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FREE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MOLDOVA INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTIC AND INTERCULTURAL STUDIES CHAIR OF APPLIED FOREIGN LANGUAGES

A Guide to Legal English
Natalia URSUL, Olga DIMO

Chişinău - 2010

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FREE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MOLDOVA INSTITUTE OF LINGUISTIC AND INTERCULTURAL STUDIES CHAIR OF APPLIED FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Natalia URSUL, Olga DIMO

A Guide to Legal English

Chişinău - 2010

3

din 2010) Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naţionale a Cărţii Ursul.A Guide to Legal English The Guide has been written for everyone working or training to work in the legal profession. Recomandat pentru publicare de către Senatul ULIM (proces verbal nr. Natalia 4 . The various exercises throughout the Guide focus on the key legal vocabulary that must be known by law learners. It provides basic knowledge of legal words and terms.

Branches of Law………………………………………………. Kinds of Law: Criminal and Civil………………………………………..TABLE OF CONTENTS Instead of an Introduction………………………………………………………... Bibliography .……. 9. Sources of Law…………………………………………………………… 3.………… 8..… 10.……… 2. Commercial Law………………………………………………………… 11. Courts in England and Wales…………………………. Truth As the Fundamental Principle of the Judicial Pleading…………… 7.. The Law…………………………………………………….………………… 4.……………………………… 5. 1. Judges in the United Kingdom…………………………………………… 6.. Family Law……………………………………………………………. International Law………………………………………………………… Supplementary Readings…………………………………………………………………………….. Overview of the Legal Professions……….

sheriff. steal. Examples include words like goods. evidence. The Anglo-Saxons used not only Old English as a legal language. Following the Norman conquest in 1066 the official legal language was French. defendant.. Parliament abolished Law Latin and French in legal proceedings. due to the spread of English as the predominant language of international business. guilt. 7 . The English language can be said to have begun around 450 A. Although the Anglo-Saxons seem to have had no distinct legal profession. when boatloads of Angles.INSTEAD OF AN INTRODUCTION Language is the only instrument of science. A similar evolution took place with the idiom of the courts. but were framed from the English by merely adding a Latin termination. oath. judge. An example that has survived is caveat emptor. However. as well as its role as a legal language within the European Union. they developed a type of legal language. Jutes. attorney. The French language of lawyers became increasingly corrupt. and words are but the signs of ideas. party. Canada. and New Zealand) which have shared common law traditions. verdict and voir dire. which came to form what we call Anglo-Saxon or Old English. Although Latin was introduced to England during the Roman occupation around the time of Christ. These Germanic invaders spoke closely related languages. It also contained many words which had nothing to do with Latin.D. Latin was important for English law mainly as the language of court records. dura lex sed lex. and witness. Australia. etc. theft. ~ Samuel Johnson Legal English is the style of English used by lawyers and other legal professionals in the course of their work. including such basic words as appeal. and have survived to this day. it contains a number of unusual features. remnants of which have survived until today. swear. court. as merdrum for murder. jury. but also Latin. thief. Modern legal English is based on Standard English. Legal English has traditionally been the preserve of lawyers from English-speaking countries (such as the USA. English lawyers and judges liked to express sayings or maxims about the law in Latin. legal English is now a global phenomenon. right. Saxons and Frisians arrived from the Continent. manslaughter. In 1730. A vast amount of legal vocabulary is French in origin. which consisted of a mixture of Latin. The language of that time is often called “dog Latin” meaning a corrupted form of Latin. justice. it became a major force only after the arrival of Christian missionaries in 597. French and English words used in English sentence structures. By 1310 almost all acts of Parliament were in the French language. but many Latin and French phrases had already entered common use in legal language. plaintiff. murder. However. UK.

defendant 9. body of enacted rules recognized by a community as binding. robbery) k. criminal 6. an illegal activity which is punishable by law (e. judge 11. killing. way/method of performance g. contract 12. ab initio 2. civil 5. prosecutor 15. a person who had studied law and can practise it Translation 8 . a punishment for a criminal declared to be guilty in a court of law l. to ask a high court to change its decision or sentence c. consensus ad idem 4. How many of the meanings on the left can you match with the expressions on the right? 1. 11. Term 1. to bring someone to court to answer a criminal charge d. being resolved by a court of law g. 10. and appear at various stages throughout this course. an official who presides over a court m. an adjective referring to crime e. an adjective referring to the rights and duties of private persons or organizations f. lawyer 3. an act forbidden by criminal law c. et seq. actus reus 3.g. de facto 5. abbreviation for “et sequentes” meaning “and what follows” j. crime 7. a real agreement to a contract by both parties e. The words in this exercise are used a lot in the legal profession. e. among/ in addition to other things h. from the beginning f. sentence 13. law 2. i.g. inter alia 7. Here are some Latin words and expressions used in the legal profession. prosecute 14. abbreviation for “id est” meaning “that is” 2.e. in proportion i. de novo 6. a. court 10. a person who prosecutes in a trial o. in fact (taken as a matter of fact. someone who is accused of a crime in a criminal case b. one of these rules i. starting again k. to give a punishment to. the arguments used when fighting a case h. a dispute between opposing parties. Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right.1. legal case 4. abbreviation for “exempli gratia” meaning “for example” d. an institution of dispute resolution j. an order given by a judge. modus operandi 9. a legal agreement between two or more parties n. so it is important you understand what they mean. defence 8. pro rata 8. appeal Definition a. even though the legal status may not be certain) b.

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the organization of referendums. The constitutional laws are aimed at revising the Constitution. The only exception is represented by the temporary laws. The Constitution is the mirror of the economic structures. the organization and functioning of political parties. consisting of a system of juridical standards invested with a superior juridical force. and the People’s Assembly of the autonomous territorial unit of Gagauzia. which is made to reach certain aims and to realise some social ideals. which are adopted for certain specific acts). Legislative initiative in the Republic of Moldova lies with the members of Parliament. the organization of Parliament and Government and of the local administration. which are the juridical basis of the other laws. The organic laws have the second juridical force after the Constitution and the constitutional laws. But. the Government. compulsory and permanent. In the Republic of Moldova they shall be passed by the majority of the votes by the members present in session (in the UK they are adopted by the absolute majority of the members who are present in each House of Parliament). they establish the organization of the political powers and the principles of government of the state. the President of Moldova. The law is compulsory because its observance does not depend on the option of those asked to conform themselves to its disposals. a pre-established procedure. The constitution is the fundamental law of a state. It is general because it is valid for all the members of a society (an exception is represented by the individual laws. the fundamental civil liberties and some important social relations. The ordinary laws establish the most various social relations except for those which are regulated by the constitutional and organic laws. the law is permanent. BASIC VOCABULARY Law the combination of the rules and principles of conduct promulgated . by law we understand any normative act issued by a legislative body of a state. The constitutional laws have to be adopted with a majority of at least two thirds from the total number of the Parliament members and it is approved by referendum. etc. the general organization of the educational system. following.THE LAW Dura lex sed lex. The purpose of the organic laws is to direct and control the electoral system. following a pre-established procedure. Generally speaking. what we understand by law is only the normative act passed in Parliament. the granting of amnesty and pardon. The organic laws in the Republic of Moldova shall be passed by majority vote based on at least two ballots. The law is a conscious act of will. Problems of utmost gravity or urgency confronting the Moldovan society or State shall be resolved by referendum. regulate the rules. of course. The decisions of the republican referendum have supreme judicial power. organic laws and ordinary laws. In the UK they are adopted with the absolute majority of the members of the two Houses of Parliament. forms of property and state organization. which are in operation up to a certain established date or an event foreseen by that law itself. it is in operation until it is abrogated. Legislation is passed by the Parliament in the form of constitutional laws. Laws have three major characteristics: they are general. As a rule.

a proposed or enacted law or group of laws the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature. . functions. . process. self-directed. exempt from penalty the act. . What is the Constitution? 5. and exercises executive. most extreme . and sovereign power through customs. . or method of voting. selfgoverning . Talk about the characteristics of the law. or intensity.the faculty of conscious and deliberate choice of action. derived from court decisions and established by an act of Parliament. . What do we understand by law? 2. volition. institutions.independent in mind or judgment.not controlled by others or by outside forces. amount.Legislative body Parliament Government Autonomous Legislation Constitution Referendum Amnesty Pardon Ballot Utmost Will To abrogate by legislative authority. What are the constitutional laws? 4.a document in which you declare what you want to happen to your money and property after you die to cancel or annul especially by authority (to abrogate a law or custom) 1.the act or process of making laws. Answer the following questions: l. especially in secret of the highest or greatest degree. Which are the three types of laws? 3. Who votes the ordinary laws? 6. especially for political offences the release of a convicted person from punishment of an offence or crime. local custom or practice official authorities who make or amend or abrogate laws a national representative body having supreme legislative powers within a state body of people that sets and administers public policy. independent. What are the main purposes of the organic laws? 5. political.independent of the laws of another state or government. and laws within a state . and limits of a government or another institution and according to which a state is governed a vote in which the people in a particular country are all asked to say whether they agree or disagree with a particular policy an act of forgiveness granted to a large group of individuals by a government.

... aware k... purpose.... state 4..... to adopt.laws. compulsory 5... utmost 12. common f....... country l... constant 3.. ordinary 3. b) There are three types of laws:. pardon d. c) Constitution is the . to approve 7...... but cannot confute them? .. property 9.. vote m...... What do you call the laws which: a) establish the organization of the political powers? b) establish the referendum? c) represent the development of the principles of the constitutional laws. law of a state.. procedure. binding b. Join pairs of synonyms... to regulate.. of the organization of a state... is the . in each House of Parliament.. ballot 11. laws and .... purpose 2. 1....... e) The law is the conscious act of …………………..... d) The ordinary laws are adopted with the ……………… majority of the members …….... possession j..... Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: a) A law is passed in Parliament following a ..... 4 Consult your dictionary and find as many synonyms as possible for the following words: a state...... body a......... liberty 6.. conscious 8... gravity.........2. to adopt i. . aim g. freedom h........... What are the differences between the following words? law the law amnesty pardon 6... f) The law is valid for all the members of the ……………….. permanent 13.. institution c..... maximum e.. legislative body.. laws. to abrogate 5. amnesty 10..

martial law or __________. independence. The citizens initiating a revision of the Constitution must cover with the number of their listed residences at least a half of the nation's districts and municipalities. or of the guarantees of those rights and freedoms.000 registered signers in support of said initiative. as well as those regarding the permanent neutrality of the state may be revised only by ____________ based on a majority vote of registered voting citizens. ________________ and unity of the state. freedoms TITLE VI . Initiatives for Constitutional Revision (1) A revision of the Constitution may be _________ by: a) a number of at least 200. (2) Constitutional _______ shall be submitted to Parliament on condition that the Constitutional Court issues the appropriate recommendation supported by at least 4 judges. d) the Government. (3) The Constitution may not be revised under a state of national emergency. . law projects. Read an abstract from the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova and fill in the gaps with the words in the box: members. c) the President of the Republic of Moldova. and in their turn each of those districts and municipalities must be represented by at least 5.000 voting _________ of the Republic of Moldova. (2) No revision shall be allowed if it results in the suppression of the fundamental rights and ______________ of citizens. referendum. Article 142. war. b) no less than a third of the __________ of Parliament.REVISING THE CONSTITUTION Article 141.7. Limits of Revision (1) The provisions regarding the sovereignty. initiated. citizens. How many word partnerships can you form by combining the two lists below? To pass To give To pronounce Actual Contrary to To elaborate To issue To grant Absolute (a) sentence over a veto (a) law pardon a mandate banknotes orders property 8.

 The more laws. while bad people will find a way around the laws. the less justice.  There is some eternal law.  However hard people try.  The strictest law sometimes becomes the severest injustice.  Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly. It is good for all times and places.9. Comment on the statements below:  Laws haven’t changed since primeval times.  Nobody has a more sacred obligation to obey the law than those who make the law. laws are always insufficient. .

statutes. statutory instruments and of reports of case law. • The historical sources of law are the acts and events in past time. church and freemen. In the United Kingdom. In modern nation states. esp. The English-speaking countries are based on common or case (sometimes unwritten) law. historical. case law. the philosophy of Marxism-Leninism has been the source of whole legal systems. the books to which one turns for information. convention . These are declarations by Parliament in the form of legislation. recognizing the rights and privileges of the barons. Notice that the continental countries have codified their laws (reduced them to statutes). • The term is used of the documentary sources refer to the documents containing the athoritative statemennts of rules of law. formal and literary sources of law.a permanent rule made by a body or institution for the government of its internal affairs the law governing the affairs of a Christian Church. The main sources of law can be classified in the following way: theoretical (philosophical). it is a charter granted by the King John in 1215. Statutes and constitutions are classified as “written or statutory law”.a formal statement or announcement.g. the basic sources of law include a Constitution. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte Sources of law are the materials and processes out of which law is developed. the law created or recognized by papal authority in the Roman Catholic Church the long-established habits or traditions of a society. which have given rise to particular principles and rules of law. One of the basic historical sources of law in the United Kingdom is the Magna Carta. proclamation. . BASIC VOCABULARY Statute an enactment of a legislative body expressed in a formal document. and no judge is bound to accept the rules stated there. motivated legislation or prompted change. • The literary sources of law represent legal literature. the canon law. In the United Kingdom and Continental European legal systems. E.2. These include encyclopedias. • The formal sources of law represent legal acts accepted by the official authourities. textbooks which are based on the material sources but have no authority and validity as rules of law. these are the volumes of states. The basic characteristic of the common law is that a case once decided establishes a precedent that will be followed by the courts when similar controversies are later presented. • The term “sources” is sometimes applied to those philosophical (theoretical) principles which have influenced law. treaties. SOURCES OF LAW A Constitution should be short and obscure. statements of law by superior courts. these include the Roman law.. the feudal customs. the law merchant and the general maritime law of Western Europe. documentary. etc. and regulations issued by government agencies. - Canon law Custom Declaration .

argument. or debate. What is the basic characteristic of the common law? 9. What are the historical sources of law that have shaped the legal system of the UK? 3. procedures.) into a system or code a judicial decision that serves as an authority for deciding a later case dispute. licit f. Make sentences using the antonyms of the following words: controversy common law modern to give rise freeman 4. Answer the following questions: 1. legal 3. admiralty law c. one concerning a matter about which there is strong disagreement and esp. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. What is the main source of law in the Republic of Moldova? 2. legality e. common law b. main d. basic 2.To prompt To codify Precedent Controversy the ruling of a judge or court on a question of law. Is case law written or unwritten? 8. Are legal treaties and encyclopedias accepted as binding in courts of law? 6. What is the name used for writings by jurists? 5. written law g. validity 7. maritime law 4. What have the continental countries done with their laws? 7. What are the main sources of law? 2. rules. What are the formal sources of law? 4. officials 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. case law 6. esp. esp in the chancery division of the High Court to give rise to by suggestion to organize or collect together (laws. one carried on in public or in the press - 1. authorities 5. How many meanings can you find to these words?  Custom  Law  Source . etc. statutory law a.

find English equivalents for the following: organ guvernamental drept canonic сarta (a drepturilor.) a codifica precedent judiciar cutumă legislaţie правительственный (государственный) орган церковное (каноническое) право хартия кодифицировать юридический прецедент общее право законодательство - - 6. etc. Translate the following word combinations containing the word ‘source’ into your mother tongue: confidential source illegitimate source legal source of crime legal source legitimate source original source source of increased danger source of law sources of evidence 7. In the text.5. Noun Law To regulate Code Resolution To approve Provision ---Statute To declare --authoritative binding Verb ----legal Adjective . noun(s) or adjective(s) where appropriate. Complete the following table with the corresponding verb(s).

it has never been wholly reduced ________ writing. courts. The first word has been done for you. Nevertheless. 4. verdict. 9. 2. 6. Justice has __________. An improvement or change for the better. it is not ____________. 3. condition (of a contract). 9. (infinitive) 5. documents. so they will be recognized and enforced by the ___________.8. Of or relating to the minority. Solve the crossword to find the mystery phrase. conclusion. A demand. below the age of legal majority. Many constitutional rules are ‘laws’ in the ordinary sense. The Moldovan Constitution is the main _________ of law in the Republic of Moldova followed by codes and parliamentary statutes. Prescribed or authorized by statute. A judgment. This does not mean. rules. or resolution reached or given. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 l e g m i t p n n r u m d t a s l a t i o n 1. 10. from. The act or process of making laws. Law established by following judicial decisions given in earlier cases (2 words). or stipulation formally incorporated in a document. 11. It merely means that the constitution is not ____________ in any single document. as a result of correction of legal or political abuses or malpractices. laws. that is to say. An enactment of a legislative body expressed in a formal document. ___________ legislation (also referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements of that primary legislation. important. containing their essential constitutional _____________. esp. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: written. or series of documents. 8. the guilty man has been punished. 7. and executive laws. embodied The British Constitution is just as ___________ to the British as the US Constitution is to the Americans. But there are certain other ____________ which govern the . to. that the British possess no important constitutional ___________. however. 12. This intervention in another nation’s affairs has set a _____________ which we hope other countries will not follow.

or agreement. • High Court of Justice: original and appellate jurisdiction in all civil and some criminal cases. However. which are not laws in this sense. It was presided over by the Lord Chancellor and consisted of three to seven Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (appointed as life peers) and peers who held high judicial office. Nota bene: Scotland has its own legal system. Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law. etc. ~ Clarence Darrow The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system .England and Wales have one system. over taxation).working of the constitution. 3. laws. They are called ‘conventions’. in or out of court. cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Until 2009 the House of Lords served as the court of last instance for most instances of UK law. All trials are held with one judge (and maybe a jury). mainly in domestic matters.g. Trials are conducted by a professional circuit judge and might be assisted by a jury. There are administrative tribunals which make quick. . and Northern Ireland a third. Welsh law. About 90% of criminal investigations begin here.. Scotland another. which has more similarities with the law system of Continental countries. The Supreme Court was established by Part 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and started work on 1 October 2009.. It has three subdivisions: Family Division. because they arise _________ usage. an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. COURTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES There is no such thing as justice. Chancery Division (administration of estates and interpretation of wills) and the Queen’s Bench (all cases not dealt with by the other two divisions). There are the following types of courts in England and Wales: • The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the court of last resort in all matters under English law. The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent. Tribunals deal with professional standards. disputes between individuals. • County Courts (300 in England and Wales): cover all types of civil suits including complaints of race and sex discrimination. They have limited civil jurisdiction. • Court of Appeal (Criminal and Civil Division): hears appeals from the High Court and the Crown Court. sudden or unnatural deaths). • Magistrates’ Courts: consist of three unpaid lay magistrates (known as ’justices of the peace’) who try minor offences without a jury. BASIC VOCABULARY Executive having the function or purpose of carrying plans. civil law being based on the principles of Roman rather than English Common Law. orders. and disputes between individuals and government departments (e. all types of courts in the United Kingdom are administered by Her Majesty's Courts Service. • Crown Court: responsible for all criminal cases above the level of magistrates’ courts.

Answer the following questions: 1. although they are trained in court procedures.to apply to a superior court to review (a case or particular issue decided by a lower tribunal) . originally that in a Roman basilica Suit Complaint Lay magistrate Minor offence Domestic Tribunal 1. Who are lay magistrates? 7.a raised platform containing the seat of a judge or magistrate.the act or process of suing in a court of law a statement by which a civil proceeding in a magistrates' court is commenced a member of the public who voluntarily gives up his/her time to preside over magistrates' courts. .property or possessions.the right to such review. What types of courts exist in the UK? 4. petty or less serious act of breaking the law of or involving the home or family . .the total extent of the real and personal property of a deceased person or bankrupt the judicial examination of the issues in a civil or criminal cause by a competent tribunal and the determination of these issues in accordance with the law of the land . .a court of justice or any place where justice is administered. Who administers courts of law in the UK? 3. What is the ‘supreme’ court in the UK? 6. What is the difference between criminal and civil law in the United Kingdom? 2. . viscount. What is the most common type of British courts? 5. lawsuit.(in Britain) a special court.a request for such review . earl. They need have no formal legal qualifications. marquis. . What type of courts deals with offenders under seventeen years old? . convened by the government to inquire into a specific matter. and baron .a civil proceeding.Lord Chancellor Peer Appeal Estate Trial into practical effect the cabinet minister who is head of the judiciary in England and Wales and Speaker of the House of Lords a person who holds any of the five grades of the British nobility: duke.the judicial review by a superior court of the decision of a lower tribunal. . .

деликт суд по делам несовершеннолетних правонарушитель насильственная смерть уголовное дело гражданское дело слушать дело . Find common collocations (sometimes more than one solution is possible): to hear to break to deliver to charge to recover to cross-examine to reverse putere executivă to return to cite lord cancelar to instruct sistem judecătoresc Ministerul Justiţiei curte de justiţie criminală (în Anglia) magistrat Camera Lorzilor delict curtea juvenilă contravenient moarte violentă proces penal proces civil a judeca un proces damages a decision a case 4. Find in the text the an opinion English equivalents for the words a witness below: a verdict the law орган исполнительной a fee власти the jury лорд-канцлер a case судебная система Министерство юстиции Суд Короны мировой судья Палата лордов мелкое правонарушение. Pair work.• • • • • 2. Which of the courts do you think would deal with: a bank robbery? a divorce case? a burglary committed by a fifteen-year-old? a drowning? a case of driving too fast? 3.

wCnro Court 7. Court of italyiMr spAplae 5. Test your knowledge of the system by rearranging the letters in bold to make words. xaT Court 8.5. Courts of Appeal (12 cuitCris) 3. Court of pAalpe (vCili viiinosd) 5. Court of cuJsiet of the nEuaepor umCosniimet soHeu of rodsL 2. Court of pAplae (realdeF Circuit) 4. 1. 1. Courts of Vanstere' italyiMr Courts . Court of 7. teInrnalation edraT Court 9. 3. sliCma Court 10. USA and RM a) The United Kingdom This figure shows a top-down representation of how the court system is structured in the United Kingdom. Supreme Court 2. Test your knowledge of the system by rearranging the letters in bold to make words. 6. Analyze the court structures in the UK. gHhi Court 8. tonCyu Court gastaitresM' Court b) The United States of America This figure shows a top-down representation of how the courts are structured in the USA. Court of pAlpe (amiCriln viiinosd) 4. 94 stDtiric viRwee 6.

c) The Republic of Moldova Constitutional Court The Supreme Court of Justice Adstraminveiti adn Cilvi Colgele oomnEcic Colgele Criinaml leColge iSx Crtous of Apapel Cinahisu aBtil enBrde huCal Cmaort The Spializeecd (nomEcoic) ortusC of sticueJ 16 15 9 4 3 Courts of justice of the first level .

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OVERVIEW OF THE LEGAL PROFESSIONS A good lawyer is a great liar. "Your Worship". Most solicitors are graduates with a law degree. barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping the extreme formality of the proceedings. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queen’s Counsel) or "take silk". They are found in every town. corporate matters. They also wear wigs and black gowns. They are usually addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady". ~Jean Giradoux The legal profession in the United Kingdom may be roughly classified in the following way: Solicitors By the mid-1500s in England two types of lawyers had appeared: solicitors and barristers.g. They must also undertake professional training both by a one-year Legal Practice Course and then by two years under a training contract with a solicitor in practice. making wills.they present cases in court. but they mainly work in the Crown Court (it is possible to have a solicitor advocate but this is still rare). dealing with commercial transactions. the barrister is to a fair extent independent of the solicitor and can take an independent judgment as to how to conduct the case. "Your Honour". If the accused is convicted. share and other property dealings. land. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defence. or arbiter of justice. the High Court or in appeal courts. The controlling body is the Law Society. Judges A judge. In court. Barristers The traditional work of barristers is advocacy . However. etc. Most barristers are law graduates and they undergo professional training through a Bar Vocational Course and through a pupillage with a qualified barrister. Solicitors make up the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts. then the judge pronounces the sentence. is a lead official who presides over a court of law. where they deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses. where their ability to speak and to think quickly "on their feet" is important. Barristers are occasionally advocates in magistrates’ courts (more commonly in London than elsewhere). Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients in magistrate’s and county courts. as there is no separate training for judges. They are involved in commercial work relating to business e. . The barrister will be "briefed" (instructed) by a solicitor .4. They are trained as barristers.it is the solicitor who first contacts the client and has initial conduct of the The Bar Council regulates the work of barristers case.

BASIC VOCABULARY Transaction Law Society something that is transacted. Often used in the plural. or suspicious deaths and inquiries into treasure-trove. sincerely and people. Clerks of the Court Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom. The jury is rarely evidence. material objects. or policy. The jury listens to the evidence I will faithfully try the given in court in certain criminal cases and decides whether the defendant and give a true defendant is guilty or innocent. Magistrates Magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace or JPs) judge cases in the lower courts. documents. sudden. in the court of law matter produced before a court of law in an attempt to prove or disprove a point in issue. but they are respectable people who are given some training. communicate with in a Commonwealth country and in the Republic of Ireland. established in 1825 and entrusted with the registration of solicitors (requiring the passing of certain examinations) and the regulation of professional conduct the act of pleading or arguing in favor of something. If the person is found guilty. . a business deal or negotiation. Coroners A coroner is a public official responsible for the investigation of violent. is a professional body that regulates the profession of barristers together with the Inns of Court. They have medical or legal training (or both). chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of truly declare and affirm that people who can vote in elections). etc - Advocacy To contact Bar Council Pupillage Proceedings Witness Evidence . the period spent by a newly called barrister in the chambers of a member of the bar . They are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications.the instituting or conducting of legal action a person who has seen or can give first-hand evidence of some event esp.legal action. active support to get in touch with. the verdict according to the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. . esp. idea. who are ordinary I do solemnly. such as a cause.Jury JUROR’S OATH A jury consists of twelve people (‘jurors’). such as the statements of witnesses.the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service (in England or Scotland) the professional body of solicitors. litigation. used in civil cases.

solicitors and barristers (b) as solicitors and barristers (c) as solicitors. a public official with authority to hear and decide cases in law court. to pronounce a sentence _____________________________ 1. etc. 4. In the case of solicitors the practical training takes the form of: (a) one-year training (b) two-year training (c) three-year training 4. a member of a jury _____________________________ 4. 3. a lawyer who prepares legal documents. Is there a separate training for judges? 6. All lawyers undergo an extensive period of education through: (a) practical training (b) formal academic learning (c) both 5. authority having the power to control something _____________________________ 2. (a) as lawyers. Complete the following sentences with the correct variant ( a. a group of people who swear to give a true decision on issues in a law court.. The controlling body for solicitors is (a) the Law Society (b) the Inns of Court (c) the Bar Council 3. 6. 2. advises clients on legal matters and speaks for them in lower law courts.Treasure-trove At random valuable articles. Who are JPs? 7. 4. The barrister’s task is: (a) to present the case (b) to express the arguments on the client’s behalf (c) both 1. a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts. Find synonyms in the text for the following words and expressions: 1. Lawyers may exercise their profession . found hidden in the earth or elsewhere and of unknown ownership. 3. not following any prearranged order 1. What are coroners’ duties? 8. What are the two types of lawyers in the United Kingdom? What is the difference between them? 3. an officer acting as a judge in the lower courts. In 1996 treasure was defined in the UK as any item over 300 years old and containing more than 5% of precious metal in a purposeless fashion. such as coins. What is the judge’s role in a proceeding? 5. information proving something _____________________________ 3. barristers and judges 2. Answer the following questions: 1. Choose the correct term for each legal profession mentioned in the text. What types of legal professions are mentioned in the text? 2. What are the main branches of the legal profession in the Republic of Moldova? 2. b or c). directing or influencing official _____________________________ 5. bullion. Why barristers are called ‘take silk’? 4. an official who investigates the cause of any death thought to be violent or unnatural. 5. guiding.

Solicitors form much the larger part of the English legal profession. Study the following table and supply the missing information. Magistrates usually judge cases in (a) County courts (b) lower courts (c) Crown Court 8. Practising solicitors must possess certificate issued annually by the Law Society. Solicitors (a) deal directly with the client (b) ensure that the barrister chosen is properly and fully instructed (c) both 7. Controlling body BARRISTER JUDGE Education and training Duties .6. SOLICITOR Status and definition A legal practitioner in of the profession the UK. Coroners inquire into (a) violent or natural deaths (b) treasure-trove (c) both 5.

attorneys often speak in spite of/on behalf of someone. ►When a person doesn’t want to talk directly to the other. ►They typically alternate/arbitrate problems and disputes between players/parties. company market target regulation tax relevant state corporate finance real development criminal contract public cooperative labour common copyright 8. * lawyer * advocate * solicitor * counsel _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ * counselor * attorney * barrister * writer _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ 7. ►Law forms/firms offer complete legal services for domestic and international clientele/customers. Underline the appropriate words or phrases to finish these sentences. Some could be both British and American. . ►Lawyers draw up/decide on documents such as contracts. Label the following as British English (BE) or American English (AE).6. Circle the words related to law to describe major areas of legal practice. deeds/drafts and wills/warranties. ►Lawyers can fold/file a case of wrong-doing where someone wants to sue/to sew for a cash settlement.

__________ profession was considered to be a “gentlemen’s” one. Thus the first women lawyers appeared. and Ada Kepley. Match the numbers in the picture with the words below: jury reporter court robe gavel jury box court officer transcript defendant witness bench judge prosecuting attorney defence attorney witness stand 10. The first women ____________ appeared in the United States a few years after the Civil War. .9. instead focusing on teaching and other activist work. the first American woman to obtain a university law __________ in 1870. They included Arabella Mansfield. Women first began to enter the legal _____________in the late nineteenth century. so universities admitted more women students and teachers. they never actually __________ law. who became the first woman formally admitted to a state bar when she gained admission in Iowa in 1869. at a time when two reform movements were significant. One was the movement for women’s _____________and the emergence of modern professions and of ideas about “professionalism” in law. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: THE FIRST WOMEN LAWYERS amendments lawyers professions legal practised fight support degree equality Since olden times. Although admitted to the bar. During the civil war many men left to __________. Look at the picture of an American court.

11. 5. raise your hand and let the judge know. Thus. tell a member of the court staff in private. The trial cannot proceed until all jurors are present. they cannot substitute for your own impressions about the case. 6. the Illinois legislature enacted amending legislation to permit women’s admission to the bar. and DON'T let others talk about the case in your presence. DON'T talk about the case. You must decide the case only on the basis of evidence admitted in court. If someone insists on talking to you or another juror about the case. it is your duty to accept what the judge says about the law to be applied to the case. . DON'T try to uncover evidence on your own. Never. 9. 4. DO arrive on time and DO return promptly after breaks and lunch. parties. by the late 1880s there was a sufficient number of American women lawyers to establish the Equity Club. These rules are designed to help you keep an open mind during the trial. Remember that rulings from the bench do not reflect the judge's personal views. DO listen carefully to the instructions read by the judge. If you accidentally hear outside information about the case during trial. 2. even family members. go to the scene of an event that was part of the case you are hearing. 8. DON'T let yourself get information about the case from the news media or any other outside source. This will avoid the impression that something unfair is going on. a correspondence club that provided information and ___________ to women lawyers all over the United States for several years. 7. DON'T talk to the lawyers. and a number of other American states enacted similar ______________. Concentrate both on what the witness say and on 3. or issues raised by the case with anyone – including other jurors – while the trial is going on. DO pay close attention to witnesses. or witnesses about anything. Read the text carefully and comment on the advice given to jurors. Even if news reports are accurate and complete.A few years later. however. their manner while testifying. DON'T try to guess what the judge thinks about the case. Remember. Be ready to explain the relevance of each item: Do’s and Don’ts for Jurors During trial: 1. DO keep an open mind all through the trial. please report the matter to a court employee. for example. If you cannot hear what is being said.

you may discuss the verdict and the deliberations with anyone. But DON'T feel obligated to do so – no juror can be forced to talk without a court order. DON'T try to guess what might happen if the case you have heard is appealed. 5. DON'T mark or write on exhibits (documents). 3. DON'T talk to anyone about your deliberations or about the verdict until the judge discharges the jury. or engage in any other diversion. 2. DON'T play cards. DO work out differences between yourself and other jurors through complete and fair discussions of the evidence and of the judge's instructions. DON'T lose your temper. the lawyers. . including the media. or your family.During deliberation: 1. Appellate courts deal only with legal questions--they will not change your verdict if you decided the facts based on proper evidence and instructions. After discharge. 4. read.

so they give up their time voluntarily. They are about 30 000 in the UK. High Court Judges. You don't need legal or academic qualifications to be a magistrate and full training is provided. High Court judges could only be appointed from among barristers of at least 10 years' standing. are paid salaries by the state and have considerable legal training.5. as well as their close relatives will not be appointed. even the Magistrates themselves. They are volunteers from all walks of life who deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases in England and Wales. Unlike lay magistrates. including many of the crimes that most affect the public. knows who is on the special committee in their area. common sense and the capacity to act fairly. Police officers. magistrates who receive a stipend or payment). Selection is based entirely on merit and applications are welcome from all sections of the community regardless of gender. The initial training will normally last six days (18 hours). professional magistrates. Magistrates can be appointed from the age of 18 and they must retire at 70. JUDGES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM A good judge conceives quickly. half of them are women. are nowadays known as District Judges (Magistrates' Court) or Stipendiary Magistrates (which is to say. ~ Proverb The United Kingdom is almost unique in having not only two different kinds of lawyers but also of judges. As was mentioned. Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. a typical appointee has about of twenty to thirty years' . judges slowly. Magistrates in England and Wales may be subdivided into: lay magistrates and legal professionals permanently employed by the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom). The committee tries to select Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible. such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. Lay Magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs). the Lord Chancellor will not generally appoint anyone aged 65 or over. no formal qualifications are required but magistrates need intelligence. High Court judges are appointed by The Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister and Lord Chancellor. The second group. However. They are formally called Justices of Her Majesty's High Court of Justice or simply High Court Judges. They are called Magistrates. religion or sexual orientation. Under the Constitutional Reform Act (2005) a new Judicial Appointments Commission has removed the appointment of judges from the political arena. they deal with the most serious crimes. traffic wardens and members of the armed forces. Magistrates are not paid for their services. ethnicity. Formerly. District Judges sit alone and have the authority to sit in any magistrates' court. In order to become a magistrate you need to be able to commit at least 26 half-days per year to sit in court. unlike Magistrates. The vast majority of judges are unpaid. However. The two kinds of judges are Magistrates and High Court Judges. Nobody. such as antisocial behaviour. A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates.

60 for women) A social group with a shared history. experience. and Gary Hickinbottom in 2008.length/period of existence. BASIC VOCABULARY Lay Anti-social To retire Ethnicity Common sense Traffic warden Standing Appointee non-professional or non-specialist. T/F 3. geography and cultural roots which may occur despite racial difference plain ordinary good judgment. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as minimal variety of professions and social classes as possible. What are the main types of judges in the UK? 2. Henry Hodge in 2004. a post. Why and how are they selected? 4. T/F 6. etc. etc. T/F 7.experience as a lawyer. sound practical sense a person who is appointed to supervise road traffic and report traffic offences . .. High Court judges could only be appointed from among solicitors of at least 10 years’ standing. People of all professions can be appointed as magistrates. Until 2009 only four solicitors have been appointed as High Court judges . Answer the following questions: 1. sense of identity. All magistrates are unpaid. . esp. Lawrence Collins in 2000. In the United Kingdom there are two types of judges called Magistrates and High Court Judges. Who selects Lay Magistrates and what is unusual about this system? 5. Stipendiary Magistrates sit alone and have the authority to sit in any magistrates' court. T/F 5. on reaching pensionable age (in Britain and Australia usually 65 for men. T/F 4. Who would judge a person who committed a crime like murder? 7. Who can be appointed as a High Court Judge? 8. amateur contrary or injurious to the interests of society in general to give up or to cause (a person) to give up his work. Why are so few solicitors appointed as High Court Judges? 2. T/F 2.Michael Sachs in 1993. To become a magistrate a person has to devote not less than 1 month per year to sitting in court. What is the difference between Lay and Stipendiary Magistrates? 6.the right or capacity to initiate a suit one who is appointed to an office or position 1. What kind of people are Magistrates? 3. Are these statements true or false? T/F 1.

find English equivalents for the following words and expressions: judecător de pace voluntar Lord cancelar ofiţer de poliţie forţe militare magistrat salariat Maiestatea Sa beneficiar. (3) The Presidents. In the text. (5) Judges ___________ be punished as provided for under the rule of law. under the law. _____________ for the didactic and scientific activity. получающий жалованье Её Величество бенефициарий. ___________ and irremovable under the law. (4) Judges shall be promoted and transferred only at their own consent. (2) Judges sitting in the courts of law shall be appointed. (6) The office of judge shall be _______________ with the exercise of any other public or private remunerated position. волонтёр Лорд-канцлер офицер полиции вооружённые силы магистрат. by the ______________ of the Republic of Moldova upon proposal submitted by the Superior Council of Magistrates. Vice-Presidents and judges of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed by Parliament following a proposal submitted by the Superior Council of Magistrates. Read Socrates’ saying. Read the following abstract from the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova. Judges who ________________ passed the contest shall be firstly appointed for a 5-year term of office. They must have a working _____________ as judge of at least 10 years. After the _____________ of the 5-year term of office. .3. to answer wisely. to consider soberly.” (Socrates) 5. the judges shall be appointed to this position until ____________ the age limit fixed under the law. persoană numită într-un post мировой судья доброволец. What judge’s qualities are mentioned? Who is a good/successful judge to you? Would you like to become a judge? Why? “Four things belong to a judge: to hear courteously. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: president tenure law successfully impartial except incompatible reaching expiration may Status of Judges (1) Judges sitting in the courts of _________ are independent. and to decide impartially. назначаемое лицо 4.

Who are referees? 5. Study the following table and supply the missing information. trusts and estates are known as "surrogates". . How are subordinate jurisdiction judges called? 4. The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States are called "justices" or "judges of the peace". UK Status and definition of judges Controlling body RM Education and training Judges’ appointment Compatibility with the exercise of other positions 7. comparing judges’ service in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Moldova. a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court. What are the main types of judges in the USA? 2. Read the following text and answer the questions: 1. What type of judges does not receive the honorific forms of address? Judges in the United States In the United States. What do the surrogate judges deal with? 3. New York judges who deal with guardianships.6.

having administrative and limited judicial authority. ACROSS 3. rather than a governmental body are called arbitrators. A minor official. usually twelve. 10. legal practice appointed on a case-by-case basis. etc.A senior judge. Military forces of a nation or nations. Solve the crossword. 8. and immigration determinations. people sworn to deliver a true verdict according to the evidence upon a case presented in a court of law 4. including the army. and do not have the symbolic trappings. 6. A person or thing that causes annoyance or bother. of a publicly appointed judge. The unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another. Subordinate judges in U. are often called "administrative law judges" in U. DOWN 1. An act or omission prohibited and punished by law. who report to an executive branch official. and typically do not receive the honorific forms of address. regulatory matters. practice. A person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law. is a retired judge who handles selected cases for a governmental entity while in retirement. 8. navy.S. A rule or body of rules made by the legislature. Judges who derive their authority from a contractual agreement of the parties to a dispute. legal practice are sometimes called magistrates. but the use of this title is in decline. are often called "masters" or "special masters". The place where legal proceedings and trials are heard. although in the federal court of the United States. 9. 2. marines. such as a justice of the peace. people sworn to deliver a true verdict according to the evidence upon a case presented in a court of law. A group of. 14. A magistrate who receives stable salary. air force. 11. . 7. The duration of holding a position. Judges sitting in courts of equity in common law systems (such as judges in the equity courts of Delaware) are called "Chancellors". A group of. particularly in cases where a great deal of detailed evidence must be reviewed. they are called magistrate judges. usually twelve. rather than being a part of the judiciary.S. Subordinate or inferior jurisdiction judges in U. in U. standing. practice and commonly make initial determinations regarding matters such as eligibility for government benefits. 12. a monthly meeting that was more ___________ than pleasure.S. Judges of courts of specialized jurisdiction (such as bankruptcy courts or juvenile courts) were sometimes known officially as “referees”. on a part-time basis. 5. Individuals with judicial responsibilities.S. Thieves’ World (abbreviation).

1 3 4 6 7 9 1 0 8 2 5 1 1 1 2 1 4 .

There are three kinds of truth: objective. For example. where complete concordance between the facts regarding the cause and the conclusion of the criminal lawsuit is demanded. systems and schools were appreciated through their attitude towards the truth. “a true statement is the one by which you say that it is what it is and that it is not what it is not". The relative truth is the reflection of reality. At the basis of all the branches of the studies of law lies the principle of absolute truth. but that truth on earth was merely a shadow of great forms of the absolute truth existing in the universe.6. Philosophers find themselves in troubles trying to define the absolute truth. discussion or dispute faithfully representing or describing the truth . The criterion of truth and its sources are based upon the socialhistorical experience of humankind. which is independent from the human consciousness.has been debated among many different groups of people. ~ Mark Twain The term ‘truth’ has no single definition about which the majority of professional philosophers and scholars agree.what it is and whether it exists . . The objective truth reflects the existing reality. all the conceptions. Scientific facts represent examples of relative truth. which is just. Legally speaking. relative and absolute. Alternatively. but approximate. esp. As Aristotle said. in the humanities a formal discussion. He is required not to make a false statement or pass the truth over in silence. A person who has to give evidence in a trial will have to swear an oath that he will tell the truth and nothing but the truth. as in a legislative body. Plato believed that absolute truth existed. in which opposing arguments are put forward. many believe in relative truth. we have the right to sustain that our opinions are true. In the Middle Ages. What we mean by telling the truth is that a person says a true sentence and not a false one. BASIC VOCABULARY Scholar Debate Accurate Just a learned person. and various theories of truth continue to be debated. that is why finding out the truth is a continuous process unlimited in time one. Truth is the key to any lawsuit or juridical proceeding. seriously and firmly. From the juridical point of view truth represents an accurate reflection of the objective reality in thinking.conforming to high moral standards. The concept of absolute truth . honest . philosophers sustained that truth is the accord between object and intellect. where facts may vary depending on the circumstances. by comparing what exists with what really happens. Using the relative and objective truths. Along the history.fair or impartial in action or judgment. human consciousness permanently aims to the absolute truth. but we must be able to motivate them. TRUTH AS THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE JUDICIAL PLEADING If you tell the truth you don't have to remember anything. especially in the procedural law.

6. disagreement 8. subjective f. d) To say truth means to say a ……………. 4. reality 5. 5.. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: a) Truth demands a complete …………………. Join pairs of antonyms. where facts may …………. 8. 7. esp. Answer the following questions: What is truth? What kinds of truth did you read about? What does objective truth deal with? What is relative truth? Does absolute truth exist according to Plato’s point of view? Do you think absolute truth exists? What is a true statement in Aristotle’s way of thinking? How did medieval philosophers define truth? 2. sentence. truth 2. true h. e) Scientific facts represent ……………… truth. absolute 7.Lawsuit Procedural law Oath Accord 1. 2. . minority 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. irrespective e. not a false one. but ………………. a proceeding in a court of law brought by one party against another. find synonyms to the following words and make sentences with them: origin indeed mankind precise principle scientist standpoint perfect to express accordance 3. majority 6. b) The relative truth is the ………………. of facts. fiction b. objective 4. concordance c. false 3. respective a. 1. partial g. In the text. a civil action law that comprises rules and prescribes the procedures and methods according to which a court hears and determines what happens in civil lawsuit or criminal proceedings a solemn pronouncement to affirm the truth of a statement or to pledge a person to some course of action. 1. often involving a sacred being or object as witness agreement or consent of opinion 3. lie d. depending on the circumstances. c) Many believe in relative truths. reflection of reality.

. утаивать приносить присягу относительная истина причина выяснить правду ложное утверждение 6. a) Provide a term for the following definition. find English equivalents for the following: a depune mărturie conştiinţă umană a trece sub tăcere a depune un jurămînt adevăr relativ cauza a descoperi adevărul afirmaţie falsă давать свидетельские показания человеческое сознание обходить молчанием.. a period during which a law is suspended to allow offenders to admit their crime without fear of prosecution – is called b) And now examine the cases and be ready to defend your view-point. the witness must say the …………. especially for offences against a government. A general pardon. g) Before giving evidence in a trial.. Role-play: Finding out the truth. and nothing but the …………………. and ………………. The phrases in the boxes will help you. the whole ……………. in time. 5. In the text. How many meanings can you find to these words?  sentence  firm  cause 8. Use the following expressions in sentences of your own:  to give evidence  to tell the truth  to pass something over in silence  judicial proceedings 7. … Because of this… … On account of this… … That’s the reason why… .f) The process of finding out truth is ……………….

Number 6 is an unemployed woman. He broke into the police’s computer system and tried to erase his previous criminal record (some parking tickets). . Examine the facts of nine prisoners carefully and present your decisions in a written formal letter. and she had been warned. She was arrested for stealing food from a supermarket. names have been withheld from this memo. All are considered as very little risk to society. Number 2 is a 55-year-old engineer. He was charged with fraud when police discovered that he had stolen over $2 million from his company using a false system of accounting. He was also charged with fraud after police discovered he had hacked into a pizza company’s computer and ordered himself free pizzas for over a year. She says it was for personal use. Number 5 is a 40-year-old businessman. He is serving a ten-year sentence. He was arrested during an antiglobalization protest and charged with terrorism. He was charged with manslaughter after he hit and killed a child while driving drunk. This was not the first time that she had stolen food. The president has provided each group of advisors with a list of potential prisoners. but drug laws are very strict in this country. He is a leader of a non-violent social movement and did not participate directly in any violent acts during his protests. Number 1 is a 20-year-old student. He is serving a three-year sentence.NEW PRESIDENT OFFERS AMNESTY! He has called a meeting of his advisors (you) to decide which prisoners should be released. He is serving a five-year sentence. He wants his advisors to recommend which SIX prisoners should be released from jail. He is serving a ten-year sentence. She is serving an eight-year sentence. She is serving a five-year sentence. Number 3 is a 30-year-old mother of two. She was charged with drug dealing when police found half a kilogram of marijuana in her apartment. Please inform the President of your final decision. Memo To: Amnesty Committee Advisors From: The Office of the President Re: List of Prisoners Note: To preserve the prisoner’s identity from the press. Number 4 is a 24-year-old student and activist. Here follows a list of the nine prisoners up for a possibility of amnesty. He has no previous criminal record.

Number 7 is a prisoner of war. He was taken prisoner during the last war with the country’s neighbours six years ago. He was a marine and engineer and was responsible for bombing a small village in the mountains. He says he was following orders. The two countries are now at peace. He is serving a twenty-year sentence. Number 8 is a landlord. He was arrested for keeping a block of flats in very dirty, and some cases dangerous conditions. He was also renting the apartments to illegal immigrants and charging a lot of money for them. He is serving a seven-year sentence. Number 9 is a politician. She was a leading member of the Ultra political party, an extreme group who believed that criminals should be executed and immigrants expelled from the country. The Ultra party is very weak now. She was arrested for stealing party funds and is serving a ten-year jail sentence. 9. Comment on the statements below:  The lawyer's truth is not Truth, but consistency or a consistent expediency. (Henry David Thoreau)  A lawyer will do anything to win a case, sometimes he will even tell the truth. (Barton Holyday)  It takes a good shovelful of earth to bury the truth. (Proverb)  Children and fools cannot lie. (Proverb)

7. BRANCHES OF LAW Where you find the laws most numerous, there you will find also the greatest injustice. ~ Arcesilaus Stop & Think. What legal subjects do you study this year? In groups brainstorm as many subjects as you can think of which make up a law degree. In order to understand the many different aspects of law it is helpful to look at the various areas or classifications of law. There are many legal principles or rules of law that are found in statutes, cases decided by courts, and other sources that are applied by the courts in order to decide lawsuits. These principles of law are classified as substantive law. On the other hand, the legal procedures that provide how a lawsuit is begun, how the trial is conducted, how appeals are taken, and how a judgment is enforced are called procedural law. In other words, substantive law is that part of law that defines rights, and procedural law establishes the procedures according to which rights are enforced and protected. Law is also frequently classified into areas of public and private law. Public law includes those branches of law that affect the public generally; private law includes the areas of the law that are concerned with the relationship between individuals. Public law may be divided into three general categories: 1. constitutional law, which concerns with the study, interpretation, and application of a state’s constitution, including the issues of governance, the powers of the branches of government, civil liberties, and civil rights. 2. administrative law, which concerns with different governing administrative agencies - that is, the agencies created by Congress or state legislatures. 3. criminal law, which consists of rules and statutes that forbid certain conduct and provides punishment for violation of these laws. Private law is the branch of law that deals with the relationships between individuals in an organized society. Private law considers the subjects of contracts, torts and property. Each of these subjects includes several branches of law. For example, the law of contracts may be subdivided into the subjects of sales, commercial paper, business organizations. The law of torts is the primary source of litigation in country. A tort is a wrong committed by one person against another person or his property. In a civilized society people who injure other persons or their property should compensate them for their loss. The law of property may be thought as a branch of the law of contracts. In any case property is the basic ingredient in our economic system, and the subject matter may be subdivided into several areas such as wills, trusts, and estate in land, personal property and many more. BASIC VOCABULARY To apply To enforce Governance to put to practical use; to put in an application or request to ensure and impose observance of or obedience to (a law, decision, etc.) the action, manner, or system of governing/controlling

Legislature Sale Wrong (n.) Loss Trust Estate in land

a body of persons vested with power to make, amend, and repeal laws the exchange of goods, property, or services for an agreed sum of money or credit violation of another person's rights, rendering the offender liable to a civil action, as for breach of contract or tort the act or an instance of losing an arrangement whereby a person to whom the legal title to property is conveyed (the trustee) holds such property for the benefit of those entitled to the beneficial interest an interest in land that is provided with certain rights and obligations, and carries a right to occupy or receive the benefit of the land

1. Answer the following questions: 1. What is substantive law according to the classification of law? 2. What is procedural law? 3. Into what areas is law frequently classified? 4. What does public law include? 5. Into what three general categories may public law be divided? 6. What is private law? 7. What is the primary source of litigation? 8. What is property? 2. Are the following statements true or false? Correct the false ones. T/F 1. In order to understand the many different aspects of law it is useful to look at few classifications of law. T/F 2. Law is often classified into areas of public and constitutional law. T/F 3. Public law may be divided into three general categories: constitutional, administrative and penal law. T/F 4. Civil law consists of rules and statutes that forbid certain conduct and provides punishment for the violation of these rules. T/F 5. Private law includes the subjects of contracts, torts and property. T/F 6. A tort is a wrong committed by one person against another one or his property. T/F 7. Property is the main ingredient in any economic system.] 3. Translate the following words and word combinations: procedural law proprietate privată частная собственность commercial paper to provide punishment for violation of law drept public şi privat prejudiciu sistem economic публичное и частное право to decide lawsuits деликт/гражданское правонарушение экономический строй legal principles subject of sale

which supplement strict rules of law where their application would operate harshly. the system of jurisprudence of ancient Rome. including international agreements and treaties. the body of law dealing with the constitution of offences and the punishment of offenders k. the law that consists of the totality of the juridical standards regarding business activity g. labour law a. the body of law based on judicial decisions and custom. the totality of standards and principles that regulates the relationships between states and international organizations . договорно-обязательственное право    4. family law 9. branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing patents j. 6. law established by following judicial decisions given in earlier cases c. that is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States d. How many meanings can you find to these words? wrong subject body 5. those areas of law which appertain to the relationship between employers and employees and between employers and trade unions m.drept contractual договорное право. in jurisdictions following the English common law tradition. laws and regulations. common law English law judge-made/case law civil law maritime law business/commercial/trade law 7. so as to achieve what is sometimes referred to as "natural justice" l. law that deals with family relations e. 5. the law of a state relating to private and civilian affairs i. 3. law of equity 8. which exclusively govern activities at sea or in any navigable waters h. as distinct from statute law f. the legal system of England and Wales. codified under Justinian and forming the basis of many modern legal systems b. penal law 11. 2. Roman law 12. Match the terms with their definitions: 1. 4. patent law 10. the set of legal principles. international law 13.

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this information will help you: You are a Professor of Civil Law at the University of Canberra. Prepare what you are going to enquire about. etc. He is calling the Faculty Office and speaks to a student who is working there part-time. for injuring people you have to 5. explaining who you are and asking for the relevant information. punishment is provided for 4. are subjects of private law 7. e. Remember to check the e-mail address If you are a professor. He needs some information about your courses. You receive a phone call from an Australian professor who is coming to your faculty next week for a series of lectures and wants to enquire about courses taught in your faculty. study the following information: You are a student of law. relationship between individuals 3. subjects of the property law are a. Answer the professor’s questions and offer to send an e-mail message with detailed explanations of the courses that are of particular interest to him. Role-Play. In order to prepare your lectures. If you are a student. and are coming to Moldova next week to give a series of lectures to 1st-year students of law. compensate their loss b. affect the public c. wills. a branch of the law of contracts d. estates in land. A Telephone Conversation A visiting lecturer from Australia is coming to your law faculty to give a series of lectures. public law includes bodies of law that 2.6. violation of law f. . the property law is often thought as 6. write an e-mail message to the Australian Professor and give him details about your curriculum. Australia. Ask for details concerning the courses you are interested With a classmate. working part-time in the Faculty Office. you would like some background information on the courses taught in your university. Call the Faculty Office. Match the elements of the phrases from the text: 1. trusts.

dreptul civil. Нормы конституционного права закрепляют основы конституционного строя. Sistemul legal Ramurile de bază ale sistemului de drept sunt constituite din: dreptul constituţional. систему государственной власти и другие вопросы государственного устройства. dreptul financiar. гражданское процессуальное и уголовнопроцессуальное и т. Partea de bază a normelor dreptului constituţional al Republicii Moldova sunt stipulate în Constituţia Republicii Moldova. Ведущее место в системе права занимает государственное право. . земельное. dreptul penal. care de fapt sunt baza altor ramuri legale. dreptul muncii. семейное. sistemul puterii de stat şi altor aspecte ale organizării de stat. deoarece dreptul legal (cîteodata denumindu-se şi constituţional) formează principiile de bază. dreptul procedural-civil proceduralpenal.8. Dreptul statal este cel mai important dintre toate ramurile sistemului legal. a drepturilor umane. которые составляют основу для других отраслей права. dreptul familiei. правовое положение личности. Значительная часть норм конституционного права Республики Молдова содержится в Конституции Республики Молдова. в законах о гражданстве). Translate the following text into English. финансовое. de asemenea şi în alte acte juridice (de exemplu. dreptul administrativ. Normele dreptului constituţional consolidează baza constituţională a sistemului social. Это связано с тем. Правовая система Правовая система включает в себя следующие основные отрасли: государственное. а также в других законодательных актах (например. уголовное. административное. dreptul funciar. гражданское. что государственное (иногда оно именуется конституционным) право формирует основные принципы.п. în drept de cetăţenie). etc. трудовое.

such as a member of the police or defence force. So if. or punished in some other way. The state may be involved in a civil case as a party if it is suing or being sued for a wrongful act . to stop damaging the plaintiff's property. Constitutional law affects both of them. ~Plato There are two main kinds of law: CRIMINAL LAW and CIVIL LAW. Usually the state is not the complainant (the one making a charge).for example. while bad people will find a way around the laws. the person can be sent to prison. A criminal case can be brought against anyone who broke the law.for example. Criminal law In a criminal case the state prosecutes the accused person for committing a crime or breaking the law. If the court finds the person guilty. Examples of what civil law deals with are: • marriage and divorce • if someone owes you money • rent agreements • evictions • damage to property • injuries to people • disputes over a hire-purchase agreement. or fined. something . 'Prosecutes' means the state makes a charge against someone. including a person who works for the state. Sometimes the court may also order a defendant to do.8. KINDS OF LAW: CRIMINAL AND CIVIL Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly. A civil case is usually brought by a person (called the plaintiff) who feels that he or she was wronged by another person (called the defendant). or stop doing. The state does not take sides in a dispute between private people. you are unlawfully assaulted or shot by a member of the police or defence force you can bring a criminal case against them. Civil law Civil law is the set of rules for your private relationships with other people. if government property is damaged or a government official injures somebody without good reason. Examples of different crimes and breaking the law are: • rape • public violence • assault • theft • trespass. the court usually orders the defendant to pay compensation (money). The state prosecutes. If the plaintiff wins the case. but any person or individual can be the complainant and lay a charge against another person or against the state. . for example.

Piet Fick hits one of the workers in his factory. 3.any evidence that establishes or helps to establish the truth. . If there is enough proof to show that he is guilty. he may be punished by the state. . 4.Criminal and civil actions Sometimes a person's act may lead to both criminal and civil actions. This will be a civil claim for damages through the civil court. What kinds of law do you know? What do we mean by the term ‘to prosecute’? What can happen with a person if he/she is found guilty by the court of law? Give examples of criminal actions. For example.the whole body of evidence upon which the verdict of a court is based 1.. of something. quality. to be in debt a properly executed and legally binding accord or contract (in civil law) deprivation of buyer’s property according to the court decision a person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law to institute legal proceedings (against) a violent attack. But Piet Fick ALSO causes pain to the worker. BASIC VOCABULARY Criminal law Charge Fine Trespass Complainant Plaintiff Civil law To owe Agreement Eviction Defendant To sue Assault Proof the law that deals with the constitution of offences and the punishment of offenders a formal accusation brought against a person stating the crime that he is alleged to have committed (noun) a certain amount of money exacted as a penalty. The injured worker could sue Mr Fick for damages and make him pay compensation for medical expenses. Answer the following questions: 1. This is a crime of assault. either physical or verbal . The state will prosecute him in the criminal court if the worker lays a charge against him. (verb) to impose to pay a certain amount of money exacted as a penalty the intentional and wrongful invasion of another's real property a person who makes a formal charge in the court of law a person who brings a civil action in a court of law (also known as claimant) the law of a state relating to private and civilian affairs to be under an obligation to pay (someone) to the amount of. lost wages and pain and suffering. This is a damage that one person does to another person. 2. etc. validity.

defendant 4. What do we mean by ‘civil law’? Give examples of civil actions. case ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. to win a case c. 8. defence ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. to observe/follow the law 6. Find synonyms for the following words: 1. 6. to rent ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below: plângere a comite o crimă a încălca legea a plăti despăgubiri /recompensa (pentru) a amenda a trimite pe cineva la închisoare иск cовершить преступление нарушать закон выплачивать компенсацию налагать штраф сесть в тюрьму/быть приговорённым к тюремному заключению . to be sent to prison g. Join pairs of antonyms. prison ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. wages ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. to purchase 3. to lose an action a. to sell 3. juridical person 7. 1. individual ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. to be released from prison 2. marriage b. to break the law ___________________________________________________________________________ 5.5. plaintiff e. to break the law f. divorce 5. individual d. Who brings a civil case in the court of law? What are the basic differences between criminal and civil law? 2.

a hijacker 19. marries illegally. steals money. takes away people by force and demands money for their return l. makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures t. a drug dealer 12. hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey p. brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax y. gets secret information from another country j. a deserter 25. a burglar 7. an assassin 15. helps a criminal in a criminal act m. attacks and robs people. a kidnapper 9. a traitor 23. a bigamist Definition Translation a. buys and sells drugs illegally k. Law Breaker 1. a forger 20. предъявлять обвинение против кого-либо расходы на медицинское обслуживание изнасилование кража 1 2 3 a) Match the definitions on the left with the words on the right. an accomplice 11. is a soldier who runs away from the army x. a gangster 24. a shop-lifter 3. steals things from people’s pockets in crowded places i. by force from people or places v. etc. is someone who steals s. Law breakers. a spy 13. takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change course q. steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer f. an offender 5. is anyone who breaks the law d. breaks into houses or other buildings to steal e. causes damage or disturbance in public places o. sets fire to property illegally c. a stowaway 17. a vandal 6. an arsonist 2. often in the street b. a hooligan 16. murders for political reasons or a reward r. a robber 21. a pickpocket 10. kills someone g. a mugger 4. a terrorist 14. a smuggler 22. being married already w. betrays his or her country to another state . a murderer 8. is a member of a criminal group u. a thief 18. uses violence for political reasons n.a aduce cuiva o acuzaţie cheltuieli medicale răpire furt 5. deliberately causes damage to property h.

000 fine. without defining what it considered to be 'unacceptable fire' . having purchased a case of very expensive cigars. North Carolina. Strange but True Story of the Cigars A man from Charlotte. and was obliged to pay the claim. parties involved. agreeing that the claim was frivolous. insured them. decision taken and sanctions. having smoked his entire stockpile. stating that the cigars were lost 'in a series of small fires'. His own insurance claim and testimony from the previous case being used against him. citing the obvious reason that the man had consumed the cigars in the normal fashion. however. In delivering the ruling the judge. Read it and identify the purpose of the action. among other things.000 for the rare cigars he had lost 'in the fires'.b) Group the law-breakers according to the following classification: Law-breakers who commit crimes against the person Law-breakers who commit crimes against property Public order offenders Sexual offenders Political offenders Offenders who commit crimes against justice 6. the man filed a claim against the insurance company. The man sued . Rather than endure a lengthy and costly appeal the insurance company accepted the ruling and paid the man $15. the company had him arrested on 24 counts of arson. The insurance company refused to pay. . stated nevertheless that the man held a policy from the company in which it had warranted that the cigars were insurable and also guaranteed that it would insure against fire. the man was convicted of intentionally burning his insured property and sentenced to 24 months in jail and a $24. Here is an example of a case where set of events can lead to both criminal and civil actions. After he cashed the cheque.and won. Can you think of cases related to both civil and criminal law? In pairs prepare to describe such cases to the class. against fire. Within a month.

Однако в центре ей не оказали должного внимания и лечения. более того. тяжело перенесшая роды. unde a decedat cu o săptămînă mai tîrziu. что в ее смерти виновны медики. Hamureac. Check your knowledge of punishment and penalty vocabulary with this quiz. acuzaţi de ignorarea regulilor şi metodelor de asistenţă medicală. Поскольку роды прошли с осложнениями. Naşterea a decurs cu complicaţii şi copilul a fost trimis la Centrul Sănătăţii Mamei şi Copilului din Chişinău. при этом самой роженице не нашлось места в машине скорой помощи. Медики спохватились. Agenţia INFOTAG transmite cu referire la surse din Procuratura Generală că. În această stare. Femeia a leşinat şi nu a putut fi readusă în cunoştinţă nici în secţia de reanimare. В реанимации ее не удалось привести в сознание. peste 40 de zile. femeia a născut un copil la spitalul raional din Ungheni. ребенка отправили в Кишиневский центр матери и ребенка. soldată cu decesul Alei Hamureac. dar la Centru nu i s-a acordat atenţia şi tratamentul cuvenite. им грозит до пяти лет лишения свободы и запрет на такой же срок заниматься врачебной деятельностью. dar în ambulanţă nu s-a găsit loc şi pentru mamă. Punish is the verb and punishment is the noun.7. but what is the adjective form of the word? What are the verb and adjective forms of the noun penalty? . И в таком состоянии роженицу спустя 40 дней отправили 27 декабря обратно в районную больницу. вынуждена была добираться в столицу на попутной машине. Прокуратура города Унгень возбудила уголовное дело по факту пренебрежения правилами и методами оказания медицинской помощи. Если суд определит. Procuratura Ungheni a deschis un dosar penal pe numele unor lucrători medicali. родила ребёнка в Унгенской райбольнице. Хамуряк. MEDICI DIN CHIŞINĂU RISCĂ SĂ FIE CONDAMNAŢI PENTRU ATITUDINEA INUMANĂ FAŢĂ DE O PACIENTĂ Chişinău. КИШИНЕВСКИЕ МЕДИКИ МОГУТ БЫТЬ ОСУЖДЕНЫ ЗА БЕССЕРДЕЧНОЕ ОТНОШЕНИЕ К ИНОГОРОДНЕЙ ПАЦИЕНТКЕ Кишинев. она впала в кому. где через неделю Хамуряк скончалась. Translate the following article into English. только когда женщина потеряла сознание. ea a fost trimisă înapoi la spitalul din Ungheni. care de asemenea a suportat naşterea cu mare greu. что привело к смерти 28-летней Аллы Хамуряк. 8. 1. În cazul în care medicii vor fi găsiţi vinovaţi de deces. în vîrstă de 28 de ani. Punishments and penalties. эта жительница села Романовка 4 ноября 2006 г. Как сообщили "ИНФОТАГ" в Генеральной прокуратуре. ei riscă pînă la 5 ani de închisoare şi interdicţia practicării activităţii medicale pe parcursul următorilor 5 ani. a fost nevoită să ajungă în capitală cu o maşină de ocazie. pe 4 noiembrie 2006. unde a intrat în comă. locuitoarea satului Romanovca.

Debate. Choose the correct word in bold in this sentence: An injection / injunction / injury / injustice is a court order telling someone to stop doing something. Smith be happy or unhappy about this? 9. an English court applies a freezing order to Mr. and 1 month in prison for refusing to pay her council tax. 8. they have to go to prison. the same man is stopped again. What is the verb form of this word? A woman is sentenced to 6 months in prison for theft. Choose the most appropriate word in bold in this sentence: 'The court ordered the defendant to pay purgative / punishing / punitive / pugnacious damages to the claimant for the emotional distress he had caused. The judge tells her that these sentences will be concurrent. a suspended sentence and probation? What is the maximum penalty allowed for crime in the United Kingdom? Prison is a noun. Prepare your arguments for and against the statements below.  Society helps prisoners make the transition from prison to the community. Would Mr. What do we call money that is paid from one party to another to cover the cost of damage. 9. Smith's assets. he is ateqciutd. 11.  Society is not ready to accept ex-prisoners. or not to do something. What will (probably) happen to him? Next week. If he is found not guilty. 4 months in prison for selling drugs. 3. a man is stopped by the police for driving at 95 in a 50mph zone. The first and last letters of each word are in the correct place: 'If a defendant is found guilty of an offence in a court of law. 5. 7. 12. They will always be objects of suspicion in the community. While he is there. 4. loss. Appoint the ‘Chair’ of the debate who will give the floor to the speakers of the both teams. What happens to the people who receive these punishments? In Moldova.' What do we call a punishment which is considered to be strong enough to stop someone from committing a crime? Is it: (a) a detergent (b) a deterrent (c) a detriment (d) a determinant? Some countries still have corporal punishment and some still have capital punishment. and the police discover that he has been drinking alcohol and has over twice the allowed limit of alcohol in his body. 10. 6. What is the maximum length of time the woman will spend in prison? True or false: If someone receives a community service order. 14. Reintegration: a Real Process or a Meaningless Word? Read the statements below attentively and work in groups – pro and con. Smith goes to the Bahamas to start a new life. he is ciecnotvd. injury or hardship? (Clue: it begins with c and ends with n) Mr.' What's the difference between a custodial sentence.2. 15.  It’s never too late to start . What will probably happen to him now? Rearrange the letters in bold to make words. 13. or run concurrently.

cruelty or imprisonment.as to property and the custody of children . Some systems require parental consent to marriage when the parties are above the minimum age. Before getting married couples may be involved in substantial decision to property. marriage was regarded as the transfer of a woman from the power of her family to that of her husband under terms specified in the marriage contract.. So a person living a jurisdiction in which divorce is difficult to obtain may be able to go to another country in which divorce laws are more liberal. or by an adult on a child. support and child care. It concerns with such subjects as adoption. One of the issues that has received much attention is the very difficult problem of violence within the family. family law has been closely connected with the law of property. divorce for contract’s frustration. a party must have reached an age at which he or she is able to give a meaningful consent. FAMILY LAW The family is one of nature's masterpieces. There are various divorce formulas: divorce for fault.9. estate planning. either of blood or of marriage. separation. Often the court rulings . The modern idea of marriage. marriage. which is becoming almost universal. The purpose of the legal formalities is to differentiate the relationship from concubinage allowing to legally recognize custody of children. criminal law). The problem is one of social importance and some studies indicate that a high proportion of violent crime originates in family units. This may take the form of physical violence by one adult member on another (in this case the woman is almost always the victim). The ceremony itself is normally an exchange of consents accompanied by religious observances or a civil ceremony (or both). paternity.g. is a voluntary exchange of promises between the man and the woman. In order to satisfy the requirement of a voluntary consent to a marriage. etc. In the United States and Canada. rights under matrimonial regimes. also known as ‘domestic relations’ law that deals with family relations. separation agreement. ~ George Santayana Family law is a branch or specialty of law. divorce by mutual agreement. A marriage can terminate as a human relationship before it is dissolved by law. such as adultery. It has origins in the economic law. divorce. 80 to 90% of divorce proceedings are undefended. these matters now tend to be automatic (when there is no marriage contract) or to be formalized separately. . In the past. child custody and visitation. Family law also shares an interest in some social issues with other areas of law (e. Most modern legal systems provide for a legal minimum age of marriage from 15 to 20 years. and divorce on the ground that the marriage has broken down. Other laws forbid marriage between persons having certain ties of relationship. A complicating factor in divorce law is the question of giving recognition to foreign divorces. And the standard method of dissolving a marriage usually resulted in the return of the woman to the power of her family. The divorce laws of countries and states differ.will merely confirm arrangements that have already been made by the parties. In old legal systems. such as incurable mental diseases or disappearance of the spouse.

5. circumstance. either by mutual agreement or under a decree of a court the fact or state of being a father the act of keeping safe or guarding.. Separation Paternity Custody Estate Consent Concubinage To dissolve Adultery Frustration of a contract Victim 1. etc. 9. or (3) make it practically impossible to execute a person or thing that suffers harm. esp. the right of guardianship of a child the whole property or possessions acceptance or approval of what is planned or done by another the act of living together without being married to come or bring to an end sexual unfaithfulness of a husband or wife [Latin adulterium] legal termination of a contract due to unforeseen circumstances that (1) prevent achievement of its objectives. 6. etc. 2. What is family law? What are the origins of family law? What is marriage? What is the minimum age of marriage? Do you think that marriage contract is the best solution of marital-property problems? Why is society interested in legal regulation of familial relationships? What are the most common divorce formulas? What is foreign divorce? Does the problem of family violence exist in Moldova? 2. 7. In the text. from another or from some adverse (negative) act. find antonyms for the following words and make sentences with them: maximum forced adult to allow unification divorce . 8. 4. Answer the following questions: 1. death. (2) render its performance illegal. 3. the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents (including the right to inherit) the termination of cohabitation (living together) between a man and wife.BASIC VOCABULARY Adoption a legal proceeding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood.

is. of countries and states differ. illness i. exchange of.. marital agreement g. as. 1. woman. a wife or a husband m. 2. thise matters now tends to be automatic (when there is no mariage contract) or to be formalised separatly. paternal h. family. the. that. 2. voluntary 8. or. on a child. family law has been closely connected with the law of ……………… . . can. between. marriage. civil. only b. The modern.… to the power of her family. consents. business law k. it. Some systems require ………… consent to marriage when the parties are ………… the minimum age. the standard method of dissolving a …………. exchange. 4. help l. marriage contract 7. 4. family law d. support 3. before. In old legal sistems. dissolved. law. deals with. of. A marriage. is. human. a relationship. idea of. is. 3. relations. a. parental 10. Make up sentences out of these words and expressions. to tend to 9. 6. economic law 5. mariage was regarded as the transfer of a woman from the power of her family to that of her husband under term specifyed in the mariage contract. Family. an. terminate. is. important c. Before geting maried couples may be involved in substantal decision to property. 5. Family violence may take the form of …………. substantial 13. the man. 3. In old legal systems. a voluntary. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. law. by. related 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4. 1. disease 12. by. and. freewill f. You can find the right versions in the text. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: 1. marriage 6. to aim at j. a branch. accompanied. of. or. A high proportion of violent …………. They can be found in the text. usually was in the return of the ……. normally. domestic relations law 2. matrimony e. law. promises. connected 4. ceremony. observances. 2. In the past. 6.3. originates in family ………… . violence by one adult member on another or by an ………. itself. The divorce ………. merely 11. spouse a. religious. specialty. The ceremony. 5. Correct mistakes in the sentences given below.

Polygamous marriages ... 2.... Find in the text the English equivalents for the words below: drept familial vizitarea copilului îngrijire de copii concubinaj consimţămînt părintesc desfacerea căsătoriei detenţiune cu închisoarea zădărnicie a unui contract violenţa familială cемейное право посещение ребёнка забота о ребёнке внебрачное сожительство родительское благословение расторжение брака тюремное заключение тщетность договора/ недостижимость цели договора насилие в семье 1... Fill in the gaps with the appropriate verb forms from the table: The marriage law of most Western European nations and of the USA is the product of Roman Catholic law that . 1 2 3 4 5 had been modified were revised permitted have been permitted neither .. The age limits for marriage.(5) on the customary laws of the territory........... or 9...... a party must have reached an age at which he or she is able to give a meaningfull consent..(5) on religion... but there is growing tendency toward monogamy......... Islamic law . nor has been modified have been revised has permitted were permitted or .. which formely permitted 12-year-olds or even younger persons to marry......... There is no uniform marriage law in many developing African countries...... The regulation of marital relations is based .. In order to satisfy the requirment of a voluntary consent to a mariage........3..... ethnic..... Divorce Case a) Make as many words as they can using these letters: PAITNSHEROLI .... This gives rise to complex problems in the case of tribal........ (3) the practice of polygamy... 7. Modern marriage law regards marriage as a civil transaction and allows only monogamous unions. but polygany was decreasing in almost all Muslim countries by the late 20th century.. or religious intermarriage.. either was modified had been revised permits are permitted either .. (4) under customary laws in many African nations........ (2) upward in most countries to 15-21 years of age................ .... (1) by the changed cultural and social conditions of modern industrialized and urbanized life... 8......

She works very long hours and earns a lot of money.b) Look at these expressions about John and Cristina. and has stayed at home to take care of her for the past four years. d) Now discuss with the other judges in your group. They began to have problems in their marriage after Olivia was born. YOU are responsible for divorce cases where the husband and wife cannot agree.  Their relationship is on the rocks. . The Divorce John and Cristina got married ten years ago.  They aren’t getting along very well. He also wants Cristina to pay $1000 a month for child support. At the moment he is trying to write a novel.  They’re going (their) separate ways. c) Imagine you are judges. Which ones indicate that they are in a happy relationship. a three-bedroom house in a nice part of town. He stopped working when their daughter Olivia was born.  They’re going through a rough patch. the family dog. You must come to a decision and make some clear recommendations. the family dog. · Cristina wants to sell the summer beach apartment and share the money. · Charlie. Since their daughter Olivia was born four years ago. Cristina can see her daughter every two weeks and have her for the summer holidays. John can see his daughter every two weeks and have her for the summer holidays. · Charlie. She does not want any money from John. John Ford John Ford is an unemployed forty-two year old man. Cristina wants: · Full custody of Olivia.  They stick together through thick and thin. Cristina Ford Cristina Ford is a forty-year-old advertising executive. but are now very angry with one another. · John wants to sell the family house in the city and share the money. · The family house. Today you have been presented with another difficult case: Ford vs. She refuses to give John any money at all. Write your recommendations. John also wants $25 000 compensation because he feels he sacrificed his work to raise Olivia. They have decided to get divorced. Read about the case below. John wants: · Full custody of Olivia.  They are still in a honeymoon period.  She can’t put up with him any more.  They can’t see enough of each other. Cristina has worked and supported the family. He worked for many years in a bookshop. · The summer beach apartment so he can write there. and which expressions indicate that they are in an unhappy relationship? Write H for happy and U for unhappy next to each sentence. Ford.

the city agoranomos (market supervisor) had to ensure that sellers sell fairly and use the city’s weights and measures. based on customs. In this way appeared the barter. but also the circulation (distribution) of wares. in which they assured the conditions for a great number of people to meet in certain periods of time and in places already established. a primitive form of exchange of goods (services) for other goods (or services) without the use of money. COMMERCIAL LAW A lawyer’s opinion is worth nothing unless paid for. the first manifestation of exchange appeared at the same time with the emerging of the idea of property. It includes all aspects of business. consumer and creditor protection. the tradesmen began to organize themselves in corporations (called universitaria) which significantly obtained the administrative. The consul issued internal standards. in order to solve litigations between the members of a corporation. contracts. These norms were collected in statutes. Other popular areas refer to insurance. and trade in general. In order to satisfy their vital needs. including advertising and marketing. In order to defend their rights. Under the influence of the French Revolution. Spain. The Modern Period It was the period when the written law of commerce appeared. In 1807. ~ English proverb Business law (also known as commercial law) consists of the totality of the juridical standards regarding interposing and circulation of merchandise from the producer to the consumer. Thus. Belgium. people started to exchange their products between themselves. This way appeared the markets. And instead of a uniform law. The continuous increase of the people’s needs determined certain forms of organization. In the good years of Rome there were juridical institutions regarding traders’ activity. collections and bankruptcy.10. banking. From the juridical point of view. Brazil. The Antiquity In ancient times. A corporation consisted of all commercial men and handicraftsmen from the same field and the leader was a consul. The fundamental concepts of the Napoleonic codification are freedom of contract and the assertion of ownership as an absolute right. In England and the United States the common law is used. The Middle Ages In the Middle ages. wills and estate planning. transactions. starting with Charles IX’s edict issued in 1563. the collapse of Roman Empire determined the division of political power. commercial law establishes not only the production (industry). The Greeks were the first who established rules regarding traders’ activity. The first country that passed from common law to written law for the whole territory was France. there appeared the specific law for the different states that resulted. He could not restrict the sellers to volume of sales or time. . and Egypt) took over the French Commercial Code as their own. the French Commercial Code was adopted. a great number of countries (Italy. helped around by councillors. representing one of the five codes of Napoleon. juridical and even legislative autonomy. Holland. establishing rules both for commercial and non-commercial men. negotiable instruments.

the right or state of self-government. a man skilled in manual work a positive statement. Answer the following questions: 1. BASIC VOCABULARY Advertising Marketing Bankruptcy Transaction Wares Weight Collapse Tradesman Autonomy Handicraftsma n Assertion Ownership Privacy law Safety law the promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media.freedom to determine one's own actions. promoting. esp. What is business law? 2. such as radio or television. usually made without an attempt at furnishing evidence. When and where was the first Commercial Code adopted? 8. etc. the amount anything weighs. . What are the fundamental principles of the first French Commercial Code? . behaviour.legal right of possession. safety laws.Nowadays various regulatory schemes control the way commerce is conducted.a measure of the heaviness of an object. esp. a retail dealer .a sudden large decline of business or the prices of stocks. food and drug laws are some examples. . Privacy laws. .the state or fact of being an owner. selling and distributing of goods/services the legal process in which a person or firm declares inability to pay debts the act of obtaining and paying for an item or service articles of manufacture considered as being for sale . How and where did the first markets appear? 5.a sudden failure or breakdown a man engaged in trade. medical. and governs collection and release of his/her financial. Who was the leader of the medieval organizations of tradesmen? 7. .a system of units used to express the weight of a substance .the act of affirming or stating something . .the business that specializes in creating such publicity the science/process of interesting potential customers and clients in products or services. What is barter? Is it still used? 4. . when limited. and other personal information A law passed by US Congress to prevent employees from being injured or contracting diseases in the coarse of their employment - 1. Which are the first organizations of tradesmen in the Middle Ages? 6. How did commercial law appear in ancient times? 3. it involves researching. proprietorship regulation or statute that protects a person’s right to be left alone.

. banking. law is used to establish rules both for commercial and noncommercial men. In England the …………. contracts. transactions. 3.. of business.. 2.. and use the city’s weights and …………… . Find as many synonyms as possible for the following words and make up sentences with them: wares __________________________________________________________________________ bankruptcy __________________________________________________________________________ distribution __________________________________________________________________________ tradesman __________________________________________________________________________ assertion __________________________________________________________________________ ancientness __________________________________________________________________________ business consultant circulation in bribe delivery market owner power . 4. 4. including advertising and marketing. ………………. instruments.9.. Find common collocations (sometimes more than one solution is possible): black money illegal commerce advertising absolute goods legal 3. . In Medieval times a corporation consisted of all …………. . men and ………………… from the same field and the leader was a ………………. 5. collections and bankruptcy. Business law includes all ……………. Fill in the blanks with the missing words: 1. and trade ………… general. helped around by ………………. In Ancient Greece market supervisors had to ensure that the sellers sell …………. A primitive form of exchange was the ……………. Is there any difference between the Commercial Codes of the states? 2.

сбыт collapse ремесленник written law ownership food law . wills. T/F 6. estate planning. people started to sell their products between themselves. T/F 1. T/F 4. In order to defend their rights. juridical and legislative autonomy.to ensure __________________________________________________________________________ uniform __________________________________________________________________________ 5. T/F 2. In ancient times. tradesmen began to organize themselves in corporations which gradually obtained the administrative. 7. consumer and creditor protection. Translate the following words and word combinations: regulile de securitate asigurare (unitate de) măsură vînzare meşteşugar правила техники безопасности страхование vital needs единица измерения. in order to satisfy their vital needs. мера продажа. a big number of countries took over the French Commercial Code as their own. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones. T/F 5. The Romans were the first who established the rules of traders’ activity. Consult your dictionary and explain the following terms:  collection(s)  producer  consumer 6. The city agoranomos could restrict the sellers to volume of sales. Under the influence of the French Revolution. T/F 3. The French Commercial Code was adopted in 1907. Popular areas of business law include insurance. T/F 7.

an individual or a household that purchases and uses goods/services generated within the economy f. the buying and selling of goods an services. goods for sale. process of exchanging of goods.8. order proclaimed by authority. coins. news. namely states and international organizations m. trade b. I said that I needed a computer and suggested I bought his old one. 2. There's a communal garden and a communal parking area. I'm going round to collect the computer this evening. a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce i. books g. which has to be paid monthly in arrears. Electricity. exchange of merchandise. such as one made between people. and the rent is £650. an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law. etc. edict 10. exchange of goods or immaterial things for other goods k. loan agreement purchase agreement verbal contract employment contract tenancy (rent) agreement car-hire agreement. business law a. franchise agreement 1. h. product 5. the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law 9. treaty 13. barter 11. prisoners of war. contract 9. anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. distribution of things. merchandise 3. decree j. I gave him a £50 deposit. Anyway. act. or countries n. and agreed to pay the balance in installments over the next three months. wares. producer 4. thing produced by natural process or manufacture e. The property is unfurnished. agreement 14. for which I also have to pay a nominal maintenance fee. gas and phone bills are extra. man skilled in a handicraft l. groups. There are many different kinds of contract for different situations. circulation 7. The . businesses. exchange 8. consumer 6. commerce 2. one who produces articles of consumption d. Look at the following paragraphs. promise of action. My cousin Bob said he was going to get rid of his computer and buy a new one. handicraftsman 12. Match the terms with their definitions: 1. and decide what kind of contract is being described or talked about. commodities for commerce c. transmission. we agreed on a price.

916. give us managerial assistance and provide advertising materials. and of course to buy all the products we sell from them. the sum will be recalculated accordingly. Your salary package includes an annual gross salary of £32. This appointment is for a period of two years. 6. In return. The company has its own medical and pension schemes which you may join. However. I've signed this agreement for 18 months. your funds will be released into your bank account. Repaid in monthly over 3 years. 5. this gives you a monthly repayment figure of £275. 4. This price includes unlimited kilometrage and fully insurance.46.870. following a 4-week probationary period. We're opening our own branch in the town centre next week. If you wish to make an early payment. Alternatively. The total amount you are borrowing from a bank is £9. such as quality of service. totalling £9. 10. and following the company's standard procedures.3. As soon as you sign a form. which is payable in full before the goods can be delivered. It offers businesses the opportunity to reach a wider customer base. their trademark. ____________ need to be assured that electronic contracts are as effective as contracts made traditionally.6%. enabling consumers and businesses to purchase goods and _____________ from a wide range of suppliers. maintaining good customer relations. They also provide our staff with all the necessary training. we can arrange credit terms. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box: ELECTRONIC COMMERCE signed parties legislative encode back agreement growing services reduced online Electronic commerce is already _____________ in importance and it will become even more important in future years. All goods are covered by the manufacturer's warranty. The total cost is £2. Oh.56. Your hours of work are 9 to 5 Monday to Friday. it can be returned for an exchange or full refund (but please note that this is valid for 28 days only and we will need to see your cheque or other proof of purchase).000. A refuelling service charge will be applied if you do not replace the fuel you have used. . which is valid for one year. 7. landlord is responsible for any repairs to the property. If you are not happy with your merchandise.000 at an APR (Annual Percentage Rate) of 6. The rent of this car is £58 a day. their trade names and products and wear their uniforms. although you may be asked to work overtime during busy periods. we have to meet specific requirements. The deal is simple: we get the right to use the company's name.

gas. PKI uses an algorithm to code and __________ online documents. and electricity. no paper or other hard copies are used. A licence to trade using a brand name and paying a royalty for it. Solve the crossword: 1. 2. For example. 4. you write a contract on your computer and email it to a business partner. An e-contract can also be in the form of a “Click to Agree” contract. EU (2000) and etc.A number of ______________ instruments have now been adopted by the United Nations (1996). to secure electronic contracts. one online company estimated that eliminating paperwork fees ____________ costs up to $750. Somebody who gives a guarantee. travel companies. An official who investigates complaints by the public against government departments or other large organizations (especially banks. . commonly used with downloaded software. A person who is appointed to deal with financial or other matters on behalf of another person. water and telecommunications providers). Only people who know the ‘key’ can have access to the information. E-commerce is profitable for companies that conduct business online. 11. 3. This way they save considerable sums of money. An electronic contract is an _______________ created and “signed” in electronic form – in other words. Nowadays electronic contracts and electronic signatures are just as legal as traditional paper contracts ____________ in ink. For example. The most secure method of signing contracts _____________ is the method known as Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). and the business partner emails it __________ with an electronic signature indicating acceptance.

Also the act of signing a bill of exchange to show that you agree to pay for it.5. A payment made by a person or company to cover the cost of damage or hardship which he / she /it has caused. The notifiable offence of telling lies when you have made an oath to say what is true in court. 12. etc. Attempts by a third party to make the two sides in an argument agree. 10. entitling the victim to claim damages. 9. where one party agrees to what is proposed by the other party. a contract. The closing of a company and the selling of its assets. A failure to carry out the terms of an agreement. 6. A document in which a company acknowledges it owes a debt and gives the company's assets as security. 8. One of the main conditions of a contract. Somebody who has committed a civil wrong to somebody. 11. . 7.

A court order telling a person or a company to stop doing something. 14. 16. A failure to give proper care to something.13. The legal responsibility for paying someone for loss or damage incurred. especially a duty or responsibility. 15. or money awarded by a court to a claimant as a result of harm suffered by the claimant (Clue: this word has already appeared elsewhere in this exercise). Money claimed by a claimant from a defendant because of harm or damage done. . the name of the product it sells or its popular appeal to customers). with the result that a person or property is harmed. The good reputation of a business and its contacts with its customers (for example. or telling them not to do it in the first place. 17.

whose observance is essential to the development and co-operation between states. ~ J. Its modern corpus started to be developed in the middle of the 19th сentury. It is developed mainly through multilateral conventions. but which are not the object of their sovereignty: the liberty of seas. • equality of rights for all the nations and the right of nations to selfdetermination. • the observance of human rights and fundamental liberties. • the law of supranational organizations. adopted in 1970. William Fulbright International law can refer to: • public international law. INTERNATIONAL LAW Insofar as international law is observed. • the good-faith accomplishment of assumed duties. The states cannot depart from these principles in their agreements. though custom can play an important role too. Three more principles were added at the Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe held at Helsinki in 1975: • the inviolability of frontiers. • the territorial integrity of states. These fundamental principles are the peremptory norms of international law. are as follow: • not to resort to force and to threat by force. it provides us with stability and order and with a means of predicting the behavior of those with whom we have reciprocal legal obligations. • sovereign equality of states. the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations.11. Public international law Public international law is the totality of standards and principles that regulates the relations between subjects of international law – states and intergovernmental organizations. The basic principles of the Charter of the United Nations. There are some standards which aim at rights concerning all the states. The two World Wars. This proves the importance that all the states confer to these principles in the settlement of their relations. There are also . the League of Nations and other international organizations such as the International Labour Organisation all contributed to accelerate this process and established much of the foundations of modern public international law. to the maintaining of international peace and security. in their local or bilateral relations. The fundamental principles of public international law contain general rules of conduct. • international co-operation. • the settlement of international conflicts by peaceful means. the interdiction of piracy. • not to intervene in internal affairs of one state. After the failure of the Versailles Treaty and World War II. founded under the UN Charter. • private international law or conflict of laws.

esp.. precluding debate. Answer the following questions: 1. by mutual agreement without resorting to legal proceedings. and specifying its purposes and rights the use of something as a means.admitting of no denial or contradiction. a civil relationship whereby one person has absolute power over another and controls his life.obligatory rather than permissive affecting or undertaken by two parties. Multilateral Convention Custom Charter To resort (to) Settlement BASIC VOCABULARY of or involving more than two nations or parties an international agreement second only to a treaty in formality a practice which by long-established usage has come to have the force of law a formal document from the sovereign or state incorporating a city. or "private international law" in civil law jurisdictions. college.. or recourse .the right of a nation or people to determine its own form of government without influence from outside a task or action that a person is bound to perform for moral or legal reasons . etc.the determination of a dispute. help. Supranational law The European Union is the first and only example (so far) of a supranational legal framework. It constitutes a new legal order in international law for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states. mutual the state or quality of being worthy of honour the state or condition of being a slave. where sovereign nations have joined their authority through a system of courts and political institutions. .some humanitarian standards. liberty. and fortune To intervene Self-determination Duties Peremptory Bilateral Dignity Slavery 1. Conflict of laws Conflict of laws. etc.the power or ability to make a decision for oneself without influence from outside. the rules and manners of the war. in order to protect one's interests . rather than states. considered by all states indispensable in order to guarantee the respecting of the elementary rights of life and human dignity: the interdiction of slavery. What are the three types of international law? . business. . bank. governs conflicts between private persons. The rise of international corporations increases the number of disputes among a unified legal framework Increasing numbers of businesses use commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958. etc to interpose and become a party to a legal action between others. .an adjustment or agreement reached in matters of finance.

safety g.. frontier 13. 3. danger b. Which are the added principles from the 1975 Helsinki Conference? 6. multilateral 2. essential 5. to intervene 12. boundary o. not to resort to ……………. behaviour i. misfortune k. many-sided d. Which are the fundamental UN principles adopted in 1970? 5. to accelerate 7. to quicken c. What does private international law deal with? 8. In the text find antonyms for the following words: private war disagreement ancient external to diminish inequality national 3. principles: 1. Fill in the blank spaces with the missing words: In the …………… of the United Nations there are ………. . conduct 4. security 6. duty 14. obligation l. power m. of states 4. 2. means 11. threat 10. and to threat by ………………. international ………………. indispensable h. to interfere n. to guarantee 15. the good faith accomplishment of the ……………… duties 5. Define public international law. conflict a. Which are the humanitarian standards related to international laws? 7. dispute j. method(s) f. force 9. failure 8. to assure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4.2. 3. Join pairs of synonyms: 1. ……………… of rights and the right of nations to ………………. What are the subjects of public international law? 4. primary e. sovereign …………….. basic. What is supranational law? 2. fundamental 3.

6. in internal affairs of one state 7. not to …………….. 5. But it led to important international legislation like the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war and the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees.. The 1648 Treaty of Westphalia.. Nevertheless. In the Medieval Europe. But it failed to stop the tension that led to World War II.. which called for equal treatment (4)……………….. of Protestants and Catholics. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 has made an in anywhere can to have regulated left have made the to everywhere may to have been regulated had left had been making a into somewhere must to regulate has left . the settlement of international ……………. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words from the table: International law is not new. partly because some powerful countries did not join (USA) and others (7)………… when they disagreed with its decisions (Germany. the Church mediated between Spain and Portugal by dividing the world (3)……. Nations (1)……. important role. (5)………… be seen as an early international human rights law. Law Merchant regulated trade across political frontiers. The League of Nations was set up after World War I (6)…………… disputes between nations. In the fifteenth century. always ……… political and economic treaties with each other. Japan). most international law has been created in the twentieth century. by peaceful means. their respective areas of interest. the Canon Law of the Catholic Church had (2)….

permisible interference with enemy and neutral sheeping is regulated by the rules of sea warfare and prise law. Latin Union. Fill in the blanks with the derivatives of the words in brackets: 1. environment.. protect. (create. to promote human rights.. more sovereign states and maintaining …………. freedom of the seas. criteria. (arrange) The …………… of international organizations has been ………. 4. organizations – open to members from a particular region or continent of the world. The basic rules of international customary law can be sumarized in the folowing fundamental principals: sovereinty. 3. International organization is any institution drawing its membership from two or 2. European Union. to render humanitarian aid. promote international co-operation on matters such as ……………….6. 3. Like presept of international morality. …………. (region) c) ……………. and the International Monetary Fund). Examples include the Commonwealth of Nations. ………………. good faith. Correct grammar and spelling mistakes in the sentences given below. (globe.. Organizations – open to members based on the mentioned above links. ethnic. special) b) ……………. and self-defense. In time of war. develop) Common types of international organizations include: a) …………… organizations (this category includes the United Nations and its …………….. 2. a 20th century phenomenon: about 90% of international organizations were organized in the period 1900-1956. d) economic organizations – dedicated to free trade. and to economic ………………. . of trade barriers (The World Trade Organization) and international development. 5. they proscribe standards of conduct. and better international relations. or ……………. . World Trade Organization. (member – 2 times) Their aims are to preserve peace through conflict ……………. international responsibility. and facilities to promote continuous activities by its members. the rules of international law are of a normative caracter. Organization of Islamic Conference.. concent. history). (reduce) 7. These categories include the Council of Europe.. Interpol. recognition. (culture. religion.. that is. La Francophonie. Organization of American States and etc. ………………… and ……………………. 1. linguistic. most) International organizations differ in function... (resolute. agencies. the …………….

1965 г. Особые приметы: шрам на правой щеке. Остальные данные и фото отправлены спецпочтой. brunet. глаза карие. Был в США и Италии. 9. немного выше среднего роста (175 см. A fost în Statele Unite ale Americii şi Italia. Numele deţinutului este Nicolas Aramis. Alte date şi poze sunt trimise cu poşta specială.8. Arestat pentru vînzarea armelor şi drogurilor. Prepare a report (5-10 minutes) on one of the following topics:  The Main Categories of Public International Law  International Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations. culoarea ochilor – căprui. брюнет. Арестован за продажу оружия и наркотиков. Cunoaşte engleză şi italiană. Имя преступника Николай Армис. . Владеет английским и итальянским языками. рождения. un pic mai înalt decît statura medie (175 cm.). Преступник бежал из Центральной тюрьмы.). Semne caracteristice: o cicatrice pe obrazul drept. Translate orally the following text: Deţinutul a evadat din închisoare centrală. anul naşterii 1965.

SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS .

That's a figure unmatched by any county nationally. Woodard has maintained his innocence throughout his time in prison. "we don't believe her testimony was accurate." the judge told Woodard after making his ruling. his pleas of innocence became so repetitive and routine that "the courthouse doors were eventually closed to him and he was labeled a writ abuser." Roetzel said. "I can tell you what I'd like to do first: breathe fresh. "On the first day he was arrested. "Without that. 55.claim . a New York-based legal center that specializes in overturning wrongful convictions. He was convicted primarily on the basis of testimony from two eyewitnesses.MAN CLEARED BY DNA FREE AFTER 27 YEARS DALLAS. He said his biggest regret was not being with his mother when she died.cleared of the 1980 murder of his girlfriend -.S." Woodard said during a news conference in the courtroom after the hearing. But after filing six writs* with an appeals court.." although he pointed out a niece in the courtroom." Jeff Blackburn. "I thank God for the existence of the Innocence Project. One has since refused from her testimony. he told the world he was innocent . Woodard -. free air. and nobody listened. He even stopped attending his parole hearings because gaining his release would have meant confessing to a crime he didn't do. I would be wasting away in prison. I haven't been in Dallas since buses were blue. I wouldn't be here today. told the court. Texas (AP) -. after being imprisoned longer than any other wrongfully convicted U. great number *write . "It says a lot about your character that you were more interested in the truth than your freedom." *inmate – prisoner *throng – crowd. Woodard said his family was "small and scattered.became the 18th person in Dallas County to be released from prison. chief counsel for the Innocence Project of Texas. inmate* cleared by DNA testing. As for the other." Roetzel said." state District Judge Mark Stoltz told Woodard at a brief hearing before his release." Woodard was sentenced to life in prison in July 1981 for the murder of a 21-year-old Dallas woman found raped and strangled near the banks of the Trinity River.A Dallas man who spent more than 27 years in prison for a murder he didn't commit was freed Tuesday. plus two requests for DNA testing. "I don't know what to expect.. according to the Innocence Project. James Lee Woodard stepped out of the courtroom and raised his arms to a throng* of photographers. said during Tuesday's hearing." Woodard. "No words can express what a tragic story yours is.

Their stories are vastly different. "That's when I thought something horrible must have happened to him in prison. At night he had nowhere to go. spends many days worrying about Fountain. In March. Fountain. He earned the occasional meal by cleaning the parking lot of a restaurant. "He said being homeless isn’t so bad. Blackburn said these wrongly convicted men get "a double-whammy screw job. What happens to these men in the months and years after their release is an often overlooked story. Texas. And so have his hopes for a fresh start after spending 15 years in prison for an aggravated sexual assault he did not commit. "They don't have any services available to them. Texas (CNN) -. Fountain wandered the streets of Dallas. Graham rushed over to talk with him. Fountain was released from jail and disappeared. one of the lead attorneys with the Innocence Project of Texas. who represents many of the exonerated* former convicts. Clay Graham.000 or so that made it into his pocket is long gone. not even $100 and a cheap suit." He said there's little help from the government to transition back into society and they're still viewed as criminals once they're out of prison. These men find themselves starting life at middle age. He is one of the 17 men wrongfully convicted in Dallas County. Now he's nowhere to be found. but the $190.DNA CLEARED THEM. has disappeared. CNN recently interviewed 15 of the 17 men who have been exonerated by DNA evidence in Dallas County since 2001. a policy director with the Innocence Project of Texas. He was one of the lucky few to receive financial compensation from the state. For a while. looking for aluminum cans to trade in for cash." A few weeks later. *to vanish – to disappear *to exonerate – to discharge. free . But there is great mistrust of the world around them and immense frustration. then cleared by DNA evidence. BUT THEY'LL NEVER FEEL FREE DALLAS. Fountain's story doesn't come as a shock to Jeff Blackburn. There is little talk of bitterness and anger. 51. he received a phone call with the news that Fountain had been arrested on a theft charge and was sitting in the Dallas County jail. but they do share common themes.Wiley Fountain is homeless just five years after he walked out of prison an innocent man. release." Graham recalled." Blackburn said. Just as the headlines of his release vanished* from the front pages of the newspaper.

although it was never proved -.PROGRAMMER GUILTY OF WIFE'S MURDER OAKLAND. "Everything. "What did you like best about her?" Hora asked. bowed his head in court as the jury found him guilty of a crime that carries a sentence of 25 years to life in prison.A software programmer was convicted Monday of firstdegree murder for killing his wife. Du Bois portrayed Reiser as eccentric. testified for several days in the six-month trial. said the verdict "does justice for Nina Reiser and her family. Her body has never been found. but nonviolent. When Reiser was arrested in October 2006." "She destroyed his marriage. without logical connection . and saw her as "the destroyer. Hora played jurors a tape of an interview with Rory outside of court in which the prosecutor asked the boy if he knew where his mother was. often giving rambling* answers and getting scolded by the judge for arguing with the prosecutor. whom he affirms may be living elsewhere. California (AP) -. and that made him feel sad. the district attorney for Alameda County. traces of her blood were found in his home and car and witnesses testified she would never have left her children." Defense attorney Du Bois argued during the trial that there was no direct evidence linking his client to Nina Reiser's disappearance and suggested the woman may be living in her native Russia or may be the victim of foul play. known in programming circles as creator of the ReiserFS computer file system. *to drop off – to leave.thinks she embezzled hundreds of thousands of dollars from him. Rory said he didn't. 44. Hora also said Reiser hated his estranged wife." Hora said during the trial. he was carrying his passport and thousands of dollars. He -. to abandon *rambling – incoherent. Hans Reiser. Tom Orloff." said the boy. Reiser testified his wife left his house alive and he had nothing to do with her disappearance. She had an affair. Nina Reiser disappeared more than a year ago after dropping off* the couple's children at Hans Reiser's home. But prosecutors argued the circumstantial evidence against Reiser was strong: the two were involved in a bitter custody dispute. Reiser. and said there were innocent explanations for his behavior.

" She said it was normal in the Laotian justice system for a defendant to get a lawyer only days before a trial.A pregnant British woman facing possible execution in Laos will go on trial this week. Samantha Orobator "is facing death for drug trafficking. which has been monitoring the case." she said. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman.1 pounds) of heroin. The last execution in Laos was in 1990. her mother said. There is no British Embassy in Laos. said Khenthong Nuanthasing. executive director of Reprieve.K. she said. Reprieve lawyer Anna Morris told CNN by phone from Vientiane." said Clare Algar. We are pressing very hard for the local authorities to appoint one." she said. Rammell plans to raise the Orobator case with the Laotian deputy prime minister this week. the country's foreign affairs ministry said Monday. her boss at Reprieve said. .more than four months after she was arrested. she said she was on holiday in London and she would come to see us in Dublin before returning to the U. The lawyer arrived there on Sunday and is hoping to visit Orobator on Tuesday. "She became pregnant in prison. and was surprised to learn she was in Laos. We are concerned someone who finds herself in prison at 20 is subject to exploitation. the foreign affairs spokesman said. Anna Morris said. especially given her pregnancy. he said. the Foreign Office said Monday. "She is not the type of person who would be involved in drugs. A British consul has also arrived in the country. Thailand (CNN) -. A British vice-consul arrived in the country this weekend. "For that amount of heroin the sentence is normally the death penalty. "I don't know what she was doing there”. Reprieve is worried about her health. Orobator." she added. Orobator's mother Jane found out in January her daughter was pregnant -. a London-based human rights group. in July. was arrested on August 5. She cannot believe her daughter was involved in drug trafficking. "The last time she spoke with me. "She needs to have a local lawyer appointed to her. She was alleged to have been carrying just over half a kilogram (1. "I am the first British lawyer who has asked for access to her. she said." Morris said. Jane Orobator heard the news from the British Foreign Office. 20. Samantha Orobator was born in Nigeria and moved to London with her family when she was 8.BRITISH WOMAN COULD FACE LAOS DEATH PENALTY BANGKOK.

GROWING UP IS EVEN HARDER WHEN MOM IS IN PRISON (CNN) -. the mother typically cares for the children. experts said there is no doubt that separation from a parent. At camp. Williams looked to the future." A recent study by the U.S. Wanda Taylor. Instead. leaving her in the care of her grandmother." said Georgia Lerner. they still want to be with their parents. "I never wanted to leave my mother." Mary Williams repeated those three words often to her 28-year-old daughter."Get yourself together. According to the Sentencing Project. the father often plays no role in raising the children. The little girl's mother was locked up for three years.7 million children have a parent in prison. a maximum security women's prison in New York. provi andes an annual summer camp run by volunteers. "Even when children have seen their mothers get arrested. Bedford Hills Correctional Facility. . a Washington-based nonprofit project. The future was her granddaughter. who served three years in a Kansas prison for a 1988 armed robbery. particularly a mother. When a father is imprisoned. a national nonprofit working with imprisoned women. Donnie Belcher. She does not refer to the past. "It was hard on me. A growing number of prisons are recognizing the need to preserve mother-child relationships. Bureau of Justice Statistics found the number of imprisoned mothers rose 131% from 1991 to 2007. children can play basketball and participate in other activities with their imprisoned mothers. a psychology professor at the College of William and Mary. said Danielle Dallaire. now 25. "They still love their mothers and want to be together." said Belcher. about 1." While some critics argue that criminals make poor parents. But her research shows that when a mother is imprisoned. while the number of fathers in prison increased 77 percent during the same period." Lerner said. for the crime or her cocaine addiction. executive director at the Women's Prison Association. "We should be alarmed. They have staffed nurseries and day care centers to keep families connected. a shy 4-year-old girl with curly hair who cried when she visited her mother in jail for the first time. Williams never judged her daughter. affects a child's psychological development.

" The couple had been visiting Thailand at the end of a three-month journey during which the two had become engaged. Onge said his sister had been healthy and that her sudden death is a mystery. He put her into a shopping cart and searched for help. who had been traveling with the man she planned to marry. good books. died at the same resort the same weekend. "The Beach. maybe. Kells found St. Washington (CNN) -. Embassy in Thailand said." Kells.DEATHS AT THAI RESORT SEATTLE." Robert St. eating and living so cheaply. the U. On April 26 in her online journal. She was vomiting. The manager of the Laleena resourt has said in published reports that he believes the women's deaths came from drinking heavily. It's off the west coast of Thailand about a 2 hour boat ride from krabi.What started as a romantic Southeast Asia vacation for a Seattle couple. "Hey. drink. a 22-year-old Norwegian woman. What else do you need?". ended with Ryan Kells preparing Friday to return from Bangkok carrying the ashes of his bride to give to her family in California.. Food. . the 27-year-old woman described the surroundings near where the Leonardo Dicaprio movie. "She couldn't breathe. Onge. "I tried to run her to a hospital but she died.." Robert St. 31. who had told him earlier that she had not been feeling well. Adding to the mystery is the fact that another tourist.S. Jill. "It's such a shock. Kells also said he had spent less time in their room than his bride. In Internet postings on a Web site created to update friends and family on the tragedy. vomiting* in their room at the Laleena guesthouse on Phi Phi island. just drinking. sun and warm waters. So amazing. Kells also described feeling ill at the hotel and said that he believed something in their room had made the couple sick.. But on May 2." was filmed. Onge wrote in her blog. Norwegian media reported that the Norweigan woman could have been a victim of food poisoning. told CNN.. 12 hours of being sick. "There was no possibility to hear last words or even see her because she has already been cremated. St. Onge told CNN about the death of his sister. hey! We're in koh phi phi right now.

. that allegation was eventually dropped by both countries. He was once accused by the United States and Israel of being a notoriously brutal S. Demjanjuk was taken by ambulance to a nearby hospital after landing at Munich airport.NAZI SUSPECT DEMJANJUK ARRIVES IN GERMANY (CNN) -. They also raised human rights and other legal issues in their last-minute appeal." said Knobloch president of the Central Council of Jews. but later other accusations were made against him. regardless of their age. He was held for a few hours and then returned to his residence after a federal appeals court gave verdict in his favor. An ambulance was also used to take the 89-year-old to a plane at airport in Cleveland.000 civilians at a death camp during the World War II. Demjanjuk. Demjanjuk's lawyers had asked the high court to consider their claims that he was too ill to be sent overseas.S. "All the living Nazi war criminals should know that there can be no mercy for them." Demjanjuk's deportation closes a chapter in one of the longest-running cases of an alleged Holocaust criminal in history. U. immigration officers previously entered Demjanjuk's home on April 14.S.000 civilians at Sobibor. "They must answer for their inhumane actions because there is no statute of limitations for crimes against humanity.Germany's Jewish community Tuesday welcomed the deportation from the U. and carried him out in his wheelchair to a waiting car. a native Ukranian who has long claimed is wanted in Germany for his alleged role in the murder of about 29. Ohio on Monday evening.S. guard at the Treblinka camp known as "Ivan the Terrible." After appeals. a Nazi death camp in Poland. of a Nazi war crimes suspect who is charged with the murder of about 29.

"If they had died with their family. rape and conspiracy. Testimony is to continue Tuesday. Defendant Steven Green has been identified as the leader in the murder raid. He was convicted last week in U. authorities said. The two boys were great students. Green might become the first former U. Ameena Al-Janabi testified through a translator Monday that her two grandsons were the first to arrive home and see that their family members had been killed.S. On Monday. family members said their lives have been ruined and it would be better if the soldiers had also killed them." Janabi said. Kentucky (CNN) -. They were convicted and sentenced in a military court.with the possibility of parole in 10 years in the most severe cases. Their "futures are destroyed.S. killed her and her family. as if they are not living in this life. They "are lost.S. raped a 14year-old girl." Farras said. Abid Abu Farras. . one of the soldiers has been convicted and can face the death penalty. They gave evidence on in the trial. When the killings became public in 2006.S. They received sentences ranging from 27 months to 110 years -. District Court in Kentucky of murder.IRAQI FAMILY SURVIVORS: WE WISH U. soldiers. SOLDIERS HAD ALSO KILLED US PADUCAH. Four other former soldiers are in prison for their roles in the crimes and the cover-up that followed. but have since refused to attend school. soldier to face the death penalty for war crimes before a civilian court. a cousin.Surviving members of an Iraqi family are still in horror after murder raid committed by U. He and other soldiers illegally entered the home of an Iraqi family in 2006." The prosecution rested after four witnesses. they would have been better off. also spoke about the effect of the murders on the surviving brothers. and set the home afire. some Iraqi officials demanded that American soldiers accused of crimes against civilians face prosecution in Iraqi courts. the woman said.

but that their investigations had not revealed any major discrepancies with Mr Fritzl's story that she had run away to join a sect. 'Very intelligent' Local social services told the Austrian Press Agency that there appeared to be nothing suspicious about the family and that Mr Fritzl managed to explain "very plausibly" how three of his infant grandchildren had turned up on his doorstep. Mr Fritzl was allegedly able to supply his secret family with clothes and food without arousing suspicion by shopping outside of Amstetten. secret family with his daughter Elisabeth. Josef Fritzl. Police say he had an excuse to travel away from home as he owned some land and could shop in other towns and deliver goods to the cellar dungeon in the evening. Three children remained in the cellar with their mother. Police say he has confessed to the alleged crimes and that his confession is supported by DNA evidence. aged 73. living in Amstetten with his wife Rosemarie. with whom he had seven grown-up children. Amstetten's local governor. Hans-Heinz Lenze. They do not believe anyone else was involved in his daughter's incarceration. aged 18. In public he appeared to be a respectable member of the community. She is believed to have borne him seven children. told Austria's public broadcaster ORF that the children had had regular visits from social workers. who never heard any complaints or noticed anything to arouse their suspicions. is in police custody and is still being questioned. Mr Lenze said that initially the disappearance of Elisabeth had given the social services cause for concern. A qualified electrician. in 1984 and repeatedly abused. whom police say he lured into a cellar. the police described Mr Fritzl as "a very intelligent man" who had put electric locks on the cellar rooms which could only be opened with a special code. But the results of DNA tests announced on Tuesday confirm he had a second. Mr Lenze told a news conference on Tuesday that neither Mr Fritzl nor his wife had any criminal convictions at the time of the first adoption in 1994. . Police say Mr Fritzl has also confessed to burning the body of a seventh child shortly after it died in infancy. He said they were well-behaved at school and fitted in well with their classmates. The picture that is beginning to emerge is of a man who led a double life. three of whom he and Rosemarie adopted. unnoticed.AUSTRIA STUNNED BY SEX ABUSE CASE The news that a man may have imprisoned his daughter in a cellar for 24 years and fathered her seven children has been described as one of the worst cases in Austria's criminal history.

A man who was supposed to be returning divorce papers at a courthouse pulled out a gun instead Wednesday. 'Thank you. He said Powell's wife is safe and had been notified of his death. I heard a round of shots: pop-pop-pop. the chief judge of Florida's Sixth Judicial Circuit. seriously wounding Powell. judges and others in [the] courthouse were properly protected. "It's unfortunate that a life was lost. entered the courthouse wearing a backpack shortly after 1 p. 30.' It could have been us." * bailiff . Pinellas County Sheriff's Sgt. Florida (AP) -. It is known that Powell hadn't been upset about the divorce. "I just want to say. 40. but the public. and her 15-year-old daughter went to the courthouse Wednesday for a hearing and saw the man before the shooting. Grady told the St. 'Run for your life. employees. he threw it on the ground and opened fire with a semiautomatic handgun." Grady was shocked but grateful.was injured. Petersburg hospital. who was shot in the shoulder -.' Then I started running. The courthouse was closed after the shooting and is expected to resume normal business Thursday. opening fire in the lobby before two bailiffs* fatally shot him. Glen Lee Powell. PETERSBURG.BAILIFFS KILL MAN FIRING GUN IN FLORIDA COURTHOUSE ST. pop-pop-pop. He started shooting.m. A deputy ordered him to remove the pack and place it on a conveyor belt. but only one – a bailiff. was wounded. but instead. "I told my daughter. and approached a security checkpoint." said Robert Morris. Deputies B. Lyons and Marvin Glover returned fire. Jim Bordner said. a 58-year-old firearms instructor.officer of justice . Bordner said. God. He was treated and released from a hospital.J. who later died at a St. Detectives were working to determine a motive. Petersburg Times that the man asked her where he could file a petition. Cassandra Grady. I was trying to run to warn them. Several people were in the lobby at the time. and that she saw a gun handle in his backpack. Lyons.

S. identity and location were totally unknown. . After the success of that operation. was arrested at his apartment in Union City. was arrested in Thailand and charged with child abuse after police managed to reverse the photo-masking process. said Thursday it received nearly 250. media and law enforcement worldwide who responded to Interpol's call. "Two days ago." Interpol Secretary General Ronald K.SUSPECTED PEDOPHILE HELD AFTER GLOBAL MANHUNT (CNN) -. New Jersey. it said. Such tactics have proved successful for Interpol in the past. thought to have been taken in Vietnam and Cambodia. it disseminated pictures of another man whose face appeared in more than 200 images of sex acts with children. this man's nationality. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents. Wayne Nelson Corliss. Interpol said in a written statement.more than 10 times the daily average. Interpol's general assembly approved a resolution allowing Interpol to seek public help in child sex abuse investigations. a 32-year-old Canadian who had been working as an English-language teacher in South Korea." The organization. Noble said. Ten days later. who was featured in 100 photographs sexually abusing at least three boys between the ages of 6 and 10. when Norwegian authorities discovered them in the possession of a man they arrested. a spokesman for the global police agency told CNN Thursday. "All we had to go by were a series of graphic photographs in which the suspect was seen sexually abusing young children and our confidence that the public and police worldwide would once again respond to Interpol's call for assistance. Last October. "That two days later the primary suspect is now in custody is an outstanding achievement and credit to the citizens. 57.A suspected pedophile who became the subject of an international manhunt earlier this week after an appeal from Interpol has been detained in the United States. Interpol on Tuesday announced it was attempting to identify the man. about midnight Thursday by U. which facilitates global cooperation among police agencies. Christopher Paul Neil. They were believed to have been taken in Southeast Asia. Interpol posted six pictures of the suspect on its Web site.000 visits to its Web site within the first 24 hours after its appeal was launched -. The images came to light in 2006.

BABY-SNATCHING CASE ENDS IN PLEA DEAL UNION, Missouri (AP) -- A woman who assaulted a young mother and kidnapped her newborn entered into a plea deal Friday, and the prosecutor revealed additional details of the 2006 attack. Shannon Torrez, 38, of Lonedell, Missouri, is accused of child kidnapping, armed criminal action and first-degree assault. Under the arrangement, she does not admit guilt but there is sufficient evidence for a guilty verdict. Prosecutors are seeking a 30-year prison sentence. Sentencing testimony is set to begin May 27. Abby Woods was kidnapped September 15, 2006. Authorities said the baby's mother, Stephenie Ochsenbine, then 21, allowed Torrez into the family home, where Abby lived along with her mother, her father, James Woods, and her brother, Connor. The two women lived just a few miles apart in the rural area about 45 miles southwest of St. Louis but did not know each other. Franklin County prosecutor Robert Parks said Friday that Torrez knocked at Ochsenbine's door, said her car broke down and asked to use the phone. Once inside, she asked to use the bathroom, then came out pointing a gun at Ochsenbine and said she was taking the baby. When Ochsenbine got between Torrez and Abby, Torrez threw her down and stabbed her in the back, Parks said. Connor, then 1 year old, began to cry, and Torrez told Ochsenbine to make the child be quiet or she would hurt him, Parks said. Torrez then forced Ochsenbine to hold Connor as she tied them to a chair, Parks said. Moments later, Ochsenbine managed to free herself. Torrez struck her in the head, knocking her to the floor, Parks said. Torrez then choked Ochsenbine until she passed out. Ochsenbine awoke to find herself and Connor tied up in the bathroom, with Abby gone. Five days after the kidnapping, Torrez's sister-in-law alerted police. The baby was unharmed. Officers found a gun wrapped in a shirt at Shannon Torrez's home. DNA tests showed that blood on the shirt and the gun were from Ochsenbine. Torrez's attorney said his client's mental state will be the focus of the sentencing hearing. He declined to elaborate but said Torrez had delivered a stillborn baby just before the kidnapping. Ochsenbine sat in the front row of the courtroom Friday and showed little emotion. Woods kept his arm around her throughout the hearing, and the family declined to comment later. Parks described Abby as "a typical 2-year-old and doing really well."

WOMAN PLEADS GUILTY TO KILLING BIGAMIST SPOUSE NORRISTOWN, Pennsylvania -- A woman pleaded guilty Friday to third-degree murder for killing her bigamist husband just hours before he was to leave for Morocco to visit his second wife. Myra Morton, 48, was upset about the new marriage and her husband's plans to have children with the younger woman, authorities have said. She shot her 47-year-old husband, Jereleigh Morton, twice in the head in August while he slept. She faces from five to 20 years in prison, said defense lawyer Brian McMonagle. "I don't think there's any question in anybody's mind that the act was intentional," McMonagle said. "We have always maintained that it was based on a lot of passion, and it was caused by the emotional state that she was going through." Jereleigh Morton met his second wife, 37-year-old Zahra Toural, last year on the Internet, prosecutors said. In keeping with Muslim custom, Myra Morton traveled to Morocco to bless the marriage. Her husband allegedly said that if she didn't like it, she should get a divorce. The Mortons had converted to Islam about 20 years ago. As Myra Morton's resentment about the second marriage grew, she wrote the U.S. State Department a letter in April 2007 in which she said Toural had terrorist ties. She hoped the letter would keep Toural away from the U.S., authorities have said. Toural last month responded with a defamation suit against Myra Morton. Myra Morton spent about 20 years working at Temple University as a secretary before she and her husband received a reported $8 million medical settlement in 2005 over the death of a teenage daughter. They moved with their surviving daughter from a North Philadelphia row house to a $1 million house in the suburbs. "All she (Morton) cares about are that her daughter and her granddaughter get their inheritance, and are provided for," McMonagle said. "That is always a concern, particularly when you have so many hands reaching for this money." SMOKER TRIED TO OPEN PLANE DOOR A French woman has admitted attempting to open airplane door mid-flight so that she could smoke a cigarette. The woman was arrested when the plane landed in Australia. Sandrine Helene Sellies, 34, who has a fear of flying, had drunk alcohol and taken sleeping tablets ahead of the flight from Hong Kong to Brisbane. She was seen on the Cathay Pacific plane walking towards a door with an unlit cigarette and a lighter. She then began tampering with the emergency exit until she was stopped by a flight attendant. Defence lawyer Helen Shilton said her client had no memory of what had happened on the flight on Saturday, and that she had a history of sleepwalking. She pleaded guilty to endangering the safety of an aircraft at Brisbane Magistrates Court and was given a 12-month A$1,000 (£429) good behaviour bond - she will forfeit the money if she commits another offence. The French tourist was at the start of a three-week holiday in Australia with her husband.

DUBAI COURT JAILS BOY'S HIV RAPIST DUBAI (CNN) -- A court in Dubai sentenced two men Wednesday to 15 years in prison for the rape and kidnapping of a 15-year-old French boy. The boy's mother, Veronique Robert, was visibly upset after the sentence was read and promised to appeal. Robert, a French journalist, brought the case to the media's attention in recent months in an effort to shed light on what she deemed to be injustices in the pro-Western emirate of Dubai. She refrained from asking the death penalty for her son's attackers, but said she hoped the sentence would be much longer. A spokesman for the Dubai government, Habib al Mulla, told CNN the sentence was in accordance with international standards and was not lenient. "Today's verdict has proven that the system is efficient and is fair to all parties involved," al Mulla said. The case began in July, when the two men, 36 and 18, kidnapped and raped the French teenager frightining with a knife. Al Mulla said police action was swift and arrests were made within 24 hours. But Robert has said the case was botched from the start, beginning with her son's examination by a doctor who said her son was gay. Homosexuality in Dubai is illegal, and the teen could have faced as much as a year in prison. Robert's son has since returned to France and was not in court for Wednesday's sentencing. Robert has also said Dubai authorities repeatedly hided evidence -- confirmed in court papers -- that one of the attackers was HIV-positive. Robert said her son, who is still awaiting test results to find out whether he has the virus, could have gotten treatment much sooner had they known. Dubai authorities deny any evidence was hiden. The mother has already filed suit in courts in Paris and Geneva, Switzerland seeking compensation from Sheikh Khalifa, president of the United Arab Emirates, and the prime minister and vice president of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed al Maktoum. She is also suing others, including the Dubai police chief. Robert started a Web site over the summer, boycottdubai.com, demanding better treatment for children who suffer sexual assault there. At a press conference last month, she proclaimed, "We are here because I just would like first justice for my son; and second for every girl and boy who was raped and even had no chance to speak." Robert said she will drop all her pending cases if the government sets up rape clinics, recognizes the status of rape victims, and takes precautions after rape against sexuallytransmitted diseases. In the wake of Wednesday's verdict, Robert said a Dubai government official told her the emirate plans to open its first rape clinic, which she said was a small victory

1931. and was left for dead on a Staten Island beach—but survived. he changed his name to Luciano. Luciano gave the orders. without ever accepting or claiming the title. and after deportation to Italy in 1946. gathering evidence of his brothel and call-girl empire and related extortion. Italy—died Jan. and convicted and was sentenced to Clinton Prison at Dannemora. 11. had his throat slit from ear to ear. N. to which all the syndicate heads came to pay homage and cash. In October 1929 he became the rare gangster to survive a “oneway ride”. Lercara Friddi. and efficiency. The bloody gang war of 1930–31 between Masseria and rival boss Salvatore Maranzano was anathema to Luciano and other young racketeers who decried the publicity and loss of business. Joe Masseria. Naples) the most powerful chief of American organized crime in the early 1930s and a major influence even from prison. Luciano had carefully nurtured his contacts with all the young powers in gangdom and had become capo di tutti capi (“boss of all the bosses”). Queens.to 50-year term.LUCKY LUCIANO Byname of Charles Luciano. he teamed up with Frank Costello and Meyer Lansky and other young gangsters. and by 1925 had become Masseria's chief lieutenant. 1962. 26. But the pressure of public opinion and the U. tried.S. in 1935. From his cell Luciano continued to rule and issue orders. In 1942. Luciano emigrated with his parents from Sicily to New York City in 1906 and. and extortion. N. Joe Adonis.Y. He ended up in Naples. In 1936 he was indicted. He died of a heart attack in Naples in 1962 and was buried in St. prostitution. for a 30. money. he earned his nickname “Lucky” for success at evading arrest and winning craps games. Then. where he continued to direct the drug traffic into the United States and the smuggling of aliens to America. original name Salvatore Lucania Lucky Luciano (born Nov. shoplifting. John's Cathedral Cemetery. New York special prosecutor Thomas E. was already involved in mugging. narcotics distribution. Six months later. In 1920 he joined the ranks of New York's rising crime boss. he was abducted by four men in a car. stabbed repeatedly with an ice pick. 1896. Out of jail. Sicily. at the age of 10. and other rackets. Vito Genovese. directing bootlegging. sabotage on the docks ended. on September 10. On April 15. he had Maranzano murdered by four Jewish gunmen loaned by Meyer Lansky. Luciano lured Masseria to a Coney Island restaurant and had him assassinated by four loyalists. Navy intelligence sought Luciano's help in tightening waterfront security. where he settled in Rome. in 1916 he spent six months in jail for selling heroin. By 1934 he and the leaders of other crime “families” had developed the national crime syndicate or cartel. Dewey bore down on Luciano. . 1936–45. beaten.. Capodicino Airport. and Bugsy Siegel. and in 1946 his sentence was commuted and he was deported to Italy. In 1947 he moved to Cuba.Y. He never named his abductors. Albert Anastasia. narcotics bureau forced the embarrassed Cuban regime to deport him. Soon after. after the luxury line “Normandie” blew up in New York Harbor.

and from 1897 to 1902 they lived in Java and Sumatra. The prison had no baths so the only way she could clean herself was in a small bowl that was sometimes brought to her cell. Don’t torture me here. I am completely mad." In another she pleaded. In one such missive she wrote. I am so weakened by this system and the cell is driving me mad. Many people. Mata Hari was arrested in her room at the Hotel Plaza Athénée in Paris. Because of her international background – and probably also due to her numerous affairs with military officers – she began to associate with various secret services on both sides. in Vincennes. Since her arrest was kept secret from the public. “eye of the day”). She was held in Saint-Lazar prison while awaiting trial and interrogated no less than seventeen times before facing an actual military jury. her frequent traveling across international borders and her varied companions caused several countries to wonder if she was a spy or even a double-agent. said to be a Malay expression for the sun (literally. Throughout her life she had numerous lovers. During World War I. and she began to dance professionally in Paris (1905) under the name of Lady MacLeod." She wrote in vain. Charged with spying for the German Reich. she was executed on October 15. . Finally she was found guilty and was executed by firing squad on 15 October. I am a woman. She was permitted no clean changes of clothing and allowed only 15 minutes a day for solitary exercise outside of her cell. Mata Hari wrote protests against the severe conditions of her confinement. I have not done any espionage in France .000 soldiers. 1917. . it seems less significant than the fact that the cultural image-makers. The couple returned to Europe but later separated. accused of spying for Germany and consequently causing the deaths of at least 50. . She soon called herself Mata Hari. put an end to this. something that greatly distressed the fastidious Mata Hari. She was isolated from other prisoners. I cannot support [what is] above my strength. she was an instant success in Paris and other large cities. stop making me suffer in this prison. In 1895 she married an officer of Scottish origin. catering to male fantasies. extremely attractive. superficially acquainted with East Indian dances. Captain Campbell MacLeod. at the age of 41. On 13 February. and willing to appear virtually nude in public. who met her. The institution itself was generally filthy. Let me have provisional liberty. I beg of you. she attended a teachers' college in Leiden. 1917. Was she guilty or not? While that question has dominated traditional historical debate. say that she was sociable but just not smart enough to pull off such a feat. She was put on trial. turned Mata Hari into a legendary figure that fulfilled the stereotype of woman as evil temptress The daughter of a prosperous hatter. This may have been for her own protection since her fellow inmates may well have wanted to exact their own justice upon a German spy but it grated on the sensibilities of the extroverted suspect. "You have made me suffer too much. a French military court sentenced the Dutch dancer known as Mata Hari to death. "I beg of you. many of them military officers. she was not allowed to write to anyone. Tall. The facts regarding her espionage activities remain obscure.MATA HARI: A DUTCH DANCER ACCUSED OF SPYING In the fall of 1917.

among others. They lived an outwardly normal family life. Russian authorities at first refused to believe that a serial killer could operate in their midst -. The next day he was given 52 death sentences and taken to Novocherkassk Prison in the Rostov-on-Don region of Russia. on February 14. with victims' relatives screaming for retribution. in 1963 his younger sister Tatiana introduced him to a friend of hers named Faina. They had two children. in Shankty. rolling his eyes. Andrei Chikatilo was convicted of 52 murders -.but Chikatilo's victims began turning up so often and in so many places that the authorities finally were forced to admit that a monster was indeed loose among them.that sort of thing only occurred in degenerate capitalist societies -. On October 14. 1992. a daughter Ludmila in 1965 and a son Yuri in 1969.although due to the initial indifference and incompetence of the authorities it's been estimated that he likely committed at least twice that many before he was finally caught -. Things clicked. detained him. By the end of 1978 Chikatilo had murdered his first victim. Chikatilo acted like a raving maniac throughout the trial. Chikatilo graduated from Rostov University and became a teacher for a brief time. his death sentence was carried out in the manner prescribed by Russian law -.but was charged with only 53. and he and Faina married that same year. 1990. Sixteen months later.one charge was dropped for lack of evidence -. which led to his expulsion from the profession. Russia.and five counts of child molestation. 1992. However. Lena Zakotnova. and further investigation revealed that he had just committed three murders.ANDREI CHIKATILO: THE ROSTOV RIPPER Andrei Chikatilo was one of the world's most prolific and barbaric serial killers. murdered and cannibalized at least 51 more women and children. Chikatilo confessed to 55 killings -. .a single bullet to the back of the head. He was finally captured on November 20. when a policeman noticed him acting suspiciously at a railroad station. His trial opened on April 14. but he was eventually caught molesting some students. He didn't kill again for three years. Although he was extremely tall and attractive. but over the next nine years he tortured. 1994. Chikatilo was always shy with girls and considered himself impotent. contorting his face and hurling curses at spectators and the judge. moving back and forth. A task force consisting of the best homicide detectives in the country was assigned to hunt down and capture the killer (although they had no idea it was Chikatilo).

to general disbelief. But sir. He claimed that the painting. but he certainly managed to find a way to achieve lasting fame as a painter. before the court under police guard. In 1947 the trial took place and in order to demonstrate his case it was arranged that." he told a reporter "is the maximum punishment for such a thing.. I know because I looked it up in our laws twelve years ago. He also claimed to have painted five other "Vermeer's. His name had been traced to the sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. prefer anonymity and therefore are rarely remembered. n all he made more that seven million guilders. using the materials and techniques he had used for the other forgeries. . then punishable by death. Moreover. In his last years Van Meegeren lived the high life and had purchased a number of houses until he was caught." as well as two "Pieter de Hoogh's" all of which had surfaced on the art market since 1937. Van Meegeren believed that he was in fact a national hero rather than a Nazi collaborator. he set out to embarrass his detractors by "putting one over" on them. Shortly after. since he had traded the false Vermeer for 200 original Dutch paintings seized by Goering in the beginning of the war. What van Meegeren did was morally. Van Meegeren came up with a very original defense against the accusation of collaboration. about $2 million then and roughly about twenty times that amount today. Van Meegeren was actually tickled to get only one year in jail. "Two years.I determined to prove my worth as a painter by making a perfect 17th century canvas." At the age of 58. In 1950 household effects were auctioned in his house at 321 Keizersgracht in Amsterdam. In May 1945 Van Meegeren was arrested. My paintings will become original Vermeers once more.. His forgeries were so good that his "Vermeers" were accepted as genuine.THE FORGER WHO FOOLED THE WORLD HANS VAN MEEGEREN Forgers. During the incredible two year trial Van Meegeren had confessed that "spurred by the disappointment of receiving no acknowledgements from artists and critics. he fell ill due to years of drug and alcohol abuse and died of a heart attack in prison. he would paint another "Vermeer. by nature. An exception is Van Meegeren (1889-1947). The Woman Taken in Adultery. I'm sure about one thing: if I die in jail they will just forget all about it." At the end of the trial collaboration charges were changed to forgery and Van Meegeren was condemned to one year in confinement. charged with collaborating with the enemy and imprisoned.. before I started all this." Jesus among the Doctors. Van Meegeren's story is absolutely unique and may be justly considered the most dramatic art scam of the 20th c. His life of artistic crime began after his work was demeaned by art critics. ethically and legally wrong. I produced them not for money but for art's sake. Motivated by revenge. was not a Vermeer but rather a forgery by his own hand.

Further. and that Africans were the first human beings that evolved upwards and positively to yellow then white. Along with the natural origin of the crime and its social consequences. He asserted that women were lower on the evolutionary scale. long arms. social. Lombroso advocated the study of individuals using measurements and statistical methods in compiling anthropological. and less intelligent. very prominent in appearance • hawk-like noses or fleshy lips • hard shifty eyes. as they lacked the intelligence and initiative to become criminal. In 1876 he published a pamphlet setting forth his theory of the origin of criminal traits. such as excessive body hair. Lombroso argued it was the females' natural passivity that withheld them from breaking the law. scanty beard or baldness • insensitivity to pain. and the measurements analyzed by quantitative research. "only we white people have reached the ultimate symmetry of bodily form" Lombroso stated in 1871 Lombroso's studies of female criminality began with measurements of females' skulls and photographs in his search for "atavism". These features could be measured with craniometers and calipers. such as: • large jaws. and an abnormal cranium. various remedies can then be provided to the criminal. low sloping foreheads • high cheekbones. more childlike. . He found that female criminals were rare and showed few signs of "degeneration" because they had “evolved less than men due to the inactive nature of their lives”. Lombroso concluded that skull and facial features were clues to genetic criminality. flattened or upturned nose • handle-shaped ears • large chins. Lombroso is still credited with turning attention from the legalistic study of crime to the scientific study of the criminal. and economic data . He attempted to construct a purported scientific methodology in order to predict criminal behavior and isolate individuals capable of the most violent types of criminal activity. or born. criminal. Lombroso assumed that whites were superior to non-whites by heredity. Whereas most individuals evolve. Lombroso popularized the notion of the born criminal through biological determinism.CESARE LOMBROSO: AN ITALIAN PHYSICIAN AND CRIMINOLOGIST Cesare Lombroso. later enlarged into the famous L'uomo delinquente he compared anthropological measurements and developed the concept of the atavistic. However. was an Italian criminologist and physician. Lombroso advocated humane treatment of criminals and limitations on the use of the death penalty. 1835-1909. claiming that criminals have particular physiognomic attributes or deformities. Physiognomy attempts to estimate character and personality traits from physical features of the face or the body. Lombroso claimed that the modern criminal was the savage throwback of "degeneration". If criminality was inherited. and therefore criminals were societal or evolutionary regressions. Racial development was signified by social progress from primitive to modern. In the study. forward projection of jaw. which would offer the greatest effects. then the born criminal could be distinguished by physical atavistic stigmata. the violent criminal had devolved. women who commit crimes had different physical characteristics. wrinkles.

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