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1 Sugarcane and Sugar Industry and Renewable Energy Production ----------------------------Thailands Sugarcane and Sugar Production In the past

20 years, Thailands sugarcane and sugar industry has been grown continually and the country now has become one of the worlds largest sugar exporters. The industry is one of the countrys key industrial sectors, which play an important role in the countrys economic and social development. This industry can generate revenue to the local economy for more than 50,000 million baht annually from exports and domestic sales of sugar. It, also, creates employment and income for more than 1,000,000 sugarcane farmers and people in related sectors. However, Thailands sugarcane and sugar production during the past 3 years has decreased continually as the country has experienced unfavorable weather conditions and sugarcane growers have switched to other crops such as cassava, palm oil and rubber trees plantation, which offer more income. It is estimated that sugarcane production in 2005/2006 (November/October) will decrease to 43 million tons, 42% down from 74.07 million tons in 2002/2003, and that sugar output will reach 4.3 million tons, a 40% decrease from 7.28 million tons in 2002/2003. If this problem could not be solved, the revenue of the countrys sugarcane and sugar industry will consequently be affected. Sugarcane and Sugar Industry and Renewable Energy Production Due to increased consumption and rising price of oil, Thailand therefore needs to import energy in higher quantity and value. This has not only resulted in the countrys trade deficit and energy insecurity, but also has consequently affected the Thai economy as a whole. One alternative way to lessen dependence on oil import and foreign exchange loss is to find other sources of energy from the countrys abundance of agricultural crops, which can be used for production of renewable energy, i.e. rice, corn, cassava, palm oil and sugarcane. Absolutely, everything from sugarcane is used i.e bagasse, syrup, filtered cake and trashes from the harvest. Bagasse and sugarcane leaves can be used as fuels for the electricity generation and sugarcane syrup as well as molasses can be feedstocks for ethanol production. Furthermore, sheath and leaves can be used for fertilizing and for producing ethanol.

Utilization of Sugarcane
Zero waste Sugar
Lactic acid, bioplastic processed food, animal feeds medical and cosmetic productss Acetic acid, whisky, ethyl acetate acid, gasohol, biochemical products

Cane juice

Molasses
Alcohol

Filtered cake
Fertilizer Electricity

Bagasse Leaves

Alcohol Particle board, paper Fertilizer

According to the International Sugar Organization (ISO) Report on World Sugar and Renewable Energy: New Drivers and Their Impacts (March 17, 2004), sugarcane is highly efficient converter of solar energy, and has the highest energy-to-volume ratio among energy crops. Indeed, it gives the highest annual yield of biomass of all species. Roughly, 1 ton of sugarcane biomass-based on bagasse, foilage and ethanol output has an energy content equivalent to one barrel of crude oil. Ethanol production from sugarcane is in line with gasohol promotion policy of the Thai government, which aims to increase domestic ethanol demand at 1 million litres per day by 2006 and 3 million litres per day by 2011. To promote sugar factories to implement co-production of both sugar and ethanol does not only create value-added and increase more revenue for the sugarcane and sugar industry, but it also gives the industry flexibility in sugar production. Whenever, sugar price increases and offer higher revenue than ethanol, more sugarcane should be put into sugar, and whenever sugar yields less revenue than ethanol, more sugarcane should be used as raw materials for ethanol production.

3 Ethanol yield from sugarcane and other energy crops One litre ethanol can be produced from 14.3 Kilograms of sugarcane, or 3.85 Kilograms of molasses 6 Kilograms of cassava 14.3 Kilograms of sweet sorghum To produce renewable energy from sugarcane helps conserve the environment. Moreover, from it, many kinds of high value-added products can be produced; sugar and various types of alcohol can be made; beverages, such as sugarcane spirits and rum can be manufactured; several biochemical products can be made from ethanol. In conclusion, value creation from sugarcane and sugar will not only bear benefits to sugarcane farmers and other stakeholders in the sugarcane and sugar industry, but also will support Thailands economic and social development as a whole.

Sugarcane: Energy, Sugar and CO2 Uptake


-----------CO2 Leaves + Bagasse CO2 Fuel & Cogeneration

Photosynthesis E E E Neat Ethanol or Blends Ethanol Electric Energy

Sugar Cane CO2

Sugar

Source: ADS / Canaplan

Cane and Sugar Industry Policy Bureau Office of the Cane and Sugar Board 8 March 2006