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A Guide to Legal English
Natalia URSUL, Olga DIMO
Chişinău - 2010
FREE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MOLDOVA INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTIC AND INTERCULTURAL STUDIES CHAIR OF APPLIED FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Natalia URSUL, Olga DIMO
A Guide to Legal English
Chişinău - 2010
din 2010) Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naţionale a Cărţii Ursul. Natalia 4 . Recomandat pentru publicare de către Senatul ULIM (proces verbal nr. It provides basic knowledge of legal words and terms. The various exercises throughout the Guide focus on the key legal vocabulary that must be known by law learners.A Guide to Legal English The Guide has been written for everyone working or training to work in the legal profession.
………… 8...TABLE OF CONTENTS Instead of an Introduction………………………………………………………..… 10.……………………………… 5. Commercial Law………………………………………………………… 11.. Courts in England and Wales…………………………..……. Family Law…………………………………………………………….………………… 4. Kinds of Law: Criminal and Civil……………………………………….……… 2.. International Law………………………………………………………… Supplementary Readings……………………………………………………………………………. Bibliography . 9. Judges in the United Kingdom…………………………………………… 6. Truth As the Fundamental Principle of the Judicial Pleading…………… 7. Sources of Law…………………………………………………………… 3. 1. Overview of the Legal Professions………. The Law……………………………………………………. Branches of Law………………………………………………..
murder. The French language of lawyers became increasingly corrupt. These Germanic invaders spoke closely related languages. justice. It also contained many words which had nothing to do with Latin. plaintiff. Saxons and Frisians arrived from the Continent. as merdrum for murder. attorney. guilt. Although the Anglo-Saxons seem to have had no distinct legal profession. theft. Parliament abolished Law Latin and French in legal proceedings.D. and witness. verdict and voir dire. due to the spread of English as the predominant language of international business. but were framed from the English by merely adding a Latin termination. judge. An example that has survived is caveat emptor. By 1310 almost all acts of Parliament were in the French language. A vast amount of legal vocabulary is French in origin. remnants of which have survived until today. The Anglo-Saxons used not only Old English as a legal language. court. French and English words used in English sentence structures. UK. dura lex sed lex. Latin was important for English law mainly as the language of court records. 7 . However.INSTEAD OF AN INTRODUCTION Language is the only instrument of science. A similar evolution took place with the idiom of the courts. Examples include words like goods. Australia. and New Zealand) which have shared common law traditions. In 1730. right. and have survived to this day. Modern legal English is based on Standard English. and words are but the signs of ideas. etc. English lawyers and judges liked to express sayings or maxims about the law in Latin. defendant. when boatloads of Angles. The language of that time is often called “dog Latin” meaning a corrupted form of Latin. Jutes. it became a major force only after the arrival of Christian missionaries in 597. oath. manslaughter. Following the Norman conquest in 1066 the official legal language was French. party. but also Latin. ~ Samuel Johnson Legal English is the style of English used by lawyers and other legal professionals in the course of their work. Legal English has traditionally been the preserve of lawyers from English-speaking countries (such as the USA. The English language can be said to have begun around 450 A. but many Latin and French phrases had already entered common use in legal language. swear.. sheriff. jury. including such basic words as appeal. which came to form what we call Anglo-Saxon or Old English. thief. which consisted of a mixture of Latin. steal. Canada. as well as its role as a legal language within the European Union. they developed a type of legal language. Although Latin was introduced to England during the Roman occupation around the time of Christ. evidence. legal English is now a global phenomenon. it contains a number of unusual features. However.
the arguments used when fighting a case h. consensus ad idem 4. a punishment for a criminal declared to be guilty in a court of law l. an order given by a judge. modus operandi 9. civil 5. starting again k. an act forbidden by criminal law c. inter alia 7. one of these rules i. abbreviation for “id est” meaning “that is” 2. 10. so it is important you understand what they mean. Term 1. from the beginning f. and appear at various stages throughout this course. contract 12. de facto 5. an illegal activity which is punishable by law (e. in fact (taken as a matter of fact. body of enacted rules recognized by a community as binding. an adjective referring to the rights and duties of private persons or organizations f. to give a punishment to. to ask a high court to change its decision or sentence c. prosecutor 15. a legal agreement between two or more parties n.g. among/ in addition to other things h. law 2. 11. Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right. a person who prosecutes in a trial o. pro rata 8. e.g. a. How many of the meanings on the left can you match with the expressions on the right? 1. defence 8. actus reus 3. killing. even though the legal status may not be certain) b. way/method of performance g. being resolved by a court of law g. a person who had studied law and can practise it Translation 8 . court 10.1. to bring someone to court to answer a criminal charge d. abbreviation for “et sequentes” meaning “and what follows” j. abbreviation for “exempli gratia” meaning “for example” d. prosecute 14. an institution of dispute resolution j.e. lawyer 3. in proportion i. Here are some Latin words and expressions used in the legal profession. i. criminal 6. judge 11. robbery) k. et seq. someone who is accused of a crime in a criminal case b. The words in this exercise are used a lot in the legal profession. a dispute between opposing parties. sentence 13. legal case 4. appeal Definition a. a real agreement to a contract by both parties e. crime 7. de novo 6. an adjective referring to crime e. defendant 9. an official who presides over a court m. ab initio 2.
The organic laws have the second juridical force after the Constitution and the constitutional laws. consisting of a system of juridical standards invested with a superior juridical force. which are in operation up to a certain established date or an event foreseen by that law itself. The law is a conscious act of will. the granting of amnesty and pardon. forms of property and state organization. The purpose of the organic laws is to direct and control the electoral system. Legislation is passed by the Parliament in the form of constitutional laws. which are the juridical basis of the other laws. The decisions of the republican referendum have supreme judicial power. following a pre-established procedure. following. and the People’s Assembly of the autonomous territorial unit of Gagauzia. In the UK they are adopted with the absolute majority of the members of the two Houses of Parliament. the fundamental civil liberties and some important social relations. which are adopted for certain specific acts). The ordinary laws establish the most various social relations except for those which are regulated by the constitutional and organic laws. In the Republic of Moldova they shall be passed by the majority of the votes by the members present in session (in the UK they are adopted by the absolute majority of the members who are present in each House of Parliament). the organization and functioning of political parties. they establish the organization of the political powers and the principles of government of the state. BASIC VOCABULARY Law the combination of the rules and principles of conduct promulgated . which is made to reach certain aims and to realise some social ideals. Legislative initiative in the Republic of Moldova lies with the members of Parliament. The constitution is the fundamental law of a state. of course.THE LAW Dura lex sed lex. The Constitution is the mirror of the economic structures. Problems of utmost gravity or urgency confronting the Moldovan society or State shall be resolved by referendum. the law is permanent. it is in operation until it is abrogated. The organic laws in the Republic of Moldova shall be passed by majority vote based on at least two ballots. the organization of Parliament and Government and of the local administration. But. the organization of referendums. the general organization of the educational system. As a rule. It is general because it is valid for all the members of a society (an exception is represented by the individual laws. Generally speaking. The only exception is represented by the temporary laws. regulate the rules. the President of Moldova. The constitutional laws have to be adopted with a majority of at least two thirds from the total number of the Parliament members and it is approved by referendum. what we understand by law is only the normative act passed in Parliament. The law is compulsory because its observance does not depend on the option of those asked to conform themselves to its disposals. The constitutional laws are aimed at revising the Constitution. organic laws and ordinary laws. Laws have three major characteristics: they are general. compulsory and permanent. a pre-established procedure. by law we understand any normative act issued by a legislative body of a state. the Government. etc.
institutions. process. .not controlled by others or by outside forces. functions. .independent in mind or judgment. selfgoverning . or method of voting. . most extreme . What are the main purposes of the organic laws? 5. or intensity. and laws within a state .independent of the laws of another state or government. political.a proposed or enacted law or group of laws the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature. Who votes the ordinary laws? 6. independent. exempt from penalty the act. What are the constitutional laws? 4. especially in secret of the highest or greatest degree. What do we understand by law? 2. volition. derived from court decisions and established by an act of Parliament. self-directed. .the faculty of conscious and deliberate choice of action. What is the Constitution? 5. and exercises executive. and limits of a government or another institution and according to which a state is governed a vote in which the people in a particular country are all asked to say whether they agree or disagree with a particular policy an act of forgiveness granted to a large group of individuals by a government. and sovereign power through customs. Talk about the characteristics of the law. Answer the following questions: l. local custom or practice official authorities who make or amend or abrogate laws a national representative body having supreme legislative powers within a state body of people that sets and administers public policy.the act or process of making laws. Which are the three types of laws? 3. amount.Legislative body Parliament Government Autonomous Legislation Constitution Referendum Amnesty Pardon Ballot Utmost Will To abrogate by legislative authority. . especially for political offences the release of a convicted person from punishment of an offence or crime.a document in which you declare what you want to happen to your money and property after you die to cancel or annul especially by authority (to abrogate a law or custom) 1.
............... is the ... pardon d. Join pairs of synonyms... body a.. to regulate.......... d) The ordinary laws are adopted with the ……………… majority of the members …….. compulsory 5.... institution c. of the organization of a state. purpose.. 1... freedom h... purpose 2... conscious 8. e) The law is the conscious act of ………………….. 4 Consult your dictionary and find as many synonyms as possible for the following words: a state.... state 4. gravity.... Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: a) A law is passed in Parliament following a .... amnesty 10...... to approve 7. binding b. constant 3.. vote m.. to abrogate 5.... ordinary 3. in each House of Parliament. law of a state... legislative body........ ... to adopt... c) Constitution is the ..... What do you call the laws which: a) establish the organization of the political powers? b) establish the referendum? c) represent the development of the principles of the constitutional laws. country l. property 9... utmost 12. f) The law is valid for all the members of the ……………….... aim g... common f.. permanent 13.. What are the differences between the following words? law the law amnesty pardon 6... possession j...laws.... laws. laws and . liberty 6..... but cannot confute them? .. aware k. to adopt i..... ballot 11.2... b) There are three types of laws:... maximum e.. procedure.....
. The citizens initiating a revision of the Constitution must cover with the number of their listed residences at least a half of the nation's districts and municipalities. (2) No revision shall be allowed if it results in the suppression of the fundamental rights and ______________ of citizens. initiated. or of the guarantees of those rights and freedoms. martial law or __________.REVISING THE CONSTITUTION Article 141. war. as well as those regarding the permanent neutrality of the state may be revised only by ____________ based on a majority vote of registered voting citizens. freedoms TITLE VI . and in their turn each of those districts and municipalities must be represented by at least 5. ________________ and unity of the state.000 registered signers in support of said initiative. citizens. law projects.7.000 voting _________ of the Republic of Moldova. d) the Government. Article 142. (3) The Constitution may not be revised under a state of national emergency. independence. referendum. Initiatives for Constitutional Revision (1) A revision of the Constitution may be _________ by: a) a number of at least 200. Read an abstract from the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova and fill in the gaps with the words in the box: members. b) no less than a third of the __________ of Parliament. c) the President of the Republic of Moldova. Limits of Revision (1) The provisions regarding the sovereignty. How many word partnerships can you form by combining the two lists below? To pass To give To pronounce Actual Contrary to To elaborate To issue To grant Absolute (a) sentence over a veto (a) law pardon a mandate banknotes orders property 8. (2) Constitutional _______ shall be submitted to Parliament on condition that the Constitutional Court issues the appropriate recommendation supported by at least 4 judges.
Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly. The strictest law sometimes becomes the severest injustice. It is good for all times and places. .9. Comment on the statements below: Laws haven’t changed since primeval times. while bad people will find a way around the laws. However hard people try. There is some eternal law. The more laws. the less justice. Nobody has a more sacred obligation to obey the law than those who make the law. laws are always insufficient.
esp. The main sources of law can be classified in the following way: theoretical (philosophical). The English-speaking countries are based on common or case (sometimes unwritten) law. • The term is used of the documentary sources refer to the documents containing the athoritative statemennts of rules of law. convention . • The term “sources” is sometimes applied to those philosophical (theoretical) principles which have influenced law. • The historical sources of law are the acts and events in past time. the books to which one turns for information. In modern nation states..a permanent rule made by a body or institution for the government of its internal affairs the law governing the affairs of a Christian Church. documentary. statutes. statements of law by superior courts. etc.g. it is a charter granted by the King John in 1215. which have given rise to particular principles and rules of law. and no judge is bound to accept the rules stated there. BASIC VOCABULARY Statute an enactment of a legislative body expressed in a formal document. In the United Kingdom. One of the basic historical sources of law in the United Kingdom is the Magna Carta.2. E. and regulations issued by government agencies. formal and literary sources of law. In the United Kingdom and Continental European legal systems. • The literary sources of law represent legal literature. case law. motivated legislation or prompted change. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte Sources of law are the materials and processes out of which law is developed. these are the volumes of states. the basic sources of law include a Constitution. these include the Roman law. the law merchant and the general maritime law of Western Europe. Notice that the continental countries have codified their laws (reduced them to statutes). church and freemen. the law created or recognized by papal authority in the Roman Catholic Church the long-established habits or traditions of a society. These are declarations by Parliament in the form of legislation. the philosophy of Marxism-Leninism has been the source of whole legal systems. the canon law. Statutes and constitutions are classified as “written or statutory law”. SOURCES OF LAW A Constitution should be short and obscure.a formal statement or announcement. textbooks which are based on the material sources but have no authority and validity as rules of law. recognizing the rights and privileges of the barons. statutory instruments and of reports of case law. • The formal sources of law represent legal acts accepted by the official authourities. These include encyclopedias. the feudal customs. - Canon law Custom Declaration . The basic characteristic of the common law is that a case once decided establishes a precedent that will be followed by the courts when similar controversies are later presented. historical. . treaties. proclamation.
or debate. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. Are legal treaties and encyclopedias accepted as binding in courts of law? 6. licit f. Answer the following questions: 1. procedures. What are the main sources of law? 2. written law g. What are the historical sources of law that have shaped the legal system of the UK? 3. esp. authorities 5. validity 7. admiralty law c. legal 3. main d. What are the formal sources of law? 4. Make sentences using the antonyms of the following words: controversy common law modern to give rise freeman 4. statutory law a. rules.) into a system or code a judicial decision that serves as an authority for deciding a later case dispute. one concerning a matter about which there is strong disagreement and esp.To prompt To codify Precedent Controversy the ruling of a judge or court on a question of law. What is the main source of law in the Republic of Moldova? 2. What is the basic characteristic of the common law? 9. esp in the chancery division of the High Court to give rise to by suggestion to organize or collect together (laws. one carried on in public or in the press - 1. Is case law written or unwritten? 8. basic 2. legality e. case law 6. What have the continental countries done with their laws? 7. maritime law 4. officials 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. etc. What is the name used for writings by jurists? 5. common law b. How many meanings can you find to these words? Custom Law Source . argument.
find English equivalents for the following: organ guvernamental drept canonic сarta (a drepturilor. etc. In the text. Complete the following table with the corresponding verb(s). noun(s) or adjective(s) where appropriate. Noun Law To regulate Code Resolution To approve Provision ---Statute To declare --authoritative binding Verb ----legal Adjective .) a codifica precedent judiciar cutumă legislaţie правительственный (государственный) орган церковное (каноническое) право хартия кодифицировать юридический прецедент общее право законодательство - - 6.5. Translate the following word combinations containing the word ‘source’ into your mother tongue: confidential source illegitimate source legal source of crime legal source legitimate source original source source of increased danger source of law sources of evidence 7.
___________ legislation (also referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements of that primary legislation. the guilty man has been punished. embodied The British Constitution is just as ___________ to the British as the US Constitution is to the Americans. It merely means that the constitution is not ____________ in any single document. 11. A judgment. This intervention in another nation’s affairs has set a _____________ which we hope other countries will not follow. Prescribed or authorized by statute. 6. 2. laws. This does not mean. (infinitive) 5.8. 7. condition (of a contract). But there are certain other ____________ which govern the . below the age of legal majority. rules. or stipulation formally incorporated in a document. that the British possess no important constitutional ___________. The act or process of making laws. 10. 4. 9. however. verdict. that is to say. courts. so they will be recognized and enforced by the ___________. Of or relating to the minority. Solve the crossword to find the mystery phrase. An enactment of a legislative body expressed in a formal document. it is not ____________. documents. and executive laws. Justice has __________. 3. conclusion. it has never been wholly reduced ________ writing. or series of documents. esp. to. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: written. The first word has been done for you. from. as a result of correction of legal or political abuses or malpractices. Nevertheless. 8. The Moldovan Constitution is the main _________ of law in the Republic of Moldova followed by codes and parliamentary statutes. or resolution reached or given. Many constitutional rules are ‘laws’ in the ordinary sense. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 l e g m i t p n n r u m d t a s l a t i o n 1. containing their essential constitutional _____________. 9. important. 12. An improvement or change for the better. Law established by following judicial decisions given in earlier cases (2 words). A demand.
Trials are conducted by a professional circuit judge and might be assisted by a jury.England and Wales have one system. • Magistrates’ Courts: consist of three unpaid lay magistrates (known as ’justices of the peace’) who try minor offences without a jury. . cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. They are called ‘conventions’. all types of courts in the United Kingdom are administered by Her Majesty's Courts Service. Tribunals deal with professional standards. disputes between individuals. It has three subdivisions: Family Division. because they arise _________ usage.. • Crown Court: responsible for all criminal cases above the level of magistrates’ courts. They have limited civil jurisdiction. BASIC VOCABULARY Executive having the function or purpose of carrying plans.g. It was presided over by the Lord Chancellor and consisted of three to seven Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (appointed as life peers) and peers who held high judicial office. COURTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES There is no such thing as justice. ~ Clarence Darrow The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system . However. which has more similarities with the law system of Continental countries. The Supreme Court was established by Part 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and started work on 1 October 2009. sudden or unnatural deaths). 3. civil law being based on the principles of Roman rather than English Common Law. About 90% of criminal investigations begin here. mainly in domestic matters.working of the constitution. The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent. or agreement. • High Court of Justice: original and appellate jurisdiction in all civil and some criminal cases. Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law. Chancery Division (administration of estates and interpretation of wills) and the Queen’s Bench (all cases not dealt with by the other two divisions). Nota bene: Scotland has its own legal system. Welsh law. an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. • Court of Appeal (Criminal and Civil Division): hears appeals from the High Court and the Crown Court. laws. over taxation). All trials are held with one judge (and maybe a jury). and disputes between individuals and government departments (e.. which are not laws in this sense. • County Courts (300 in England and Wales): cover all types of civil suits including complaints of race and sex discrimination. Until 2009 the House of Lords served as the court of last instance for most instances of UK law. orders. There are administrative tribunals which make quick. Scotland another. etc. and Northern Ireland a third. in or out of court. There are the following types of courts in England and Wales: • The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the court of last resort in all matters under English law.
earl. and baron . lawsuit. .property or possessions.a court of justice or any place where justice is administered. . convened by the government to inquire into a specific matter.(in Britain) a special court.the total extent of the real and personal property of a deceased person or bankrupt the judicial examination of the issues in a civil or criminal cause by a competent tribunal and the determination of these issues in accordance with the law of the land . Who are lay magistrates? 7.the act or process of suing in a court of law a statement by which a civil proceeding in a magistrates' court is commenced a member of the public who voluntarily gives up his/her time to preside over magistrates' courts. What types of courts exist in the UK? 4. Answer the following questions: 1.a raised platform containing the seat of a judge or magistrate. .the right to such review. .the judicial review by a superior court of the decision of a lower tribunal. although they are trained in court procedures.a civil proceeding. What is the difference between criminal and civil law in the United Kingdom? 2. What is the most common type of British courts? 5. originally that in a Roman basilica Suit Complaint Lay magistrate Minor offence Domestic Tribunal 1. . .Lord Chancellor Peer Appeal Estate Trial into practical effect the cabinet minister who is head of the judiciary in England and Wales and Speaker of the House of Lords a person who holds any of the five grades of the British nobility: duke. viscount.a request for such review . They need have no formal legal qualifications. What type of courts deals with offenders under seventeen years old? . What is the ‘supreme’ court in the UK? 6.to apply to a superior court to review (a case or particular issue decided by a lower tribunal) . Who administers courts of law in the UK? 3. petty or less serious act of breaking the law of or involving the home or family . marquis. .
Which of the courts do you think would deal with: a bank robbery? a divorce case? a burglary committed by a fifteen-year-old? a drowning? a case of driving too fast? 3. Find common collocations (sometimes more than one solution is possible): to hear to break to deliver to charge to recover to cross-examine to reverse putere executivă to return to cite lord cancelar to instruct sistem judecătoresc Ministerul Justiţiei curte de justiţie criminală (în Anglia) magistrat Camera Lorzilor delict curtea juvenilă contravenient moarte violentă proces penal proces civil a judeca un proces damages a decision a case 4.• • • • • 2. деликт суд по делам несовершеннолетних правонарушитель насильственная смерть уголовное дело гражданское дело слушать дело . Find in the text the an opinion English equivalents for the words a witness below: a verdict the law орган исполнительной a fee власти the jury лорд-канцлер a case судебная система Министерство юстиции Суд Короны мировой судья Палата лордов мелкое правонарушение. Pair work.
3. 1. Courts of Vanstere' italyiMr Courts . tonCyu Court gastaitresM' Court b) The United States of America This figure shows a top-down representation of how the courts are structured in the USA. 1. sliCma Court 10. Analyze the court structures in the UK. wCnro Court 7. 6. xaT Court 8. Court of italyiMr spAplae 5. Court of pAplae (realdeF Circuit) 4. teInrnalation edraT Court 9. Test your knowledge of the system by rearranging the letters in bold to make words. 94 stDtiric viRwee 6. Test your knowledge of the system by rearranging the letters in bold to make words.5. Supreme Court 2. Court of pAalpe (vCili viiinosd) 5. Court of 7. USA and RM a) The United Kingdom This figure shows a top-down representation of how the court system is structured in the United Kingdom. Court of cuJsiet of the nEuaepor umCosniimet soHeu of rodsL 2. gHhi Court 8. Courts of Appeal (12 cuitCris) 3. Court of pAlpe (amiCriln viiinosd) 4.
c) The Republic of Moldova Constitutional Court The Supreme Court of Justice Adstraminveiti adn Cilvi Colgele oomnEcic Colgele Criinaml leColge iSx Crtous of Apapel Cinahisu aBtil enBrde huCal Cmaort The Spializeecd (nomEcoic) ortusC of sticueJ 16 15 9 4 3 Courts of justice of the first level .
Barristers The traditional work of barristers is advocacy . They must also undertake professional training both by a one-year Legal Practice Course and then by two years under a training contract with a solicitor in practice.g. barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping the extreme formality of the proceedings. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defence. The barrister will be "briefed" (instructed) by a solicitor . They are involved in commercial work relating to business e. The controlling body is the Law Society.it is the solicitor who first contacts the client and has initial conduct of the The Bar Council regulates the work of barristers case. as there is no separate training for judges.they present cases in court. Most barristers are law graduates and they undergo professional training through a Bar Vocational Course and through a pupillage with a qualified barrister. However. is a lead official who presides over a court of law. They are found in every town. where their ability to speak and to think quickly "on their feet" is important. "Your Honour". Judges A judge. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients in magistrate’s and county courts. making wills. but they mainly work in the Crown Court (it is possible to have a solicitor advocate but this is still rare). corporate matters. Most solicitors are graduates with a law degree. They are trained as barristers. In court. . They also wear wigs and black gowns. land. "Your Worship". dealing with commercial transactions. prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts. then the judge pronounces the sentence. or arbiter of justice. share and other property dealings. ~Jean Giradoux The legal profession in the United Kingdom may be roughly classified in the following way: Solicitors By the mid-1500s in England two types of lawyers had appeared: solicitors and barristers. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queen’s Counsel) or "take silk".4. the barrister is to a fair extent independent of the solicitor and can take an independent judgment as to how to conduct the case. Barristers are occasionally advocates in magistrates’ courts (more commonly in London than elsewhere). If the accused is convicted. the High Court or in appeal courts. Solicitors make up the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. etc. They are usually addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady". where they deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses. OVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL PROFESSIONS A good lawyer is a great liar.
esp. The jury listens to the evidence I will faithfully try the given in court in certain criminal cases and decides whether the defendant and give a true defendant is guilty or innocent. . If the person is found guilty. Clerks of the Court Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom. Magistrates Magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace or JPs) judge cases in the lower courts. . BASIC VOCABULARY Transaction Law Society something that is transacted. but they are respectable people who are given some training. used in civil cases. litigation. documents. idea. such as the statements of witnesses. the period spent by a newly called barrister in the chambers of a member of the bar . Coroners A coroner is a public official responsible for the investigation of violent.Jury JUROR’S OATH A jury consists of twelve people (‘jurors’). is a professional body that regulates the profession of barristers together with the Inns of Court. who are ordinary I do solemnly. a business deal or negotiation. communicate with in a Commonwealth country and in the Republic of Ireland. such as a cause. or suspicious deaths and inquiries into treasure-trove.legal action. The jury is rarely evidence. They have medical or legal training (or both). sincerely and people. sudden. in the court of law matter produced before a court of law in an attempt to prove or disprove a point in issue. etc - Advocacy To contact Bar Council Pupillage Proceedings Witness Evidence . Often used in the plural. established in 1825 and entrusted with the registration of solicitors (requiring the passing of certain examinations) and the regulation of professional conduct the act of pleading or arguing in favor of something. the verdict according to the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. active support to get in touch with. material objects. They are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications.the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service (in England or Scotland) the professional body of solicitors. or policy.the instituting or conducting of legal action a person who has seen or can give first-hand evidence of some event esp. chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of truly declare and affirm that people who can vote in elections).
such as coins. Answer the following questions: 1. a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts. What are the main branches of the legal profession in the Republic of Moldova? 2. What is the judge’s role in a proceeding? 5. Is there a separate training for judges? 6. Choose the correct term for each legal profession mentioned in the text. a lawyer who prepares legal documents. Who are JPs? 7.. a public official with authority to hear and decide cases in law court. All lawyers undergo an extensive period of education through: (a) practical training (b) formal academic learning (c) both 5. 4. The barrister’s task is: (a) to present the case (b) to express the arguments on the client’s behalf (c) both 1. bullion. found hidden in the earth or elsewhere and of unknown ownership. a group of people who swear to give a true decision on issues in a law court. In 1996 treasure was defined in the UK as any item over 300 years old and containing more than 5% of precious metal in a purposeless fashion. etc. (a) as lawyers. authority having the power to control something _____________________________ 2. 5. not following any prearranged order 1. What types of legal professions are mentioned in the text? 2. solicitors and barristers (b) as solicitors and barristers (c) as solicitors. advises clients on legal matters and speaks for them in lower law courts. b or c). directing or influencing official _____________________________ 5. 4. Find synonyms in the text for the following words and expressions: 1. Complete the following sentences with the correct variant ( a. In the case of solicitors the practical training takes the form of: (a) one-year training (b) two-year training (c) three-year training 4. 6. Why barristers are called ‘take silk’? 4. information proving something _____________________________ 3. guiding. What are coroners’ duties? 8. 3.Treasure-trove At random valuable articles. a member of a jury _____________________________ 4. to pronounce a sentence _____________________________ 1. Lawyers may exercise their profession . 2. The controlling body for solicitors is (a) the Law Society (b) the Inns of Court (c) the Bar Council 3. What are the two types of lawyers in the United Kingdom? What is the difference between them? 3. an official who investigates the cause of any death thought to be violent or unnatural. barristers and judges 2. 3. an officer acting as a judge in the lower courts.
Coroners inquire into (a) violent or natural deaths (b) treasure-trove (c) both 5. Practising solicitors must possess certificate issued annually by the Law Society.6. Controlling body BARRISTER JUDGE Education and training Duties . SOLICITOR Status and definition A legal practitioner in of the profession the UK. Solicitors form much the larger part of the English legal profession. Solicitors (a) deal directly with the client (b) ensure that the barrister chosen is properly and fully instructed (c) both 7. Study the following table and supply the missing information. Magistrates usually judge cases in (a) County courts (b) lower courts (c) Crown Court 8.
company market target regulation tax relevant state corporate finance real development criminal contract public cooperative labour common copyright 8. ►Lawyers can fold/file a case of wrong-doing where someone wants to sue/to sew for a cash settlement. Underline the appropriate words or phrases to finish these sentences. ►Law forms/firms offer complete legal services for domestic and international clientele/customers. ►They typically alternate/arbitrate problems and disputes between players/parties. deeds/drafts and wills/warranties. * lawyer * advocate * solicitor * counsel _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ * counselor * attorney * barrister * writer _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ 7. Circle the words related to law to describe major areas of legal practice. . ►When a person doesn’t want to talk directly to the other. Label the following as British English (BE) or American English (AE).6. Some could be both British and American. attorneys often speak in spite of/on behalf of someone. ►Lawyers draw up/decide on documents such as contracts.
. who became the first woman formally admitted to a state bar when she gained admission in Iowa in 1869. at a time when two reform movements were significant. Although admitted to the bar. Thus the first women lawyers appeared. they never actually __________ law. The first women ____________ appeared in the United States a few years after the Civil War.9. Women first began to enter the legal _____________in the late nineteenth century. Look at the picture of an American court. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: THE FIRST WOMEN LAWYERS amendments lawyers professions legal practised fight support degree equality Since olden times. the first American woman to obtain a university law __________ in 1870. instead focusing on teaching and other activist work. and Ada Kepley. so universities admitted more women students and teachers. One was the movement for women’s _____________and the emergence of modern professions and of ideas about “professionalism” in law. __________ profession was considered to be a “gentlemen’s” one. During the civil war many men left to __________. Match the numbers in the picture with the words below: jury reporter court robe gavel jury box court officer transcript defendant witness bench judge prosecuting attorney defence attorney witness stand 10. They included Arabella Mansfield.
DON'T talk about the case. DON'T let yourself get information about the case from the news media or any other outside source. 5. by the late 1880s there was a sufficient number of American women lawyers to establish the Equity Club. 6. DON'T try to guess what the judge thinks about the case. for example. DO listen carefully to the instructions read by the judge. the Illinois legislature enacted amending legislation to permit women’s admission to the bar. 8. and a number of other American states enacted similar ______________. DO arrive on time and DO return promptly after breaks and lunch. The trial cannot proceed until all jurors are present. 4. go to the scene of an event that was part of the case you are hearing. 11. Remember that rulings from the bench do not reflect the judge's personal views. 7. or witnesses about anything. DO keep an open mind all through the trial. or issues raised by the case with anyone – including other jurors – while the trial is going on. If someone insists on talking to you or another juror about the case. DO pay close attention to witnesses. DON'T talk to the lawyers. parties. DON'T try to uncover evidence on your own. they cannot substitute for your own impressions about the case. raise your hand and let the judge know. a correspondence club that provided information and ___________ to women lawyers all over the United States for several years. even family members. 2. please report the matter to a court employee. Concentrate both on what the witness say and on 3. Read the text carefully and comment on the advice given to jurors. Thus. . You must decide the case only on the basis of evidence admitted in court. it is your duty to accept what the judge says about the law to be applied to the case. Never. Be ready to explain the relevance of each item: Do’s and Don’ts for Jurors During trial: 1. tell a member of the court staff in private. Even if news reports are accurate and complete. Remember.A few years later. If you accidentally hear outside information about the case during trial. These rules are designed to help you keep an open mind during the trial. however. their manner while testifying. 9. This will avoid the impression that something unfair is going on. and DON'T let others talk about the case in your presence. If you cannot hear what is being said.
DON'T mark or write on exhibits (documents). or your family. read. DO work out differences between yourself and other jurors through complete and fair discussions of the evidence and of the judge's instructions. . DON'T lose your temper. 4. DON'T talk to anyone about your deliberations or about the verdict until the judge discharges the jury. Appellate courts deal only with legal questions--they will not change your verdict if you decided the facts based on proper evidence and instructions. 3.During deliberation: 1. DON'T try to guess what might happen if the case you have heard is appealed. DON'T play cards. But DON'T feel obligated to do so – no juror can be forced to talk without a court order. including the media. 2. After discharge. the lawyers. or engage in any other diversion. you may discuss the verdict and the deliberations with anyone. 5.
as well as their close relatives will not be appointed. The second group. They are about 30 000 in the UK. The initial training will normally last six days (18 hours). half of them are women. As was mentioned. They are formally called Justices of Her Majesty's High Court of Justice or simply High Court Judges. they deal with the most serious crimes. knows who is on the special committee in their area. including many of the crimes that most affect the public. The vast majority of judges are unpaid. In order to become a magistrate you need to be able to commit at least 26 half-days per year to sit in court. High Court judges could only be appointed from among barristers of at least 10 years' standing. JUDGES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM A good judge conceives quickly. They are called Magistrates. Lay Magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs). They are volunteers from all walks of life who deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases in England and Wales. a typical appointee has about of twenty to thirty years' . such as antisocial behaviour. Selection is based entirely on merit and applications are welcome from all sections of the community regardless of gender. ~ Proverb The United Kingdom is almost unique in having not only two different kinds of lawyers but also of judges. are nowadays known as District Judges (Magistrates' Court) or Stipendiary Magistrates (which is to say. High Court Judges. However. Formerly. the Lord Chancellor will not generally appoint anyone aged 65 or over. no formal qualifications are required but magistrates need intelligence. A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. traffic wardens and members of the armed forces. High Court judges are appointed by The Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister and Lord Chancellor. religion or sexual orientation. such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. District Judges sit alone and have the authority to sit in any magistrates' court. unlike Magistrates. Magistrates in England and Wales may be subdivided into: lay magistrates and legal professionals permanently employed by the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom). Police officers. ethnicity. magistrates who receive a stipend or payment). are paid salaries by the state and have considerable legal training. The committee tries to select Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible. Under the Constitutional Reform Act (2005) a new Judicial Appointments Commission has removed the appointment of judges from the political arena. Magistrates are not paid for their services. The two kinds of judges are Magistrates and High Court Judges. Nobody. professional magistrates. Unlike lay magistrates. so they give up their time voluntarily. Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Magistrates can be appointed from the age of 18 and they must retire at 70. common sense and the capacity to act fairly. You don't need legal or academic qualifications to be a magistrate and full training is provided. However. even the Magistrates themselves.5. judges slowly.
60 for women) A social group with a shared history. What are the main types of judges in the UK? 2. etc. What kind of people are Magistrates? 3. High Court judges could only be appointed from among solicitors of at least 10 years’ standing. Who can be appointed as a High Court Judge? 8. Who selects Lay Magistrates and what is unusual about this system? 5. Lawrence Collins in 2000. T/F 2.experience as a lawyer. esp. Henry Hodge in 2004. sound practical sense a person who is appointed to supervise road traffic and report traffic offences . T/F 7. Why and how are they selected? 4. Answer the following questions: 1. amateur contrary or injurious to the interests of society in general to give up or to cause (a person) to give up his work. T/F 4. Are these statements true or false? T/F 1.the right or capacity to initiate a suit one who is appointed to an office or position 1. sense of identity. In the United Kingdom there are two types of judges called Magistrates and High Court Judges. Why are so few solicitors appointed as High Court Judges? 2. etc. . The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as minimal variety of professions and social classes as possible. geography and cultural roots which may occur despite racial difference plain ordinary good judgment. To become a magistrate a person has to devote not less than 1 month per year to sitting in court. People of all professions can be appointed as magistrates. Who would judge a person who committed a crime like murder? 7. Until 2009 only four solicitors have been appointed as High Court judges . on reaching pensionable age (in Britain and Australia usually 65 for men. Stipendiary Magistrates sit alone and have the authority to sit in any magistrates' court. a post. T/F 6. What is the difference between Lay and Stipendiary Magistrates? 6. BASIC VOCABULARY Lay Anti-social To retire Ethnicity Common sense Traffic warden Standing Appointee non-professional or non-specialist.. T/F 5. All magistrates are unpaid.Michael Sachs in 1993.length/period of existence. and Gary Hickinbottom in 2008. experience. T/F 3. .
. Vice-Presidents and judges of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed by Parliament following a proposal submitted by the Superior Council of Magistrates. Judges who ________________ passed the contest shall be firstly appointed for a 5-year term of office. under the law. What judge’s qualities are mentioned? Who is a good/successful judge to you? Would you like to become a judge? Why? “Four things belong to a judge: to hear courteously. Read the following abstract from the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova. find English equivalents for the following words and expressions: judecător de pace voluntar Lord cancelar ofiţer de poliţie forţe militare magistrat salariat Maiestatea Sa beneficiar. волонтёр Лорд-канцлер офицер полиции вооружённые силы магистрат. and to decide impartially. persoană numită într-un post мировой судья доброволец. by the ______________ of the Republic of Moldova upon proposal submitted by the Superior Council of Magistrates. _____________ for the didactic and scientific activity. After the _____________ of the 5-year term of office. (3) The Presidents. In the text. получающий жалованье Её Величество бенефициарий. (5) Judges ___________ be punished as provided for under the rule of law. (6) The office of judge shall be _______________ with the exercise of any other public or private remunerated position. They must have a working _____________ as judge of at least 10 years. (4) Judges shall be promoted and transferred only at their own consent. to consider soberly.3. (2) Judges sitting in the courts of law shall be appointed. назначаемое лицо 4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: president tenure law successfully impartial except incompatible reaching expiration may Status of Judges (1) Judges sitting in the courts of _________ are independent. ___________ and irremovable under the law. to answer wisely.” (Socrates) 5. the judges shall be appointed to this position until ____________ the age limit fixed under the law. Read Socrates’ saying.
The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States are called "justices" or "judges of the peace". Read the following text and answer the questions: 1. trusts and estates are known as "surrogates". Who are referees? 5. Study the following table and supply the missing information. What type of judges does not receive the honorific forms of address? Judges in the United States In the United States. New York judges who deal with guardianships. UK Status and definition of judges Controlling body RM Education and training Judges’ appointment Compatibility with the exercise of other positions 7. .6. What are the main types of judges in the USA? 2. What do the surrogate judges deal with? 3. How are subordinate jurisdiction judges called? 4. a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. comparing judges’ service in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Moldova.
regulatory matters.A senior judge. people sworn to deliver a true verdict according to the evidence upon a case presented in a court of law. 14. 10. A person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law. The unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another. is a retired judge who handles selected cases for a governmental entity while in retirement. navy. such as a justice of the peace. Individuals with judicial responsibilities. A minor official. Judges sitting in courts of equity in common law systems (such as judges in the equity courts of Delaware) are called "Chancellors". The duration of holding a position.S. a monthly meeting that was more ___________ than pleasure.S. particularly in cases where a great deal of detailed evidence must be reviewed. and typically do not receive the honorific forms of address.S. ACROSS 3. Subordinate judges in U. air force. having administrative and limited judicial authority. they are called magistrate judges. etc. 6. 8. of a publicly appointed judge. usually twelve. A group of. people sworn to deliver a true verdict according to the evidence upon a case presented in a court of law 4. Thieves’ World (abbreviation). standing. but the use of this title is in decline. rather than a governmental body are called arbitrators. Subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judges in U. 8. on a part-time basis. A group of. An act or omission prohibited and punished by law. DOWN 1. legal practice are sometimes called magistrates. . although in the federal court of the United States. usually twelve. Judges of courts of specialized jurisdiction (such as bankruptcy courts or juvenile courts) were sometimes known officially as “referees”. rather than being a part of the judiciary. and immigration determinations. 11. who report to an executive branch official. The place where legal proceedings and trials are heard.S. in U. 2. A magistrate who receives stable salary. 12. A rule or body of rules made by the legislature. are often called "administrative law judges" in U. 7. 9. A person or thing that causes annoyance or bother. and do not have the symbolic trappings. practice. legal practice appointed on a case-by-case basis. practice and commonly make initial determinations regarding matters such as eligibility for government benefits. Military forces of a nation or nations. Judges who derive their authority from a contractual agreement of the parties to a dispute. Solve the crossword. 5. are often called "masters" or "special masters". marines. including the army.
1 3 4 6 7 9 1 0 8 2 5 1 1 1 2 1 4 .
as in a legislative body. From the juridical point of view truth represents an accurate reflection of the objective reality in thinking. At the basis of all the branches of the studies of law lies the principle of absolute truth. The objective truth reflects the existing reality. all the conceptions. which is independent from the human consciousness.fair or impartial in action or judgment. What we mean by telling the truth is that a person says a true sentence and not a false one. many believe in relative truth. Philosophers find themselves in troubles trying to define the absolute truth. For example.conforming to high moral standards. “a true statement is the one by which you say that it is what it is and that it is not what it is not". we have the right to sustain that our opinions are true. TRUTH AS THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE JUDICIAL PLEADING If you tell the truth you don't have to remember anything. Plato believed that absolute truth existed.6. BASIC VOCABULARY Scholar Debate Accurate Just a learned person. in the humanities a formal discussion. but we must be able to motivate them. As Aristotle said. relative and absolute. especially in the procedural law. and various theories of truth continue to be debated. seriously and firmly. The criterion of truth and its sources are based upon the socialhistorical experience of humankind. . in which opposing arguments are put forward. by comparing what exists with what really happens. where complete concordance between the facts regarding the cause and the conclusion of the criminal lawsuit is demanded. philosophers sustained that truth is the accord between object and intellect. He is required not to make a false statement or pass the truth over in silence. Scientific facts represent examples of relative truth. A person who has to give evidence in a trial will have to swear an oath that he will tell the truth and nothing but the truth. where facts may vary depending on the circumstances. There are three kinds of truth: objective. Alternatively. ~ Mark Twain The term ‘truth’ has no single definition about which the majority of professional philosophers and scholars agree. Along the history. systems and schools were appreciated through their attitude towards the truth. The concept of absolute truth . discussion or dispute faithfully representing or describing the truth . human consciousness permanently aims to the absolute truth. which is just.has been debated among many different groups of people. honest .what it is and whether it exists . but approximate. that is why finding out the truth is a continuous process unlimited in time one. Truth is the key to any lawsuit or juridical proceeding. In the Middle Ages. Legally speaking. The relative truth is the reflection of reality. esp. but that truth on earth was merely a shadow of great forms of the absolute truth existing in the universe. Using the relative and objective truths.
e) Scientific facts represent ……………… truth. often involving a sacred being or object as witness agreement or consent of opinion 3. depending on the circumstances. majority 6. In the text. truth 2. Join pairs of antonyms. 6. d) To say truth means to say a ……………. 2. 5. objective 4. true h. not a false one. find synonyms to the following words and make sentences with them: origin indeed mankind precise principle scientist standpoint perfect to express accordance 3. disagreement 8.Lawsuit Procedural law Oath Accord 1. false 3. Answer the following questions: What is truth? What kinds of truth did you read about? What does objective truth deal with? What is relative truth? Does absolute truth exist according to Plato’s point of view? Do you think absolute truth exists? What is a true statement in Aristotle’s way of thinking? How did medieval philosophers define truth? 2. minority 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. partial g. but ………………. concordance c. sentence. absolute 7. c) Many believe in relative truths. esp. irrespective e. a proceeding in a court of law brought by one party against another. 8. 1. 7. b) The relative truth is the ………………. a civil action law that comprises rules and prescribes the procedures and methods according to which a court hears and determines what happens in civil lawsuit or criminal proceedings a solemn pronouncement to affirm the truth of a statement or to pledge a person to some course of action. where facts may …………. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: a) Truth demands a complete …………………. lie d. reflection of reality.. 4. . reality 5. of facts. subjective f. fiction b. 1. respective a.
and nothing but the ………………….. in time. the whole …………….. a period during which a law is suspended to allow offenders to admit their crime without fear of prosecution – is called b) And now examine the cases and be ready to defend your view-point. g) Before giving evidence in a trial. утаивать приносить присягу относительная истина причина выяснить правду ложное утверждение 6. and ………………. find English equivalents for the following: a depune mărturie conştiinţă umană a trece sub tăcere a depune un jurămînt adevăr relativ cauza a descoperi adevărul afirmaţie falsă давать свидетельские показания человеческое сознание обходить молчанием. Role-play: Finding out the truth. 5. In the text.. … Because of this… … On account of this… … That’s the reason why… . The phrases in the boxes will help you. the witness must say the …………. especially for offences against a government. a) Provide a term for the following definition. How many meanings can you find to these words? sentence firm cause 8.f) The process of finding out truth is ………………. A general pardon. Use the following expressions in sentences of your own: to give evidence to tell the truth to pass something over in silence judicial proceedings 7.
Number 3 is a 30-year-old mother of two. He was charged with fraud when police discovered that he had stolen over $2 million from his company using a false system of accounting. Memo To: Amnesty Committee Advisors From: The Office of the President Re: List of Prisoners Note: To preserve the prisoner’s identity from the press. Number 6 is an unemployed woman. but drug laws are very strict in this country. This was not the first time that she had stolen food. and she had been warned. He wants his advisors to recommend which SIX prisoners should be released from jail. names have been withheld from this memo. Examine the facts of nine prisoners carefully and present your decisions in a written formal letter. Please inform the President of your final decision. Number 4 is a 24-year-old student and activist. He is serving a ten-year sentence. Number 5 is a 40-year-old businessman. She was arrested for stealing food from a supermarket. He broke into the police’s computer system and tried to erase his previous criminal record (some parking tickets). He was charged with manslaughter after he hit and killed a child while driving drunk. She is serving an eight-year sentence. He is a leader of a non-violent social movement and did not participate directly in any violent acts during his protests. He has no previous criminal record. He is serving a three-year sentence. Number 2 is a 55-year-old engineer. All are considered as very little risk to society. He was arrested during an antiglobalization protest and charged with terrorism. The president has provided each group of advisors with a list of potential prisoners. He is serving a five-year sentence. She says it was for personal use. . Here follows a list of the nine prisoners up for a possibility of amnesty.NEW PRESIDENT OFFERS AMNESTY! He has called a meeting of his advisors (you) to decide which prisoners should be released. He is serving a ten-year sentence. He was also charged with fraud after police discovered he had hacked into a pizza company’s computer and ordered himself free pizzas for over a year. Number 1 is a 20-year-old student. She is serving a five-year sentence. She was charged with drug dealing when police found half a kilogram of marijuana in her apartment.
Number 7 is a prisoner of war. He was taken prisoner during the last war with the country’s neighbours six years ago. He was a marine and engineer and was responsible for bombing a small village in the mountains. He says he was following orders. The two countries are now at peace. He is serving a twenty-year sentence. Number 8 is a landlord. He was arrested for keeping a block of flats in very dirty, and some cases dangerous conditions. He was also renting the apartments to illegal immigrants and charging a lot of money for them. He is serving a seven-year sentence. Number 9 is a politician. She was a leading member of the Ultra political party, an extreme group who believed that criminals should be executed and immigrants expelled from the country. The Ultra party is very weak now. She was arrested for stealing party funds and is serving a ten-year jail sentence. 9. Comment on the statements below: The lawyer's truth is not Truth, but consistency or a consistent expediency. (Henry David Thoreau) A lawyer will do anything to win a case, sometimes he will even tell the truth. (Barton Holyday) It takes a good shovelful of earth to bury the truth. (Proverb) Children and fools cannot lie. (Proverb)
7. BRANCHES OF LAW Where you find the laws most numerous, there you will find also the greatest injustice. ~ Arcesilaus Stop & Think. What legal subjects do you study this year? In groups brainstorm as many subjects as you can think of which make up a law degree. In order to understand the many different aspects of law it is helpful to look at the various areas or classifications of law. There are many legal principles or rules of law that are found in statutes, cases decided by courts, and other sources that are applied by the courts in order to decide lawsuits. These principles of law are classified as substantive law. On the other hand, the legal procedures that provide how a lawsuit is begun, how the trial is conducted, how appeals are taken, and how a judgment is enforced are called procedural law. In other words, substantive law is that part of law that defines rights, and procedural law establishes the procedures according to which rights are enforced and protected. Law is also frequently classified into areas of public and private law. Public law includes those branches of law that affect the public generally; private law includes the areas of the law that are concerned with the relationship between individuals. Public law may be divided into three general categories: 1. constitutional law, which concerns with the study, interpretation, and application of a state’s constitution, including the issues of governance, the powers of the branches of government, civil liberties, and civil rights. 2. administrative law, which concerns with different governing administrative agencies - that is, the agencies created by Congress or state legislatures. 3. criminal law, which consists of rules and statutes that forbid certain conduct and provides punishment for violation of these laws. Private law is the branch of law that deals with the relationships between individuals in an organized society. Private law considers the subjects of contracts, torts and property. Each of these subjects includes several branches of law. For example, the law of contracts may be subdivided into the subjects of sales, commercial paper, business organizations. The law of torts is the primary source of litigation in country. A tort is a wrong committed by one person against another person or his property. In a civilized society people who injure other persons or their property should compensate them for their loss. The law of property may be thought as a branch of the law of contracts. In any case property is the basic ingredient in our economic system, and the subject matter may be subdivided into several areas such as wills, trusts, and estate in land, personal property and many more. BASIC VOCABULARY To apply To enforce Governance to put to practical use; to put in an application or request to ensure and impose observance of or obedience to (a law, decision, etc.) the action, manner, or system of governing/controlling
Legislature Sale Wrong (n.) Loss Trust Estate in land
a body of persons vested with power to make, amend, and repeal laws the exchange of goods, property, or services for an agreed sum of money or credit violation of another person's rights, rendering the offender liable to a civil action, as for breach of contract or tort the act or an instance of losing an arrangement whereby a person to whom the legal title to property is conveyed (the trustee) holds such property for the benefit of those entitled to the beneficial interest an interest in land that is provided with certain rights and obligations, and carries a right to occupy or receive the benefit of the land
1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is substantive law according to the classification of law? 2. What is procedural law? 3. Into what areas is law frequently classified? 4. What does public law include? 5. Into what three general categories may public law be divided? 6. What is private law? 7. What is the primary source of litigation? 8. What is property? 2. Are the following statements true or false? Correct the false ones. T/F 1. In order to understand the many different aspects of law it is useful to look at few classifications of law. T/F 2. Law is often classified into areas of public and constitutional law. T/F 3. Public law may be divided into three general categories: constitutional, administrative and penal law. T/F 4. Civil law consists of rules and statutes that forbid certain conduct and provides punishment for the violation of these rules. T/F 5. Private law includes the subjects of contracts, torts and property. T/F 6. A tort is a wrong committed by one person against another one or his property. T/F 7. Property is the main ingredient in any economic system.] 3. Translate the following words and word combinations: procedural law proprietate privată частная собственность commercial paper to provide punishment for violation of law drept public şi privat prejudiciu sistem economic публичное и частное право to decide lawsuits деликт/гражданское правонарушение экономический строй legal principles subject of sale
family law 9. branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing patents j. the totality of standards and principles that regulates the relationships between states and international organizations . 3. 6. laws and regulations. law that deals with family relations e. law established by following judicial decisions given in earlier cases c. the law that consists of the totality of the juridical standards regarding business activity g. Roman law 12. labour law a. that is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States d. the body of law based on judicial decisions and custom.drept contractual договорное право. How many meanings can you find to these words? wrong subject body 5. international law 13. as distinct from statute law f. 5. the legal system of England and Wales. patent law 10. codified under Justinian and forming the basis of many modern legal systems b. penal law 11. which exclusively govern activities at sea or in any navigable waters h. the law of a state relating to private and civilian affairs i. договорно-обязательственное право 4. so as to achieve what is sometimes referred to as "natural justice" l. the body of law dealing with the constitution of offences and the punishment of offenders k. including international agreements and treaties. Match the terms with their definitions: 1. common law English law judge-made/case law civil law maritime law business/commercial/trade law 7. those areas of law which appertain to the relationship between employers and employees and between employers and trade unions m. which supplement strict rules of law where their application would operate harshly. the system of jurisprudence of ancient Rome. the set of legal principles. 2. law of equity 8. 4. in jurisdictions following the English common law tradition.
are subjects of private law 7. public law includes bodies of law that 2. . you would like some background information on the courses taught in your university. study the following information: You are a student of law. subjects of the property law are a. trusts. Role-Play. You receive a phone call from an Australian professor who is coming to your faculty next week for a series of lectures and wants to enquire about courses taught in your faculty. Call the Faculty Office. e. In order to prepare your lectures. estates in land. a branch of the law of contracts d. explaining who you are and asking for the relevant information. the property law is often thought as 6. compensate their loss b. this information will help you: You are a Professor of Civil Law at the University of Canberra. etc. If you are a student. Answer the professor’s questions and offer to send an e-mail message with detailed explanations of the courses that are of particular interest to him. for injuring people you have to 5. He needs some information about your courses. He is calling the Faculty Office and speaks to a student who is working there part-time. and are coming to Moldova next week to give a series of lectures to 1st-year students of law. affect the public c. Australia. punishment is provided for 4. Remember to check the e-mail address If you are a professor. violation of law f. write an e-mail message to the Australian Professor and give him details about your curriculum.6. wills. Ask for details concerning the courses you are interested With a classmate. relationship between individuals 3. A Telephone Conversation A visiting lecturer from Australia is coming to your law faculty to give a series of lectures. working part-time in the Faculty Office. Prepare what you are going to enquire about. Match the elements of the phrases from the text: 1.
Normele dreptului constituţional consolidează baza constituţională a sistemului social. dreptul penal. в законах о гражданстве). Значительная часть норм конституционного права Республики Молдова содержится в Конституции Республики Молдова. . dreptul financiar. Правовая система Правовая система включает в себя следующие основные отрасли: государственное. земельное. dreptul muncii. dreptul funciar. dreptul civil. уголовное. dreptul familiei.п. что государственное (иногда оно именуется конституционным) право формирует основные принципы. гражданское. которые составляют основу для других отраслей права. семейное. Translate the following text into English. а также в других законодательных актах (например. sistemul puterii de stat şi altor aspecte ale organizării de stat. care de fapt sunt baza altor ramuri legale. Partea de bază a normelor dreptului constituţional al Republicii Moldova sunt stipulate în Constituţia Republicii Moldova. Sistemul legal Ramurile de bază ale sistemului de drept sunt constituite din: dreptul constituţional.8. Dreptul statal este cel mai important dintre toate ramurile sistemului legal. dreptul administrativ. финансовое. трудовое. систему государственной власти и другие вопросы государственного устройства. Это связано с тем. гражданское процессуальное и уголовнопроцессуальное и т. de asemenea şi în alte acte juridice (de exemplu. a drepturilor umane. административное. etc. deoarece dreptul legal (cîteodata denumindu-se şi constituţional) formează principiile de bază. dreptul procedural-civil proceduralpenal. Нормы конституционного права закрепляют основы конституционного строя. în drept de cetăţenie). правовое положение личности. Ведущее место в системе права занимает государственное право.
The state may be involved in a civil case as a party if it is suing or being sued for a wrongful act . the court usually orders the defendant to pay compensation (money).for example. Examples of what civil law deals with are: • marriage and divorce • if someone owes you money • rent agreements • evictions • damage to property • injuries to people • disputes over a hire-purchase agreement. Usually the state is not the complainant (the one making a charge). such as a member of the police or defence force. or fined. or punished in some other way. or stop doing. So if. to stop damaging the plaintiff's property. A criminal case can be brought against anyone who broke the law. you are unlawfully assaulted or shot by a member of the police or defence force you can bring a criminal case against them. but any person or individual can be the complainant and lay a charge against another person or against the state. . Sometimes the court may also order a defendant to do. ~Plato There are two main kinds of law: CRIMINAL LAW and CIVIL LAW. including a person who works for the state. If the plaintiff wins the case. the person can be sent to prison. Constitutional law affects both of them. A civil case is usually brought by a person (called the plaintiff) who feels that he or she was wronged by another person (called the defendant). The state prosecutes. 'Prosecutes' means the state makes a charge against someone. If the court finds the person guilty. Examples of different crimes and breaking the law are: • rape • public violence • assault • theft • trespass. if government property is damaged or a government official injures somebody without good reason. Criminal law In a criminal case the state prosecutes the accused person for committing a crime or breaking the law. for example.for example. KINDS OF LAW: CRIMINAL AND CIVIL Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly. The state does not take sides in a dispute between private people. Civil law Civil law is the set of rules for your private relationships with other people. something . while bad people will find a way around the laws.8.
he may be punished by the state.the whole body of evidence upon which the verdict of a court is based 1. This is a damage that one person does to another person. Answer the following questions: 1. validity. The injured worker could sue Mr Fick for damages and make him pay compensation for medical expenses. to be in debt a properly executed and legally binding accord or contract (in civil law) deprivation of buyer’s property according to the court decision a person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law to institute legal proceedings (against) a violent attack. If there is enough proof to show that he is guilty. . quality. For example. BASIC VOCABULARY Criminal law Charge Fine Trespass Complainant Plaintiff Civil law To owe Agreement Eviction Defendant To sue Assault Proof the law that deals with the constitution of offences and the punishment of offenders a formal accusation brought against a person stating the crime that he is alleged to have committed (noun) a certain amount of money exacted as a penalty. etc. (verb) to impose to pay a certain amount of money exacted as a penalty the intentional and wrongful invasion of another's real property a person who makes a formal charge in the court of law a person who brings a civil action in a court of law (also known as claimant) the law of a state relating to private and civilian affairs to be under an obligation to pay (someone) to the amount of. 2. This will be a civil claim for damages through the civil court. 3.any evidence that establishes or helps to establish the truth. The state will prosecute him in the criminal court if the worker lays a charge against him.. 4. of something. But Piet Fick ALSO causes pain to the worker. Piet Fick hits one of the workers in his factory. What kinds of law do you know? What do we mean by the term ‘to prosecute’? What can happen with a person if he/she is found guilty by the court of law? Give examples of criminal actions. This is a crime of assault. either physical or verbal .Criminal and civil actions Sometimes a person's act may lead to both criminal and civil actions. . lost wages and pain and suffering.
wages ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. individual d. case ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Who brings a civil case in the court of law? What are the basic differences between criminal and civil law? 2. Join pairs of antonyms. defence ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. to rent ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. to observe/follow the law 6. 6. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below: plângere a comite o crimă a încălca legea a plăti despăgubiri /recompensa (pentru) a amenda a trimite pe cineva la închisoare иск cовершить преступление нарушать закон выплачивать компенсацию налагать штраф сесть в тюрьму/быть приговорённым к тюремному заключению . 7. 1. defendant 4. to be sent to prison g. What do we mean by ‘civil law’? Give examples of civil actions. Find synonyms for the following words: 1. to sell 3. to purchase 3. prison ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. to lose an action a. marriage b. plaintiff e. juridical person 7. to be released from prison 2. to win a case c. to break the law f.5. divorce 5. to break the law ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. individual ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. 8.
takes away people by force and demands money for their return l. a bigamist Definition Translation a. attacks and robs people. Law Breaker 1. etc. kills someone g. a traitor 23. uses violence for political reasons n.a aduce cuiva o acuzaţie cheltuieli medicale răpire furt 5. an accomplice 11. a drug dealer 12. brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax y. a robber 21. a spy 13. steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer f. by force from people or places v. an offender 5. marries illegally. an arsonist 2. Law breakers. buys and sells drugs illegally k. is a soldier who runs away from the army x. a deserter 25. a murderer 8. a forger 20. a mugger 4. a pickpocket 10. often in the street b. a stowaway 17. a terrorist 14. breaks into houses or other buildings to steal e. being married already w. gets secret information from another country j. предъявлять обвинение против кого-либо расходы на медицинское обслуживание изнасилование кража 1 2 3 a) Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right. takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change course q. is a member of a criminal group u. hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey p. a gangster 24. murders for political reasons or a reward r. sets fire to property illegally c. is someone who steals s. helps a criminal in a criminal act m. a hijacker 19. a hooligan 16. a smuggler 22. steals money. a shop-lifter 3. a burglar 7. a thief 18. a kidnapper 9. causes damage or disturbance in public places o. makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures t. a vandal 6. an assassin 15. steals things from people’s pockets in crowded places i. is anyone who breaks the law d. deliberately causes damage to property h. betrays his or her country to another state .
The insurance company refused to pay.000 for the rare cigars he had lost 'in the fires'. stated nevertheless that the man held a policy from the company in which it had warranted that the cigars were insurable and also guaranteed that it would insure against fire. Can you think of cases related to both civil and criminal law? In pairs prepare to describe such cases to the class.and won. having smoked his entire stockpile. The man sued . . however. parties involved. His own insurance claim and testimony from the previous case being used against him. and was obliged to pay the claim. Read it and identify the purpose of the action. stating that the cigars were lost 'in a series of small fires'.000 fine. against fire. Strange but True Story of the Cigars A man from Charlotte. After he cashed the cheque. agreeing that the claim was frivolous. citing the obvious reason that the man had consumed the cigars in the normal fashion. Within a month. In delivering the ruling the judge. the company had him arrested on 24 counts of arson. Here is an example of a case where set of events can lead to both criminal and civil actions. the man filed a claim against the insurance company. Rather than endure a lengthy and costly appeal the insurance company accepted the ruling and paid the man $15.b) Group the law-breakers according to the following classification: Law-breakers who commit crimes against the person Law-breakers who commit crimes against property Public order offenders Sexual offenders Political offenders Offenders who commit crimes against justice 6. decision taken and sanctions. without defining what it considered to be 'unacceptable fire' . insured them. the man was convicted of intentionally burning his insured property and sentenced to 24 months in jail and a $24. among other things. having purchased a case of very expensive cigars. North Carolina.
soldată cu decesul Alei Hamureac. где через неделю Хамуряк скончалась. Однако в центре ей не оказали должного внимания и лечения.7. что в ее смерти виновны медики. Punishments and penalties. Хамуряк. она впала в кому. им грозит до пяти лет лишения свободы и запрет на такой же срок заниматься врачебной деятельностью. 1. Если суд определит. Hamureac. при этом самой роженице не нашлось места в машине скорой помощи. Check your knowledge of punishment and penalty vocabulary with this quiz. тяжело перенесшая роды. Agenţia INFOTAG transmite cu referire la surse din Procuratura Generală că. În cazul în care medicii vor fi găsiţi vinovaţi de deces. dar în ambulanţă nu s-a găsit loc şi pentru mamă. unde a intrat în comă. ea a fost trimisă înapoi la spitalul din Ungheni. Поскольку роды прошли с осложнениями. ребенка отправили в Кишиневский центр матери и ребенка. ei riscă pînă la 5 ani de închisoare şi interdicţia practicării activităţii medicale pe parcursul următorilor 5 ani. Femeia a leşinat şi nu a putut fi readusă în cunoştinţă nici în secţia de reanimare. Translate the following article into English. более того. 8. Procuratura Ungheni a deschis un dosar penal pe numele unor lucrători medicali. Медики спохватились. MEDICI DIN CHIŞINĂU RISCĂ SĂ FIE CONDAMNAŢI PENTRU ATITUDINEA INUMANĂ FAŢĂ DE O PACIENTĂ Chişinău. Naşterea a decurs cu complicaţii şi copilul a fost trimis la Centrul Sănătăţii Mamei şi Copilului din Chişinău. pe 4 noiembrie 2006. только когда женщина потеряла сознание. родила ребёнка в Унгенской райбольнице. acuzaţi de ignorarea regulilor şi metodelor de asistenţă medicală. И в таком состоянии роженицу спустя 40 дней отправили 27 декабря обратно в районную больницу. эта жительница села Романовка 4 ноября 2006 г. КИШИНЕВСКИЕ МЕДИКИ МОГУТ БЫТЬ ОСУЖДЕНЫ ЗА БЕССЕРДЕЧНОЕ ОТНОШЕНИЕ К ИНОГОРОДНЕЙ ПАЦИЕНТКЕ Кишинев. Прокуратура города Унгень возбудила уголовное дело по факту пренебрежения правилами и методами оказания медицинской помощи. В реанимации ее не удалось привести в сознание. Punish is the verb and punishment is the noun. dar la Centru nu i s-a acordat atenţia şi tratamentul cuvenite. a fost nevoită să ajungă în capitală cu o maşină de ocazie. femeia a născut un copil la spitalul raional din Ungheni. care de asemenea a suportat naşterea cu mare greu. but what is the adjective form of the word? What are the verb and adjective forms of the noun penalty? . peste 40 de zile. что привело к смерти 28-летней Аллы Хамуряк. În această stare. Как сообщили "ИНФОТАГ" в Генеральной прокуратуре. locuitoarea satului Romanovca. unde a decedat cu o săptămînă mai tîrziu. вынуждена была добираться в столицу на попутной машине. în vîrstă de 28 de ani.
Prepare your arguments for and against the statements below. injury or hardship? (Clue: it begins with c and ends with n) Mr. or run concurrently. What happens to the people who receive these punishments? In Moldova. Smith goes to the Bahamas to start a new life. 13. an English court applies a freezing order to Mr. 6. 7. and 1 month in prison for refusing to pay her council tax. If he is found not guilty. the same man is stopped again. 5. they have to go to prison. Appoint the ‘Chair’ of the debate who will give the floor to the speakers of the both teams. What is the maximum length of time the woman will spend in prison? True or false: If someone receives a community service order. What do we call money that is paid from one party to another to cover the cost of damage. he is ateqciutd. Society helps prisoners make the transition from prison to the community. a man is stopped by the police for driving at 95 in a 50mph zone. Society is not ready to accept ex-prisoners. What will probably happen to him now? Rearrange the letters in bold to make words. Choose the most appropriate word in bold in this sentence: 'The court ordered the defendant to pay purgative / punishing / punitive / pugnacious damages to the claimant for the emotional distress he had caused. The judge tells her that these sentences will be concurrent. a suspended sentence and probation? What is the maximum penalty allowed for crime in the United Kingdom? Prison is a noun. They will always be objects of suspicion in the community. 4.2. The first and last letters of each word are in the correct place: 'If a defendant is found guilty of an offence in a court of law. 8. 12. 4 months in prison for selling drugs. 3. 11. Choose the correct word in bold in this sentence: An injection / injunction / injury / injustice is a court order telling someone to stop doing something.' What do we call a punishment which is considered to be strong enough to stop someone from committing a crime? Is it: (a) a detergent (b) a deterrent (c) a detriment (d) a determinant? Some countries still have corporal punishment and some still have capital punishment. and the police discover that he has been drinking alcohol and has over twice the allowed limit of alcohol in his body. While he is there. Smith's assets. Reintegration: a Real Process or a Meaningless Word? Read the statements below attentively and work in groups – pro and con. he is ciecnotvd. Would Mr. What will (probably) happen to him? Next week. Smith be happy or unhappy about this? 9. 9. 14. loss. Debate. It’s never too late to start . 15. What is the verb form of this word? A woman is sentenced to 6 months in prison for theft. 10. or not to do something.' What's the difference between a custodial sentence.
also known as ‘domestic relations’ law that deals with family relations. or by an adult on a child. There are various divorce formulas: divorce for fault. 80 to 90% of divorce proceedings are undefended. divorce for contract’s frustration. which is becoming almost universal. such as incurable mental diseases or disappearance of the spouse.as to property and the custody of children . FAMILY LAW The family is one of nature's masterpieces. Before getting married couples may be involved in substantial decision to property. either of blood or of marriage. A marriage can terminate as a human relationship before it is dissolved by law. In order to satisfy the requirement of a voluntary consent to a marriage. . It concerns with such subjects as adoption. criminal law). divorce by mutual agreement.will merely confirm arrangements that have already been made by the parties. support and child care.g. estate planning. such as adultery. is a voluntary exchange of promises between the man and the woman. cruelty or imprisonment. The ceremony itself is normally an exchange of consents accompanied by religious observances or a civil ceremony (or both).9. paternity. etc. One of the issues that has received much attention is the very difficult problem of violence within the family. family law has been closely connected with the law of property. marriage. Some systems require parental consent to marriage when the parties are above the minimum age. The problem is one of social importance and some studies indicate that a high proportion of violent crime originates in family units. Family law also shares an interest in some social issues with other areas of law (e. Most modern legal systems provide for a legal minimum age of marriage from 15 to 20 years. In the United States and Canada. Other laws forbid marriage between persons having certain ties of relationship. The modern idea of marriage. In old legal systems. Often the court rulings . separation.. The purpose of the legal formalities is to differentiate the relationship from concubinage allowing to legally recognize custody of children. a party must have reached an age at which he or she is able to give a meaningful consent. and divorce on the ground that the marriage has broken down. ~ George Santayana Family law is a branch or specialty of law. And the standard method of dissolving a marriage usually resulted in the return of the woman to the power of her family. A complicating factor in divorce law is the question of giving recognition to foreign divorces. separation agreement. So a person living a jurisdiction in which divorce is difficult to obtain may be able to go to another country in which divorce laws are more liberal. It has origins in the economic law. marriage was regarded as the transfer of a woman from the power of her family to that of her husband under terms specified in the marriage contract. these matters now tend to be automatic (when there is no marriage contract) or to be formalized separately. This may take the form of physical violence by one adult member on another (in this case the woman is almost always the victim). In the past. divorce. rights under matrimonial regimes. child custody and visitation. The divorce laws of countries and states differ.
find antonyms for the following words and make sentences with them: maximum forced adult to allow unification divorce . death. 5.BASIC VOCABULARY Adoption a legal proceeding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood. 7. the right of guardianship of a child the whole property or possessions acceptance or approval of what is planned or done by another the act of living together without being married to come or bring to an end sexual unfaithfulness of a husband or wife [Latin adulterium] legal termination of a contract due to unforeseen circumstances that (1) prevent achievement of its objectives. 9. 4. or (3) make it practically impossible to execute a person or thing that suffers harm. What is family law? What are the origins of family law? What is marriage? What is the minimum age of marriage? Do you think that marriage contract is the best solution of marital-property problems? Why is society interested in legal regulation of familial relationships? What are the most common divorce formulas? What is foreign divorce? Does the problem of family violence exist in Moldova? 2. either by mutual agreement or under a decree of a court the fact or state of being a father the act of keeping safe or guarding. circumstance. etc. 3. 6. In the text. etc. 2. 8. esp. the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents (including the right to inherit) the termination of cohabitation (living together) between a man and wife. Answer the following questions: 1.. (2) render its performance illegal. from another or from some adverse (negative) act. Separation Paternity Custody Estate Consent Concubinage To dissolve Adultery Frustration of a contract Victim 1.
domestic relations law 2.. business law k. civil. illness i. The ceremony. the standard method of dissolving a …………. spouse a. Correct mistakes in the sentences given below. disease 12. A high proportion of violent …………. 4. law.3. religious. marriage contract 7. an. marital agreement g. paternal h. a branch. 4. itself. In old legal sistems. mariage was regarded as the transfer of a woman from the power of her family to that of her husband under term specifyed in the mariage contract. You can find the right versions in the text. only b. on a child. is. consents. and. promises. marriage 6. relations. idea of. 2. connected 4. The modern. matrimony e. can. 2. A marriage. a wife or a husband m. normally. important c. 1. law. human. woman. 6. support 3. 3. terminate. of countries and states differ. law. substantial 13. In the past. by. a relationship. Family violence may take the form of …………. deals with. related 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4. merely 11. exchange. dissolved. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: 1. 6. parental 10. is. 1. exchange of. of. Some systems require ………… consent to marriage when the parties are ………… the minimum age. that. or. to tend to 9. The divorce ………. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. They can be found in the text. as. violence by one adult member on another or by an ……….… to the power of her family. a. help l. thise matters now tends to be automatic (when there is no mariage contract) or to be formalised separatly. 5. the. Make up sentences out of these words and expressions. to aim at j. is. 5. the man. 2. family law has been closely connected with the law of ……………… . family. of. freewill f. ceremony. 3. is. by. accompanied. voluntary 8. specialty. before. usually was in the return of the ……. a voluntary. or. observances. originates in family ………… . marriage. it. Before geting maried couples may be involved in substantal decision to property. economic law 5. Family. between. family law d. . In old legal systems.
........... 1 2 3 4 5 had been modified were revised permitted have been permitted neither .(5) on the customary laws of the territory............... This gives rise to complex problems in the case of tribal. The age limits for marriage.. Divorce Case a) Make as many words as they can using these letters: PAITNSHEROLI .. a party must have reached an age at which he or she is able to give a meaningfull consent......... Polygamous marriages . ethnic.... Modern marriage law regards marriage as a civil transaction and allows only monogamous unions...........3. (1) by the changed cultural and social conditions of modern industrialized and urbanized life.... or religious intermarriage..... but polygany was decreasing in almost all Muslim countries by the late 20th century... Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below: drept familial vizitarea copilului îngrijire de copii concubinaj consimţămînt părintesc desfacerea căsătoriei detenţiune cu închisoarea zădărnicie a unui contract violenţa familială cемейное право посещение ребёнка забота о ребёнке внебрачное сожительство родительское благословение расторжение брака тюремное заключение тщетность договора/ недостижимость цели договора насилие в семье 1.. The regulation of marital relations is based ........ (3) the practice of polygamy.... (4) under customary laws in many African nations. or 9. In order to satisfy the requirment of a voluntary consent to a mariage..... nor has been modified have been revised has permitted were permitted or .... but there is growing tendency toward monogamy.. 2...... (2) upward in most countries to 15-21 years of age. ... 7. which formely permitted 12-year-olds or even younger persons to marry.... Islamic law ......... 8.. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate verb forms from the table: The marriage law of most Western European nations and of the USA is the product of Roman Catholic law that ..(5) on religion... There is no uniform marriage law in many developing African countries. either was modified had been revised permits are permitted either ..............
. They aren’t getting along very well. a three-bedroom house in a nice part of town. She works very long hours and earns a lot of money. He also wants Cristina to pay $1000 a month for child support. Cristina Ford Cristina Ford is a forty-year-old advertising executive. Cristina can see her daughter every two weeks and have her for the summer holidays. They’re going through a rough patch. John also wants $25 000 compensation because he feels he sacrificed his work to raise Olivia. They are still in a honeymoon period. the family dog. They began to have problems in their marriage after Olivia was born. Which ones indicate that they are in a happy relationship. She refuses to give John any money at all. You must come to a decision and make some clear recommendations. He worked for many years in a bookshop. Ford. and has stayed at home to take care of her for the past four years. · The summer beach apartment so he can write there. John wants: · Full custody of Olivia.b) Look at these expressions about John and Cristina. Cristina has worked and supported the family. but are now very angry with one another. · Charlie. At the moment he is trying to write a novel. John Ford John Ford is an unemployed forty-two year old man. the family dog. Cristina wants: · Full custody of Olivia. d) Now discuss with the other judges in your group. YOU are responsible for divorce cases where the husband and wife cannot agree. c) Imagine you are judges. She can’t put up with him any more. They can’t see enough of each other. · Cristina wants to sell the summer beach apartment and share the money. Today you have been presented with another difficult case: Ford vs. Since their daughter Olivia was born four years ago. They’re going (their) separate ways. · John wants to sell the family house in the city and share the money. · The family house. John can see his daughter every two weeks and have her for the summer holidays. Write your recommendations. Their relationship is on the rocks. They stick together through thick and thin. and which expressions indicate that they are in an unhappy relationship? Write H for happy and U for unhappy next to each sentence. · Charlie. The Divorce John and Cristina got married ten years ago. They have decided to get divorced. She does not want any money from John. Read about the case below. He stopped working when their daughter Olivia was born.
in which they assured the conditions for a great number of people to meet in certain periods of time and in places already established. Other popular areas refer to insurance. The Antiquity In ancient times. commercial law establishes not only the production (industry). negotiable instruments. Thus. The Modern Period It was the period when the written law of commerce appeared. the French Commercial Code was adopted. A corporation consisted of all commercial men and handicraftsmen from the same field and the leader was a consul. ~ English proverb Business law (also known as commercial law) consists of the totality of the juridical standards regarding interposing and circulation of merchandise from the producer to the consumer. in order to solve litigations between the members of a corporation. consumer and creditor protection. the first manifestation of exchange appeared at the same time with the emerging of the idea of property. In the good years of Rome there were juridical institutions regarding traders’ activity. He could not restrict the sellers to volume of sales or time. Holland. The Greeks were the first who established rules regarding traders’ activity. . establishing rules both for commercial and non-commercial men. Brazil. a great number of countries (Italy. helped around by councillors. and Egypt) took over the French Commercial Code as their own. the tradesmen began to organize themselves in corporations (called universitaria) which significantly obtained the administrative. Under the influence of the French Revolution. representing one of the five codes of Napoleon. banking. a primitive form of exchange of goods (services) for other goods (or services) without the use of money. In England and the United States the common law is used. It includes all aspects of business. In this way appeared the barter. In order to defend their rights. And instead of a uniform law. including advertising and marketing. In 1807. The fundamental concepts of the Napoleonic codification are freedom of contract and the assertion of ownership as an absolute right. transactions. COMMERCIAL LAW A lawyer’s opinion is worth nothing unless paid for. In order to satisfy their vital needs. starting with Charles IX’s edict issued in 1563. juridical and even legislative autonomy. the city agoranomos (market supervisor) had to ensure that sellers sell fairly and use the city’s weights and measures. From the juridical point of view.10. contracts. and trade in general. The consul issued internal standards. The first country that passed from common law to written law for the whole territory was France. collections and bankruptcy. These norms were collected in statutes. wills and estate planning. the collapse of Roman Empire determined the division of political power. The Middle Ages In the Middle ages. people started to exchange their products between themselves. Belgium. Spain. but also the circulation (distribution) of wares. The continuous increase of the people’s needs determined certain forms of organization. based on customs. This way appeared the markets. there appeared the specific law for the different states that resulted.
. Answer the following questions: 1. Which are the first organizations of tradesmen in the Middle Ages? 6. proprietorship regulation or statute that protects a person’s right to be left alone. What are the fundamental principles of the first French Commercial Code? .the right or state of self-government.Nowadays various regulatory schemes control the way commerce is conducted. . food and drug laws are some examples. What is business law? 2. etc. How and where did the first markets appear? 5. medical. when limited. a retail dealer . esp. What is barter? Is it still used? 4. and governs collection and release of his/her financial. usually made without an attempt at furnishing evidence.the business that specializes in creating such publicity the science/process of interesting potential customers and clients in products or services. safety laws. Privacy laws.the state or fact of being an owner.a sudden large decline of business or the prices of stocks.a measure of the heaviness of an object. Who was the leader of the medieval organizations of tradesmen? 7. such as radio or television. . and other personal information A law passed by US Congress to prevent employees from being injured or contracting diseases in the coarse of their employment - 1. . behaviour. When and where was the first Commercial Code adopted? 8. promoting.legal right of possession.a system of units used to express the weight of a substance . esp. . . the amount anything weighs. BASIC VOCABULARY Advertising Marketing Bankruptcy Transaction Wares Weight Collapse Tradesman Autonomy Handicraftsma n Assertion Ownership Privacy law Safety law the promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media.a sudden failure or breakdown a man engaged in trade. selling and distributing of goods/services the legal process in which a person or firm declares inability to pay debts the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service articles of manufacture considered as being for sale .freedom to determine one's own actions. a man skilled in manual work a positive statement. How did commercial law appear in ancient times? 3. it involves researching.the act of affirming or stating something .
Find common collocations (sometimes more than one solution is possible): black money illegal commerce advertising absolute goods legal 3.9. A primitive form of exchange was the ……………. instruments. contracts. Fill in the blanks with the missing words: 1. . 4. law is used to establish rules both for commercial and noncommercial men. In Medieval times a corporation consisted of all …………. In England the …………. 2. and trade ………… general. Is there any difference between the Commercial Codes of the states? 2. including advertising and marketing. of business.. banking. and use the city’s weights and …………… . ………………. 4. collections and bankruptcy.. helped around by ………………. Business law includes all ……………. Find as many synonyms as possible for the following words and make up sentences with them: wares __________________________________________________________________________ bankruptcy __________________________________________________________________________ distribution __________________________________________________________________________ tradesman __________________________________________________________________________ assertion __________________________________________________________________________ ancientness __________________________________________________________________________ business consultant circulation in bribe delivery market owner power . 3.. In Ancient Greece market supervisors had to ensure that the sellers sell …………. .. 5. men and ………………… from the same field and the leader was a ………………. transactions..
T/F 3. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones. consumer and creditor protection. a big number of countries took over the French Commercial Code as their own. 7. Translate the following words and word combinations: regulile de securitate asigurare (unitate de) măsură vînzare meşteşugar правила техники безопасности страхование vital needs единица измерения. T/F 1. in order to satisfy their vital needs. T/F 7. сбыт collapse ремесленник written law ownership food law . juridical and legislative autonomy. The city agoranomos could restrict the sellers to volume of sales. people started to sell their products between themselves. wills. The Romans were the first who established the rules of traders’ activity. Consult your dictionary and explain the following terms: collection(s) producer consumer 6. In ancient times. Popular areas of business law include insurance. T/F 5. T/F 4.to ensure __________________________________________________________________________ uniform __________________________________________________________________________ 5. мера продажа. Under the influence of the French Revolution. tradesmen began to organize themselves in corporations which gradually obtained the administrative. T/F 2. estate planning. The French Commercial Code was adopted in 1907. T/F 6. In order to defend their rights.
books g. for which I also have to pay a nominal maintenance fee. and agreed to pay the balance in installments over the next three months. promise of action. loan agreement purchase agreement verbal contract employment contract tenancy (rent) agreement car-hire agreement. wares. treaty 13. thing produced by natural process or manufacture e. an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law. decree j. edict 10. etc. h. I gave him a £50 deposit. such as one made between people. I said that I needed a computer and suggested I bought his old one. exchange 8. process of exchanging of goods. the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law 9. namely states and international organizations m. 2. There are many different kinds of contract for different situations. and decide what kind of contract is being described or talked about. groups. the buying and selling of goods an services. There's a communal garden and a communal parking area. The . circulation 7. agreement 14. exchange of goods or immaterial things for other goods k. man skilled in a handicraft l. producer 4. I'm going round to collect the computer this evening. one who produces articles of consumption d. transmission. franchise agreement 1. or countries n. Look at the following paragraphs. a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce i. commerce 2. gas and phone bills are extra. and the rent is £650.8. businesses. barter 11. product 5. an individual or a household that purchases and uses goods/services generated within the economy f. goods for sale. My cousin Bob said he was going to get rid of his computer and buy a new one. handicraftsman 12. act. anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. The property is unfurnished. contract 9. Match the terms with their definitions: 1. order proclaimed by authority. we agreed on a price. distribution of things. business law a. exchange of merchandise. coins. commodities for commerce c. trade b. which has to be paid monthly in arrears. prisoners of war. news. consumer 6. merchandise 3. Anyway. Electricity.
However. It offers businesses the opportunity to reach a wider customer base. this gives you a monthly repayment figure of £275. Oh. If you are not happy with your merchandise. ____________ need to be assured that electronic contracts are as effective as contracts made traditionally.56. In return. . give us managerial assistance and provide advertising materials. 4. 10. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: ELECTRONIC COMMERCE signed parties legislative encode back agreement growing services reduced online Electronic commerce is already _____________ in importance and it will become even more important in future years. and of course to buy all the products we sell from them. Repaid in monthly over 3 years. This price includes unlimited kilometrage and fully insurance. A refuelling service charge will be applied if you do not replace the fuel you have used. which is payable in full before the goods can be delivered. although you may be asked to work overtime during busy periods. enabling consumers and businesses to purchase goods and _____________ from a wide range of suppliers. we have to meet specific requirements. we can arrange credit terms. following a 4-week probationary period.3. Alternatively. The rent of this car is £58 a day. This appointment is for a period of two years. The total amount you are borrowing from a bank is £9. and following the company's standard procedures. their trademark. your funds will be released into your bank account.46. 7.000 at an APR (Annual Percentage Rate) of 6. Your hours of work are 9 to 5 Monday to Friday. it can be returned for an exchange or full refund (but please note that this is valid for 28 days only and we will need to see your cheque or other proof of purchase). 6. 5. Your salary package includes an annual gross salary of £32. totalling £9. All goods are covered by the manufacturer's warranty. their trade names and products and wear their uniforms.000. The company has its own medical and pension schemes which you may join.916. They also provide our staff with all the necessary training.870. We're opening our own branch in the town centre next week. If you wish to make an early payment. the sum will be recalculated accordingly. I've signed this agreement for 18 months. The deal is simple: we get the right to use the company's name. maintaining good customer relations. As soon as you sign a form.6%. The total cost is £2. such as quality of service. landlord is responsible for any repairs to the property. which is valid for one year.
one online company estimated that eliminating paperwork fees ____________ costs up to $750. For example. An electronic contract is an _______________ created and “signed” in electronic form – in other words. travel companies. gas. to secure electronic contracts. The most secure method of signing contracts _____________ is the method known as Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). . water and telecommunications providers). 2. 3. E-commerce is profitable for companies that conduct business online. Somebody who gives a guarantee. Nowadays electronic contracts and electronic signatures are just as legal as traditional paper contracts ____________ in ink. commonly used with downloaded software. no paper or other hard copies are used. PKI uses an algorithm to code and __________ online documents. 11. A licence to trade using a brand name and paying a royalty for it. and electricity. A person who is appointed to deal with financial or other matters on behalf of another person. An e-contract can also be in the form of a “Click to Agree” contract. An official who investigates complaints by the public against government departments or other large organizations (especially banks. For example. 4. Only people who know the ‘key’ can have access to the information. and the business partner emails it __________ with an electronic signature indicating acceptance. Solve the crossword: 1.A number of ______________ instruments have now been adopted by the United Nations (1996). EU (2000) and etc. This way they save considerable sums of money. you write a contract on your computer and email it to a business partner.
8. Also the act of signing a bill of exchange to show that you agree to pay for it. Somebody who has committed a civil wrong to somebody. entitling the victim to claim damages. . 10. 9. The closing of a company and the selling of its assets. A failure to carry out the terms of an agreement. A payment made by a person or company to cover the cost of damage or hardship which he / she /it has caused. where one party agrees to what is proposed by the other party. 11. a contract. Attempts by a third party to make the two sides in an argument agree. The notifiable offence of telling lies when you have made an oath to say what is true in court. 12. One of the main conditions of a contract. 7. etc. 6. A document in which a company acknowledges it owes a debt and gives the company's assets as security.5.
15. A failure to give proper care to something. . or telling them not to do it in the first place. The good reputation of a business and its contacts with its customers (for example. The legal responsibility for paying someone for loss or damage incurred.13. A court order telling a person or a company to stop doing something. 16. with the result that a person or property is harmed. 17. or money awarded by a court to a claimant as a result of harm suffered by the claimant (Clue: this word has already appeared elsewhere in this exercise). the name of the product it sells or its popular appeal to customers). 14. especially a duty or responsibility. Money claimed by a claimant from a defendant because of harm or damage done.
adopted in 1970. The basic principles of the Charter of the United Nations. • sovereign equality of states. but which are not the object of their sovereignty: the liberty of seas. There are also . There are some standards which aim at rights concerning all the states. founded under the UN Charter. These fundamental principles are the peremptory norms of international law. After the failure of the Versailles Treaty and World War II. • equality of rights for all the nations and the right of nations to selfdetermination. • the good-faith accomplishment of assumed duties. William Fulbright International law can refer to: • public international law. • private international law or conflict of laws. • not to intervene in internal affairs of one state. • international co-operation. Public international law Public international law is the totality of standards and principles that regulates the relations between subjects of international law – states and intergovernmental organizations. • the observance of human rights and fundamental liberties. The fundamental principles of public international law contain general rules of conduct. The states cannot depart from these principles in their agreements. to the maintaining of international peace and security. Its modern corpus started to be developed in the middle of the 19th сentury. • the territorial integrity of states. • the settlement of international conflicts by peaceful means.11. INTERNATIONAL LAW Insofar as international law is observed. whose observance is essential to the development and co-operation between states. Three more principles were added at the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe held at Helsinki in 1975: • the inviolability of frontiers. The two World Wars. This proves the importance that all the states confer to these principles in the settlement of their relations. though custom can play an important role too. It is developed mainly through multilateral conventions. in their local or bilateral relations. it provides us with stability and order and with a means of predicting the behavior of those with whom we have reciprocal legal obligations. • the law of supranational organizations. the interdiction of piracy. the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations. are as follow: • not to resort to force and to threat by force. ~ J. the League of Nations and other international organizations such as the International Labour Organisation all contributed to accelerate this process and established much of the foundations of modern public international law.
rather than states.the power or ability to make a decision for oneself without influence from outside. Conflict of laws Conflict of laws. and specifying its purposes and rights the use of something as a means. the rules and manners of the war. governs conflicts between private persons.the right of a nation or people to determine its own form of government without influence from outside a task or action that a person is bound to perform for moral or legal reasons . What are the three types of international law? .admitting of no denial or contradiction. and fortune To intervene Self-determination Duties Peremptory Bilateral Dignity Slavery 1. . . where sovereign nations have joined their authority through a system of courts and political institutions. or "private international law" in civil law jurisdictions. bank. It constitutes a new legal order in international law for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.an adjustment or agreement reached in matters of finance. business. in order to protect one's interests . or recourse . etc. Multilateral Convention Custom Charter To resort (to) Settlement BASIC VOCABULARY of or involving more than two nations or parties an international agreement second only to a treaty in formality a practice which by long-established usage has come to have the force of law a formal document from the sovereign or state incorporating a city. liberty. Answer the following questions: 1.some humanitarian standards. considered by all states indispensable in order to guarantee the respecting of the elementary rights of life and human dignity: the interdiction of slavery. Supranational law The European Union is the first and only example (so far) of a supranational legal framework.obligatory rather than permissive affecting or undertaken by two parties. etc.. a civil relationship whereby one person has absolute power over another and controls his life.the determination of a dispute. college. etc to interpose and become a party to a legal action between others. precluding debate. The rise of international corporations increases the number of disputes among a unified legal framework Increasing numbers of businesses use commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958. . by mutual agreement without resorting to legal proceedings. help. esp.. mutual the state or quality of being worthy of honour the state or condition of being a slave.
safety g. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: In the …………… of the United Nations there are ………. to guarantee 15. Which are the added principles from the 1975 Helsinki Conference? 6. What are the subjects of public international law? 4. indispensable h. threat 10. conflict a. international ………………. frontier 13. Define public international law. to assure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4. basic. to quicken c. In the text find antonyms for the following words: private war disagreement ancient external to diminish inequality national 3. danger b. Which are the humanitarian standards related to international laws? 7. method(s) f. Which are the fundamental UN principles adopted in 1970? 5. force 9.. essential 5. obligation l. and to threat by ………………. sovereign ……………. to accelerate 7. multilateral 2. security 6. failure 8. many-sided d. means 11. 3. ……………… of rights and the right of nations to ………………. . dispute j. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. of states 4. What does private international law deal with? 8. fundamental 3. 3. principles: 1. to interfere n. What is supranational law? 2.. 2. behaviour i. conduct 4. duty 14. the good faith accomplishment of the ……………… duties 5. misfortune k. primary e. to intervene 12.2. power m. not to resort to ……………. boundary o.
Nations (1)……. the Canon Law of the Catholic Church had (2)…. But it failed to stop the tension that led to World War II. Law Merchant regulated trade across political frontiers.. by peaceful means. 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 has made an in anywhere can to have regulated left have made the to everywhere may to have been regulated had left had been making a into somewhere must to regulate has left .. In the fifteenth century. Japan). of Protestants and Catholics..6. their respective areas of interest. not to ……………. always ……… political and economic treaties with each other. important role. most international law has been created in the twentieth century. the settlement of international ……………. The 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. which called for equal treatment (4)………………. Nevertheless. The League of Nations was set up after World War I (6)…………… disputes between nations.. In the Medieval Europe. the Church mediated between Spain and Portugal by dividing the world (3)…….. partly because some powerful countries did not join (USA) and others (7)………… when they disagreed with its decisions (Germany. in internal affairs of one state 7. (5)………… be seen as an early international human rights law. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words from the table: International law is not new. But it led to important international legislation like the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war and the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees.
international responsibility. a 20th century phenomenon: about 90% of international organizations were organized in the period 1900-1956. . World Trade Organization. Organizations – open to members based on the mentioned above links.. The basic rules of international customary law can be sumarized in the folowing fundamental principals: sovereinty. and self-defense. 1. more sovereign states and maintaining …………. European Union. promote international co-operation on matters such as ………………. Organization of Islamic Conference. to render humanitarian aid. . that is. Like presept of international morality. the ……………. d) economic organizations – dedicated to free trade. develop) Common types of international organizations include: a) …………… organizations (this category includes the United Nations and its ……………. and to economic ………………. (region) c) ……………. agencies. or ……………. environment. protect. the rules of international law are of a normative caracter. of trade barriers (The World Trade Organization) and international development. ethnic. criteria. 5. recognition.. good faith.6. (globe. history). Fill in the blanks with the derivatives of the words in brackets: 1.. linguistic. These categories include the Council of Europe.. Correct grammar and spelling mistakes in the sentences given below. they proscribe standards of conduct. freedom of the seas. ………………. Organization of American States and etc. (member – 2 times) Their aims are to preserve peace through conflict ……………. Interpol. most) International organizations differ in function. (arrange) The …………… of international organizations has been ………. and the International Monetary Fund). and facilities to promote continuous activities by its members. Examples include the Commonwealth of Nations. (resolute. 4.... 2.. special) b) ……………. La Francophonie. International organization is any institution drawing its membership from two or 2. ………………… and ……………………. …………. (culture. 3. concent. (reduce) 7. to promote human rights. organizations – open to members from a particular region or continent of the world.. 3. In time of war. religion. Latin Union. and better international relations. permisible interference with enemy and neutral sheeping is regulated by the rules of sea warfare and prise law. (create.
anul naşterii 1965. Остальные данные и фото отправлены спецпочтой. Alte date şi poze sunt trimise cu poşta specială. Translate orally the following text: Deţinutul a evadat din închisoare centrală. Arestat pentru vînzarea armelor şi drogurilor. Numele deţinutului este Nicolas Aramis. Был в США и Италии. A fost în Statele Unite ale Americii şi Italia. 1965 г. 9. culoarea ochilor – căprui.8. глаза карие. Владеет английским и итальянским языками. немного выше среднего роста (175 см. Имя преступника Николай Армис. brunet. un pic mai înalt decît statura medie (175 cm. . рождения. брюнет.). Арестован за продажу оружия и наркотиков. Semne caracteristice: o cicatrice pe obrazul drept. Преступник бежал из Центральной тюрьмы. Особые приметы: шрам на правой щеке. Cunoaşte engleză şi italiană. Prepare a report (5-10 minutes) on one of the following topics: The Main Categories of Public International Law International Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations.).
SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS .
He even stopped attending his parole hearings because gaining his release would have meant confessing to a crime he didn't do." Woodard was sentenced to life in prison in July 1981 for the murder of a 21-year-old Dallas woman found raped and strangled near the banks of the Trinity River. free air. Woodard -." Woodard. Woodard said his family was "small and scattered. told the court.became the 18th person in Dallas County to be released from prison." Woodard said during a news conference in the courtroom after the hearing." Jeff Blackburn. "we don't believe her testimony was accurate.claim . according to the Innocence Project. a New York-based legal center that specializes in overturning wrongful convictions. James Lee Woodard stepped out of the courtroom and raised his arms to a throng* of photographers. Woodard has maintained his innocence throughout his time in prison. great number *write . 55.MAN CLEARED BY DNA FREE AFTER 27 YEARS DALLAS. "It says a lot about your character that you were more interested in the truth than your freedom. after being imprisoned longer than any other wrongfully convicted U. he told the world he was innocent . "I don't know what to expect. "No words can express what a tragic story yours is. said during Tuesday's hearing. his pleas of innocence became so repetitive and routine that "the courthouse doors were eventually closed to him and he was labeled a writ abuser." Roetzel said. and nobody listened. Texas (AP) -. I haven't been in Dallas since buses were blue. As for the other." although he pointed out a niece in the courtroom. He was convicted primarily on the basis of testimony from two eyewitnesses. One has since refused from her testimony." the judge told Woodard after making his ruling.cleared of the 1980 murder of his girlfriend -. "I thank God for the existence of the Innocence Project. "Without that.. That's a figure unmatched by any county nationally. "I can tell you what I'd like to do first: breathe fresh. But after filing six writs* with an appeals court.." state District Judge Mark Stoltz told Woodard at a brief hearing before his release." Roetzel said. chief counsel for the Innocence Project of Texas. "On the first day he was arrested. inmate* cleared by DNA testing. plus two requests for DNA testing. I wouldn't be here today. He said his biggest regret was not being with his mother when she died.A Dallas man who spent more than 27 years in prison for a murder he didn't commit was freed Tuesday. I would be wasting away in prison.S." *inmate – prisoner *throng – crowd.
a policy director with the Innocence Project of Texas.Wiley Fountain is homeless just five years after he walked out of prison an innocent man. In March. *to vanish – to disappear *to exonerate – to discharge. Fountain. He earned the occasional meal by cleaning the parking lot of a restaurant. but they do share common themes. Fountain wandered the streets of Dallas." Blackburn said. not even $100 and a cheap suit. For a while. He was one of the lucky few to receive financial compensation from the state. release. Now he's nowhere to be found. free . who represents many of the exonerated* former convicts. Texas (CNN) -. Clay Graham. These men find themselves starting life at middle age." Graham recalled. He is one of the 17 men wrongfully convicted in Dallas County. There is little talk of bitterness and anger.000 or so that made it into his pocket is long gone." A few weeks later. spends many days worrying about Fountain. Just as the headlines of his release vanished* from the front pages of the newspaper. BUT THEY'LL NEVER FEEL FREE DALLAS. has disappeared. but the $190. Blackburn said these wrongly convicted men get "a double-whammy screw job. Graham rushed over to talk with him. one of the lead attorneys with the Innocence Project of Texas. Texas. Fountain's story doesn't come as a shock to Jeff Blackburn.DNA CLEARED THEM. At night he had nowhere to go. What happens to these men in the months and years after their release is an often overlooked story. "That's when I thought something horrible must have happened to him in prison. "He said being homeless isn’t so bad. looking for aluminum cans to trade in for cash. 51. And so have his hopes for a fresh start after spending 15 years in prison for an aggravated sexual assault he did not commit." He said there's little help from the government to transition back into society and they're still viewed as criminals once they're out of prison. CNN recently interviewed 15 of the 17 men who have been exonerated by DNA evidence in Dallas County since 2001. But there is great mistrust of the world around them and immense frustration. Their stories are vastly different. then cleared by DNA evidence. he received a phone call with the news that Fountain had been arrested on a theft charge and was sitting in the Dallas County jail. Fountain was released from jail and disappeared. "They don't have any services available to them.
A software programmer was convicted Monday of firstdegree murder for killing his wife." Hora said during the trial. But prosecutors argued the circumstantial evidence against Reiser was strong: the two were involved in a bitter custody dispute. "What did you like best about her?" Hora asked. "Everything. Reiser. 44. and saw her as "the destroyer." said the boy. He -. Nina Reiser disappeared more than a year ago after dropping off* the couple's children at Hans Reiser's home. the district attorney for Alameda County. said the verdict "does justice for Nina Reiser and her family. but nonviolent.thinks she embezzled hundreds of thousands of dollars from him. Hora played jurors a tape of an interview with Rory outside of court in which the prosecutor asked the boy if he knew where his mother was. he was carrying his passport and thousands of dollars. *to drop off – to leave. Du Bois portrayed Reiser as eccentric. without logical connection . testified for several days in the six-month trial." "She destroyed his marriage.although it was never proved -. Her body has never been found. often giving rambling* answers and getting scolded by the judge for arguing with the prosecutor. Tom Orloff. known in programming circles as creator of the ReiserFS computer file system. Hans Reiser. bowed his head in court as the jury found him guilty of a crime that carries a sentence of 25 years to life in prison. Reiser testified his wife left his house alive and he had nothing to do with her disappearance. When Reiser was arrested in October 2006.PROGRAMMER GUILTY OF WIFE'S MURDER OAKLAND. traces of her blood were found in his home and car and witnesses testified she would never have left her children." Defense attorney Du Bois argued during the trial that there was no direct evidence linking his client to Nina Reiser's disappearance and suggested the woman may be living in her native Russia or may be the victim of foul play. She had an affair. California (AP) -. Rory said he didn't. and that made him feel sad. to abandon *rambling – incoherent. whom he affirms may be living elsewhere. and said there were innocent explanations for his behavior. Hora also said Reiser hated his estranged wife.
The last execution in Laos was in 1990." she added. A British consul has also arrived in the country. said Khenthong Nuanthasing. "She is not the type of person who would be involved in drugs. she said she was on holiday in London and she would come to see us in Dublin before returning to the U. "I don't know what she was doing there”." Morris said. executive director of Reprieve. Orobator. her mother said. There is no British Embassy in Laos. "She needs to have a local lawyer appointed to her. the foreign affairs spokesman said. "She became pregnant in prison. The lawyer arrived there on Sunday and is hoping to visit Orobator on Tuesday. Anna Morris said. Samantha Orobator was born in Nigeria and moved to London with her family when she was 8. Thailand (CNN) -. . in July. "For that amount of heroin the sentence is normally the death penalty. We are concerned someone who finds herself in prison at 20 is subject to exploitation.K. 20. he said. We are pressing very hard for the local authorities to appoint one. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman. Rammell plans to raise the Orobator case with the Laotian deputy prime minister this week. "The last time she spoke with me. Reprieve is worried about her health. A British vice-consul arrived in the country this weekend. She cannot believe her daughter was involved in drug trafficking. Reprieve lawyer Anna Morris told CNN by phone from Vientiane. a London-based human rights group. the Foreign Office said Monday.A pregnant British woman facing possible execution in Laos will go on trial this week. was arrested on August 5. she said. and was surprised to learn she was in Laos. she said." She said it was normal in the Laotian justice system for a defendant to get a lawyer only days before a trial. Jane Orobator heard the news from the British Foreign Office. Orobator's mother Jane found out in January her daughter was pregnant -." she said." she said.1 pounds) of heroin. the country's foreign affairs ministry said Monday. her boss at Reprieve said. especially given her pregnancy.more than four months after she was arrested. "I am the first British lawyer who has asked for access to her." said Clare Algar.BRITISH WOMAN COULD FACE LAOS DEATH PENALTY BANGKOK. which has been monitoring the case. Samantha Orobator "is facing death for drug trafficking. She was alleged to have been carrying just over half a kilogram (1.
a national nonprofit working with imprisoned women. ." Mary Williams repeated those three words often to her 28-year-old daughter. who served three years in a Kansas prison for a 1988 armed robbery." A recent study by the U. "Even when children have seen their mothers get arrested."Get yourself together. When a father is imprisoned. The little girl's mother was locked up for three years. affects a child's psychological development." Lerner said. The future was her granddaughter.S. "It was hard on me. while the number of fathers in prison increased 77 percent during the same period. said Danielle Dallaire. children can play basketball and participate in other activities with their imprisoned mothers." said Belcher. A growing number of prisons are recognizing the need to preserve mother-child relationships. Instead. Bureau of Justice Statistics found the number of imprisoned mothers rose 131% from 1991 to 2007. a maximum security women's prison in New York. now 25. particularly a mother. Wanda Taylor. the father often plays no role in raising the children. a psychology professor at the College of William and Mary. "We should be alarmed. they still want to be with their parents. She does not refer to the past. provi andes an annual summer camp run by volunteers.GROWING UP IS EVEN HARDER WHEN MOM IS IN PRISON (CNN) -. a Washington-based nonprofit project. for the crime or her cocaine addiction. Williams never judged her daughter. They have staffed nurseries and day care centers to keep families connected.7 million children have a parent in prison. the mother typically cares for the children. executive director at the Women's Prison Association. According to the Sentencing Project. But her research shows that when a mother is imprisoned. "They still love their mothers and want to be together. Williams looked to the future." said Georgia Lerner. Bedford Hills Correctional Facility. leaving her in the care of her grandmother. At camp. about 1. a shy 4-year-old girl with curly hair who cried when she visited her mother in jail for the first time." While some critics argue that criminals make poor parents. experts said there is no doubt that separation from a parent. "I never wanted to leave my mother. Donnie Belcher.
sun and warm waters. Adding to the mystery is the fact that another tourist. So amazing. drink. the 27-year-old woman described the surroundings near where the Leonardo Dicaprio movie. "Hey. Onge said his sister had been healthy and that her sudden death is a mystery. just drinking. vomiting* in their room at the Laleena guesthouse on Phi Phi island. The manager of the Laleena resourt has said in published reports that he believes the women's deaths came from drinking heavily.... What else do you need?". Kells also described feeling ill at the hotel and said that he believed something in their room had made the couple sick." The couple had been visiting Thailand at the end of a three-month journey during which the two had become engaged. Onge. maybe. Kells found St." Kells. died at the same resort the same weekend." Robert St." was filmed. 12 hours of being sick. He put her into a shopping cart and searched for help.What started as a romantic Southeast Asia vacation for a Seattle couple. Embassy in Thailand said. Food. the U. . told CNN. eating and living so cheaply. In Internet postings on a Web site created to update friends and family on the tragedy. hey! We're in koh phi phi right now. Onge wrote in her blog.. "I tried to run her to a hospital but she died. "The Beach." Robert St.DEATHS AT THAI RESORT SEATTLE. "She couldn't breathe. Washington (CNN) -.S. On April 26 in her online journal. good books. Norwegian media reported that the Norweigan woman could have been a victim of food poisoning. It's off the west coast of Thailand about a 2 hour boat ride from krabi. 31. "There was no possibility to hear last words or even see her because she has already been cremated. "It's such a shock. Jill. St. Kells also said he had spent less time in their room than his bride. But on May 2. She was vomiting. a 22-year-old Norwegian woman. ended with Ryan Kells preparing Friday to return from Bangkok carrying the ashes of his bride to give to her family in California. who had told him earlier that she had not been feeling well. Onge told CNN about the death of his sister. who had been traveling with the man she planned to marry.
guard at the Treblinka camp known as "Ivan the Terrible. regardless of their age. "All the living Nazi war criminals should know that there can be no mercy for them.S. U. Demjanjuk. a Nazi death camp in Poland. that allegation was eventually dropped by both countries.NAZI SUSPECT DEMJANJUK ARRIVES IN GERMANY (CNN) -.S. He was once accused by the United States and Israel of being a notoriously brutal S.Germany's Jewish community Tuesday welcomed the deportation from the U.000 civilians at a death camp during the World War II." said Knobloch president of the Central Council of Jews. but later other accusations were made against him. He was held for a few hours and then returned to his residence after a federal appeals court gave verdict in his favor. immigration officers previously entered Demjanjuk's home on April 14. a native Ukranian who has long claimed is wanted in Germany for his alleged role in the murder of about 29. Demjanjuk's lawyers had asked the high court to consider their claims that he was too ill to be sent overseas.S. Demjanjuk was taken by ambulance to a nearby hospital after landing at Munich airport.000 civilians at Sobibor. of a Nazi war crimes suspect who is charged with the murder of about 29. Ohio on Monday evening. and carried him out in his wheelchair to a waiting car. An ambulance was also used to take the 89-year-old to a plane at airport in Cleveland. "They must answer for their inhumane actions because there is no statute of limitations for crimes against humanity. They also raised human rights and other legal issues in their last-minute appeal." Demjanjuk's deportation closes a chapter in one of the longest-running cases of an alleged Holocaust criminal in history." After appeals. .
" The prosecution rested after four witnesses. authorities said. They received sentences ranging from 27 months to 110 years -. Ameena Al-Janabi testified through a translator Monday that her two grandsons were the first to arrive home and see that their family members had been killed. Testimony is to continue Tuesday. The two boys were great students. They "are lost." Farras said. the woman said. They gave evidence on in the trial.S.S. as if they are not living in this life. also spoke about the effect of the murders on the surviving brothers. raped a 14year-old girl. Kentucky (CNN) -. When the killings became public in 2006. On Monday. rape and conspiracy. but have since refused to attend school. They were convicted and sentenced in a military court. Abid Abu Farras. Four other former soldiers are in prison for their roles in the crimes and the cover-up that followed. some Iraqi officials demanded that American soldiers accused of crimes against civilians face prosecution in Iraqi courts. and set the home afire.S. Their "futures are destroyed. killed her and her family. "If they had died with their family. .Surviving members of an Iraqi family are still in horror after murder raid committed by U.IRAQI FAMILY SURVIVORS: WE WISH U. He was convicted last week in U. a cousin. He and other soldiers illegally entered the home of an Iraqi family in 2006. SOLDIERS HAD ALSO KILLED US PADUCAH.S. family members said their lives have been ruined and it would be better if the soldiers had also killed them. Defendant Steven Green has been identified as the leader in the murder raid. Green might become the first former U. they would have been better off." Janabi said. soldiers.with the possibility of parole in 10 years in the most severe cases. soldier to face the death penalty for war crimes before a civilian court. District Court in Kentucky of murder. one of the soldiers has been convicted and can face the death penalty.
Police say he has confessed to the alleged crimes and that his confession is supported by DNA evidence. Josef Fritzl. aged 73. told Austria's public broadcaster ORF that the children had had regular visits from social workers. She is believed to have borne him seven children. But the results of DNA tests announced on Tuesday confirm he had a second. Police say he had an excuse to travel away from home as he owned some land and could shop in other towns and deliver goods to the cellar dungeon in the evening. living in Amstetten with his wife Rosemarie. Mr Lenze told a news conference on Tuesday that neither Mr Fritzl nor his wife had any criminal convictions at the time of the first adoption in 1994. the police described Mr Fritzl as "a very intelligent man" who had put electric locks on the cellar rooms which could only be opened with a special code. but that their investigations had not revealed any major discrepancies with Mr Fritzl's story that she had run away to join a sect. Mr Lenze said that initially the disappearance of Elisabeth had given the social services cause for concern. aged 18. Hans-Heinz Lenze. three of whom he and Rosemarie adopted. with whom he had seven grown-up children. Mr Fritzl was allegedly able to supply his secret family with clothes and food without arousing suspicion by shopping outside of Amstetten. secret family with his daughter Elisabeth. Three children remained in the cellar with their mother. He said they were well-behaved at school and fitted in well with their classmates. Amstetten's local governor. Police say Mr Fritzl has also confessed to burning the body of a seventh child shortly after it died in infancy. They do not believe anyone else was involved in his daughter's incarceration. in 1984 and repeatedly abused. who never heard any complaints or noticed anything to arouse their suspicions. In public he appeared to be a respectable member of the community. The picture that is beginning to emerge is of a man who led a double life. is in police custody and is still being questioned.AUSTRIA STUNNED BY SEX ABUSE CASE The news that a man may have imprisoned his daughter in a cellar for 24 years and fathered her seven children has been described as one of the worst cases in Austria's criminal history. whom police say he lured into a cellar. A qualified electrician. . 'Very intelligent' Local social services told the Austrian Press Agency that there appeared to be nothing suspicious about the family and that Mr Fritzl managed to explain "very plausibly" how three of his infant grandchildren had turned up on his doorstep. unnoticed.
Detectives were working to determine a motive. The courthouse was closed after the shooting and is expected to resume normal business Thursday. "It's unfortunate that a life was lost. 40. Deputies B. but only one – a bailiff.' Then I started running. pop-pop-pop. He said Powell's wife is safe and had been notified of his death.officer of justice . Glen Lee Powell. Lyons and Marvin Glover returned fire.BAILIFFS KILL MAN FIRING GUN IN FLORIDA COURTHOUSE ST. and approached a security checkpoint. 30. Florida (AP) -. A deputy ordered him to remove the pack and place it on a conveyor belt. the chief judge of Florida's Sixth Judicial Circuit.m. was wounded. Jim Bordner said. but the public. It is known that Powell hadn't been upset about the divorce. but instead.was injured. Petersburg hospital. entered the courthouse wearing a backpack shortly after 1 p.' It could have been us. PETERSBURG. and her 15-year-old daughter went to the courthouse Wednesday for a hearing and saw the man before the shooting. 'Run for your life. I was trying to run to warn them. 'Thank you. God. a 58-year-old firearms instructor. Bordner said." said Robert Morris. Grady told the St.A man who was supposed to be returning divorce papers at a courthouse pulled out a gun instead Wednesday. He started shooting. seriously wounding Powell. "I just want to say. who was shot in the shoulder -. Cassandra Grady. employees. "I told my daughter. and that she saw a gun handle in his backpack. he threw it on the ground and opened fire with a semiautomatic handgun. opening fire in the lobby before two bailiffs* fatally shot him. I heard a round of shots: pop-pop-pop. Several people were in the lobby at the time. Lyons.J. Pinellas County Sheriff's Sgt. He was treated and released from a hospital. who later died at a St. Petersburg Times that the man asked her where he could file a petition. judges and others in [the] courthouse were properly protected." Grady was shocked but grateful." * bailiff .
about midnight Thursday by U. Christopher Paul Neil. "All we had to go by were a series of graphic photographs in which the suspect was seen sexually abusing young children and our confidence that the public and police worldwide would once again respond to Interpol's call for assistance. Wayne Nelson Corliss. which facilitates global cooperation among police agencies. was arrested at his apartment in Union City. The images came to light in 2006. identity and location were totally unknown. when Norwegian authorities discovered them in the possession of a man they arrested. "That two days later the primary suspect is now in custody is an outstanding achievement and credit to the citizens. Interpol on Tuesday announced it was attempting to identify the man. Such tactics have proved successful for Interpol in the past. Interpol's general assembly approved a resolution allowing Interpol to seek public help in child sex abuse investigations. thought to have been taken in Vietnam and Cambodia. Ten days later. Noble said." The organization.more than 10 times the daily average. New Jersey. it said.S.A suspected pedophile who became the subject of an international manhunt earlier this week after an appeal from Interpol has been detained in the United States.SUSPECTED PEDOPHILE HELD AFTER GLOBAL MANHUNT (CNN) -. a 32-year-old Canadian who had been working as an English-language teacher in South Korea. "Two days ago. Last October. it disseminated pictures of another man whose face appeared in more than 200 images of sex acts with children. a spokesman for the global police agency told CNN Thursday." Interpol Secretary General Ronald K. 57. was arrested in Thailand and charged with child abuse after police managed to reverse the photo-masking process. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents.000 visits to its Web site within the first 24 hours after its appeal was launched -. said Thursday it received nearly 250. Interpol posted six pictures of the suspect on its Web site. media and law enforcement worldwide who responded to Interpol's call. who was featured in 100 photographs sexually abusing at least three boys between the ages of 6 and 10. . Interpol said in a written statement. They were believed to have been taken in Southeast Asia. this man's nationality. After the success of that operation.
BABY-SNATCHING CASE ENDS IN PLEA DEAL UNION, Missouri (AP) -- A woman who assaulted a young mother and kidnapped her newborn entered into a plea deal Friday, and the prosecutor revealed additional details of the 2006 attack. Shannon Torrez, 38, of Lonedell, Missouri, is accused of child kidnapping, armed criminal action and first-degree assault. Under the arrangement, she does not admit guilt but there is sufficient evidence for a guilty verdict. Prosecutors are seeking a 30-year prison sentence. Sentencing testimony is set to begin May 27. Abby Woods was kidnapped September 15, 2006. Authorities said the baby's mother, Stephenie Ochsenbine, then 21, allowed Torrez into the family home, where Abby lived along with her mother, her father, James Woods, and her brother, Connor. The two women lived just a few miles apart in the rural area about 45 miles southwest of St. Louis but did not know each other. Franklin County prosecutor Robert Parks said Friday that Torrez knocked at Ochsenbine's door, said her car broke down and asked to use the phone. Once inside, she asked to use the bathroom, then came out pointing a gun at Ochsenbine and said she was taking the baby. When Ochsenbine got between Torrez and Abby, Torrez threw her down and stabbed her in the back, Parks said. Connor, then 1 year old, began to cry, and Torrez told Ochsenbine to make the child be quiet or she would hurt him, Parks said. Torrez then forced Ochsenbine to hold Connor as she tied them to a chair, Parks said. Moments later, Ochsenbine managed to free herself. Torrez struck her in the head, knocking her to the floor, Parks said. Torrez then choked Ochsenbine until she passed out. Ochsenbine awoke to find herself and Connor tied up in the bathroom, with Abby gone. Five days after the kidnapping, Torrez's sister-in-law alerted police. The baby was unharmed. Officers found a gun wrapped in a shirt at Shannon Torrez's home. DNA tests showed that blood on the shirt and the gun were from Ochsenbine. Torrez's attorney said his client's mental state will be the focus of the sentencing hearing. He declined to elaborate but said Torrez had delivered a stillborn baby just before the kidnapping. Ochsenbine sat in the front row of the courtroom Friday and showed little emotion. Woods kept his arm around her throughout the hearing, and the family declined to comment later. Parks described Abby as "a typical 2-year-old and doing really well."
WOMAN PLEADS GUILTY TO KILLING BIGAMIST SPOUSE NORRISTOWN, Pennsylvania -- A woman pleaded guilty Friday to third-degree murder for killing her bigamist husband just hours before he was to leave for Morocco to visit his second wife. Myra Morton, 48, was upset about the new marriage and her husband's plans to have children with the younger woman, authorities have said. She shot her 47-year-old husband, Jereleigh Morton, twice in the head in August while he slept. She faces from five to 20 years in prison, said defense lawyer Brian McMonagle. "I don't think there's any question in anybody's mind that the act was intentional," McMonagle said. "We have always maintained that it was based on a lot of passion, and it was caused by the emotional state that she was going through." Jereleigh Morton met his second wife, 37-year-old Zahra Toural, last year on the Internet, prosecutors said. In keeping with Muslim custom, Myra Morton traveled to Morocco to bless the marriage. Her husband allegedly said that if she didn't like it, she should get a divorce. The Mortons had converted to Islam about 20 years ago. As Myra Morton's resentment about the second marriage grew, she wrote the U.S. State Department a letter in April 2007 in which she said Toural had terrorist ties. She hoped the letter would keep Toural away from the U.S., authorities have said. Toural last month responded with a defamation suit against Myra Morton. Myra Morton spent about 20 years working at Temple University as a secretary before she and her husband received a reported $8 million medical settlement in 2005 over the death of a teenage daughter. They moved with their surviving daughter from a North Philadelphia row house to a $1 million house in the suburbs. "All she (Morton) cares about are that her daughter and her granddaughter get their inheritance, and are provided for," McMonagle said. "That is always a concern, particularly when you have so many hands reaching for this money." SMOKER TRIED TO OPEN PLANE DOOR A French woman has admitted attempting to open airplane door mid-flight so that she could smoke a cigarette. The woman was arrested when the plane landed in Australia. Sandrine Helene Sellies, 34, who has a fear of flying, had drunk alcohol and taken sleeping tablets ahead of the flight from Hong Kong to Brisbane. She was seen on the Cathay Pacific plane walking towards a door with an unlit cigarette and a lighter. She then began tampering with the emergency exit until she was stopped by a flight attendant. Defence lawyer Helen Shilton said her client had no memory of what had happened on the flight on Saturday, and that she had a history of sleepwalking. She pleaded guilty to endangering the safety of an aircraft at Brisbane Magistrates Court and was given a 12-month A$1,000 (£429) good behaviour bond - she will forfeit the money if she commits another offence. The French tourist was at the start of a three-week holiday in Australia with her husband.
DUBAI COURT JAILS BOY'S HIV RAPIST DUBAI (CNN) -- A court in Dubai sentenced two men Wednesday to 15 years in prison for the rape and kidnapping of a 15-year-old French boy. The boy's mother, Veronique Robert, was visibly upset after the sentence was read and promised to appeal. Robert, a French journalist, brought the case to the media's attention in recent months in an effort to shed light on what she deemed to be injustices in the pro-Western emirate of Dubai. She refrained from asking the death penalty for her son's attackers, but said she hoped the sentence would be much longer. A spokesman for the Dubai government, Habib al Mulla, told CNN the sentence was in accordance with international standards and was not lenient. "Today's verdict has proven that the system is efficient and is fair to all parties involved," al Mulla said. The case began in July, when the two men, 36 and 18, kidnapped and raped the French teenager frightining with a knife. Al Mulla said police action was swift and arrests were made within 24 hours. But Robert has said the case was botched from the start, beginning with her son's examination by a doctor who said her son was gay. Homosexuality in Dubai is illegal, and the teen could have faced as much as a year in prison. Robert's son has since returned to France and was not in court for Wednesday's sentencing. Robert has also said Dubai authorities repeatedly hided evidence -- confirmed in court papers -- that one of the attackers was HIV-positive. Robert said her son, who is still awaiting test results to find out whether he has the virus, could have gotten treatment much sooner had they known. Dubai authorities deny any evidence was hiden. The mother has already filed suit in courts in Paris and Geneva, Switzerland seeking compensation from Sheikh Khalifa, president of the United Arab Emirates, and the prime minister and vice president of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed al Maktoum. She is also suing others, including the Dubai police chief. Robert started a Web site over the summer, boycottdubai.com, demanding better treatment for children who suffer sexual assault there. At a press conference last month, she proclaimed, "We are here because I just would like first justice for my son; and second for every girl and boy who was raped and even had no chance to speak." Robert said she will drop all her pending cases if the government sets up rape clinics, recognizes the status of rape victims, and takes precautions after rape against sexuallytransmitted diseases. In the wake of Wednesday's verdict, Robert said a Dubai government official told her the emirate plans to open its first rape clinic, which she said was a small victory
From his cell Luciano continued to rule and issue orders. 1962. Luciano gave the orders. Dewey bore down on Luciano. where he settled in Rome. stabbed repeatedly with an ice pick. in 1916 he spent six months in jail for selling heroin. Then. Capodicino Airport. and convicted and was sentenced to Clinton Prison at Dannemora.to 50-year term. after the luxury line “Normandie” blew up in New York Harbor. Soon after. In 1947 he moved to Cuba. original name Salvatore Lucania Lucky Luciano (born Nov. where he continued to direct the drug traffic into the United States and the smuggling of aliens to America. shoplifting. N. In October 1929 he became the rare gangster to survive a “oneway ride”. money. Navy intelligence sought Luciano's help in tightening waterfront security. On April 15. on September 10. and in 1946 his sentence was commuted and he was deported to Italy. at the age of 10. and Bugsy Siegel. Six months later. he had Maranzano murdered by four Jewish gunmen loaned by Meyer Lansky. Lercara Friddi. he teamed up with Frank Costello and Meyer Lansky and other young gangsters. and other rackets. By 1934 he and the leaders of other crime “families” had developed the national crime syndicate or cartel.S.Y. and by 1925 had become Masseria's chief lieutenant. Luciano emigrated with his parents from Sicily to New York City in 1906 and. Italy—died Jan. for a 30. New York special prosecutor Thomas E. He ended up in Naples. was already involved in mugging. In 1936 he was indicted. In 1920 he joined the ranks of New York's rising crime boss. and extortion. Queens. Joe Adonis. Joe Masseria. Luciano had carefully nurtured his contacts with all the young powers in gangdom and had become capo di tutti capi (“boss of all the bosses”). . to which all the syndicate heads came to pay homage and cash. gathering evidence of his brothel and call-girl empire and related extortion. had his throat slit from ear to ear. without ever accepting or claiming the title. in 1935. But the pressure of public opinion and the U. narcotics bureau forced the embarrassed Cuban regime to deport him. 11. directing bootlegging. Out of jail. 26. N. He died of a heart attack in Naples in 1962 and was buried in St. he changed his name to Luciano. he earned his nickname “Lucky” for success at evading arrest and winning craps games. John's Cathedral Cemetery.. sabotage on the docks ended. and after deportation to Italy in 1946. 1936–45. beaten. tried. 1931. and was left for dead on a Staten Island beach—but survived. narcotics distribution. Albert Anastasia. 1896. Sicily. In 1942. he was abducted by four men in a car.Y. Luciano lured Masseria to a Coney Island restaurant and had him assassinated by four loyalists. Naples) the most powerful chief of American organized crime in the early 1930s and a major influence even from prison. prostitution.LUCKY LUCIANO Byname of Charles Luciano. The bloody gang war of 1930–31 between Masseria and rival boss Salvatore Maranzano was anathema to Luciano and other young racketeers who decried the publicity and loss of business. Vito Genovese. He never named his abductors. and efficiency.
1917. she was an instant success in Paris and other large cities. I cannot support [what is] above my strength. in Vincennes. at the age of 41. Mata Hari was arrested in her room at the Hotel Plaza Athénée in Paris. She was held in Saint-Lazar prison while awaiting trial and interrogated no less than seventeen times before facing an actual military jury. In 1895 she married an officer of Scottish origin. She was isolated from other prisoners. The institution itself was generally filthy. something that greatly distressed the fastidious Mata Hari. "I beg of you. say that she was sociable but just not smart enough to pull off such a feat. Don’t torture me here. . On 13 February. she was not allowed to write to anyone. I have not done any espionage in France . Throughout her life she had numerous lovers. she attended a teachers' college in Leiden. I am a woman. put an end to this. "You have made me suffer too much. catering to male fantasies. and from 1897 to 1902 they lived in Java and Sumatra. I beg of you. turned Mata Hari into a legendary figure that fulfilled the stereotype of woman as evil temptress The daughter of a prosperous hatter. Was she guilty or not? While that question has dominated traditional historical debate. superficially acquainted with East Indian dances. During World War I. Tall. Captain Campbell MacLeod. Many people. . In one such missive she wrote. She soon called herself Mata Hari. “eye of the day”). The couple returned to Europe but later separated. extremely attractive. The prison had no baths so the only way she could clean herself was in a small bowl that was sometimes brought to her cell. many of them military officers.MATA HARI: A DUTCH DANCER ACCUSED OF SPYING In the fall of 1917. Let me have provisional liberty. accused of spying for Germany and consequently causing the deaths of at least 50." In another she pleaded." She wrote in vain. . stop making me suffer in this prison. Charged with spying for the German Reich. She was put on trial. said to be a Malay expression for the sun (literally. who met her. I am so weakened by this system and the cell is driving me mad. a French military court sentenced the Dutch dancer known as Mata Hari to death. I am completely mad. The facts regarding her espionage activities remain obscure. Because of her international background – and probably also due to her numerous affairs with military officers – she began to associate with various secret services on both sides. it seems less significant than the fact that the cultural image-makers. she was executed on October 15. Finally she was found guilty and was executed by firing squad on 15 October. This may have been for her own protection since her fellow inmates may well have wanted to exact their own justice upon a German spy but it grated on the sensibilities of the extroverted suspect.000 soldiers. Since her arrest was kept secret from the public. 1917. and willing to appear virtually nude in public. her frequent traveling across international borders and her varied companions caused several countries to wonder if she was a spy or even a double-agent. and she began to dance professionally in Paris (1905) under the name of Lady MacLeod. Mata Hari wrote protests against the severe conditions of her confinement. She was permitted no clean changes of clothing and allowed only 15 minutes a day for solitary exercise outside of her cell.
Andrei Chikatilo was convicted of 52 murders -. but over the next nine years he tortured. . in 1963 his younger sister Tatiana introduced him to a friend of hers named Faina. a daughter Ludmila in 1965 and a son Yuri in 1969. He didn't kill again for three years. and he and Faina married that same year. By the end of 1978 Chikatilo had murdered his first victim. with victims' relatives screaming for retribution.although due to the initial indifference and incompetence of the authorities it's been estimated that he likely committed at least twice that many before he was finally caught -. contorting his face and hurling curses at spectators and the judge. when a policeman noticed him acting suspiciously at a railroad station. 1994. Sixteen months later. Although he was extremely tall and attractive. among others. He was finally captured on November 20. Chikatilo confessed to 55 killings -. and further investigation revealed that he had just committed three murders.that sort of thing only occurred in degenerate capitalist societies -. On October 14. rolling his eyes.and five counts of child molestation. 1992. The next day he was given 52 death sentences and taken to Novocherkassk Prison in the Rostov-on-Don region of Russia. They had two children. murdered and cannibalized at least 51 more women and children. However.one charge was dropped for lack of evidence -. on February 14. moving back and forth.but was charged with only 53. Chikatilo graduated from Rostov University and became a teacher for a brief time.ANDREI CHIKATILO: THE ROSTOV RIPPER Andrei Chikatilo was one of the world's most prolific and barbaric serial killers. but he was eventually caught molesting some students. Things clicked. 1992. Lena Zakotnova. Chikatilo was always shy with girls and considered himself impotent.but Chikatilo's victims began turning up so often and in so many places that the authorities finally were forced to admit that a monster was indeed loose among them. Russian authorities at first refused to believe that a serial killer could operate in their midst -. detained him. Chikatilo acted like a raving maniac throughout the trial. which led to his expulsion from the profession. in Shankty. His trial opened on April 14. A task force consisting of the best homicide detectives in the country was assigned to hunt down and capture the killer (although they had no idea it was Chikatilo). 1990. They lived an outwardly normal family life.a single bullet to the back of the head. Russia. his death sentence was carried out in the manner prescribed by Russian law -.
ethically and legally wrong. His forgeries were so good that his "Vermeers" were accepted as genuine." Jesus among the Doctors.. n all he made more that seven million guilders. Moreover. before the court under police guard. was not a Vermeer but rather a forgery by his own hand. I produced them not for money but for art's sake. about $2 million then and roughly about twenty times that amount today. What van Meegeren did was morally. he would paint another "Vermeer." At the end of the trial collaboration charges were changed to forgery and Van Meegeren was condemned to one year in confinement.THE FORGER WHO FOOLED THE WORLD HANS VAN MEEGEREN Forgers. I'm sure about one thing: if I die in jail they will just forget all about it. In 1947 the trial took place and in order to demonstrate his case it was arranged that. An exception is Van Meegeren (1889-1947). by nature. then punishable by death. to general disbelief. but he certainly managed to find a way to achieve lasting fame as a painter. Van Meegeren was actually tickled to get only one year in jail. . Motivated by revenge. He also claimed to have painted five other "Vermeer's. "Two years. But sir.. His life of artistic crime began after his work was demeaned by art critics. Van Meegeren came up with a very original defense against the accusation of collaboration." At the age of 58. since he had traded the false Vermeer for 200 original Dutch paintings seized by Goering in the beginning of the war. before I started all this." as well as two "Pieter de Hoogh's" all of which had surfaced on the art market since 1937. In 1950 household effects were auctioned in his house at 321 Keizersgracht in Amsterdam. he set out to embarrass his detractors by "putting one over" on them. In May 1945 Van Meegeren was arrested. Shortly after. Van Meegeren's story is absolutely unique and may be justly considered the most dramatic art scam of the 20th c. During the incredible two year trial Van Meegeren had confessed that "spurred by the disappointment of receiving no acknowledgements from artists and critics. He claimed that the painting. using the materials and techniques he had used for the other forgeries." he told a reporter "is the maximum punishment for such a thing. charged with collaborating with the enemy and imprisoned. In his last years Van Meegeren lived the high life and had purchased a number of houses until he was caught.I determined to prove my worth as a painter by making a perfect 17th century canvas. The Woman Taken in Adultery. prefer anonymity and therefore are rarely remembered. My paintings will become original Vermeers once more. His name had been traced to the sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. Van Meegeren believed that he was in fact a national hero rather than a Nazi collaborator. I know because I looked it up in our laws twelve years ago. he fell ill due to years of drug and alcohol abuse and died of a heart attack in prison..
CESARE LOMBROSO: AN ITALIAN PHYSICIAN AND CRIMINOLOGIST Cesare Lombroso. later enlarged into the famous L'uomo delinquente he compared anthropological measurements and developed the concept of the atavistic. long arms. Racial development was signified by social progress from primitive to modern. and the measurements analyzed by quantitative research. and economic data . the violent criminal had devolved. Lombroso concluded that skull and facial features were clues to genetic criminality. Physiognomy attempts to estimate character and personality traits from physical features of the face or the body. 1835-1909. Lombroso advocated the study of individuals using measurements and statistical methods in compiling anthropological. and that Africans were the first human beings that evolved upwards and positively to yellow then white. . then the born criminal could be distinguished by physical atavistic stigmata. wrinkles. low sloping foreheads • high cheekbones. In the study. Along with the natural origin of the crime and its social consequences. If criminality was inherited. more childlike. criminal. and an abnormal cranium. was an Italian criminologist and physician. He asserted that women were lower on the evolutionary scale. flattened or upturned nose • handle-shaped ears • large chins. as they lacked the intelligence and initiative to become criminal. Lombroso assumed that whites were superior to non-whites by heredity. Further. Lombroso popularized the notion of the born criminal through biological determinism. Lombroso is still credited with turning attention from the legalistic study of crime to the scientific study of the criminal. and less intelligent. such as excessive body hair. In 1876 he published a pamphlet setting forth his theory of the origin of criminal traits. forward projection of jaw. He attempted to construct a purported scientific methodology in order to predict criminal behavior and isolate individuals capable of the most violent types of criminal activity. very prominent in appearance • hawk-like noses or fleshy lips • hard shifty eyes. claiming that criminals have particular physiognomic attributes or deformities. Whereas most individuals evolve. such as: • large jaws. which would offer the greatest effects. These features could be measured with craniometers and calipers. various remedies can then be provided to the criminal. Lombroso advocated humane treatment of criminals and limitations on the use of the death penalty. "only we white people have reached the ultimate symmetry of bodily form" Lombroso stated in 1871 Lombroso's studies of female criminality began with measurements of females' skulls and photographs in his search for "atavism". or born. women who commit crimes had different physical characteristics. He found that female criminals were rare and showed few signs of "degeneration" because they had “evolved less than men due to the inactive nature of their lives”. Lombroso argued it was the females' natural passivity that withheld them from breaking the law. and therefore criminals were societal or evolutionary regressions. However. social. scanty beard or baldness • insensitivity to pain. Lombroso claimed that the modern criminal was the savage throwback of "degeneration".
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