of punishment depends greatly on timing punishment delivered immediately after a response is most effective.org ). In other words by giving punishment it hoped that the behavior of an individual can change to a better behavior. The individual may feel guilty in a situation in which he has been punished. it is better to use rewards or reinforcement. with-held. Reinforcement can increase the probability of a response and punishment decrease the probability of a response. shame or a sense of sin . It assumed that the punishment is the effective way in controlling the human behavior. Secondly. the individual who gets punishment usually feel guilt. ( http://documentsearch. Strater ( 2011:1-2 ) also states that “as with reinforcement. it is hope that some change in behavior will be observed in the future. the greater the chance that the punishment will become associated with other intervening events. Skinner ( 1953 : 186-187 ) adds the effect of punishment can be drawn as follows: firstly punishment is generally supposed to have some abiding effect. .

Nurgiyantoro says that the moral of a story is something that is regarded to be conveyed by the author to the readers in literature. it can be called as moral teaching or moral values.31 Strater adds that another unfortunate side effect of punishment is that the individual being punished comes to associate negative emotional responses with the situation and agent of punishment. ‘The cultural values’ refer to such things as the ability to stand suffering. work hard. The goal is the authors want to give a message to the readers. A moral message in literature usually reflects the author’s view about the right thing and that is intended to be conveyed to the readers. 2. In general. attitude and politeness. The moral in literature is a guidance given by the author about anything related to problems in life such as matters of behavior. Wallace (1970 : 8) states that the moral messages existing in the stories can be in the form of cultural moral messages which refer to the cultural concepts found in some of the people’s mind about thing considered valuable in life. . moral is something which the author wants to carry on the message to the readers by the meaning which implied in a work indirectly or by giving the suggested through the story.5 Moral Values In writing a literary work the authors usually have a goal. According to Nurgiyantoro (1995: 30). It can be represented in characters.

self existence. about how to appreciate. Besides. man and himself. psychology is to be treated as a natural science about individual activities. remembering and thinking and ‘emotional activities’ like laughing. and emotion. According to William James (1962: 15). and feeling. 2.32 being optimistic. self confidence. and respect other people and about things which should be or should not be done in the society. There may be messages which are related to ’religious value’ such as belief in God. There may also be messages which are related to ‘psychological problems’ concerning such things as self esteem. man and nature.6 Psychological Analysis To understand the meaning of psychology. crying. Then Wallace (1070: 10-11) adds that the moral messages which may exist in the stories are related the relationship between God and man. It includes not only ‘motor activities’ such as walking and speaking but also ‘cognitive activities’ like hearing. The word ‘activity’ issue here in a very broad sense. man and another man and society. the writer takes the William James’s idea. In line with William James. self concept. it states that the word psychology derives from Greek ‘psyche’ and ‘logos’. there may be some ‘social values’ messages which can be about the ways of how to communicate. Psyche means soul and spirit or mind and . tolerance to other people’s belief or principles and being helpful and so on.

Psychological approaches are also used to describe and make to analyze the reader’s personal responses to variety of the text (www. nature or mind and its process. The author’s ideas about psychology support the coherence and complexity of a literary work. while biographers speculate about a writer’s own motivations. interpret and evaluate literary works.com/literature). mental. the genesis of the work of art are examples of psychological studies towards a writer.33 mentality. Endraswara ( 2008:203 ) adds that psychology comes into literary works through discussion about the characteristic’s personality and discussion about methods and theories of psychology. Critics use psychological approaches to explore the motivations of characters and the symbolic meanings of events. relate literature and reader. the habits of the author in revising and rewriting his draft. . It also comes through any psychological influence on the readers. conscious and unconscious in a literary work. These ideas intensify the extrinsic values of the work and sometimes the truth of psychology makes the characters more alive. Psychology could help improve their sensitivity about reality. sharpen their ability to observe life and give opportunity to problem on the situation of his/her life. while logos means a science or study of human soul. According to Wellek ( 1995:90 ). The psychology of the author.bedfordsmartin. psychology of literature can be used to help a literary critic or a literary researcher to explain. spirit.

He maintained that the vast differences between real and apparent motives are a result of this delineation between two aspects of the soul. Freud in Charles E. and feeling about which a person is unaware but which influence emotions and behaviors. desires. it houses the libido. the theories and practice of Sigmund Freud provide the foundation for psychoanalytic criticism. For Freud. By this is meant to analyze character who has a psychiatric disorder or psychological aspects of analyzing characters. he believed that it was the unconscious mind that plays the largest role in shaping someone’s personality. The irrational. Freud in Bertens (2005: 16) believes that every individual has a conscious and unconscious mind. an unconscious part of the psyche Freud calls the id. Moreover. This model divides the psyche into three parts : The id. those impulses. In addition. unknown . The ego. Bressler (1999: 149-153). Its use can be seen from various research practices Martial Arts in narrative analysis. the id wishes only to fulfill the urges of the pleasure principle. psychoanalysis as a method consideration.34 So it can be concluded that the basis of psychological approach is the idea of existence of a human unconscious. our darkest wishes. the source of all our psychosexual desires and all our psychic energy. and our most intense fears. the tripartite model . The most famous model of the human psyche Freud’s later version topographic model. and the superego. Containing our secret desire. the unresolved conflicts that give . Adi (2011: 185) in the context of the research literature or popular fiction. instinctual.

and do not want to know the reality. reproductive instinct basic energy provider for constructive activities. including the instinct. Also called life instinct (Eros) b.35 rise to any neurosis are the stuff of literature. immoral. Reflex actions are in born and automatic . These are ‘reflex action’ and ‘primary processes’. the Id has at its command two process. Id. Id is a character that consists of two parts: a. and Superego. destructive and aggressive instincts In order to accomplish its aim of avoiding pain and obtaining pleasure. Thanatos. Accordingly. A work of literature. the literary work must be treated like a dream. Libido. Freud called the Id the ‘true physic reality’ because it represents the inner world of subjective experience and has no knowledge of objective reality. The Id consists of everything psychological that is inherited and that is present as birth. he believes. applying psychoanalytic techniques to the text to uncover hidden motivations and repressed desires. Are selfish. The Id The Id is the original of the personality. is the external expression of the author’s unconscious mind. 1. which is part of the personality that drives storing human biological instinct that moves the center based on the principle of pleasure and tended to their needs. the Ego. Freud in Sosiawan (2010: 1) devides the personality is made up of three major systems: the Id.

the ego has to try to integrate the often conflicting demands of the id. the hungry person has to seek’ find and eat food before the tension hunger can be eliminated. For example. and the external world. a new or secondary psychological process develops. a hungry person who sees a picture of food. Related to the example in the Id. The basic distinction between the Id and the ego is that the former knows only the subjective reality of the mind where as the later distinguishes between things in the mind and things in the external world. The Ego The ego comes into existence because the needs of the organism require appropriate transactions with the objective world of reality. The primary process involves a somewhat more complicated psychological reaction. 2. It attempts to discharge tension by forming an image of an object that will remove the tension. In performing this highly important executive functions. he wish that he can eat the food. . The ego is said to be the executive of the personality because it controls the gateways to action. and decides what instinct will be satisfied and in what manner. the super ego. Consequently. selects the features of the environment to which it will respond.36 reactions like sneezing and blinking. and when this occurs the structures of the second system of the personality the ego begin to take forms. but the hungry person cannot eat mental images of food.

37 Ego. The ego is the mediator between the desire . so that it can act in accordance with the moral standards authorized by the agents of society. Super-ego is a description of social norms or rules of society and culture. . Ego causes humans to beat desire and live in a rational and realistic. Humans do something as a result of the learning process of change in behavior due to the influence of the environment. Super ego forces ego to suppress the desire subconscious. Its main concern is to decide whether something is right or wrong. It represents the ideal rather than the real and it strives for perfection rather than pleasure. Skinner in Sosiawan ( 2010:2 ) states that humans according to the theory of behaviourism is homo mechanicus whose behavior is driven and influenced by the environment. Humans in this theory are considered as a white paper at birth. To give the vision that something is true or wrong the individual should be enforced by means of rewards and punishment. serves to mediate the demands of the id with the reality on the ground. In the development that causes a change is experience.the desire by the rational and realistic. 3. The Super Ego The super ego is the moral arm of personality.

since all data sources are taken from libraries. while the object of the research is the impact of capital punishment in the life of the main character as reflected in . It is an important part of analyzing. He adds that the corrected of knowledge is by using the research method. The primary source is the novel The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne . they are primary source and secondary source. type of the study. and it also becomes the subject of the research in relation to the topic. a process or a procedure as a way of collecting data and then analyzing it. These three items are explained one by one in the following parts. data collecting method and data analysis technique. The result of the research is determined by the method that is used. 3. It consists of 209 pages and 24 chapters.38 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology is a strategy. The research has two sources. to develop or to verify. In this chapter the researcher would only take three items to be discussed related to the research method. to find. According to Hadi (2000: 9-10) methodology is a science discussing the ways or strategies to be employed in the effort to collect.1 Type of the study This study is categorized into a library research.

Here. observation is reading the books carefully and critically and finding the feature of the main characters and characterization. the documentation method used some books/papers that consist of dialogues needed and some sources that can give some inputs to the research. While.F. 3. Then. the impact of adultery punishment that influence the main character perception about what he has done in the past year. 3. The result of observation is written and filtered to find the psychological feature of the main character. . Hester Prynne . The writer analyzed the main character of the scarlet letter. The secondary sources are some books in the library and internet sources. they are described with the descriptive qualitative method under psychological research stated by Sigmund Freud and B.39 the novel.2 Data collecting technique The method to collect the data above is observation and documentation. Those methods are used to describe the impacts of adultery punishment in the life of the main character as reflected in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Skinner. they are analyzed through an in depth text analysis.3 Data analyzing technique After the data collected.

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