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Master of Business AdministrationMB0038 – Management Process & Organizational Behavior

Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills.

Management roles and skills. Managerial Roles To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has identified ten Sub roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles 1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform: a. Monitor-collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization. b. Disseminator-communicating information to organizational members. c. Spokesperson-representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. Entrepreneur-initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers-taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators-allocating human, physical, and monetary resources d. Negotiator - negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles: This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings:

Katz (1974) found that managers needed three essential management skills 1. Liaison-liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities. It requires creative thinking. understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). and many people develop their technical skills on the job. may face difficult to manage their subordinates. c. interaction and work flow is foundational to implementing adjustments to improve results. Observing employees at work. People. A good leader is always looking for ways to improve production and standards. a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with what is happening in the work place.a.. Here are six management skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a quality effective team. and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a manager. motivating etc. diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. Vocational and on the job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. What type of skills does a manager need? Robert L. it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others. Conceptual Skill: This is an ability to critically analyze. Management Skills A manager's job is varied and complex. To have credibility. Technical 2. ability to motivate others even in adverse situation. Figurehead-Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Monitor Employee Performance . A mark of a good leader is to be able to provide consistent motivation to his team encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. To acquire the Human Skill. Observation This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the demands on a leader's time and schedule. All jobs require some specialized expertise. generating options and choosing the best available option. Observation and regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should be scheduled into the calendar. Conceptual Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. who are proficient in technical skill. Human 3. but not with interpersonal skills. 2. Human Skill: This is the ability to work with. Leadership-leading organization in terms of recruiting. 1. the procedures.

By developing these six managerial skills builds a solid foundation for success. A leader considers all the different factors before making a decision. then regular consultations with experts involved in the departments should be held. 5. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem. 3. but with the expectation of ongoing professional development and support. create confidence in the leadership. combined with the willingness and flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary. Good Decision Making Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good decisions. There should be frequent encouragement and clear criteria for ongoing goals both for the group and individual. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research On-going review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business. While managing the present to ensure on-going excellence in product and performance. Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and experience of the production and process leading to results. If a leader does not possess all the expertise and knowledge personally. 6.Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways. Conducting and evaluating research is an important way of planning and being prepared for the future. . Implementation of Professional Development Programs A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and development strategies to strengthen the weaker skills in the team. a good leader is also able to look towards the future. 4. Clear firm decisions. This is important in order to maintain an accurate and informed overall picture. Policies and procedures need to be clear. Individual and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor performance.

Correctly identifying the behavior is important. If coworkers stop talking and laughing. It decreases a behavior. When behaviors need to stop immediately. Punishment is not the same as negative reinforcement. Punishment Punishment consists of administering a negative consequence when the undesired behavior occurs.Q. or observing safety procedures. A manager must . Punishment administers a negative consequence. both good and bad behaviors are controlled by reinforced consequences.2 Discuss the methods of shaping behavior in detail. or reinforcement will not lead to the desired response. whereas negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior. Methods of Shaping Behavior: Extinction According to operant conditioning. Identifying behavioral reinforces and removing them can decrease a behavior. Although extinction is useful. Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process that increases the probability that desired behaviors occur by applying consequences. it takes time to eliminate the undesired behavior. whereas negative reinforcement removes a negative consequence. Extinction can modify the behavior of a worker who spends much time talking or telling jokes. managers may resort to punishment. the worker is likely to stop telling jokes. Managers use reinforcement to increase the likelihood of higher sales. The attention of coworkers reinforces this behavior. Reinforcement begins by selecting a behavior to be encouraged. better attendance. An undesired behavior without reinforcement can diminish until it no longer occurs. This process is called extinction.

They are realistic. and often stubborn. logical. b. Perceiving or judging (P or J). height. These four opposite pairs result into 16 possible combinations. decisive. Q. are generally referred to describe the influence of heredity in developing personality. 1989) : a. Thinking or feeling (T or F). etc. eye color. and have a natural head for business or mechanics. analytical. c. determined. d. The manager would need to reinforce both behaviors if both are desired. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments The factors affecting personality development are illustrated below: 1. temperament. individualistic. intelligence. These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. They are characterized as skeptical. Sensing or intuitive (S or N). Extroverted or introverted (E or I). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The MBTI classifies human beings into four opposite pairs (dichotomies). independent. In MBTI. He or she is innovative. versatile.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Myers -Briggs. ESTJs are organizers. located in the chromosomes. INTJs are visionaries. Traits like physique. and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas.decide if attendance at meetings is the desired behavior or attendance and participation. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. For example: a. b. critical. Heredity The relationship of heredity with personality is a well-accepted fact. Individuals are classified as (McCrae and Costa. c. base on their psychological opposites. reflexes. They like to organize and run activities. Robbins (2003) has argued that the three different streams of research lend some credibility to the argument that heredity plays an important part . The ENTP type is a conceptualize. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual‘s personality is the molecular structure of the genes. energy level. hair color.

which an individual goes through in his/her life. parent's educational level and geographic location. According to Michel. The environmental factors influence personality of an individual since they provide the basis of certain experiences which determine the individual‘s view about life. i. can serve as important determinants of his/her personality. ii. Every culture expects and trains its members to behave in the ways that are acceptable to the group. 4. since individuals within the same culture (but from different family and sub-cultural background) have been seen to differ in their behavior." Culture requires both conformity and acceptance from its members. Families influence the behavior of a person especially in the early stages of life. A trauma suffered by a person in the childhood can sometime change the structure of his/her own personality. both positive and negative. Family One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the immediate family. It can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model. Parents being the first model. which is important to the person's early development. 6. The first looks at the genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children. cooperation. an individual‘s personality cannot be always assessed. Identification can be viewed as the similarity of behavior including feelings and attitudes between child and model. However. From all three perspectives. race. on the basis of culture. etc. iii. Every individual goes through different type of experiences and events in his/her life. competition. People from different cultural groups have different attitudes towards determining an individual's personality. Situation Situational factors also play a crucial role in determining the personality of a person. the process can be examined from three different perspectives. To a marked degree. attitudes and values that are passed on from generation to generation and create consistencies over time. The parents play an especially important part in the identification process. The second addresses the study of twins who were separated at birth and the third examines the consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations. 2. religion. 3. Environment Environment comprises of culture. Some of the events and experiences. social and situational factors. aggression. family size. 5. the child's cultural group defines the range of experiences and situations he is likely to encounter and the values and personality characteristics that will be reinforced and hence learned. the identification process is fundamental to the understanding of personality development. family. Culture Culture establishes norms. Social Factors . Identification can be looked at as the child's motives or desires to be like the model. artistic talent. The nature of such influence will depend upon the socio-economic level of the family.

we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. most of whom are male. After infancy.There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons. Mr. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. 1) Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. This is commonly called the socialization process. we form more positive impressions of other. . Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job". that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. which greatly influence an individual's personality. a boss who is insecure perceives a sub ordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. In addition. Through the perceptual process. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed.a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers. For example. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization . When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for. then the social group: peers. These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver ii) In the Object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. from the enormously wide range of behavioral potentialities that are open to him or her. When in a negative mood. other members of the immediate family – father. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. brothers. This attitude with doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. school friends and members of the work group . those that are ultimately synthesized and absorbed.4 What are the factors influencing perception? Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. For influential roles. Q. in an organizational context. Socialization starts with the initial contact between a mother and her new infant. regardless of the intention of the subordinates. groups and especially organizations. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. Mr. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver’s attitudes affect perception. sisters and close relatives or friends. When in a positive mood.

we assume that + i. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i) Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. The perceiver deciphers eye contact. and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person.d) Self: Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiver’s self-concept. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. f) Cognitive structure: Cognitive structure. For example. iv) Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. and appearance. more readily. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. Because our individual interests differ considerably. body movements. . In contrast. weight. such as height. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what other perceive. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. 3) Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place. an individual's pattern of thinking. ii) One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in other. 2) Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Motions. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. sound.e. g) Expectations: Finally. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. facial expressions. the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. iii) People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. In this situation. also affects perception.

5 Mr. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys. Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in complaints and grievances. and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. Assume that you are Ms. is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal wellbeing. job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. it is also a temporary one. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction. Unhappy employees. However. What suggestions you will give to Mr. job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. The Harvard Professional Group (1998) sees job satisfaction as the keying redient that leads to recognition. doing it well. income.individual's behaviors can be accounted for by the situation. Importance To Worker And Organization Frequently. At the same time. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one's work. self-respect. the HR consultant. monotonous jobs can erode a worker's initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. flexible. Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction. Q. Ramani. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. For the organization. Ramani leading HR consultant. To the worker. and the achievement of other goals that lead to a general feeling of fulfillment. Solanki is the VP. and loyal. Job satisfaction. who are motivated by fear of job loss. and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. Solanki. and termination. He is having a meeting with Ms. a worker's sense of achievement and success. Though fear is a powerful motivator. work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and produces anxiety. Increased productivity—the quantity and quality of output per hour worked—seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life.HR of a leading financial services company. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. as well as improved punctuality and . promotion. and self-development. and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. turnover. studies dating back to Herzberg's (1957) have shown at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity. absenteeism. Mr. self-esteem. innovative. and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long.

Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion • • • • • • • Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. and soon grass will grow on the factory floors. Also. but leave my factories. how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. when creating work teams. Creating Job Satisfaction So.worker morale. possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put his or her signature" on the finished product Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable. managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully . Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. and the nature of the work itself. secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits. 1996. and soon we will have a new and better factory" (quoted in Brown. p. Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. For example. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: • • • Flexible work arrangements. the manager's personal characteristics and management style. or needs in the same workgroup. but leave my people. managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds. Apart from the factors mentioned above. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. experiences. job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics." No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: "Take away my people. 123). Take away my factories. thus protecting the "bottom line.

Employer’s value and reward excellent reading. and achievement. a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment. listening. As much as possible. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. Empirical findings by Ting(1997) show that job characteristics such as pay. and challenge in the work itself. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include AT&T. Of course. and opportunities for growth. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions: • • • • • When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? What did it look like? What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? Workers' Roles In Job Satisfaction If job satisfaction is a worker benefit. and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector. For example. promotional opportunity. One such step is job enrichment. Good management has the potential for creating high morale. learning. and skills utilization. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction. and General Motors (Daft. IBM. as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers. and speaking skills. managers should match job tasks to employees' personalities.matching workers with the type of work. high productivity. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: • Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. • . Develop excellent communication skills. have significant effects on job satisfaction. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities. scope. 1997). surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. task clarity and significance. writing. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. recognition.

Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management techniques. over the long-term. requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Learn to de-stress. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. in essence. This helps to give meaning to one's existence. job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. and rewarding work environment is vital. So. thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction.• Know more. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. if the pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains. her supervisor is supportive. Accept the diversity in people. Very simply put. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system. challenging. • • • • • Assuring Job Satisfaction Assuring job satisfaction. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg’s (1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating. there is some level of job satisfaction. and her coworkers are friendly. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. Develop teamwork and people skills. her pay is fair. it is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. supportive. her promotional opportunities are good. 91). Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p. . Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting. See the value in your work. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed.

ex. Maslow's basic needs are as follows: Physiological Needs . It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends. nor the third until the second has been satisfied. This has been labeled "fully functioning person". esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. Colleagues batch mates. the highest reaches of consciousness and wisdom. Humanists focus upon potentials. What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ? Maslow is a humanistic psychologist. higher levels of needs exist. Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. All of his basic needs are instinctual. and so on. 3. Humans seek the frontiers of creativity. "healthy personality". relatives. These include needs for understanding. What all needs do it takes care off according to maslow’s need hierarchy 4. Beyond these needs. people will grow straight and beautiful.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the “VARK-LEARNING” a learning and training solutions company 1. either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or of unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis)." Maslow has set up a hierarchic theory of needs. equivalent of instincts in animals. If the environment is right. "self-actualizing person. In the levels of the five basic needs. or as Maslow calls this level. actualizing the potentials they have inherited. If the environment is not "right" (and mostly it is not) they will not grow tall and straight and beautiful. the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied.Q. They believe that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities. Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. It recognizes good performances and give fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. Humanists do not believe that human beings are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces.

This involves both giving and receiving love. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs. If a person is hungry. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Needs for Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied. Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. lacking something. food. affection and the sense of belonging. the person feels inferior. When these needs are frustrated. and respect from others. affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do. lower levels representing the lower needs. He recommends ways education can switch from its usual personstunting tactics to person-growing approaches. He states that education is one of these hindrances. and the upper point representing the need for self-actualization. in short. and a relatively constant body temperature. restless. not loved or accepted. the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world. tense. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread rioting). The hierarchic theory is often represented as a pyramid. helpless and worthless. When these needs are satisfied. with the larger. Humans have a need for a stable. and a poet must write. high level of self-respect. weak. Affection and Belongingness When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied. the needs for security can become active. Needs of Love. an artist must paint. water. They consist of needs for oxygen. or lacking self-esteem. Maslow states that educators should respond to .These are biological needs. The person feels on edge. Needs for Esteem When the first three classes of needs are satisfied. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. firmly based." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. unsafe. then and only then are the needs for selfactualization activated. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualization. Maslow believes that the only reason that people would not move well in direction of selfactualization is because of hindrances placed in their way by society. Safety Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors." "A musician must make music. the needs for esteem can become dominant. the next class of needs for love.

We should teach people that life is precious. teaching the person to appreciate beauty and the other good things in nature and in living. We should refresh consciousness. Ten points that educators should address are listed: 1.the potential an individual has for growing into a self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. their calling. We should teach people to be authentic. We should help people discover their vocation in life. We should teach people to transcend their cultural conditioning and become world citizens. We must teach people to be good choosers. of pain. 8. It takes control to improve the quality of life in all areas. We must accept the person as he or she is and help the person learn their inner nature. fate or destiny. and if people are open to seeing the good and joyous in all kinds of situations. This is especially focused on finding the right career and the right mate. This includes safety. and death. They must be given practice in making good choices. what potentials are really there? 6. . 9. belongingness. We must see that the person's basic needs are satisfied. 10. 5. 2. it makes life worth living. 4. to be aware of their inner selves and to hear their inner-feeling voices. 7. We should teach people that controls are good. and esteem needs. We should teach people to transcend the trifling problems and grapple with the serious problems in life. suffering. 3. that there is joy to be experienced in life. These include the problems of injustice. From real knowledge of aptitudes and limitations we can know what to build upon. and complete abandon is bad.