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ETE-424/CSE-492: Mobile & Wireless Communications System

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
North South University
Summer 2011
Instructor: Miftahur Rahman, Ph.D.

Brief History of Mobile Phones:
The first commercial cellular network (the 1G) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979.
In 1981, Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system was lunched in Denmark, Finland,
Norway and Sweden. The first international roaming was introduced by NMT. The first
1G network launched in the USA was Chicago-based Ameritech in 1983 using the
Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone.
The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular
technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on
the GSM standard, which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms
when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who
ran a 1G NMT network.
In 2001, the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by
NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony
communications protocol in the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, also coined
3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
Common Features:
The common components found on all phones are:
- A rechargeable battery such as nickel metal-hydride, Lithium ion, lithium–
polymer batteries. There are a variety of ways used to charge cell phones,
including USB, portable batteries, mains power (using an AC adapter), cigarette
lighters (using an adapter), or a dynamo, wireless etc.
- The most commonly used input devices are keypads, but touch screens are also
found in some high-end smartphones.
- All GSM phones use a SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module) and CDMA
devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM (Removable User Identity
Module). A hybrid mobile phone can take more than one SIM card, even of
different types. The SIM and RUIM cards can be mixed together, and some
phones also support three or four SIMs. Those cell phones that do not use a SIM
Card have the data programmed into their memory. This data is accessed by using
a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number
programming menu.
- Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely
identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.

Table-1: Mobile Generations and Related Standards
Generation Family type Standard
AMPS Family (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553), N-
AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91), TACS, ETACS
1G
Other Hicap, Mobitex, DataTAC
GSM/3GPP Family GSM, CSD
GSM/3GPP2 Family cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/IS-95 and ANSI-J-
STD 008)
AMPS Family D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)
2G
Other D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)
GSM/3GPP Family HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE/EGPRS (UWC-
136)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000), 1X
Advanced
2G
Transitional
(2.5G,
2.75G)
Other WDEN
GSM/3GPP Family UMTS (UTRAN), WCDMA-FDD,
WCDMA-TDD, UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-
SCDMA)
3G (IMT-
2000)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Release 0
(TIA/IS-856)
GSM/3GPP Family HSPA, HSPA+, LTE (E-UTRA)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A
(TIA/EIA/IS-856-A), EV-DO Revision B
(TIA/EIA/IS-856-B), DO Advanced
3G
transitional
(3.5G,
3.75G,
3.9G)
IEEE Family Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005),
Flash-OFDM, IEEE 802.20
3GPP Family LTE Advanced (E-UTRA) 4G (IMT-
Advanced) IEEE Family WiMAX-Advanced (IEEE 802.16m)
5G Research concept, not
under formal development

TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association
EIA: Electronic Industry Alliance

Future evolution: Broadband Fourth generation (4G):
The 4th generation, also known as Beyond 3G, aims to provide broadband wireless access
with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices, and 1 Gbit/s to stationary
devices defined by the ITU-R 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term
Evolution) cellular standard, offering peak bit rates of 326.4 Mbit/s. It may perhaps also
be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies
that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile
users. The radio interface in these systems is based on all-IP packet switching, MIMO
diversity, multi-carrier modulation schemes, Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) and
channel-dependent scheduling. A 4G system should be a complete replacement for
current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and
secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a
"Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at much higher data rates than previous generations.
Sprint in the US has claimed its WiMax network to be "4G network" which most cellular
telecoms standardization experts dispute repeatedly around the world. Sprint's 4G is seen
as a marketing gimmick as WiMax itself is part of the 3G air interface. The officially
accepted, ITU ratified standards-based 4G networks are not expected to be commercially
launched until 2011. In March 2011, KT (telecommunication company) from South
Korea announced that they has expanded its high-speed wireless broadband network by
4G WiBro cover 85 percent of the population. It is the largest broadband network
covered in the world, followed by Japan and US with 70 percent and 36 percent
respectively. At the beginning of 2011, some major mobile phone companies have
released their 4G mobile phones such as from Motorola, HTC and Samsung.

Latest Mobile Phone Devices: i-phone, Android Smartphone, Nokia X6 and Nokia
N79 (Both of these are Symbian Series 60 devices and have accelerometers. Python for
Series 60 can be used to quickly build prototypes of mobile applications for the Symbian
platform.)
Market Share: Gartner (New Sales)
Brand Percent
Nokia 2009 36.4%
Nokia 2010 28.9%
Samsung 2009 19.5%
Samsung 2010 17.6%
LG Electronics 2009 10.1%
LG Electronics 2010 7.1%
Research In Motion 2009 2.8%
Research In Motion 2010 3.0%
Apple 2009 2.1%
Apple 2010 2.9%
Others-1 2009 12.6%
Others-1 2010 9.8%
Others-2 2009 16.5%
Others-2 2010 30.6%
Note: Others-1 consist of Sony Ericsson, Motorola, ZTE, HTC and Huawei.


During 1950s and 1960s AT&T Bell Labs and other
telecom companies throughout the world developed
the theory and techniques of cellular radiotelephony
the concept of breaking a coverage zone (market)
into small cells.

In 1983, the Federal Communications Commission,
Inc., allocated 666 duplex channels (40 MHz of
spectrum in the 800 MHz band, each channel having
a one-way bandwidth of 30 kHz for a total spectrum
occupancy of 60 kHz for each duplex channel for the
US AMPS.

Channel Allocation in US AMPS:
Reverse Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9


824-849 MHz


1 ≤ N ≤ 799, 0.030N + 825.0
991 ≤ N ≤ 1023, 0.030(N-1023) + 825.0

N = 991, 0.030(991 -1023) + 825 = 824.04 MHz
N = 992, 0.030(992 -1023) + 825 = 824.07 MHz
N = 993, 0.030(993 -1023) + 825 = 824.10 MHz
.
.
.
N = 1023, 0.030(1023 -1023) + 825 = 825 MHz

N = 1, 0.030(1) + 825 = 825.03 MHz
N = 2, 0.030(2) + 825 = 825.06 MHz
.
.
.
N = 799, 0.030(799) + 825 = 848.97 MHz




Forward Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9


869-894 MHz


1 ≤ N ≤ 799, 0.030N + 870.0
991 ≤ N ≤ 1023, 0.030(N-1023) + 870.0

N = 991, 0.030(991 -1023) + 870 = 869.04 MHz
N = 992, 0.030(992 -1023) + 870 = 869.07 MHz
N = 993, 0.030(993 -1023) + 870 = 869.10 MHz
.
.
.
N = 1023, 0.030(1023 -1023) + 870 = 870.0 MHz

N = 1, 0.030(1) + 870 = 870.03 MHz
N = 2, 0.030(2) + 870 = 870.06 MHz
.
.
.
N = 799, 0.030(799) + 870 = 893.97 MHz

(Please make a note that channels 800-990 are
unused.)

Reverse Channel

9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9

8
2
4
.
0
4

M
H
z

8
2
4
.
0
7

M
H
z



.
.

8
2
5

M
H
z

8
2
5
.
0
3

M
H
z

8
2
5
.
0
6

M
H
z



.

8
4
8
.
9
7

M
H
z


Forward Channel

9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9

8
6
9
.
0
4

M
H
z

8
6
9
.
0
7

M
H
z



.
.

8
7
0

M
H
z

8
7
0
.
0
3

M
H
z

8
7
0
.
0
6

M
H
z



.

8
9
3
.
9
7

M
H
z
















P-3.27: The US AMPS system is allowed 50
MHz of spectrum in the 800 MHz range and
provides 832 channels. Forty-two of those
channels are control channels. The forward
channel frequency is exactly 45 MHz greater
than the reverse channel frequency.
(a) Is the AMPS system simplex, half-duplex, or
duplex? What is the bandwidth for each channel
and how is it distributed between the base
station and the subscriber?
(b) Assume a base station transmits control
information on channel 352, operating at
880.560 MHz. What is the transmission
frequency of a subscriber unit transmitting on
channel 352?
(c) The A-side and B-side cellular carriers evenly
split the AMPS channels. Find the number of
voice channels and number of control channels
for each carrier.

Answer:
(a) AMPS is a full-duplex system.
Reverse Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9


824-849 MHz
25 MHz

1 ≤ N ≤ 799 = 799
991 ≤ N ≤ 1023 = 33

Forward Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2



.

1
0
2
3

1

2




7
9
9


869-894 MHz
25 MHz

1 ≤ N ≤ 799 = 799
991 ≤ N ≤ 1023 = 33
Duplex bandwidth of each channel
= kHz
832
Hz
096 . 60
10 x 50
6
=
30 kHz for forward channel (from BS to mobile)
30 kHz for reverse channel (from mobile to BS)
(b) Control information on channel 352,
operating at the forward channel at F
f
= 880.560
MHz. The corresponding reverse channel is:

F
r
= 0.030 N + 825.0 = 0.03 (352) + 852.0 =
835.56 MHz

Alternatively, it can be calculated directly as
follows:
F
r
= F
f
-45 = 880.560 – 45 = 835.560 MHz
(c) Total voice channels = 832 – 42 = 790
channels
395 voice channels in each A and B
21 control channels in each A and B

In late 1991, the first US Digital Cellular (USDC)
system hardware was installed.

Capacity of USDC is three times that of AMPS.
USDC employs digital modulation, speech
coding, and time division multiple access
(TDMA).

CDMA by Qualcomm, Inc., standardized by
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
as an Interim Standard (IS-95).

CDMA supports a variable number of users in
1.25 MHz wide channel using direct sequence
spread spectrum.

AMPS requires signal by at least 18 dB above
co-channel interference.

CDMA can operate at much higher interference
level or much lower SNR.

Nextel and Motorola formed an extended
specialized Mobile Radio Service (E-SMR)
network in the 800 MHz band.

1995, Motorola replaced Motorola’s Integrated
Radio System (MIRS) with the Integrated Digital
Enhanced Network (iDen).

Table 1.1 Major Mobile Radio Standards in North America
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
AMPS Cellular 1983 FDMA 824-894
MHz
FM 30 kHz
NAMPS Cellular 1992 FDMA 824-894
MHz
FM 10 kHz
USDC Cellular 1991 TDMA 824-894
MHz
Π/4-DQPSK 30 kHz
CDPD Cellular 1993 FH/Packet 824-894
MHz
GMSK 30 kHz
IS-95 Cellular/PCS 1993 CDMA 824-894
MHz
1.8-2.0
GHz
QPSK/BPSK 1.25 MHz
Table 1.2 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Europe
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
ETACS Cellular 1985 FDMA 900 MHz FM 25 kHz
NMT-450 Cellular 1981 FDMA 450-470
MHz
FM 25 kHz
NMT-900 Cellular 1986 FDMA 890-960
MHz
FM 12.5 kHz
GSM Cellular/PCS 1990 TDMA 890-960
MHz
GMSK 200 kHz
C-450 Cellular 1985 FDMA 450-465
MHz
FM 20 kHz/10
kHz

Table 1.3 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Japan
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
JTACS Cellular 1988 FDMA 860-925
MHz
FM 25 kHz
PDC Cellular 1993 TDMA 810-1501
MHz
Π/4-DQPSK 25 kHz
NTT Cellular 1979 FDMA 400/800
MHz
FM 25 kHz
NTACS Cellular 1993 FDMA 843-925
MHz
FM 12.5 kHz
PHS Cordless 1993 TDMA 1895-1907
MHz
Π/4-DQPSK 300 kHz

First Generation (1G) Cellular Networks:

NMT-450: Nordic Mobile Telephone
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System
NTACS, TACS: Narrowband Total Access
Communication System

1G networks (NMT, AMPS, TACS) are
considered to be the first analog cellular
systems, which started early 1980s.

The world’s first cellular system was
implemented by the Nippon Telephone and
Telegraph company (NTT) in Japan.

The system, deployed in 1979, uses 600 FM
duplex channels (25 kHz for each one-way link)
in the 800 MHz band.

In Europe, the Nordic Mobile Telephone System
(NMT-450) was developed in 1981 for the 450
MHz band and uses 25 kHz channels.

In 1985 European Total Access Cellular System
(ETACS) was developed which is identical to US
AMPS system.

In Germany, a Cellular standard GSM (Global
System for Mobile) was introduced in 1990 in a
new 900 MHz band to bring uniformity across
the world.

In Japan, the Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC)
standard provides digital cellular coverage
similar to USDC. 1G analog technologies are:

Second Generation (2G) Cellular Networks:

The most popular second generation standards
include three TDMA standards and one CDMA
standard:

1. Global System Mobile (GSM): supports
eight time slotted users for each 200 kHz
radio channel and has been deployed by
service providers in Europe, Asia, Australia,
South America, and some parts of the US
(in the PCS spectrum band only).

2. Interim Standard 136 (IS-136): also known
as North American Digital Cellular (NADC)
which supports three time slotted users for
each 30 kHz radio channel and is popular
and is popular in North America, South
America, and Australia (in both the cellular
and PCS bands).

3. Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC): A Japanese
TDMA standard that is similar to IS-136 with
more than 50 million users.

4. 2G CDMA standard Interim Standard 95
Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95), also
known as cdmaOne, which supports up to
64 users that are orthogonally coded and
simultaneously transmitted on each 1.25
MHz channel. CDMA is widely deployed by
carriers in North America (in both cellular
and PCS bands), as well as Korea, Japan,
China, South America, and Australia.



Key Specifications of 2G Technologies

CDMAOne, IS-
95, ANSI J-STD-
008
GSM, DCS-1900,
ANSI J-STD-007
NADC, IS-54/IS-
136, ANSI J-
STD-011, PDC
Uplink
Frequencies
824-849 MHz (US
Cellular)
1850-1910 MHz
(US PCS)
890-915 MHz
(Europe)
1850-1910 MHz
(US PCS)
800 MHz, 1500
MHz (Japan)
1850-1910 MHs
(US PCS)
Downlink
Frequencies
869-894 MHz (US
Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
935-960 MHz
(Europe)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
869-894 MHz
(US Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
800 MHz, 1500
MHz (Japan)
Duplexing FDD FDD FDD
Multiple Access
Technology
CDMA TDMA TDMA
Modulation BPSK with
quadrature
spreading
GMSK with BT =
0.3
π/4 DQPSK
Carrier separation 1.25 MHz 200 kHz 30 kHz (IS-136)
(25 kHz for PDC)
Channel Data
Rate
1.2288
Mchips/sec
270.833 kbps 48.6 kbps (IS-
136) (42 kbps for
PDC)
Voice channels
per carrier
64 8 3

GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
BT: 3-dB bandwidth-bit duration product for GMSK
DQPSK: Differential Quadrature PSK

2.5G Mobile Radio Networks
2.5G standards with increased capability to support
increased data rates that are required to support
Internet applications, new data-centric standards. The
three TDMA upgrade options include:

1. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
for 2.5 GSM: HSCSD is a circuit switched
technique that allows a single mobile subscriber
to use consecutive user time slots in the GSM
standard.

2. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for 2.5
GSM and IS-136: GPRS is a packet-based data
network, which is well suited for non-real time
Internet usage, including the retrieval or email,
faxes, and asymmetric web browsing, where the
user downloads much more data than it uploads
on the Internet.

3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
(EDGE) for 2.5 GSM and IS-136: EDGE is a
more advanced upgrade to the GSM standard,
and requires the addition of new hardware and
software at existing base stations. EDGE uses 8-
PSK (octal phase shift keying), which is used
additional to GSM’s standard GMSK modulation.

3G Wireless Networks
3G standard support multi-megabit Internet access,
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), voice activated
calls, unparalleled network capacity.

1. 3G W-CDMA (UMTS): Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS): UMTS air
interface standard that has evolved since late
1996 under the European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI). UMTS was submitted
by ETSI to ITU’s IMT-2000 body in 1998 for
consideration as a world standard.

2. 3G CDMA2000: Based on the original IS-95 and
IS-95A (CDMAOne) CDMA standards, as well as
the 2.5G IS-95B air interface, the CDMA2000 3G
standard allows wireless carriers to introduce a
family of new high new data rate Internet access.

3. 3G TD-SCDMA: Time Division Synchronous
CDMA: The China Academy of
Telecommunications Technology (CATT) and
Siemens Corporation jointly submitted an IMT-
2000 3G standard proposal in 1998, based on
Time Division Synchronous Code Division
Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA). This proposal was
adopted by ITU as one of the 3G options in late
1999.

4G Wireless Networks: is mainly a marketing
buzzword at the moment. Some basic 4G research is
being done, but no frequencies have been allocated.
The Forth Generation could be ready for
implementation around 2012.
Multiple Access Techniques
In cellular systems a geographic region is divided into
many small areas called cells. A mobile set in a given cell
communicate with another mobile set in the same cell or in
a different cell through the use of a base station. The
cellular systems are able to accommodate as many calls as
possible and termed as capacity. The following are several
techniques of accessing the channels.
 Frequency division multiple-access (FDMA)
 Time division multiple access (TDMA)
 Wavelength division multiple access (WDMA)
 Code division multiple access (CDMA)
o Frequency-hop CDMA
o Direct-sequence CDMA
o Multi-carrier CDMA (FH or DH)
 Time/frequency multiple-access
 Random access

5.15 Cellular Telephone Systems




5.16 Frequency Reuse
As the Fig. 5-15-1 shows, the same sets of frequencies are
used in all three clusters, which essentially increases the
number of usable cellular channels available threefold. The
letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G denote the seven sets of
frequencies. Thus, the total number of cellular channels
available in a cluster can be expressed mathematically as
F = GN

where F = number of full-duplex cellular channels available
in a cluster
G = number of channels in a cell
N = number of cells in a cluster

When the cluster is duplicated m times within a given
service area, the total number of full-duplex channels can
be expressed mathematically as

C = mGN = mF

where C = total channel capacity in a given area
m = number of clusters in a given area
G = number of channels in a cell
N = number of cells in a cluster

Example-5-15-1: Determine the number of channels
per cluster and the total channel capacity for a cellular
telephone area comprised of 10 clusters with seven
cells in each cluster and 10 channels in each cell.

Solution:

F = (10) (7) = 70 channels per cluster

C = (10) (7) (10) = 700 channels total

The number of users is called the frequency reuse
factor (FRF). The frequency reuse factor is defined
mathematically as

FRF = N/C

where FRF = frequency reuse factor (unitless)
N = total number of full-duplex channels in an area
C = total number of full-duplex channels in a cell



5.18 Interference
The two major kinds of interferences produced within a cellular telephone system
are co-channel interference and adjacent-channel interference.

5.19 Co-channel Interference




5.20 Adjacent Channel Interference



5.21 Handoffs
The transfer of a mobile unit from one base station’s control to another base
station’s control is called a handoff (or handover).

AMPS and ETACS Air Interface: Table 11.1
ETACS: European Total Access Cellular System was developed in 1985 and
is identical to the US AMPS system.

Parameter AMPS ETACS
Multiple Access FDMA FDMA
Duplexing FDD FDD
Channel Bandwidth 30 kHz 25 kHz
Traffic channel per RF
channel
1 1
Reverse channel
frequency
824-849 MHz 890-915 MHz
Forward channel
frequency
869-894 MHz 935-960 MHz
Voice modulation FM FM
Peak deviation: voice
channels control
± 12 kHz
± 8 kHz
± 10 kHz
± 6.4 kHz
Channel coding for data BCH (40,28) on FC BCH (40,36) on FC
Transmission BCH (48,36) on RC BCH (48,36) on RC
Data rate on control 10 kbps 8 kbps
Spectral efficiency 0.33 bps/Hz 0.33 bps/Hz
Number of channels 832 1000

Type Analog Digital TDMA CDMA FDMA
GSM x x
AMPS x x
ETACS x x
IS-95 x x
IS-136 x x
DECT x x
JTACS x x
PDC x x
NMT-450 x x
NAMPS x x

Block code is referred to an an (n,k) code

BCH: Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes
BCH (n,k), (n,k) = (2
m
-1, 2
m
-1-m)

In a block encoder k information bits are encoded into n code bits.

Examples of block codes: Hamming codes, Hadamard codes, Golay codes,
Cyclic codes, BCH codes, Reed-Solomon Codes etc.

Voice modulation and demodulation of AMPS

The Manchester code is applied to both control channel and voice channel
blank-and-burst transmission in AMPS and ETACS. The Manchester coded
wideband data stream is filtered and channel coded using BCH block codes.
The (40,28) BCH codes for forward voice channel blank-and-burst
transmissions and are able to correct 5 errors whereas (48,36) BCH codes
are used on the reverse voice channel blank-and-burst transmission. The
encoded data are used to modulate the transmitter carrier using direct
frequency-shift keying. Binary ones correspond to a frequency deviation of
+8 kHz and binary zeros correspond to a deviation of -8 kHz (± 6.4 kHz for
ETACS).




USDC (IS-54 and IS-136)
Table 11.2 USDC Radio Interface Specifications
Parameter USDC IS-54
Multiple Access TDMA/FDD
Modulation л/4 DQPSK: Differential quadrature
PSK
Channel bandwidth 30 kHz
Reverse channel 824-849 MHz
Forward channel 869-894 MHz
Data rate 48.6 kbps
Spectrum efficiency 1.62 bps/Hz
Channel coding 7 bit CRC and rate ½ convolutional
coding



TDMA Frame Structure for USDC
Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3 Slot-4 Slot-5 Slot-6
One frame = 1944 bits (972 symbols) = 40 ms; 25 frames/sec










G R data sync data SACCH CDVCC Data
6 6 16 28 122 12 12 122
Mobile to BS

sync SACCH data CDVCC data Reserved
28 12 130 12 130 12
BS to Mobile

CDVCC: Coded Digital Verification Color Code
SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel
Speech Coding in USDC- The USDC speech coder is called the Vector Sum
Excited Linear Predictive Coder (VSELP). The VSELP algorithm uses a
code book that has a predefined structure.

Global System for Mobile (GSM)
GSM uses FDD and a combination of TDMA and FHMA schemes to
provide multiple access to mobile users.

The available forward and reverse frequency bands are divided into 200 kHz
wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
Numbers). The channel data rate of 270.833 kbps (1625.0/6.0 kbps) using
binary BT = 0.3 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation.

The signaling bit = 1/270.833 = 3.692 µs
Effective channel transmission rate per user = 270.833 kbps/(8 users) =
33.854 kbps

Taking the overhead into consideration, GSM data rate = 24.7 kbps

576.92
µs
(156.256
bits)

TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7

4.615 ms

26 TDMA frames make one speech Multiframe

Table 11.3 GSM Air Interface
Parameter Specifications
Reverse Channel 890-915 MHz
Forward Channel 935-960 MHz
ARFCN Number 0 to 124 & 975 to 1023
Tx/Rx Frequency Spacing 45 MHz
Data Rates 270.833333 kbps
Frame Period 4.615 ms
User per frame 8
Time slot period 576.9 µs
Bit period 3.692 µs
Modulation 0.3 GMSK
ARFCN Channel Spacing 200 kHz
Interleaving (max. delay) 40 ms
Voice Coder Bit Rate 13.4 kbps

GSM Frame Structure
Superframe has 51 multiframes
6.12 s


Multiframe has 26 frames
120 ms


Frame has 8 time slots
4.615 ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
One time slot has 156.25 bits
576.92 µs
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
Tail
bit
Coded
data
Stealing
flag
Midamble Stealing
flag
Coded
data
Tail bit Guard
period

Signal Processing in GSM
Speech Coding – GSM Speech Coder is based on the Residually Excited
Linear Predictive Coder (RELP), which is enhanced by including a Long-
Term Predictor (LTP).

Channel Coding for Control Channels – GSM control channel messages
are defined to be 184 bits long, and are coded using a shortened binary
cyclic fire code, followed by a half rate convolution codes.

The fire code uses the generator polynomial

G
5
(x) = (x
23
+ 1) (x
17
+ x
3
+ 1) = x
40
+ x
26
+ x
23
+ x
17
+ x
3
+ 1
which produces 184 message bits, followed by 40 parity bits. Four tail bits
are added to clear the convolutional coder which follows, yielding a 228 bit
data block. This block is applied to a half-rate K = 5 convolutional code
(CC(2,1,5)) using the generator polynomials G
0
(x) = 1 + x
3
+ x
4
and G
1
(x) =
1 + x + x
3
+ x
4
. The resulting 456 encoded bits are interleaved onto eight
consecutive frames in the same manner as TCH speech data.


Amplifier Noise and Its Effect on Detector
Performance:
D
IN OUT IN
IN
OUT IN exc


Noise figure:
OUT
IN
) N / S (
) N / S (
F =
where S and N represent the electrical signal and
noise powers with the source resistor R
D
(T) at a
temperature of 300 K. The gain G of the amplifier
takes into account any mismatch between the load R
D

and the amplifier input impedance.

B GkT
P
1
B kT
) P B GkT (
x
G
1
N
N
x
S
S
F
300
exc
300
exc 300
IN
OUT
OUT
IN
+ =
+
= =

where P
exc
is the excess noise added by the amplifier.
When the amplifier is operated with a real detector
load at temperature T
R
, the effective input noise
becomes

| |B kT ) 1 F ( kT
G
P B GkT
) N (
300 R
exc R
EFF IN
÷ + =
+
=
EFF IN D
IN
OUT
) N ( N
S
) N / S (
+
=
where N
D
is the noise power produced by the detector
noise current.

P. 1.9: Assume a 1 Amp-hour battery is used on a
cellular telephone (often called a cellular subscriber
unit). Also assume that the cellular telephone draws
35 mA in idle mode and 250 mA during a call. How
long would phone work (i.e., what is the battery life)
if the user leaves the phone on continually and has
one 3-minute call every day? Every 6 hours? Every
hour? What is the maximum talk time available on
the cellular phone in this example?

Solution:
(a) 3-minute call everyday
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
3
10 x 35 x 24 (
÷ ÷
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 0354 . 0
24
0125 . 0 83825 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
21 . 28
0354 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(b) 3-minute call every 6 hours
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
4 x 3
10 x 35 x 24 (
÷ ÷
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3x4
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 036791666 . 0
24
05 . 0 833 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
18 . 27
03679 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(c) 3-minute call every hour
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
24 x 3
10 x 35 x 24 (
÷ ÷
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3x24
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 04575 . 0
24
3 . 0 798 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
858 . 21
04575 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(d) Maximum talk time available
Maximum talk time = hours

hour - amp
4
amp 25 . 0
1
=





Noise Figure Calculations for Link Budgets
Noise figure, denoted by F, is defined by:
noiseless were device if device of out Power
e temperatur room at device of out power noise Measured
F =
F = 1, noiseless device
Noise figure, F, is related to the effective noise
temperature, Te, of a device
( )
K) 300 to K (290 e temperatur
ambient the is T ; T 1 - F T
0 0 e
=
A simple passive load (such as a resistor) at room
temperature transfers a noise power of
B kT P
0 n
=
where k is Boltzmann’s constant, and B is the
equivalent bandwidth of the measuring device.
The output of the receiver referred to the input
B kT
T
T
1 B FkT P
0
0
e
0 out
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =




Actual noise power out of the receiver is
stages. cascaded to
due gain receiver overall the is G
B kT
T
T
1 G B FkT G P
sys
0
0
e
sys 0 sys out
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
For a cascaded system, the noise figure of the
overall system is
......
G G
1 - F

G
1 - F
F F
2 1
3
1
2
1 sys
+ + + =
A Mobile Receiver System with Cable Loss
RECEIVER
CABLE
ANTENNA


P. 1.15: Assume that a GSM, an IS-95, and a US
Digital Cellular (USDC, IS-136) base station transmit
the same power over the same distance. What system
will provide the best SNR at a mobile receiver? What
is the SNR improvement over the other two systems?
Assume a perfect receiver with only thermal noise
present in each of the three systems.

Solution:
GSM BW = 200 kHz
IS-95 BW = 1.25 MHz
USDC (IS-136): 30 kHz

Thermal noise power: P
n
= kT
0
B
GSM Thermal noise power:

Example: Consider an AMPS cellular phone with a 30 kHz RF
equivalent bandwidth. The phone is connected to a mobile
antenna with noise figure of the phone, F = 6 dB, the coaxial
cable loss is 3 dB an equivalent loss factor of 2.0.
K 300 T
0
=
Solution:
( )
9dB 8
1 - 4
2.0
G
1 - F
F F
1
2
1 sys
= = + = + =
5 . 0
( )
( )
( )( )( )
m
15 -
23 -
n
sys ant total
e
dB 119.5 - W 10 x 1.1
Hz 30,000 K 300 10 x 1.38
300
2390
1 P
K 2100 290 T T T
K 2100 300 1 - 8 T
= =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ = + =
= =
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (200,000 Hz)
= 8.28 x 10
-16
Watts

IS-95:
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (1.25 x 10
6
Hz)
= 5.17 x 10
-15
Watts

USDC (IS-136):
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (30,000 Hz)
= 1.24 x 10
-16
Watts

Since all transmitting powers are assumed to be
same, SNR is least for the highest noise power.

Therefore,
Best SNR is with USDC
2
nd
best is GSM
3
rd
is IS-95

a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.

Table-1: Mobile Generations and Related Standards Generation 1G 2G Family type AMPS Family Other GSM/3GPP Family GSM/3GPP2 Family AMPS Family Other GSM/3GPP Family GSM/3GPP2 Family Other GSM/3GPP Family GSM/3GPP2 Family 3G transitional (3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G) 4G (IMTAdvanced) 5G GSM/3GPP Family GSM/3GPP2 Family IEEE Family 3GPP Family IEEE Family Research concept, not under formal development Standard (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553), NAMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91), TACS, ETACS Hicap, Mobitex, DataTAC GSM, CSD cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/IS-95 and ANSI-JSTD 008) D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136) D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136) HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE/EGPRS (UWC136) CDMA2000 1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000), 1X Advanced WDEN UMTS (UTRAN), WCDMA-FDD, WCDMA-TDD, UTRA-TDD LCR (TDSCDMA) CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Release 0 (TIA/IS-856) HSPA, HSPA+, LTE (E-UTRA) CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A (TIA/EIA/IS-856-A), EV-DO Revision B (TIA/EIA/IS-856-B), DO Advanced Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005), Flash-OFDM, IEEE 802.20 LTE Advanced (E-UTRA) WiMAX-Advanced (IEEE 802.16m)

2G Transitional (2.5G, 2.75G) 3G (IMT2000)

TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association EIA: Electronic Industry Alliance

Future evolution: Broadband Fourth generation (4G):
The 4th generation, also known as Beyond 3G, aims to provide broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices, and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices defined by the ITU-R 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) cellular standard, offering peak bit rates of 326.4 Mbit/s. It may perhaps also be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile users. The radio interface in these systems is based on all-IP packet switching, MIMO diversity, multi-carrier modulation schemes, Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) and channel-dependent scheduling. A 4G system should be a complete replacement for current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at much higher data rates than previous generations. Sprint in the US has claimed its WiMax network to be "4G network" which most cellular telecoms standardization experts dispute repeatedly around the world. Sprint's 4G is seen as a marketing gimmick as WiMax itself is part of the 3G air interface. The officially accepted, ITU ratified standards-based 4G networks are not expected to be commercially launched until 2011. In March 2011, KT (telecommunication company) from South Korea announced that they has expanded its high-speed wireless broadband network by 4G WiBro cover 85 percent of the population. It is the largest broadband network covered in the world, followed by Japan and US with 70 percent and 36 percent respectively. At the beginning of 2011, some major mobile phone companies have released their 4G mobile phones such as from Motorola, HTC and Samsung. Latest Mobile Phone Devices: i-phone, Android Smartphone, Nokia X6 and Nokia
N79 (Both of these are Symbian Series 60 devices and have accelerometers. Python for Series 60 can be used to quickly build prototypes of mobile applications for the Symbian platform.)

Market Share: Gartner (New Sales) Brand Nokia 2009 Nokia 2010 Samsung 2009 Samsung 2010 LG Electronics 2009 LG Electronics 2010 Research In Motion 2009 Research In Motion 2010 Apple 2009 Apple 2010 Others-1 2009 Others-1 2010 Others-2 2009 Others-2 2010

Percent 36.4% 28.9% 19.5% 17.6% 10.1% 7.1% 2.8% 3.0% 2.1% 2.9% 12.6% 9.8% 16.5% 30.6%

allocated 666 duplex channels (40 MHz of spectrum in the 800 MHz band. ZTE. each channel having a one-way bandwidth of 30 kHz for a total spectrum occupancy of 60 kHz for each duplex channel for the US AMPS. Inc. the Federal Communications Commission.Note: Others-1 consist of Sony Ericsson. HTC and Huawei. . In 1983. During 1950s and 1960s AT&T Bell Labs and other telecom companies throughout the world developed the theory and techniques of cellular radiotelephony the concept of breaking a coverage zone (market) into small cells. Motorola..

030N + 825.030(1023 -1023) + 825 = 825 MHz N = 1. 1023 …… 991 992 799 1 2 824-849 MHz 1 ≤ N ≤ 799. 0. .97 MHz .030(799) + 825 = 848. .03 MHz N = 2. 0.030(993 -1023) + 825 = 824.030(2) + 825 = 825. 0.0 N = 991.030(992 -1023) + 825 = 824. . 0. .Channel Allocation in US AMPS: Reverse Channel …….04 MHz N = 992.06 MHz .030(991 -1023) + 825 = 824.030(1) + 825 = 825.030(N-1023) + 825.10 MHz .07 MHz N = 993.0 991 ≤ N ≤ 1023. N = 799. N = 1023. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.

97 MHz . 0. 0. 0.0 991 ≤ N ≤ 1023. 1023 …… 991 992 799 1 2 869-894 MHz 1 ≤ N ≤ 799.030N + 870.10 MHz . N = 799. 0.06 MHz . 0. .030(N-1023) + 870.07 MHz N = 993. 0.030(991 -1023) + 870 = 869.030(992 -1023) + 870 = 869. . N = 1023. 0. . .0 MHz N = 1.04 MHz N = 992.03 MHz N = 2.030(799) + 870 = 893. 0.030(2) + 870 = 870.030(1) + 870 = 870.030(1023 -1023) + 870 = 870.Forward Channel …….0 N = 991. 0.030(993 -1023) + 870 = 869.

03 MHz 825.97 MHz …… 799 (Please make a note that channels 800-990 are unused.07 MHz 1023 1 2 …… 799 Reverse Channel Forward Channel 870 MHz 870..97 MHz 825 MHz 825.) .04 MHz 869.06 MHz ……..06 MHz …….03 MHz 870. 991 992 …….07 MHz ……. ……. 893. 824.991 992 ……. 848.04 MHz 824. 1023 1 2 869.

half-duplex.P-3. Forty-two of those channels are control channels. or duplex? What is the bandwidth for each channel and how is it distributed between the base station and the subscriber? (b) Assume a base station transmits control information on channel 352. Find the number of voice channels and number of control channels for each carrier. operating at 880. 1023 …… 991 992 799 1 2 . Reverse Channel …….560 MHz. What is the transmission frequency of a subscriber unit transmitting on channel 352? (c) The A-side and B-side cellular carriers evenly split the AMPS channels. (a) Is the AMPS system simplex. Answer: (a) AMPS is a full-duplex system.27: The US AMPS system is allowed 50 MHz of spectrum in the 800 MHz range and provides 832 channels. The forward channel frequency is exactly 45 MHz greater than the reverse channel frequency.

1023 …… 991 992 799 1 2 869-894 MHz 25 MHz 1 ≤ N ≤ 799 = 799 991 ≤ N ≤ 1023 = 33 Duplex bandwidth of each channel 50 x106 Hz  60.03 (352) + 852.096 kHz = 832 30 kHz for forward channel (from BS to mobile) 30 kHz for reverse channel (from mobile to BS) (b) Control information on channel 352.0 = 835. operating at the forward channel at Ff = 880.030 N + 825.824-849 MHz 25 MHz 1 ≤ N ≤ 799 = 799 991 ≤ N ≤ 1023 = 33 Forward Channel ……. The corresponding reverse channel is: Fr = 0.560 MHz.0 = 0.56 MHz .

Inc. the first US Digital Cellular (USDC) system hardware was installed. CDMA by Qualcomm.560 MHz (c) Total voice channels = 832 – 42 = 790 channels 395 voice channels in each A and B 21 control channels in each A and B In late 1991. standardized by Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) as an Interim Standard (IS-95).560 – 45 = 835. and time division multiple access (TDMA).25 MHz wide channel using direct sequence spread spectrum. it can be calculated directly as follows: Fr = Ff -45 = 880. AMPS requires signal by at least 18 dB above co-channel interference.Alternatively. USDC employs digital modulation. . CDMA supports a variable number of users in 1.. speech coding. Capacity of USDC is three times that of AMPS.

Nextel and Motorola formed an extended specialized Mobile Radio Service (E-SMR) network in the 800 MHz band.2 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Europe Type Standard ETACS Cellular NMT-450 Cellular NMT-900 GSM C-450 Cellular Cellular/PCS Cellular Year Multiple Access 1985 FDMA 1981 FDMA 1986 FDMA 1990 TDMA 1985 FDMA Frequency Band 900 MHz 450-470 MHz 890-960 MHz 890-960 MHz 450-465 MHz Modulation FM FM FM GMSK FM Channel Bandwidth 25 kHz 25 kHz 12.8-2. Table 1.5 kHz 200 kHz 20 kHz/10 kHz . 1995.0 GHz Modulation FM FM Π/4-DQPSK GMSK Channel Bandwidth 30 kHz 10 kHz 30 kHz 30 kHz QPSK/BPSK 1.25 MHz Table 1.CDMA can operate at much higher interference level or much lower SNR. Motorola replaced Motorola’s Integrated Radio System (MIRS) with the Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDen).1 Major Mobile Radio Standards in North America Type Year Multiple Frequency Standard Access Band AMPS Cellular 1983 FDMA 824-894 MHz NAMPS Cellular 1992 FDMA 824-894 MHz USDC Cellular 1991 TDMA 824-894 MHz CDPD Cellular 1993 FH/Packet 824-894 MHz IS-95 Cellular/PCS 1993 CDMA 824-894 MHz 1.

TACS) are considered to be the first analog cellular systems.5 kHz 300 kHz First Generation (1G) Cellular Networks: NMT-450: Nordic Mobile Telephone AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System NTACS. which started early 1980s.Table 1. The system. uses 600 FM duplex channels (25 kHz for each one-way link) in the 800 MHz band. . The world’s first cellular system was implemented by the Nippon Telephone and Telegraph company (NTT) in Japan. TACS: Narrowband Total Access Communication System 1G networks (NMT.3 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Japan Type Standard JTACS Cellular PDC NTT NTACS PHS Cellular Cellular Cellular Cordless Year Multiple Access 1988 FDMA 1993 TDMA 1979 FDMA 1993 FDMA 1993 TDMA Frequency Band 860-925 MHz 810-1501 MHz 400/800 MHz 843-925 MHz 1895-1907 MHz Modulation FM Π/4-DQPSK FM FM Π/4-DQPSK Channel Bandwidth 25 kHz 25 kHz 25 kHz 12. AMPS. deployed in 1979.

Global System Mobile (GSM): supports eight time slotted users for each 200 kHz radio channel and has been deployed by service providers in Europe. In 1985 European Total Access Cellular System (ETACS) was developed which is identical to US AMPS system. the Nordic Mobile Telephone System (NMT-450) was developed in 1981 for the 450 MHz band and uses 25 kHz channels. a Cellular standard GSM (Global System for Mobile) was introduced in 1990 in a new 900 MHz band to bring uniformity across the world. Australia. In Japan. . the Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC) standard provides digital cellular coverage similar to USDC. 1G analog technologies are: Second Generation (2G) Cellular Networks: The most popular second generation standards include three TDMA standards and one CDMA standard: 1. In Germany. Asia.In Europe.

China.South America. Interim Standard 136 (IS-136): also known as North American Digital Cellular (NADC) which supports three time slotted users for each 30 kHz radio channel and is popular and is popular in North America. as well as Korea. and Australia. South America. and some parts of the US (in the PCS spectrum band only). and Australia (in both the cellular and PCS bands). Japan. Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC): A Japanese TDMA standard that is similar to IS-136 with more than 50 million users. 2G CDMA standard Interim Standard 95 Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95). CDMA is widely deployed by carriers in North America (in both cellular and PCS bands).25 MHz channel. which supports up to 64 users that are orthogonally coded and simultaneously transmitted on each 1. also known as cdmaOne. 2. South America. . 3. 4.

5G standards with increased capability to support increased data rates that are required to support Internet applications. ANSI J-STD008 824-849 MHz (US Cellular) 1850-1910 MHz (US PCS) 869-894 MHz (US Cellular) 1930-1990 MHz (US PCS) GSM. PDC 890-915 MHz 800 MHz.5G Mobile Radio Networks 2. 1500 MHz (Japan) FDD FDD TDMA TDMA Uplink Frequencies Downlink Frequencies Duplexing FDD Multiple Access CDMA Technology Modulation BPSK quadrature spreading Carrier separation 1.833 kbps 8 30 kHz (IS-136) (25 kHz for PDC) 48. The three TDMA upgrade options include: .Key Specifications of 2G Technologies CDMAOne. NADC. DCS-1900.3 200 kHz 270.6 kbps (IS136) (42 kbps for PDC) 3 Voice channels 64 per carrier GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying BT: 3-dB bandwidth-bit duration product for GMSK DQPSK: Differential Quadrature PSK 2. IS-54/ISANSI J-STD-007 136.2288 Mchips/sec with GMSK with BT = π/4 DQPSK 0. IS95. ANSI JSTD-011.25 MHz Channel Rate Data 1. new data-centric standards. 1500 (Europe) MHz (Japan) 1850-1910 MHz 1850-1910 MHs (US PCS) (US PCS) 935-960 MHz 869-894 MHz (Europe) (US Cellular) 1930-1990 MHz 1930-1990 MHz (US PCS) (US PCS) 800 MHz.

which is well suited for non-real time Internet usage. including the retrieval or email. 3G Wireless Networks 3G standard support multi-megabit Internet access. which is used additional to GSM’s standard GMSK modulation. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) for 2. voice activated calls. 2. where the user downloads much more data than it uploads on the Internet. faxes. 1. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for 2. and asymmetric web browsing.5 GSM: HSCSD is a circuit switched technique that allows a single mobile subscriber to use consecutive user time slots in the GSM standard. 3. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) for 2. 3G W-CDMA (UMTS): Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS): UMTS air interface standard that has evolved since late .5 GSM and IS-136: EDGE is a more advanced upgrade to the GSM standard.1.5 GSM and IS-136: GPRS is a packet-based data network. EDGE uses 8PSK (octal phase shift keying). unparalleled network capacity. and requires the addition of new hardware and software at existing base stations.

4G Wireless Networks: is mainly a marketing buzzword at the moment. Some basic 4G research is being done. 3.5G IS-95B air interface. Multiple Access Techniques In cellular systems a geographic region is divided into many small areas called cells. 2. based on Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA). This proposal was adopted by ITU as one of the 3G options in late 1999. 3G TD-SCDMA: Time Division Synchronous CDMA: The China Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT) and Siemens Corporation jointly submitted an IMT2000 3G standard proposal in 1998. as well as the 2. The Forth Generation could be ready for implementation around 2012. but no frequencies have been allocated. the CDMA2000 3G standard allows wireless carriers to introduce a family of new high new data rate Internet access.1996 under the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). UMTS was submitted by ETSI to ITU’s IMT-2000 body in 1998 for consideration as a world standard. 3G CDMA2000: Based on the original IS-95 and IS-95A (CDMAOne) CDMA standards. A mobile set in a given cell communicate with another mobile set in the same cell or in .

15 Cellular Telephone Systems .  Frequency division multiple-access (FDMA)  Time division multiple access (TDMA)  Wavelength division multiple access (WDMA)  Code division multiple access (CDMA) o Frequency-hop CDMA o Direct-sequence CDMA o Multi-carrier CDMA (FH or DH)  Time/frequency multiple-access  Random access 5.a different cell through the use of a base station. The following are several techniques of accessing the channels. The cellular systems are able to accommodate as many calls as possible and termed as capacity.

and G denote the seven sets of frequencies. E. the total number of cellular channels available in a cluster can be expressed mathematically as F = GN where F = number of full-duplex cellular channels available in a cluster G = number of channels in a cell N = number of cells in a cluster When the cluster is duplicated m times within a given service area. 5-15-1 shows. Thus. the same sets of frequencies are used in all three clusters.16 Frequency Reuse As the Fig. B. The letters A. C. F.5. D. which essentially increases the number of usable cellular channels available threefold. the total number of full-duplex channels can be expressed mathematically as C = mGN = mF .

Solution: F = (10) (7) = 70 channels per cluster C = (10) (7) (10) = 700 channels total The number of users is called the frequency reuse factor (FRF). The frequency reuse factor is defined mathematically as FRF = N/C where FRF = frequency reuse factor (unitless) N = total number of full-duplex channels in an area C = total number of full-duplex channels in a cell .where C = total channel capacity in a given area m = number of clusters in a given area G = number of channels in a cell N = number of cells in a cluster Example-5-15-1: Determine the number of channels per cluster and the total channel capacity for a cellular telephone area comprised of 10 clusters with seven cells in each cluster and 10 channels in each cell.

19 Co-channel Interference . 5.18 Interference The two major kinds of interferences produced within a cellular telephone system are co-channel interference and adjacent-channel interference.5.

20 Adjacent Channel Interference 5. .5.21 Handoffs The transfer of a mobile unit from one base station’s control to another base station’s control is called a handoff (or handover).

1 ETACS: European Total Access Cellular System was developed in 1985 and is identical to the US AMPS system.36) on RC 10 kbps 0.36) on FC BCH (48.28) on FC BCH (48.36) on RC 8 kbps 0.33 bps/Hz 832 ETACS FDMA FDD 25 kHz 1 890-915 MHz 935-960 MHz FM ± 10 kHz ± 6.AMPS and ETACS Air Interface: Table 11. Parameter Multiple Access Duplexing Channel Bandwidth Traffic channel per RF channel Reverse channel frequency Forward channel frequency Voice modulation Peak deviation: voice channels control Channel coding for data Transmission Data rate on control Spectral efficiency Number of channels AMPS FDMA FDD 30 kHz 1 824-849 MHz 869-894 MHz FM ± 12 kHz ± 8 kHz BCH (40.4 kHz BCH (40.33 bps/Hz 1000 .

The Manchester coded wideband data stream is filtered and channel coded using BCH block codes.Type GSM AMPS ETACS IS-95 IS-136 DECT JTACS PDC NMT-450 NAMPS Analog x x Digital x x x x TDMA x CDMA FDMA x x x x x x x x x x x x x Block code is referred to an an (n. Reed-Solomon Codes etc. Hadamard codes. Binary ones correspond to a frequency deviation of +8 kHz and binary zeros correspond to a deviation of -8 kHz (± 6. The encoded data are used to modulate the transmitter carrier using direct frequency-shift keying. The (40.k) = (2m-1.4 kHz for ETACS).36) BCH codes are used on the reverse voice channel blank-and-burst transmission. BCH codes. Voice modulation and demodulation of AMPS The Manchester code is applied to both control channel and voice channel blank-and-burst transmission in AMPS and ETACS. Examples of block codes: Hamming codes. .k) code BCH: Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes BCH (n. Golay codes.28) BCH codes for forward voice channel blank-and-burst transmissions and are able to correct 5 errors whereas (48. Cyclic codes.k). (n. 2m-1-m) In a block encoder k information bits are encoded into n code bits.

25 frames/sec Slot-6 G R 6 6 Mobile to BS data 16 sync 28 data 130 data 122 CDVCC 12 SACCH CDVCC Data 12 12 122 data 130 Reserved 12 sync SACCH 28 12 BS to Mobile CDVCC: Coded Digital Verification Color Code SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel .6 kbps Spectrum efficiency 1.2 USDC Radio Interface Specifications Parameter USDC IS-54 Multiple Access TDMA/FDD Modulation л/4 DQPSK: Differential quadrature PSK Channel bandwidth 30 kHz Reverse channel 824-849 MHz Forward channel 869-894 MHz Data rate 48.62 bps/Hz Channel coding 7 bit CRC and rate ½ convolutional coding TDMA Frame Structure for USDC Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3 Slot-4 Slot-5 One frame = 1944 bits (972 symbols) = 40 ms.USDC (IS-54 and IS-136) Table 11.

3 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation. Global System for Mobile (GSM) GSM uses FDD and a combination of TDMA and FHMA schemes to provide multiple access to mobile users.Speech Coding in USDC.0/6. GSM data rate = 24.833333 kbps Frame Period 4.9 µs Bit period 3.256 bits) TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 4.692 µs Effective channel transmission rate per user = 270. The signaling bit = 1/270.0 kbps) using binary BT = 0.The USDC speech coder is called the Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive Coder (VSELP).833 = 3. The VSELP algorithm uses a code book that has a predefined structure. The channel data rate of 270.854 kbps Taking the overhead into consideration.833 kbps/(8 users) = 33. The available forward and reverse frequency bands are divided into 200 kHz wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers).92 µs (156.7 kbps 576.615 ms TS5 TS6 TS7 26 TDMA frames make one speech Multiframe Table 11.615 ms User per frame 8 Time slot period 576.833 kbps (1625.3 GSM Air Interface Parameter Specifications Reverse Channel 890-915 MHz Forward Channel 935-960 MHz ARFCN Number 0 to 124 & 975 to 1023 Tx/Rx Frequency Spacing 45 MHz Data Rates 270.692 µs .

1.25 Guard period Signal Processing in GSM Speech Coding – GSM Speech Coder is based on the Residually Excited Linear Predictive Coder (RELP). followed by 40 parity bits.12 s Multiframe has 26 frames 120 ms Frame has 8 time slots 0 1 2 One time slot has 156. Channel Coding for Control Channels – GSM control channel messages are defined to be 184 bits long. and are coded using a shortened binary cyclic fire code. The fire code uses the generator polynomial G5(x) = (x23 + 1) (x17 + x3 + 1) = x40 + x26 + x23 + x17 + x3 + 1 which produces 184 message bits. yielding a 228 bit data block.3 GMSK 200 kHz 40 ms 13.4 kbps 5 6 57 3 Coded Tail bit data 7 8.25 bits 3 Tail bit 57 Coded data 1 Stealing flag 4.615 ms 3 4 576.5)) using the generator polynomials G0(x) = 1 + x3 + x4 and G1(x) = . Four tail bits are added to clear the convolutional coder which follows.Modulation ARFCN Channel Spacing Interleaving (max. followed by a half rate convolution codes. which is enhanced by including a LongTerm Predictor (LTP). This block is applied to a half-rate K = 5 convolutional code (CC(2.92 µs 26 1 Midamble Stealing flag 0. delay) Voice Coder Bit Rate GSM Frame Structure Superframe has 51 multiframes 6.

Amplifier Noise and Its Effect on Detector Performance: IN D IN OUT IN exc OUT IN Noise figure: (S / N) IN F (S / N) OUT where S and N represent the electrical signal and noise powers with the source resistor RD(T) at a temperature of 300 K. The resulting 456 encoded bits are interleaved onto eight consecutive frames in the same manner as TCH speech data. F SIN N OUT 1 (GkT300 B  Pexc ) x  x SOUT N IN G kT300 B Pexc GkT300 B where Pexc is the excess noise added by the amplifier. When the amplifier is operated with a real detector  1 . The gain G of the amplifier takes into account any mismatch between the load RD and the amplifier input impedance.1 + x + x3 + x4.

9: Assume a 1 Amp-hour battery is used on a cellular telephone (often called a cellular subscriber unit).0125  0. 1.83825  0.0354 amp 24 .load at temperature TR. the effective input noise becomes GkTR B  Pexc  kTR  (F  1)kT300 B G SIN (S / N) OUT  N D  ( N IN ) EFF where ND is the noise power produced by the detector noise current. How long would phone work (i.. ( N IN ) EFF  P. Also assume that the cellular telephone draws 35 mA in idle mode and 250 mA during a call.e. what is the battery life) if the user leaves the phone on continually and has one 3-minute call every day? Every 6 hours? Every hour? What is the maximum talk time available on the cellular phone in this example? Solution: (a) 3-minute call everyday 3  3  3 3 (24 hr .X amp)   24  x 35x10  x 250x10 60  60  X 0.

03679 amp (c) 3-minute call every hour 3x24   3 3x 24 (24 hr .18 hrs X 0.0354 amp (b) 3-minute call every 6 hours 3x4  3x 4  (24 hr .036791666 amp 24 1 amp .hour Maximum talk time =  4 hours 0.hr 1 amp .1 amp .hr Battery life =   27.25 amp X .21 hrs X 0.X amp)   24 x 250 x10 3  x 35x10  60  60  0.hr   28.3  0.798  0.hr 1 amp .858 hrs X 0.05 X  0.hr Battery life =   21.04575 amp (d) Maximum talk time available 1 amp .04575 amp 24 1 amp .X amp)   24 x 35x10 3  x 250 x10 3  60  60  Battery life = 0.833  0.hr 1 amp .

Te. is related to the effective noise temperature. is defined by: F Measured noise power out of device at room temperatur e Power out of device if device were noiseless F = 1. T0 is the ambient temperatur e (290 K to 300 K) A simple passive load (such as a resistor) at room temperature transfers a noise power of Pn  kT0B where k is Boltzmann’s constant.1 T0 . The output of the receiver referred to the input  T  Pout  FkT0B  1  e  kT0B  T0    . of a device Te  F . noiseless device Noise figure. F.Noise Figure Calculations for Link Budgets Noise figure. and B is the equivalent bandwidth of the measuring device. denoted by F.

..Actual noise power out of the receiver is  T  Pout  GsysFkT0B  Gsys 1  e  kT0B  T   0 Gsys is the overall receiver gain due to cascaded stages. the noise figure of the overall system is Fsys  F1  F2 . G1 G1G2 A Mobile Receiver System with Cable Loss ANTENNA RECEIVER CABLE ..1   .1 F3 . For a cascaded system...

F = 6 dB. and a US Digital Cellular (USDC. an IS-95.1 300  2100 K Ttotal  Tant  Tsys  290  2100  K  2390  -23 300 K 30.1 x 10 -15 W  .25 MHz USDC (IS-136): 30 kHz Thermal noise power: Pn = kT0B GSM Thermal noise power: .5 Te  8 . 1. Solution: GSM BW = 200 kHz IS-95 BW = 1.1 F2 .0. the coaxial cable loss is 3 dB an equivalent loss factor of 2. What system will provide the best SNR at a mobile receiver? What is the SNR improvement over the other two systems? Assume a perfect receiver with only thermal noise present in each of the three systems.000 Hz  Pn  1   1.15: Assume that a GSM.38 x 10 300    1. Solution: T0  300 K Fsys  F1  4 .5 dBm   P. The phone is connected to a mobile antenna with noise figure of the phone.1  2.Example: Consider an AMPS cellular phone with a 30 kHz RF equivalent bandwidth.0   8  9dB G1 0. IS-136) base station transmit the same power over the same distance.119.

000 Hz) = 1. Therefore.17 x 10-15 Watts USDC (IS-136): Pn = (1.38 x 10-23 J/K)(300 K) (30. SNR is least for the highest noise power.28 x 10-16 Watts IS-95: Pn = (1.000 Hz) = 8.25 x 106 Hz) = 5.38 x 10-23 J/K)(300 K) (200. Best SNR is with USDC 2nd best is GSM 3rd is IS-95 .38 x 10-23 J/K)(300 K) (1.Pn = (1.24 x 10-16 Watts Since all transmitting powers are assumed to be same.