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THE LECTIONARY

ITS

SOURCES AND HISTORY

H*fbil

bstat

F.

TH. BERGH,

O.S.B.
Censor deputatus.

Imprimatur

* PETRUS EPUS SOUTHWARC.
SOUTHWARCI
Z);V 8 a

Jumi 1910.

OCT 22

THE LECTIONARY
ITS

SOURCES AND HISTORY

BY

JULES BAUDOT
BENEDICTINE OF FARNBOROUGH

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY

AMBROSE CATOR
OF THE ORATORY

LONDON

CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY
68

SOUTHWARK BRIDGE ROAD,
1910

S.E.

TRANSLATOR S PREFACE
THIS book,
like the

author

s

previous one,

Le Breviaire

which was published by the Romain, Catholic Truth Society in 1909, is one of a series 1 which has been appearing in French under the
a translation of
direction of the Right
of Farnborough.

Reverend

Dom

Cabrol,

Abbot

The
to

translator has ventured to

add the present one

the English works on liturgy in the hope that, following a knowledge of the Breviary, some account
of

the

Lectionary,

its

sources and

history,

would

not be unwelcome.
In reality this is something more than a translation. 2 is rather an adaptation of two works, to which a considerable amount of new matter has been added
It

The whole of the Introduction, by the author. Chapter I., and the second half of Chapter IV. are new,
as well as several shorter sections which have been inserted in the text at various places.

Throughout

the work the
1

Douay
:

version of the Bible has been
Etudes pour
le

Science et Religion

temps present.

Paris,

Librairie
2

Les

et Cie., rue Lectionnaires et les
1

Bloud

Madame

4.

Evangclaires, par Jules Baudot,

Benedictin dc

Abbaye de Farnborough.

vi

Translator s Preface
for Scriptural

adopted

quotations,

and the English

translations published

burgh for references this has been possible.
the Divine Liturgy, as

by T. & T. Clark of Edin from the Fathers, wherever
is

Without doubt there
is

an awakening interest

in

testified

by the numbers

who

frequent its recitation in Westminster Cathedral and in our religious houses, as well as by the notice it
receives in our newspapers.
all

this

is

but so

much
s

not hope that evidence of the dawn of a
of

May we

Catholic revival, and of the return
their part in the

lay folk

to

Church

daily prayer, which was so
life

marked a feature

of English Catholic

before the

great upheaval of the sixteenth century.

The

translator

further

returns

his

most grateful
to the author,

thanks to Mr. C. D. Gordon for kindly undertaking the
revision of the proofs,

and especially

Dom
so

Jules Baudot, O.S. B.,for his kindness in
interesting additions.

making

many

many shortcomings of this translation, it is hoped that it may afford matter for instruction and thought among those who long to see this
more united in one Fold and under one Shepherd, and the Catholic Church in
England
of ours once

Despite the

England again take her share

in

shaping the

lives

of our fellow-countrymen in regard to their duties to

God and

their neighbour.

A. C.

LONDON, i&th May

1910.

CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION

.

i

CHAPTER
THE GENESIS

I.

FIRST PERIOD

OF THE LECTIONARIES AND EVANGEL.

ARIES DURING THE FIRST FlVE CENTURIES
1.

5

receive the

Books primitively employed The first Christians Books of the Old Testament (Law and Pro
Jews

phets) from the
to

The

particular

Churches transmit
is

one another that which ere long New Testament.
2.

to constitute the

Existence of the Lections in the

first

Christian

Meet

Distribution of the Passages before the tion of the Collections.

ingsThe

Forma

CHAPTER
THE

II.

SECOND PERIOD
. .

LECTIONARIES AND EVANGELARIES FROM THE SIXTH TO THE TWELFTH CENTURIES
I.

19

THE SOURCES OR DOCUMENTS
1.

The

Lectionaries

2.

The Evangelaries

For For For For

the East.
the West. the East.

the West.

viii

Contents
II.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LECTIONS
For the East. For the West. The Comes The Agreement between the Comes and the Work of Alcuin and Amalaire The Ambrosian Liturgy The Mozarabic and Celtic
1.

The

Lectionaries

Liturgy.
2.

The

Evangelaries

For the East. For the West.

CHAPTER

III.

THIRD PERIOD
.

THE LECTIONARIES AND EVANGELARIES FROM THE
ELEVENTH TO THE FIFTEENTH CENTURIES
I.

88

GENERAL GLANCE AT THE DOCUMENTS
1.

2.

The The

Lectionaries.

Evangelaries.

II.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE LECTIONS
1.

2.

The The

Lectionaries.

Evangelaries.

III.

CEREMONIAL OBSERVED FOR THE LECTIONS
1.

2.

The The

Lectionaries.

Evangelaries.

IV.

INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DECORATION OF THE EVANGELARIES.

CHAPTER
A GENERAL SURVEY
ROMAN MISSAL
1.

IV

OF

THE LECTIONS OF THE
183

2.

The The

Lectionaries.

Evangelaries.

CONCLUSION

...

.209

THE LECTIONARY
ITS

SOURCES AND HISTORY
INTRODUCTION

I.

PRELIMINARY NOTIONS.
in a general

By

Lectionaries

is

meant, way, the liturgical books contain the ing special passages of Holy Scripture which are read in the public services, particularly at the Mass.

The expression is derived from the Latin word lectiones, a translation of the Greek Ayayyoxre^ or Ai/ayiw/xara.
designate these detached passages, the Greeks also employed the word TrepixoTral (Latin segmenta], from which we have got the word pericopes.

To

To
or

give the generic notion

:

it

is

applied to the

entire collection of Bible extracts, either of the

Old

New Testament. In a more restricted sense the word Lectionary designates the rare book of extracts from the Old Testament thus the name shows that
;

at first the

genus was employed to express the species.

As

to the portions of the

New

denominations can be given them according

Testament, distinct to whether

2

The Lectionary
or

they were taken from the Gospels, Epistles of the Apostles.

Acts and

Thus the
the Gospel

collection
is

containing the lessons from called by the Greeks EuayyeA/oi/ or

ExXoyaSioi/ TOV evayyeXiov. European scholars often call the Gospel Lectionary by the name Evangeliarium or Evangelistarium but some printed Greek lec;

tionaries reserve this

latter expression to designate

the final list in

which the days are passages which ought to be read.

set out with the

In regard to the collection of lessons taken from the Acts of the Apostles or the Epistles, the name ATroWoAo? or Iipaa7r6<TTo\o$ is adopted by the

Greeks.
ent, the

The

first

of these

words

is

the

more preval

second being more often used to signify the

which the text is given in its entirety. the Greeks, these liturgical books are not Among the only ones containing either the ecclesiastical lessons
collections in

or the indications relative to the reading of the Bible in the public offices they are found also in the
Eucologies,

M

;

etiologies, etc.

In the Churches of the West, the expression Lec tionary is frequently used to designate the ATroVroXo?
of the Greeks,

and

in opposition to the EvayyeXiov.

Thus

us the expressions are taken in a particular sense distinct from the primordial sense Lectionary is the collection of the Acts of the
it

is

that

among

:

Apostles and
collection
of

of

the

Epistles,
;

Evangelary

is

the

the Gospels

the two words refer to

Introduction

3
It is in

two

distinct parts of the

New

Testament.

this latter sense that

we

wish to speak, for

we

intend

exclusively to occupy ourselves with the collections of the Western Liturgy we shall say a word en passant of
;

Eastern collections.
to designate the of the lessons, text the collections having complete or else the tables in which only the beginning and the

The two terms were employed

end

of the lessons figured

:

those

precise gave to the complete collections the

who wanted to be name of

Plenarium,
tables the

Epistolary,

name

of

Evangelary, and to the Capitulary or Breviary, of the
or

generic name was given to Epistles or Gospels. it was called the Comes or the combination of the two
;

A

Liber Comitis or Liber Comicus.

The

desired object

was

either to

whom

mark the name of a great person to the collection was dedicated, or else the use
;

that the priests of the Church ought to make of it they were to consider it as an inseparable companion,

the contents of which they ought often to read and

meditate on. 1
II.
1

DIVISION.

The

following
See also

is

the order in which

Cange, Glossary. the preface to vol. v. p. 21. The sense of the word
:

Du

in

works of B. Tommasi,
is

Lectionary in Agrobard

hardly

Liber lectionum ex divinis libris congrua rations satisfactory nor is the signification that the it seems too general collectus
;

same word received
it

in the

eleventh and twelfth centuries

;

then

used

to designate the collection of lections

used

in the office,

independent of Holy Scripture (Homilies, Sermons, Passions, Acts of the Martyrs). This is too wide a sense.

4
this

The Lectionary
work
will

be

divided.

It

will

contain four

In \hsfirst we shall chapters, distributed as follows. of the Lectionaries and Evanof the genesis speak
gelaries during the
first five

centuries.

In the second

chapter we shall deal with the sources or documents for the Lectionaries and Evangelaries during the fifth to the eleventh centuries, both in the East and West.

The

third)

subdivided into four

articles, will

enable

us to get a general idea of the Lectionaries and
Evangelaries, their distribution, ceremonial, and interior ornamentation, from the eleventh to the fifteenth

chapter will be a general survey of the lections of the Roman Missal. In conclusion, some of the lessons to be learned
centuries.

The

fourth

will

be set forth,

in the

hope

of rendering this little

work more

profitable

CHAPTER

I

FIRST PERIOD
The Genesis
of the Lectionaries and Evangelaries during the First Five Centuries

THE

collections as

we now know them cannot be
fifth

traced back earlier than the

century

;

it

does not
but are

seem that they existed
to times
I.

in those distant ages,
first

rather the result of uses which at

varied according

and needs.
the Apostles.

The Practice of

The custom
it

of

reading Holy back to the infancy of the Church

Scripture in the liturgical offices
;

goes

generally 1 that the was borrowed from the usage thought Jews. The ancient synagogue, ever full of veneration for the
inspired books, always read each Saturday a part of the Pentateuch and a small section of the prophetic books the distribution was made in such a manner
:

is

as to ensure the complete reading of the

two parts of
entered the
:

the Bible during the year.

The Saviour
"

synagogue
1

at

Nazareth one day,

and rose up to read
P.L.,
t.

St. Isidore,

De

Ecclesiasticis

officiis,

Ixxxiii.

c.

744-

7455

6
and the book
"

The Lectionary
of the prophet Isaias

was delivered unto

Him (St. Luke iv. 16). The disciple, speaking in the Acts of the Apostles of the journey of St. Paul, further instructs us on the practice of the synagogues They
"

:

came

to

Antioch

in Pisidia

:

and entering into the

synagogue on the Sabbath day, they sat down. And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the
rulers of the

brethren,

if

synagogue sent to them, saying Ye men, you have any word of exhortation to
:
"

early Christian assemblies were sanctified by the reading of As the parts which were to form the Holy Books.

make to the people, speak (Acts xiii. 14-15). The act was taken as an instruction, and the

the

New Testament

were

communicated

to

the

churches, the reading of them was added to that of the Old Testament. Some interpreters have seen an
allusion to the reading of St.

passage of

St.

Paul

"

:

We

Gospel in this have also sent with him (he
s

Luke

speaks of Titus) the brother

whose praise
"

is

in

the

(2 Cor. viii. 8). gospel through all the churches This other recommendation of the great Apostle also And when this epistle shall bears on our subject
"

;

have been read with you, cause that it be read also in and that you read that the church of the Laodiceans
;

which
II.

is

of the Laodiceans

"

(Coloss.

iv.

16).

In the Second Century. St. Justin (f 163) in his writings throws some light on the Roman and
Apologias he It speaks of the Christian meetings on the Sundays.
Palestinian
traditions
;

in

one of

his

in the

Third Century
to

7

was there customary

read the memoirs of

the

Apostles (expression meaning the Gospels) and the writings of the Prophets as far as time permitted. Afterwards, when the reader had finished, he who was
presiding gave some advice and exhorted those pre 1 sent to practise so excellent a doctrine.
III. In the Third Century, Tertullian (f 243) bears The witness to the practice in Africa and Rome Roman Church," he says, adds the Law and the Pro
"

:

"

to nourish

phets to the writings of the Apostles and Evangelists 2 There are therefore four kinds of its faith.

books from which extracts are read either at one
meeting or else at different
"

ones."

Origen (1254)
3
:

alludes to these four readings in one of his homilies

Several passages are read, but to speak of them it will First be better to divide them into two parts.
. .

.

his comes the history of conduct towards David (i Kings xxv.), then the account of David hiding in the desert of Ziph (ibid.

there

Nabal of Carmel and

xxvi.), thirdly the story of

David

s flight

to Achiz, king

the celebrated account of ), lastly the shade of Samuel (ibid. forth witch the calling To explain these four accounts would be too xxviii.).
of
(ibid, xxvii.

Geth

deep a matter even for those who could deduce the lessons to be learnt from them, and would need a
1

Apolog.

i.

67, P.G.,

t.

vi. c.

429-430.
t.

2 3

De

PrcescriptionibuS) P.L., t. ii. c. 49. Homil in I. lib. Regum de Engastrimytho, P.G.,

xii.

c.

ion.

8
treatise of

The Lectionary
some hours
length.

so the Bishop chooses which passage he will put before his hearers. For instance, the Bishop may say, let us explain
. .

And

.

the story of the witch. x The Alexandrian catechist adds some further details to those indicated by St.
"

Justin

:

according to him, in the meetings held for the

celebration of the

Holy Mysteries, many chapters
;

of

Holy Scripture were read
followed,
it

seems

that

although each chapter they picked out certain
;

episodes and omitted others the lector was distinct from those who were appointed by the Bishop to

seems that the different lections took up the first part of a meeting, and that the instruction which followed ended with a prayer. Through the lections
preach
;

it

the order of lector was introduced

;

from the end of

the second century, it appeared as a special order, whose privilege it was to read the sacred books (including the
2 Gospel) in the liturgical services.

St.

Cyprian, Bishop
faith, in
3

of Carthage (f 258), regarded this order so highly that

he conferred

it

on Aurelian, confessor of the
courage in face of persecution.

reward

for his

The Canons of Hippolytus and
Constitution (a third-century

the Egyptian Apostolic document) speak of the

lector as a minister charged with a public office in the

Church. 4
1

It

seems, indeed, that from this age, in
lib.
c.

Homil. in I.
St.

2 3
4

Regum de Engastrimytho, P.G., t. xii. Duchesne, Origines du culte chr^tien, pp. 330-336.
Cyprian, Epist. 33, P.L.,
t.

101

1.

iv. c.

328.

published by H. Achelis, Die canones Hippolyti, in Texte und Unters.^ Leipzig, 1891, t. vi. fasc. 4, pp. 70 and 119.

Work

in the

Fourth Century

9

certain assemblies, they took to adapting the passages

thus Origen

which were read to the different seasons of the year tells that the book of Job was read dur
:

:

"In the ing Lent, and he gives the reason of it meetings of the faithful," he says at the beginning of

his explanation,

account of Job s sufferings is read on the days of fasting and abstinence during these days, those who are doing penance thus take
"the
:

their part in the

Jesus, in
ings,

admirable passion of the Saviour order that, partaking in His terrible suffer

they

may merit to arrive at His joyful resurrection.
is

In the person of Job there
of
this

passion

and

resurrection,
his

represented something as those know
history carefully
:

who have meditated on
is

this

why

in

these days

of sufferings, sanctification,

privation,

we

read, meditate, and

examine

into the

account of Job s passion." l IV. In the Fourth Century the evidence becomes

more abundant, and accounts
book
of

for the characterization

of local practices concerning the lections.

The

the Apostolic Constitutions^

in

eighth connection

with the episcopal ordination, speaks of the lection of the Law, the Prophets, the Epistles, the Acts of the
2 Apostles, and also the Gospels.

According to the

Testament of the Lord, the lectors read the Prophets and the other lessons at an appointed place, but a
priest or a

deacon read the Gospel.
xii.
2

The
i.

Apostolic

Constitutions even indicate the books of the
1

Old and

P.G.,

t.

P.G.,

t.

c.

1076.

io

The Lectionary

New

Testaments which were read by the lectors. 1 Further, also, in certain authors we have some more
precise indications of the

day on which the

lections

have a

place.

According

to Socrates, Scripture

was

read at the masses of Sunday, then on the vigils and station days, Wednesday and Friday. Ere long the
2 Saturday was added.

St.

Epiphanius (f 403),

it

is

true, asserts that the usage

was

particular to certain

places.

3

Etheria, in her Peregrinatio, instructs us on

the practice of Jerusalem in the fourth century. Really, she points out what were the lections throughout

the year.

They were

:

for the ordinary

Sundays, the
;

Gospel of the Resurrection at the office of vigils
the Purification, St.

for

Luke
xi.
;

ii.

22

;

for the

Saturday of
for

Lazarus (that

is

to say, the

Saturday before
xii.

Sunday,

St. St.

John

and
for
;

1-12

;

Palm Palm

Sunday,
office,

Matt. xxi.

Matt. xxv. 3-4 Week, evening office, the betrayal of Judas for Holy Thursday, evening office, St. Matt. xxvi. 38 or St. Mark xiv. 36 Holy Thursday, the night,
St.
;

Holy Tuesday, evening for Wednesday in Holy

;

St.
St.

Luke
Matt.
xxii.

xxiii.

41
;

;

xxvi. 40

for Good Friday, Good Friday, the

the night,
night,
St.

Luke
1

48

;

for

Holy Saturday,
ed.

in

the morn1899, p. 24
;

Testamcntum D.N.J.C.,

Rahmani, Mayence,
c. c.

Apostolic Constitutions, bk. ii. c. 57, P.G., t. i. 2 Socrates, Hist. Eccl., v. 22, P.G., t. Ixvii.
the Apostolic Constitutions ,
P.G.,
3
t.

728.

636.

See also
;

ii.

c.

59

;

v. c.

20

;

vii. c.

22

viii. c.

33.

i.

c.

744, 904, 1013, 1133.
c.

P.G.,

t. xlii.

832.

in the
ing,

Fourth Centiiry
Christ
St.

1 1

appearance

of

before

Pilate

;

Holy
or
St.

Saturday,

afternoon,

Matt,

xxvii.
;

57

John
for
St.

xix.,

appearance to the disciples

for Easter,
;

afternoon, St.

Luke

xxiv., appearance to the disciples
St.

Quasimodo Sunday,

John xx., appearance to
Acts of the Apostles
i.

Thomas

;

for Pentecost,

1-12, and the gospel of Ascension Day. Another not less interesting detail is brought out
in the Peregrinatio

Silvia

:

at Jerusalem, the Gospel

was read both

at

Matins and Mass.

D. Cabrol con

cludes that the Matins and ante-mass or mass of the

catechumens and the canonical
the one on the other.

office

have been framed

Such Baumer s opinion in his History of the Breviary we find in torn. p. 388 It seems that from
"

also appears to be D.
;

in fact,

i.

:

the end

of the fourth century the lessons of the office followed the order of the lessons of the Mass. Etheria after
"

wards elsewhere describes the reading of the Gospel.
It is

Lent.

true that in this exposition Etheria speaks only of The council of Laodicea (372), can. 16, pre

scribes the addition for the

Saturday of the lection of

the Gospel to those of the other Scriptures. 1 St. if he does of not Jerusalem (f 386), Cyril actually
in his fourteenth

mention them, manifestly supposes the lections, for Catechism, where he gives a resume

of the whole Christian doctrine, he
his hearers the four
1

recommends
2

to

Gospels so well known.
p. 218.

To-

Duchesne, Origines du culte chreticn,
P.G.,
t.

2

xxxiii. c. 499.

12

The Lectionary

wards the end of the fourth century, one finds proof at Antioch of a regulated division each Sunday and
;

feast

had a lection assigned

in advance.

We may

indeed appeal to the writings of St. John Chrysostom It happens that in a particular circumstance (t 407).

he invites his hearers to prepare the passage that he will explain at the next meeting. 1 Again, we see in
the writings of the holy doctor that Genesis was read from the beginning of Lent to Passion week, and at

Pentecost the Acts of the Apostles were read, because of the events related there, which are, as it were, the first-fruits of the descent of the Holy Spirit.
the feasts of martyrs, three or four times a week when the stations were established, the Epistles of
St.

On

Paul were read

;

on the days

of the Cross, of the

Resurrection, and of other feasts, the accounts relat 2 From Antioch the practice ing to them were read.

passed to Constantinople, and from this latter it spread to the Greek Orthodox Churches. It had, however, some differences arising out of local uses; the order also

underwent some modifications
it is it is

in the course of

time

:

not part of our plan to go into that here. What important to realize is that at the end of the fourth

century the practice of reading passages of Scripture

was

universal,

this practice the lection of the
1

and was regarded already as ancient: in Gospel was left to choice.
Hi.,

Homilia de Lazaro,
t.

P.G.,

t.

xlviii. c.

963
Ix. c.

;

see also Homil.

in Math.,
2

Ivii. c.

21, 66, etc.

See P.G.,

t. liii. c.

274

;

t. li. c.

101

;

t.

391.

in the Fifth
If

Century
find the

13

we

turn to the West,

we

same

practice

established in the fourth century, with the same diver Let us look at some points among sity of details.

many

others in the works of St.

Ambrose

(f 397).

He speaks of lessons

read in the church, on the occasion
;

on the day of the finding of of a passage from Job the bodies of SS. Gervase and Protase, he gives an
instruction to his people,
of the
lection.

and

refers there to the gospel

man
1

born blind, which happened to be the At Milan, in the time of St. Ambrose, the

lessons at

lesson (or

Mass were three in number the Prophetic Old Testament), the Apostolic lesson (or
:

Epistle), the

Gospel lesson

;

on the

feasts of saints

the

was replaced by a lesson from the Gesta. The East continues to V. In the Fifth Century.
first

present a diversity of uses to us, but the practice of reading the Holy Scriptures is always to the fore.

The

Prophetic lesson, which during St. Chrysostom s time preceded the Apostolic lesson and Gospel lesson,

was suppressed in the course of this century. This took place at Constantinople likewise, afterwards at

Rome

;

certain churches, however, retained
itself

it.

Another

the liturgy there practice spread of the was under the influence Diatessaron of Tatian,
;

in the

East

the

first

type of a harmony of the Gospels

;

a pericope

was formed from verses taken from different parts of the same Gospel, sometimes even from different
Gospels.
1

Epist.

This practice was observed in particular for 33, ad Marcellinum, epist. 20, P.L., t. xvi. c. 997.

14

The Lectionary

the history of the Passion. Such seems to have been the case in the churches of Syria, and it is of this
that Theodoret of Cyrrhus (f 458) complains in his I have myself come across more than two writings:
"

hundred examples of the Diatessaron in use in our churches: I have collected them in order to substitute
for

them the

narratives of the four Evangelists.
is

"

1

The evidence
it

explicit,
2
;

it

agrees and
the

fits

in with the

hypothesis of P. Savi

but, to be exact

and

precise,

cannot

be

applied
;

to

churches of which

Theodoret speaks nor does it in any way weaken what Etheria has told us of the Church of Jerusalem. 3 Let us add, if it is desired, that the Church of Edessa
imitated that of Cyrrhus, and that at the

same period

the bishop Rabbouler (f 435) made every effort to pro The Western Church had no scribe the Diatessaron.^

need to recede from these liturgical
unsuccessful

errors,

and one may

mention that the attempt of St. Augustine remained
:

to establish the use of interpolating in the text of

he wished, after the manner of Tatian, an

Evangelist certain words taken from the other 5 St. Augustine (f 430) synoptics, but without success. was a witness as to the practice of the liturgical
1

HcEreticarum

tabularum

compendium,

i.

c.

20,

P.G.,

t.

Ixxxiii. c. 371.
2

Revue Biblique,
D. Cabrol,

1893, p. 326.

3

tude sur la Peregrinatio, Appendices, pp.
p. 48.

168-169.
4 6

Ruben Duval, La littdrature syriaque, Sermon 232, P.L., t. xxxviii. c. 1108.

in the Fifth
lections in the just as St.

Century
in

15
fifth

Western Church

the

century,
of the

Chrysostom was

for the

Church

East

:

it

seems, indeed, that in his

day

in Africa, as at

Rome,

there was no Prophetic lection at
;

Mass except
psalm

on certain days
lessons,
it is

if

he sometimes speaks of three

that he

means by the

epistle the

which is placed before the gospel. 1 His explanation 2 of St. John ex ordine lectionum makes one think that
they
still

read

a book

right

through

;

there were,

however, certain interruptions, in the lections as in the commentary, for on Pascal feasts it was customary to
read the accounts of the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

which were taken successively from St. Matthew, St. 3 The Passion was only read on Mark, St. Luke. and Good Friday, always that according to St. Matthew.

On Holy
etc.

Saturday the office included many lessons, Thus, from the sermons of the great doctor we can

4

determine the number of the Gospel pericopes read at Hippo, and sometimes fix the epistle for the correspond
ing days. An examination of the Sermons of St. Leo (f 461) leads us to the same result with regard to the

Church

at

Rome, and here and

there

is

found an exact

5 correspondence between the lections then and now.

1

Sermon
P.L.,
t.

165,

I,

P.L.,

t.

xxxviii. c. 902.

2
3 4

xxxv.

c.

1977.
t.

Ibid.) c.

2045, and
xlvi. c.

xxxviii. c. 1104, 1107.

P.L.,

t.

821.
for the epistle for the first Sunday in Lent, lix. c. 268 ; for the gospel of the eve of the
51, ibid.) c. 303, etc.

6

For example,
40, P.L.,

Sermon

t.

second Sunday of Lent, Sermon

1

6

The Lectionary
result of these quotations

The

shows us that on the

one hand the practice of reading the holy books was universal, but that on the other a great liberty was allowed to the particular churches, and that con
sequently the

usages

varied

according

to

places.

l Monsignor Duchesne proves undeniably that, up to the time of St. Benedict, one church varied from

another very considerably in the organization of the

psalms and their assignation for different hours of the day and parts of the year).
offices (distribution of

The
and

provincial councils strove to regulate the details

to bring about some uniformity. When it was in troduced, this result was due to the Benedictine rule
in use in the in the
first

monasteries of Rome.
rule,

St.

Benedict,

ordinance of the monastic

gives us the

office

complete and detailed account of the canonical such as it was in the preceding centuries (till

towards the year 529 or 530). For it was not in vented by him he borrowed his distribution of the
;

psalms, lessons,
in the

etc., as

he himself

tells us,

from the

Roman Church and from
neighbourhood
least

the other churches of Italy

of

which he found himself.

For

the lections in particular,

he lays down that they are to

be read at

year in their entirety, the with Testaments, fitting commentaries, chosen from the best Orthodox Catholic Fathers (ch.

once

in the

Old and

New

9,

1 8, 42 of the Rule). those of the nocturn
;

He allots four lessons for each
first

are taken from the

Old

1

Origines du culte chrttien, pp. 436-437.

in the Fifth

Century

17

Testament

;

those of the second likewise, from

Holy

Scripture or the commentaries, homilies, and sermons those of the third, from the New of the Fathers
;

Testament (Acts, Apostolic Epistles, or the Apo calypse) the Gospel which finished the whole is to be
;

by the Abbot himself. St. Benedict does not very explicitly say which passage of the Gospel it is to be, but we may suppose that he had in view the
recited

pericope of the Sundays and

feasts,

in use at

this

time in his
Mass.

own

country, and such as was sung in the
at the

We
period

shall see, in the following chapter, that,

at

which we place the composition of the
rule, different collections

Benedictine
of

or capitularies

lessons

existed in particular churches.

Did

St.

Gregory the Great (590-610), who himself took such
a great part in the perfecting of the

compose
ances?

Roman Liturgy, a lectionary in accord with liturgical ordin
"

the Yes," if we accept it on say later witness of Alcuin and Amalarius. In the preface
of the

We may

Comes ab Albino emendatus we read
et

"

:

After
well

having finished the Comes we have deemed

it

(dignum an appendix certain lessons determined on by some learned men for the Vigils of the Pasch or the Ferias.
. .
.

necessarium duximus] to add in the form of

The very

learned author of the above collec
of

tion has omitted them, in imitation

what Pope

Gregory did in his Sacramentary." Amalarius also bears witness that the Lectionary commonly followed
2

1

8

The Lectionary
time was not
in

in his

agreement with the order of the
officiis,

Gregorian Antiphonary (de Ecclesiasticis
iii.

bk.
in

ch. 40, P.L.,

t.

cv. 105, col. 985).

There was

reality, then, a Gregorian Lectionary. may believe that the system of lessons created by St. Benedict and

We

St. Gregory the Great, the first Pope of his order, remained unaltered until the time of Charlemagne. VI. As to the collections, one only finds, during this
first

period,
its

some manuscripts
entirety.
;

of the Bible giving the

text in

when

to stop

No place is marked out as to the president of the meeting chose the

passage to read, and stopped the reader when he Later, when they began to have a deter thought fit.

mined

text, they nevertheless

still

continued to use

complete Bibles in which were to be found the begin ning and end of the lessons, marked either in the

margin or in a table put at the beginning of the volume. Afterwards they used to mark the lessons for the
different days of the year in the

books of the Bible and
the collections
history of the

even

in the

spoken of
collections
1

came about Gospels in the Introduction. The in the fifth commences only
1
;

thus

century.

Mgr. Duchesne, ibid.)
t.
iii.

p.

106

;

Dom

Gu^ranger, Institutions

liturgiqueS)

p. 271.

CHAPTER

II

SECOND PERIOD
The
Lectionaries and Evangelaries from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries
I.

THE SOURCES OR DOCUMENTS
i.

THE LECTIONARIES
great obscurity rests on the origin it is therefore liturgies
;

For the East.
difficult to

A

and form of the Oriental
in use in

speak with certainty on the Lectionaries The Syriac liturgy seems these churches.

to

have wished to claim the Apostle St. James as its author, but this attribution does not appear to rest

on any

solid

ground.
collectio}^

orientalium

it

According to Renaudot (Liturg. was written before the time
"

Allatius, says Tillemont Jerusalem Eccl. has made a long dissertation i. p. 679), (Mem. to prove that the liturgy which now bears the name
of St. Cyril of
,
:
"

"

of St.

James was

truly his

work

;

his

argument comes

to this, that St.

James did compose a liturgy from which they have made the one we have now, by
19

2O

The Lectionary

preserving the foundation, but by excising, adding to, and changing many things. From this liturgy arose
"

the

different

Syriac
rarity

liturgies

and the Armenian

liturgy.

The

of

Greek manuscripts makes

us

think that this

rite
;

generally observed supplanted by the liturgy of Constantinople (Smith,
Diet, of Christ. Antiq.,
"Liturgy,"

has long since ceased to be in fact, it has been generally

p.

1020).

This liturgy, which bears the
sostom,
is

name

of St. Chry-

of the

names
be
in

of St.

same period as those bearing the Basil and St. James: it appears to

a great measure a detailed account of the ceremonial observed at the assemblies in which
St. Chrysostom read have been made in

his homilies.
it,

Some

alterations

due to the influence of the

Nestorian heresy. Lastly, the liturgy of Alexandria
the

is

known under
in

name

of St.

Mark, and has more

common

with the Ethiopian liturgy than with the liturgy of
Constantinople.
point on which these different liturgies agree in the subject of the lessons, is that the epistle and gospel are read in the first part of the Mass
;

The only

but, according to Renaudot, the performance of these
lections
if

was

far

from being everywhere the same

:

the passage which was preached on was taken from the lection, there was a certain latitude in the choice
of the text.
to be

The

tables,

drawn up

at a later period,

which have been attempted have been taken

The Sources or Documents

21

from some documents of which the most ancient
1 belong to the ninth century.

a great simplicity in the distribution of the lections taken from the book
is

In the Greek Church there

of the

Save

for the

Acts or the Epistles as for the Gospels. Sundays, which seem to have received

a special passage, often taken from the collection which was read at the same period each week, the
daily reading followed the order of the chapters in

the book assigned for the season.
that the Gospel of St.

At the same time was read, during the seven John weeks between Easter and Pentecost, the book of the with the reading of the Gospel Acts was read
;

according
with St.

to

St.

Matthew coincides

that

of

the

Epistle to the

Romans and the first to Luke follows the second
Epistles
to

the Corinthians;

Corinthians, the

Epistle to the the Galatians, to the
;

Ephesians, to the Philippians, and to the Colossians lastly, with St. Mark come the first and second
Epistles to the

Thessalonians,
is

first

and second to

largely occupied with the reading Timothy. of Genesis, followed by the reading of the Epistle to

Lent

the Hebrews.

In this distribution, neither the Catholic
2

Epistles nor the Apocalypse

figure.

For
1

the

West.

When
;

one comes to study the

Testament,
2
"

See Scrivener, Introduction to the Criticism of the New i. and Smith, Dictionary of Christian pp. 80-89
"

Antiquities,

Lectionary," p.

955 and following.
article

See Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities,
955.

Lectionary," p.

22

The Lectionary
liturgies,

Western

our attention
:

is

arrested
is

by the

question of primitive unity difference which separates the
Gallican,

what

the point of

Roman, Ambrosian,

Mozarabic, or Celtic liturgies from each

other?

A

among whom

good number of more recent authors, one may reckon Probst, think that the

Latin liturgical type was primitively represented by a Roman liturgy which was quite distinct from the

Greek

liturgies,
. .

and which gave
.

rise to the Gallican

Others, including Mgr. Duchesne, liturgy, etc. think there undoubtedly was a Roman liturgy but Milan, as well as Rome, was a leading centre, and
;

received the Eastern influence in her liturgy, which she transmitted to the other Western liturgies, the
Gallican, the Mozarabic, etc.
.

.

.*

Without going

too deeply into this question, we must not forget, when studying the Evangelaries in the Western liturgy, that the bishops had full power to regulate the lections
in their churches.

In the Latin Church an important document attracts the attention of those who study the Lectionaries
;

it

is

the Comes. 2
earliest times

The

reputation this

has enjoyed
liturgists

from
the
1

was such that many

have

attributed
title

the composition to St. Jerome. Hence with which it is made to begin Epistola
:

p. 349, for

p. 30, and appendix, a glance at the state of the question at the time. 2 Some other details are given in the following section about the Comes.

See D. Cabrol, Origines liturgiques,

The Sources or Documents
sancti

23

Hieronymi missa ad Constantium.
received, found
its

This opinion,

support in a preconceived commonly call in doubt at the would dare no one that opinion Whatever period when the Comes saw the light.

church books exist, for whatever purpose or in regard to the needs of priests, must have emanated from the

hand
tions

of the

Holy Doctor, or at least received correc See Ranke, and been perfected by his hand.
"

Pericopensystem,

p.

259, note

2.

But the prefatory letter, studied more closely, does The author says that, not permit of this attribution. in the holy books, he has taken what seemed to him most concise, most useful, most suitable to each feast,
that he has arranged these passages in a certain order.

He

begins the year from Christmas Eve, and sets

aside for each feast lessons from the

Old and
;

New

Testaments (Prophets, Apostles, Gospels) he adds different moral passages of Scripture for the sake of

The preference given the author of the the Comes to by Vulgate should be
edification, especially in Lent.

noted,

which

in

the

Roman
p.

circle

could

not

be

accounted for before the sixth century.

D. Morin

observations on

416) makes the following the period at which the letter attributed to St. Jerome appeared, the use of the

(Revue Bened., 1890,
it
:

At

Lectionary was

commonly

received

among Church
;

Comes was the name given it the author people of the letter consents to write one for liturgical use,
at

the wish of Constantius

;

it

is

one bishop ad-

24

The Lectionary
;

the order followed shows a dressing another connection with the liturgical order of Rome as it is determined by the Sacramentaries, Gelasian

and Gregorian.
suppressed when
later in the

The

Prophetic lesson was not yet the Comes was written, as it was
St.

time of

Gregory.

1

Hence one should

place the compilation between 471 and 550, that is to say, before the settlement of the Latin liturgy by
St.

Gregory the

Great."

Under these circumstances

the paternity of the Comes may perhaps be attributed to Victor of Capua, who was bishop from 541-554.

Some have wanted
the Comes to St.
in his

to assign the composition

of

Ranke, work Pericopensystem, pp. 254-258, essays to establish it by some comparisons between the lessons
assigned in the compilations and the sermons of this but he ought to give other examples than pontiff
;

Leo the Great (440-461).

those borrowed from the feasts of the Epiphany and Pentecost.

With the Comes can be compared the Codex Ful2 densis. Thanks to Dom Chapman s recent work, we
are able to give the following liturgical notes on this
collection
:

The manuscript, which

is

actually in the
3

Library of Fulda, was written about 540 or 541
1

for

the
2

Mgr. Duchesne, Oiigines du culte Chretien, p. 159, thinks Prophetic lesson was suppressed at Rome about the fifth
;

century

it

was retained longer

in Gaul, Milan,

and Spain.

Notes on the Early History of the Vulgate Gospels, by
O.S.B., Oxford, 1908.
op.
cit., p.

Dom

Chapman, 3 Dom Chapman,

78.

The Sources or Documents

25

It contains the four the bishop Victor of Capua. in a diatessaron then come the arranged Gospels
"

"

;

Epistles of St. Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the To the Catholic Epistles, and the Apocalypse.

Epistles

of

St.
it

Paul
has

is

prefixed a

list

of lessons.

At

first

sight,

little

resemblance to the Nea
;

politan Lectionary of Eugipius

but a more minute

examination reveals a very close correspondence. 1 At the Library of Schlettstadt, under the number
1093,
is

to

be
of

found a precious
the
sixth

relic

:

this

is

a

century, representing a complete liturgical lectionary, but a lectionary in the narrower sense of the word, that is to say, which

manuscript

comprises only the first of the three lessons formerly in use at the Mass, to the exclusion of the Epistles of
the Apostles and the Gospel pericopes. 2

Tommasi

(Opera,

v.

pp. 424-426) gives an order

for the Apostolic

lessons which resembles in
;

more

than one point that of the Codex Fuldensis this codex has preserved for us the Diatessaron of Tatian,
the whole

New Testament

in St.

Jerome

s version,

together with some intercalated sections, of which one
1

Ibid.)

p.

137.

Eugipius was an abbot

of

Lucallanum,

died soon after 535. Probably he adopted into his mon astery some Gallican system for liturgical uses, and there are remarkable points of contact between the Naples use and the oldest Gallican books. Dom Chapman, ibid.) pp. 41 and 99-102.
2

who

Dom

"

Morin,
t.

Un

lectionaire

merovingien,"

Revue Bent-

dictine, 1908,

xxv. pp. 161-166.

The Lectionary
is

a

list

of liturgical readings taken

from the Epistles

of St. Paul, for the different feasts of the year.

Was

there a Gregorian

Lectionary distinct from

the Sacramentary of St. Gregory the Great ? It is a difficult question to answer, but it certainly appears In any case, the Gregorian Sacramentary probable.
gives an idea of what the Roman Lectionary of the sixth century was, and the researches made by

some

D. Morin have verified this calculation, which throws The light on the documents themselves
"

:

Lectionary of Victor of Capua is more like the Gregorian Lectionary than the Gelasian Sacramentary
is

like the

Gregorian Missal, and than

is

the Milanese

chant to the
p.

Roman Antiphonary
this

"

(Revue Bened., 1890,

416).

From

point of view, the verification

the learned Benedictine, and the publication of which we are going to speak, will make the reader
clearer

made by

on the state of the

Roman

lessons in the

sixth century.

In spite of the rapidity with which it was pro pagated, the Comes does not appear to have left

Alcuin, in the notably in France. Comes ab Albino emendatus, says he has written his collection according to the Sacra

many

traces,

preface of the

mentary
(codicem)

of

Nobis cura fuit Jiimc St. Gregory. emendate atque distincte transcribere.
. .
.

Ezpleto sane prczfato

libello,

duximus

in calce illius, lectiones

dignum quasdam

et
.

necessarinm
. .

ab

aliis

eruditis viris in vigiliis Paschce vel in

Feriis atque

The Sources or Documents
aliis

27
y

quibusque

ecclesiasticis officiis institutas diligentcr
.
.

assumendo transcribere

.

quas prczdictus vir periPapce Gregorii
are lacking,
in the

tissimus, imitando ac sequendo libellum

Sacramentorum

omisit.

.

.

.

Documents

and one can only diminish certain differences
order of the lessons without remedying
it.

Thus

Amalarius (de EccL
cv.)

officiis^

book
the

iii.

ch. 40, P. L., torn,

bears

witness that

Lectionary commonly

followed in his time was not in agreement with the order of the Gregorian Antiphonary.

Spain has preserved some traces of the
Lectionary
in the sixth

Roman
manu

century for us.

In a

time by the Abbey of script preserved Silos, and which the Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris
for a long

of the eleventh century,

has acquired, No. 2171, D. Morin recognized a Codex and the peculiarities that he
noticed in the order of the arrangement of the periThe manuscript copes lead him to this conclusion
"

:

apparently belongs to the use of the Church of Toledo in the middle of the seventh century it answers to the desiderata of the councils of Braga and Toledo, 1
"

;

held during the sixth century to effect uniformity in the lections it bears traces of a discipline anterior to that of the sixth century in Spain.
;

his orders, pp. x-xi,
t.

Morin, preface to the Liber Comicus published by and references to Migne s Latin Patrology^ Ixxxiv. c. 566 and 365.

1

Dom

28

The Lectionary
2.

THE EVANGELARIES

Documents relating to these ancient however, we have had the good fortune (and each day brings forth new discoveries) to find and study some manuscripts belonging to the
For
the East.

times are rare

;

eighth or ninth century, and the examination has proved profitable to the researches into the liturgical
usages.

Let us venture to run over the results of the
it

inquiry as far as

concerns the Churches of the

East and West.

From
fifth

the fourth, and at the furthest during the century, the East determined one common form
:

of liturgy

this fact

very

much

simplifies

research,

and saves one from regret at the absence of docu ments during the time which passed between the
fourth and the ninth centuries.
"
"

Had

we,"

says D.

Burgon,

neither synaxary nor evangelary later than

the eighth century, the scheme itself as it results from these documents, taken in their essential peculiarities,
is

certainly earlier

by four centuries than any known
"

Greek manuscript.

l

Later times present certain liturgies the offspring of others, such as those of the Ethiopians, Syrians,

Armenians, Maronites,

etc.

;

in a brief exposition

one

must put them aside

;

we can only speak

of the

two

principal branches, the
1

Greek and the Syriac

liturgies.
,

Quoted
954-

in

Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities

vol.

ii.

p.

The Sources or Documents
The
Collections

29

of the Greek Church.

Dr. Scrivener

(Introduction to the Criticism

of the New Testament] has number of a Greek manuscripts, and, compared large under the article Lectionary in Smith s Dictionary
"
"

of Christian Antiquities
he has drawn them.
vol.
i.

,

his researches, taking care to

he has given a rtsumt of say from what sources

p.

In an appendix to chapter iii., he 80, gives a synaxary formed by the

comparison of the different uncial manuscripts (not ably the Arundel, No. 547, which is ninth century the Harleian, No. the Parham, No. 18, dating 980
;

;

5598, dating 995), with

some

liturgical notes

added by
quotes,

another hand to the Codex Bezce.

He

also

indeed precious from our point of view, namely, two uncial manuscripts of the eighth or ninth century, at present in the Bibliotheque Nationale

what

is

of

Paris

;

these
letter

manuscripts

are

designated,
of

one

under the

K

and the name

Codex Cyprius^

the other under the letter
:

M

and the name of Codex

both contain the Greek text of the Campianus Gospels, and have in the margin some liturgical notes written by the copyist himself, or by some one of his
contemporaries.
first

The

notes are in red ink

:

in

the

one of these Codices they consist of a in the second they mention of inflection simple sign in the margin the reference to the Canons of Eusebius
half of
;

placed at the beginning of the volume under the sign

x AP, an abbreviation

of

APXH,

a rubric indicating

30

The Lectionary

pericope refers, and often also the renewal of the beginning of the text. To
these

the feast to which the

manuscripts

are

added

some fragments

of

menologies or tables of lessons for the saints of the
year.

The Codex Cyprius
brought from Cyprus
in

is

in

numbered 63, and was it was first placed 1673
;

The Codex Campianus^ No. was 48, catalogued given to Louis XIV. by the abb Francois de Camps. Of the other manu
the Colbert collection.
scripts

quoted
in the

in

this

paragraph,

two are

to

be

found

British

and the Harleian.
it

Museum, namely, the Arundel As to the third, the Parham,
is

is

the property of Lord de la Zouche, and

at

Parham Park, Sussex. 1
Scrivener (vol.
Lectionaries
into
ii.

pp. 413-414) divides the Syriac
classes
:

merely Greek work translated into Syriac the second differs from the Greek Lectionaries chiefly in what
a
;

two

the

first

is

concerns the beginning of

(Advent instead
tain a

of Easter).
;

year Certain collections con
lessons
of the

the

ecclesiastical

Menology

more

rarely the

feast are put into another volume.

There are some

Syriac manuscripts of which only some fragments remain, and which are of great age, the British Museum
possessing two dating from
824,

and many others
;

which probably go back to the same period
1

another

Scrivener, op.

cit.,

vol.

i.

pp. 75

and 136-138

;

pp. 345, 336,

and 343.

The Sources or Documents

31

of the sixth century contains the four Gospels with a

certain
into

number

of ecclesiastical rubrics

intercalated

in silence pass Manuscript 19 of the Vatican, written in 1030 by the priest and monk Elias in the Monastery of Moses

the text.

We

cannot

over

although it does not belong to the which we are studying, it leads us to sup period
at

Antioch

;

pose that, long before this time, the lessons of the Syrian Church were identical with those of the

Greek Church. 1

For
age,
their

the

West.

The

Collections.

From an
the the

early

the churches of

Italy

were anxious to have
for

own

special

collections

lections
fifth

of

the divine office or Mass.
three books

From
for

century
offices
:

were

used

the

liturgical

the Sacramentaries, the Graduals, the Lectionaries. The entire missal, comprising these three books in
one, only or so. 2

came

into

use about the tenth century

The Comes

or Liber Comitis or Liber Comicus

may

be, not undeservedly,

Roman Church
Great.
1

regarded as a Lectionary of the anterior to the time of St. Gregory the
in this
"

It

enjoyed so great favour

Church

Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, Lectionary," ii. Besides the thirty-five Syriac manuscripts that the British p. 959. Museum possesses, may be mentioned Add. 14,455 an d 14,528 of the sixth century, Add. 14,485 and 14,486 of the ninth century
:

(Scrivener, op.
2

tit., vol. ii., Appendix A, p. 412). Mgr. Duchesne, Origines du culte chrttien, pp. 206 and Muratori in Migne, P.L., t. Ixxiv. c. 908.
;

104,

no,

32
that,

The Lectionary
as

we have

said,

many
St.

ancient liturgists attri

buted the composition to presbyter, wrote Hugo of
habet hodie Ecclesia

St.

Jerome.

Hieronymus

Victor, Lectionum ut

collegit,
1

sed

nunc moris
is

est legi institute.
it is still

Damasus papa, ut Nowadays this opinion
St.

abandoned, but
is

held that the author of the

collection

earlier

than Pope

Gregory

:

a letter

to Constantius, preserved in the preface, indicates that the author wrote his work at an epoch when the

bishops were free to regulate the lections in their the use of the Lectionary was, never churches theless, commonly received, and so, at the desire
;

of Constantius, the author

consented to write one.

D.

Morin thinks that the author was Victor of Capua, who died in 573, and that it was destined
a bishop in the
region
;

for

of

Benevento (Revue
2

Benedictine, 1890, p.

416

1898, p. 24 1).

The

order

followed is like the liturgical order of Rome as it is according to the Gelasian and Gregorian Sacraand at the time that the Comes was mentaries
;

written the Prophetic lesson was not entirely sup pressed in the Mass, as it was after St. Gregory.
Lastly, in the letter that this great Pope wrote to Secundus to tell him of his homilies on the Gospel,

there

an allusion to the Gospel lection during Mass and the order followed Intra sacra missarum solemnia,
is
:

1

Pamelius also makes

this attribution in his preface to the

edition of the Comes.
2

See also what was said of the Comes further back,

p. 22.

The Sources or Documents
ex his

33

qua

diebus certis in hac ecclesia legi ex more solent

sancti Evangelii quadraginta lectiones expostii (Migne,
P.L., torn. Ixxvi. col. 1075).
of the

As

a

fact,

the attribution

Gospel passages to the Sundays and feasts

Some agrees with the indications of the Comes. editions of the Comes have been published, particularly
the sixteenth century by Pamelius and in the In our own days, D. eighteenth by D. Gerbert.
in

Morin published a manuscript of the Bibliotheque Nationale which belonged to the Abbey of Silos the
:

manuscript

is
it

of the eleventh century, but its contents

show

that

was
for

originally

of

the sixth

The
it

peculiarities of this

document lead one
Church
of

century. to think

Toledo, but the has some analogies to the Roman D. Morin thinks, therefore, that a liturgical order. Liber Comitis in use in Rome was communicated to
the

was written

order followed

the

different

Western

Churches,

and

that

they

adopted the main part, adding to it certain peculi arities. comparison with other capitularies seems to confirm this hypothesis.

A

The
said to

fine

Gospels
p.

in
f.

the
68,

University Library of

Wiirzburg, M,

th.

which are traditionally

have belonged to St. Burchard, are catalogued as sixth century, but Dom Morin shows reason for
In thinking that they were written later. Codex was probably written in England
fact,

the

in

the

seventh century.
in its

The

liturgical notes are inscribed

margin

in

an exquisitely small uncial, and the
3

34

The Lectionary
of each pericope
is

commencement
tiny

indicated

by a

These notes are attributed by Dom cross. Morin to the very first years of the eighth century. 1 Dom Morin elsewhere says that this document

contains a fundamental text for England. 2

Dom
Gregory
origin,

Chapman
the

regards this

document

as reproducing the
St.

liturgical cycle of

Naples at the time of
successfully

Great, and

establishes

its

already put forward by
are contained
in

Dom

Morin.

These

liturgical

peculiarities of Naples, the

Evangelary of Burchard,

England.

The

first

the other manuscripts actually in is the Codex Lindisfarnensis

(designated under the letter V), or Evangelary of St. This manu Cuthbert, written towards the year 700.
script
is

in the British

Museum
in

(Cotton MSS., Nero

D.

XIV.).

The Codex

(called

was written and illuminated
the

by Wordsworth) Holy Island during

V

episcopo-abbacy of Eadfrith (698-721), who was himself the scribe, the illuminator being Oethilwald, afterwards Bishop of Lindisfarne, 725-740 to the honour of God, St. Cuthbert, and all the saints.
It is therefore precisely contemporary with the Codex Amiatinus which, as we saw, was written at Jarrow by order of Abbot Ceolfrid, doubtless under the
y

direction of the Venerable Bede,

and taken by the

Abbot
to

in 715,

on

his last

journey to

Rome,

as a present

the Pope.
1

The Codex

Lindisfarnensis contains
cit.^ p.

2

Dom Chapman, op. Revue Bfntdictine,

45.

vol. x. p. 113.

The Sources or Documents
the Neapolitan
lists.
1

35
contains

The

British

Museum

another English MS. of the Gospels belonging to the same date, MS. Reg. i. B. VII. (related as Reg. for
short).
Its text
is

very close to that of V.

...
lists,

MSS., one before each Gospel, of
capitula.

In

these

two

V

and Reg., are four

liturgical feasts, entitled

Mr.

Edmund

feasts are given in the order in

Bishop noticed that these which their Gospels

occur in the sacred text, and that they belong to a

complete system of Gospel pericopes from Advent to
Pentecost. 2

How did the Dom Morin in
their origin to

Neapolitan

lists

come

to the

North

?

by

St.

lists owed some Lectionary brought to England Hadrian, Abbot of St. Augustine s at Canter

1891 suggested that these

hypothesis has been accepted without hesitation by such authorities as Berger, Wordsworth,

bury, which

Duchesne, etc. Nevertheless, Dom Chapman believes it to be entirely mistaken, as the Neapolitan lists came
to

England by a more
"

circuitous route, namely,

by

Ceolfrid through Cassiodorus, from the tiny island of the Castle of the Egg" at Naples, before 558,

not merely before 668. 3 Two other manuscripts of the seventh century in England opened the way to similar discussions con

namely, the Codex Oxoniensis cerning their origin of or St. Augustine, Oxford, Bodl. (called O) Gospels
:

1

Dom

Chapman,

op.

cit.,
3

pp. 9

and 52

ff.

2

Ibid., pp. 9-10.

Ibid., pp.

u,

13,

and

44.

36
857 (Auct. D.
(called X),
2,

The Lectionary
14),

and the Codex Cantabrigensis

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 286.

After some account of the opinions,

Dom Chapman
:

summed up
"

as follows the probabilities or possibilities

O

and

X

are descended from a

common

progenitor,

judging by the coincidences in their text.
or

An

Italian

Roman
by
Luke.

origin

is

postulated for the archetype of

X
St.

the classical

ornamentation of
liturgical
if

its

The

notes

by

picture of the original

scribe of

O
1

are Italian,

not Roman.
a purely

The

seventh-

century notes of
lessons."

O a give

Roman

system of

N.B.

Dom Chapman quotes
relate

even more documents
those that

which

to

our subject

;

we have

mentioned

suffice to

and even

before, the

show how, in the seventh century Church in England followed the

practice of

Rome
The

in its liturgical lections of the

New

Testament.

proof

is

easy

if

we

cast an eye over

the comparative tables of great interest, notably those

on pages 52 to 63. 2 The Church of Milan, under

St.

Ambrose, but

for

a completely organized Lectionary, had few of the particulars which distinguished the Roman Church.

Mabillon (Musczum Italicum : de ritu ambrosiano] emphasizes some taken from the works of the holy doctor so it is that the episode of Bethphage is read
;

on fourth Sunday
1

of

Advent and not on Palm Sunday,
op. cit., p. 199.
iv.

Dom
Ibid.,

Chapman,
chap.

2

The Sources or Documents

37

and that the gospel of the man born blind is read in Lent at the time of the preparation of those
being presented for baptism (Epist. 45 to Bellecius). The 1 8th Epistle to Marcellina mentions the co
incidence of the reading of a passage from Jeremias with the repast of Jesus at the house of the Pharisee
;

elsewhere again one meets with some special lections from St. John on the adulterous woman, from St. Luke

about the rich young man who went into a far country. Mabillon takes from the history of the Bishops of Milan this fact, that an attempt was made, in a
council held at

Rome
rite,

under Adrian

I.,

to abrogate

the Ambrosian

and that the Bishop Eugenius
alleging in
its

obtained

its

continuance,
St.

favour the

great respect which
it.

Gregory the Great had for
Milan mentioned
later

The Antiphonary
is

of

by

only of the eleventh or twelfth century. For the period with which we are now dealing, let us
point out, according to D. Morin, an unauthorized system of liturgical lections, in use in the churches of Northern Italy. These notes, written towards the

Mabillon

year 700,
rite
:

come from a church

following the Milanese
rite in

at this

period, therefore, the
city

question

extended beyond the

and diocese

of Milan. 1
of

The manuscript

of the

Royal Library

Munich,

says D. Morin elsewhere, has
1

some
^

relation with the
Cj. Diet.
rite,
t.
i.

(fArchtologic chrttienne
c.

D. Morin in the Revue Benedictine 1903, p. 379. et de Liturgie, Ambrosian

1385-

38

The Lectionary
:

manuscript of North Italy

it

belongs to the seventh
in uncial letters
;

century, and contains the four Gospels

but as a liturgical assignment it remains incomplete. 1 For the Gospel pericopes of the Gallican liturgy, the

documents seem more complete.

The Lectionary

of

Luxeuil, published by D. Mabillon in his Liturgia gallicana (see P.L., torn. Ixxii.), contains the lessons of
the Masses for the ecclesiastical year
:

this

is

a seventh-

century document.
p.

D. Morin (Revue Bened., 1893, with 438) agrees Mgr. Duchesne (Orig. du culte

chretien, p. 147) in assigning its origin as Parisian for

the following reason there are no traces of any Roman elements the order followed is that of the
: ;

Gallican ecclesiastical year (cf. an Ordo gallican. in D. Martene, de Antiquis ecclesice ritibus, torn. i.
"

"

p.

amongst the saints days that of St. Genevieve There is another document of the rarely figures. same period and related to the preceding, called the
167)
;

Gallican Sacramentary or Bobbio Missal, also pub
lished
feasts

by Mabillon (Musczum Italicum, it there are less numerous
;

p. 272).
is

The
purely nor

not

Roman

nor

purely

Celtic,

nor

Mozarabic,

African, but it combines these different elements, with a certain predominance of the Roman and

Gallican

:

thus

it

contains a

Mass

in

honour of

St.

Sigismund, king of
think that

Burgundy, which leads one to
of
his

it belonged probably to the province Besan^on or Burgundy. Mgr. Duchesne, from
1

Revue Benedictine,

1893,

p.

246.

The Sources or Documents
point of

39
finds

view (Orig. du

culte,

p.

151),

the

documents rather Romanized.

The Mozarabic
in

liturgy (or that of Christians living

Spain under the Arabs) developed itself in the sixth and seventh centuries, but the ensemble of its
formulas dates back to the fourth or
at the time of its relations with the
fifth

century,
of Africa
rites

Church

and with the

Roman
;

Church. 1

Numerous

were

very likely brought from Rome by the first preachers of the Gospel the rest, choice of lections, formulas of
prayers,
is

the

work

of the bishops
is

and of the doctors

of the peninsula.

The Comes

the collection of the

liturgical lections of the

Old and

New

Testaments

:

that published

by D. Morin

(see further back) gives

the lections of the Church of Toledo. 2

II.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LECTIONS
i.

THE LECTION ARIES
The
continuator of

For
in

the East.

Ammonius, who

the third

sections,
fifth

century had divided the Gospels in Euthalius, a deacon of Alexandria, in the

century extended this division to the Acts of the Apostles and to the Epistles he divided each book
:

into

lessons (ai/ayi/cocrr^), corresponding without doubt to the sections which were read in the
lections

or

1

D. Cabrol, Origines liturgiques, Appendix D, pp. 210-211.

2

D. Ferotin,

Monumenta

liturgica,

t.

v.,

Liber ordinum^

Introduction,

p. 13.

4O
churches.

The Lectionary
Thus, he divided the Acts of the Apostles
;

the Catholic Epistles into ten the Epistle of St. James into two, the first (to wit of St. Peter into two, the second of St. Peter Epistle into one, the first of St. John into two, one each for
into sixteen lections
:

the two other Epistles of St. John, and one for the the Epistles of St. Paul into Epistle of St. Jude) this gives a total of fifty-seven thirty-one lections
;
:

(namely, fifty-two or fifty-three for the Sundays of the year, and the other four for the feasts of Christmas,
Easter, the Ascension, and Pentecost). (See Vigouroux,
Diet, de la Bible, torn.
torn.
ii.

col.

Ixxxv.

col.

627-790.)

2056; and Migne, P. G. According to times and
:

,

underwent great modifications those which have prevailed in the Greek Church are marked in a great number of Codices either by the
places, these lections

same copyist or a later writer, who has written, some times in the text, sometimes in the margin, the words or a P) f r tne beginning and (reXo9,reX, or re) (/o%V>PX
for the end.

for the

Other manuscripts have a table of lections whole year, vwa^apiov, and often also a table

of the feast days, ^voXoyiov.

The

following lines give us an idea of the differences
in the Oriental liturgy.
:

between the usages

To speak

only of the Mass of the Catechumens

the epistle, in

the liturgy of St. Chysostom, is preceded by an antiphone which is an abbreviation of it in the East
;

the

ctTroVroXo?

is

sometimes

filled

by a passage

from the Acts or the Apocalypse, but never by a

Distribution of the Lections
passage from the Old Testament, as
the Western Churches
;

41

the practice in sometimes, also, in place of the
is

The liturgy of St. epistle one finds several lessons. Basil has also a lection taken from St. Paul, then the
KaOoXixov, that
Epistles,
is

to say, a lection

from the Catholic
;

and

lections

is

lastly a lection of the Acts each of these Then followed by an appropriate prayer.

follows a sung psalm

The

Syriac and Ethiopian
1

and the reading of the gospel. liturgies have even now

five lections.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE LECTIONS IN THE WESTERN CHURCH IN THE SIXTH CENTURY, ACCORDING TO THE LIBER COMICUS" PUBLISHED BY D. MORIN.
"

For
of

the West.
:

The year

begins on the

first

Sunday

Advent
five

as in the Gelasian Sacramentary, there

were

Sundays before Christmas.
Old Testament
in the First Place

Lections of the
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

The mountain of the Lord. 1-5 2-3. Isa. xxviii. 16-17; xx x 17-24. The corner stone. Ezech. xxxvi. 6-n. Call of the Gentiles. Malach. iii. 1-4. The Angelic Precursor foretold. Isa. xxxv. 1-2. The glory of Libanus.
Isa.
ii.
;

iv.

i

-

Epistle in the Second Place
i.

Rom.
1

xi.

25-31.

Blindness of Israel, entry of the

Gentiles.

See Renaudot, Liturgies orientales,

i.

pp. 5-8, 68, 507.

42
2.
i

The Lectionary
Cor.
iv.
iii.

1-5.

The

Apostolic ministry.

3.

Colos.
i

5-11.
v.

4.

Thess.

Penance and universal renovation. Moral exhortation to receive the 14-23.
Joy
at the

God
5.

of peace.
Philip,
iv.

4-7.

approach of the Lord.

St.

Andrew
ix.

Apostle
x.

ist

Lection

:

Wisdom
Galat.
ii.

17

;

4-6
vi.

;

xiv.

5-7

;

xvi. 8.

2nd Lection:

19-20;

14-18.

Life in union

with Jesus crucified.
St.

Eulalia
Fruitfulness of the

ist

Lection

:

Isa. liv. 1-3.
:

New

Zion.

2nd Lection
ginity.
St.

i

Cor.

vii.

37-40.

Commendation

of vir

the

Mary. Here is placed the only feast in honour of Holy Virgin which the manuscript contains.
:

ist Lection Micheas by the Messias. 2nd Lection: Galat.

vi.

1-3, 5-8
iv.

;

v.

2-5.

Juda glorified

iii.

27;

7.

Liberty given by

Christ.

Christmas.

The Western
Isa.

liturgies,

save the

Roman,

have only one Mass.
ist

Lection:

vii.

10-16;
1-12.

ix.

1-7.

Prophecy of
of

Emmanuel. 2nd Lection: Heb.

i.

The Son

God sub

stituted for the Prophets.
St.

Stephen
of reading at of the saints whose feast they

ist

Lection:

Notice here the custom
lives

Mass the passions or
celebrate.

Distribution of the Lections
2nd Lection
stitution
:

43

usurped by Achab.

Kings xxi. 1-29. Naboth s vineyard Acts of Ap. vii. 51 viii. 4. The in of the deacons, and martyrdom of St. Stephen.
3
;

St.
ist

John

Lection

:

Wisdom
:

x.

10-14.

The

just

man

protected

by

God

in his ways.
2

2nd Lection
heavens.

Cor.

v.

1-5.

Dwelling prepared in the

Circumcision.

A

law of the Wisigoths of the year 650
this feast obligatory.

rendered
i

st

Lection: Gen.

xxi.

1-8.

Birth

and circumcision of

Isaac.

2nd Lection: Rom.
Gentiles.

xv. 8-13.

Jesus, salvation of the

For

the

Commencement of the Year
Folly of those
xi.

istLection: Jer. x. i-io. 2nd Lection: i Cor. x.

14;

2.

Folly of those

who worship idols. who

worship

idols.

Appearance of the Saviour
ist

Lection

:

Num.

xxiv. 3-9, 15-18.
ii.

Prophecy of Balaam.
7.

2nd Lection:
Saviour
s

Titus

n;

iii.

Benefits

of

the

coming.

Massacre of the Innocents
Lection: Jer. xxxi. 15-20. 2nd Lection: Heb. ii. 9-18.
ist

Desolation of Rachel.
Salvation

of

all

through

Jesus.
St. Fructuosus, ist

Bishop
Deliverance of the three

Lection: Dan.

iii.

91-100.

children.

44
2nd Lection
the faith.
:

The Lectionary
Heb.
ii.

33-34.
St.

Triumph of martyrs

for

Vincent

ist

Lection

:

Isa.
2

xliii.

1-7.

God

Saviour of His people.
St. Paul.

2nd Lection:

Cor.

xi.

16-31.
s

Proofs of

St.

Peter

Chair
3-9,

ist

Lection:

Isa.

xxxii.

i,

15-18.

Consoling

promises of the Saviour. i Pet. 2nd Lection
:

v.

1-5.

Patience in awaiting the

rewards of pastors.

Quinquagesima Sunday, under
ist

this

Rubric : Ante carnes

tollendas.

Lection

:

Jerem.
:

vii.
i.

1-7.

2nd Lection

i

Cor.

3-9.

Invitation to a change of Graces received.

life.

De
ist

carnes tollendas
Elias in desert.

2nd Lection:
penance.

Lection: 3 Kings xix. 3-15. 2 Cor. vi. 2-10.

The

acceptable time for

LENT
I.

De quadragesima in prima hebdomada
a feria 2
:

Ad nonam,
,,

Isa.

i.

16-19, and

St. Jas.

i.

2-12.
i.

4

a
:

Isa. xxx.

15-18, and

St. Jas.
i.

13-21.
26-27.

6a

:

Isa. Iv. 6-7,

and

St. Jas.

22-25.
i.

Ad

tertiam sabbato

:

Jer.

iii.

12-14, an d

St. Jas.

ad nonam, for the three first days indicates the fast that ad tertiam of the Saturday indicates that this day was kept like the Sunday. The Lectionary, therefore, dates from the time when
N.B.
This rubric,
;

Distribution of the Lections
this

45

earlier

This must be, then, usage existed in Spain. than 572, when a council suppressed it.
i

Dominica

at Matins and (here is a double lection afterwards at Mass), called the Sunday of the Samaritan woman, because of the gospel
:
:

a

Matins: i, Os. Mass: i, Dan.

xiv.
ii.;

2-10; 2, 2, St. Jas.

i
ii.

St. Pet.

iii.

5-9.

2i-iii. 10.

II

De

2

da

hebdomada
it

One
the

takes up the lection again where

was
it.

left off

preceding
the

Sunday
ferias.

;

this

concludes

The

Sunday

lessons were established before order of the

lections for

See Duchesne, Origines du

culte chretien, p. 236.

Ad nonam,

a feria 2

:

Jer.

iii.

20-22
7-11
5;

;

St. Jas.
;

ii.

1-5.

4

a
: :

Jer. xviii.

St. Jas. iv.

7-10.

6a

Jer. xxv. Jer. vi.

St. Jas. v.

Ad

tertiam sabbato

:

16;

St. Jas. v.
:

12-15. 16-20.

Dominica 2% of the man born blind

Matins: i, Dan. ix. 4-19; 2, i St. John Mass: i, Dan. iv. ; 2, i St. John i. 5-9.
///.

ii.

8-12.

De
Joel
ii. ii.

3

hebdomada
;

Ad nonam,

12-13 i St. Pet. i. 16-21. 15-17; i St. Pet. iii. 10-15. 6a Mich. vii. 18-20; i St. Pet. iv. 7-11. Ad tertiam sabbato: Amos v. 14-15 i St. Pet. v. 6-n. Dominica, called in vicesima^ that is to say, the twentieth
feria 2
,,
:

a

4*

:

Joel

:

;

day before Easter, or de mediante ftsto
Matins: i, Dan. xiii. 1-64 Mass: i, Dan. x., xi., and
;

:

2,
;

St. Jas. iv.

1-16.
iii.

xii.

2,

St. Jas.

14-18.

The Lectionary
IV.

During the three

last

weeks the Church of
;

Toledo specially honours the Passion of the Saviour
the beginning of a

from there these words, de traditione Domini, indicate

new

period.

In prima hebdomada

Ad nonam,

a feria 2

Isa.
Isa.

i.

1-4, 24-26;
20,

i

St.
i

v.
2.

23-27;
;

St.

John i. John
3-6.

1-4.
i.

10-

11.

4
5

a a

Os.

v.

7-13
ix.

i

St.

John
i

ii.

Jer.

7-9,

12;

St.

John

iii.

11-12.
Jer.
xii. 7-10, 14-15 18-20.
i.
;

i

St.

John

iii.

Ad tertiam

sabbato

Isa.

8-10;
iii.;

i

St.

John

iii.

2-3.
:

Dominica dc Lazaro
Matins: i,
Jer.,

(this is

our Passion Sunday)

Lam.
;

2,
i

i

St. Pet. iv.

Mass: i,
V.

Levit. xxiii.

2,

St.

John

v.

13-19. 16-20.

The week which
feria

is
i.

called Post
2-4-ii.

Lazaro
i

Ad nonam,

2*

:

Hab.
Jer.,

4

;

St.

John

ii.

26-29.
a

3
a

:

Lam.
Lam.
St.

i.

9-10,
iii.
i.

12;

iii.

21-22;
25-32;

2 St. Pet.

8-9.

4

:

Jer.,

19-22;
10-11.

iii.

2
a
,,

Pet.

i.

5

:

Jer.,
i

St.

6a

:

Jer.,

i. 16-18; iii. 54-56; John i. 4-7. Lam. i. 13-18: iii. 24; 2 St. i.

Lam.

Pet.

5-8.
i

Ad

tertiam sabbato

:

Job

xxx.

;

St.

John

ii.

7-10.

Distribution of the Lections

HOLY WEEK
Palm Sunday, Dies
Matins:
25,
ii.

unctionis
:

(because the

catechumens

received the anointing)
ist

Lection, Isa.

xlix.

22-26; 2nd,

i

St. Pet.

i.

10.

Mass:
i

ist Lection,

Exod.

xix.

4-5; 2nd, Deut. passim

;

St.

John

ii.

9-17.
:

Ad nonam,

a feria 2
a

Isa. Ivii. 1-4,

3
a

:

Isa.

4 Jer. In Ccena Domini: Job xxiv. ; i St. Pet. ii. 21-23. Ad tertiam Exod. xix. 1-19; Heb. xii. 12-28. For the
: :

13; i St. John ii. 27-28. 5-8; i St. John iii. 6-9. xxvi. 13-15; St. Jude 20-25.
1.

repetition of the Symbol.

Ad
Per

missam: Zachar.
23-32.
titulos

ii.,

iii.,

xi.,

xiii.,

passim

\

i

Cor.

xi.

(the

churches, other

than
:

the cathedral,
Jer.

on
St.

this

day and Saturday reunite)
:

xx.

and
i

i

Pet.

In

Parasceven
Gal.,

Isa.
i

Iii.

and

liii. ;

extracts

from

Cor.,

Heb., Die sabbato per titulos:
i-3-

St.

Pet.

Apoc.
:

i.

9-10, 17-18; Colos.

iii.

Die sabbato in vigilia Paschse 12 Lections (Gen. i.-ii. 6; Gen. ii. 7, iii.; Isa. Iv. ; Gen. v. 3i-viii. 21; Exod. xiii.-xv. ; Gen. xxii. 1-18; Deut. xxxi.-xxxii. ; Gen. 2 Paral. xxxiv., xxxv.; Ezech.xxxvii.; xxvii.; Exod. xii. Dan. iii. Another Lection, i Cor. v.-vii.-viii.
;

On

Easter Sunday and throughout the week the ist Lection is Apoc. i.-iii.; the 2nd Lection is i Cor. xv. for Sunday ;

Acts of the Apostles for other days, chap,
xiii.,

i., ii.,

x., v.,

extracts.
vii.

Low Sunday: Apoc.
ist

2-12

;

Acts
xxi.

Sunday

after Easter:

Apoc.

viii. 26-40. 9-23; Acts ix. 1-22.

48
2nd Sunday

The Lectionary
after Easter:

Apoc. iv. i-io; Acts viii. 14-25. Apoc. xiv. 1-7 ; Acts iv. 32-v. ii. 4th Apoc. xiv. 5-16; Acts ix. 32-42. St. Torquatus and Companions. These are seven bishops, the first missionaries of Spain. Apoc. vii. 9-10; Heb. x. 32-38.
3rd
,,

The day

of the
ii.

Holy Cross: Apoc.
ii.

xxi.

10;

xxii.

1-5;

Philip,

5-11.
1-15, Elias taken up to

Ascension: 4 Kings Acts i. i-u.

Heaven;
iv.

Sunday within the octave of Ascension Apoc. IO-IT; Ephes. iv. 7-10. Orifice ad tertiam^ Saturday, vigil of Pentecost
:
:

2-4,

Isa.

Ixi.

;

i

Cor.

xii.

2-13.

Pentecost: Joel
St.

ii. 21-32; Acts ii. 1-21. Adrian (whose feast is kept in Rome on 8th September, and in Spain i7th June) Proverbs iv. and xxi. Heb.
:

;

x.

32-38.
:

Nativity of St. John Baptist: Jer. i. 4-19; Gal. iv. 22-31. St. Peter and St. Paul Apoc. x. and xi. ; i Cor. iv. 9-15.
SS. Justus

and Rufinus

:

Eccles. xxxix.

17-21;
;

2

Cor.

iv.

5-10. SS. Justus and Pastor: Wisdom x. 17-21 Wisdom iii. SS. Sixtus and Laurentius
:

i

Cor.
2

iii.

1-8;

Cor.

ix.

6-13.
St.

Cyprian

:

Eccles.

xliv.

and
:

1.

;

of

Common
;
:

(unius justi).
xi.

Beheading of St.

John Baptist

Jer. xxxiii.

Heb.

and

xii.

List of Lections for Saints (de Sanctis]

Prov. xv.;

2

Thess.

i.

3-12.

Wisdom
,,
,,

Prov.

x.

16-19; Rom. v. 1-5. xi. 2-4; Rom. viii. 28-39. xviii. and xix. ; Heb. xi. 13-16. and xi. Heb. xi. 33-34.
v.
:

Wisdom

v.

1-5

;

Ephes.

i.

3-8,

Distribution of the Lections
Another de uno justo
Isa. xlii.
:

49

Eccles. xxxii. 27-xxxiii.
2

i

;

Colos.

i.

24-29.

Tim. ii. i-io. 1-4; Wisdom iv. 7-15; 2 Tim. iii. i6-iv. 8. Eccles. xxxi. 8-n ; 2 Tim. iv. 17-18.
Isa. xli.

8-13;

Philip,
:

iii.

7-12.

Another

series de

uno confessore

Eccles. xlvii. 1-2, 9-13; Rom. x. 8-13. Eccles. li. 1-4; i Tim. vi. 11-14.

De

virginibus

:

ist
vii.

Lection, see

SS. Justus

and Rufinus;

2nd,

i

Cor.
:

25-34.

Deuna virgine Jer. xxxi. 2-7; 2 Cor. x. i7~xi. 6. De nubentibus Jer. xxix. 5-7; i Cor. vii. 1-14. De primitiis (that is to say, when the faithful bring
:

the

first-

fruits)

:

Eccles. xxxv. 10-13;

Rom.
i

viii.

22-27.
7-17.

De

decimis

:

Malach.

iii.

7,

10-12;
xxxiii.
ix.,

Cor.
;

ix.
i

In ordinal. Episcopi : Ezech.
Inordinat. Regis:

i-n
(that

Tim.
xiii.

iii.

1-13.

Wisdom

passim ; Rom.
is
:

1-8.

Die sabbato quando sal adspargitur
the dedication of a church)
iii.

to say, the eve of
ix.

Wisdom
xxviii.

8-n

;

i

Cor.
Cor.

16-17.
itself:

For the consecration
iii.

Gen.

10-22;
iv.

i

8-17.
i

For the restoration of a basilica: 2 Cor. v. Ephes. iii. and iv.
;

Mach.

36-58;

De

Litanias canonicas (that celebrated each week)

is
:

to say, the Litanies

which are

iv. 1-16; Joel ii. 15-18; ad Eph. iv. 23-30. 11. die ad tertiam Sophon. i. 2-3; Dan. ix. 4-19; ad iii. nonam, Jer. 12-14 Eph. iv. 17-24. IIP. die ad tertiam: Zach. vii. and viii.; Eccl. xxxvi. 1-19; ad nonam, Ephes. iv. 29-32.
:

1. die ad tertiam

Osee
;

nonam

:

Isa.

Iv.

:

>

4

50
Pro

The Lectionary
sterilitate pluvia
:
"

1. die ad tertiam
xiv. 1-9.

:

3 Kings

viii.

34-40
;

;

Sexta"

:

Jer.

IP. die ad tertiam

:

Jer.

iii.

20-22

Agg.

i. ;

Zach.

x.

;

Pro

Jer. xxv. tribulatione et clade: Joel

ii.

Amos
Joel
i.

v.

14-15,
ii. ;

iv.

;

Isa.

Ixiii.

12-13; Jonas and Ixiv. ;
1-2.

iii.

3-10;
;

Isa. xxx.

and

Ephes.

v.
:

For the Sundays
1. IIP.

(after

Pentecost)
i

Isa. vi.
v.

1-13; Rom.
8-1 6
;

ii.

11-29.

IP. Isa.

Cor.

i.

17-22.

Isa. v.

IV.

Isa. xl. Isa.

V.
VP. VIP.

18-27; Rom. vi. 19-23. 27-31 ; Rom. xi. 32-36. xlviii. 16-21; Rom. vi. 12-18.
-

Isa. xlviii.

Isa. Isa.

VHP.
IX.

12-15; R m xii. 1-16. 1-3; Rom. xii. 16-21. xlix. 1-6; Rom. xvi. 17-20.
Ii.

Isa. Ixvi.
Jer. xxxi. Jer.
Jer.
viii.
iii.

X.
XP. XIP.
XIII
.

10-13; Rom. xiii. 10-14. 31-34; i Cor. iii. 16-23. and ix. passim; i Cor. vi. 12-20.
i

14-23;

Cor.
2

xii.
vi.

27-xiii. 8.

Jer. v. 2O-vi. i; Jer. xxiii.

Cor.

u-vii.

i.

XIV

.

XV.
XVP.
XVIP. XVIII
.

XIX XX. XXI

.

2-8; 2 Cor. xiii. 7-11. Jer. xxx. 3, 7-17; Gal. ii. 16-20. Jer. xxxi. 10-14; Gal. v. i4~vi. 2. Isa. xxxii. 37-42; Ephes. i. 16-23. Prov. i. 8-33 ; Rc m n i- 28 ~iv 8 Rom. v. 5-10. Prov. ii. 1-21
>

-

-

-

;

Ezech.

xxviii.

25-36
i ;

;

Rom.
Ephes.
i.

xv. 4-7.
v.

.

Jer. xxx. i8-xxxi.
Jer. xxxi.

1-8.

XXIP. XXIIP.
.

Prov.

iii. iii.

XXIV Prov. Some pages having

16-23. 27-28; Ephes. i-io; Rom. vii. 14-25. 19-34; i Tim. i. 15-17.

been

lost

from the end of the

Distribution of the Lections

51

Codex, it is impossible to know if there were any more Sundays after Pentecost. Thanks to the publication of D. Morin, we have, with some special particulars of the Church at Toledo,
the collection of lections

such as

it

existed

in

the

Western Churches before St. Gregory the Great. Regularly, we find two lections precede the gospel
the
first

:

taken from the Old Testament, the second

from the New.
been

The

more systematic than

ordering of the passages appears in the East an endeavour has
:

made

to

choose

lessons

It mysteries being celebrated. of the shadow the new alliance that Prophets

appropriate to the is above all in the
is

drawn

out, as their writings

become more

frequent.
it

Genesis
contains,

finds a place

by reason

of the prophecies

among the Greeks, a preponderant one the other books of the Bible come in Lent during the same way, but not all the sapiential books are
but not, as
;

;

read on saints days because of the lessons of holiness that they contain one notices that Isaias and Jeremias
;

are

most often read

in the

time after Pentecost.
all

As

the Epistles of St. Testament, nearly Paul and the Catholic Epistles figure in the course of the liturgical year these latter fill up the time of Lent
to the
:

New

;

those of St. Paul, the time after

Pentecost.

The

Apocalypse and the Acts of the Apostles form the two lections during Paschal time. There is no mention either of the Sundays after Epiphany or
of the

Quatuor Tempora.

52

The Lectionary
7 wo Peculiarities of the Chtirch at

Rome

of

Before concluding this chapter, let us take notice two peculiarities in the Comes of which we give

the salient features.
to

Three
will

lections

are

the

Mass

of

the

Catechumens.
be met with
the

This

assigned is a

characteristic
in

which

again later

certain
;

liturgies,
is

for

example,
it

Ambrosian

liturgy
in the

it

incontestable that
St.

existed in Africa

time of

Augustine, as one can see from the
1

sermons of
a

Ordinarily there was connection between the lections and the psalms
this great doctor.
;

sung

manifestly this

usage

should

exist

in

the

liturgy of

Rome,

as in Africa, Spain,

and

at Milan.

yet no trace is found of it in the documents of which we shall speak in the following chapter, but there are ordinarily only two lections, the epistle and gospel, the first taken sometimes from the Prophets
or other books of the

And

from the New.
chrttien,
p.

Old Testament, but more often Mgr. Duchesne (Origines du culte
edition)

168, English

reckons that the

Prophetic lesson had disappeared in Rome before St. Gregory the Great, during the fifth century one may
;

very well suppose that it did exist primitively and that it was especially desired to preserve the trace in these
lections of the
1

Old Testament which we

still

find to-

See Diet,
;

d?Archtologie chrttienne et de Liturgie,

i.

c.

630

:

Africa

the

Mass

of the fourth to the sixth century.
t. i.

Cf.

Card.

Bona,

Rerum

Liturg.,

ch. 7.

Peculiarities of the

Church at Rome
The Liber
p.

53

day

as the Epistles of the Mass.

Ponti-

ficalis,

edited

by Duchesne

(i.

230),

proves un

doubtedly that under the pontificate of Celestine I. (422-432) only the Epistles of St. Paul and the Gospels The Prophetic lesson has never were read at Mass.

up to our time at the Quatuor TemIt was a usage ferias of Lent. and on certain pora current in the Gallican liturgy, as one sees in the
theless continued

Sacramentary
Italicum,
i.

published

by

Mabillon,

Musceum

The
:

pora existence even.

other peculiarity concerns the Quatuor Temour Comes does not seem to suspect their
Nevertheless,
of
fasts

we must not suppose
and
our
in
offices

that this arrangement

did

not

exist at the time the compiler of the

Comes com

posed

his

work. 1
to

Without
Callistus

institution

Pope
2

assigning their the first part of

the third century
this

Pope

:

(the Liber Pontificates says of Hie constituit jejunium die Sabbati TER
frumenti>

in

anno

fieri^

vini et olei gratia secundum that

prophetiani},

we must say
it

Pope

St.

Leo the

Great mentions
of
it

often

enough
the
torn. iv.

in his
first

sermons, speaks

as an institution of
,

centuries, of the
12, 15,
17,
19).

Apostolic times (P. L.

serm.

Muratori, in his preface to the Leonine Sacramentary,
1

2

Dictionary of the Bible, Vigouroux, t. See Diet, de Thtologie catholique,
iii.
iii.

iv.
ii.

p. 155.
c.

1334
;

;

and the

references by Georgi, Liturg. Pontif.,

p.

438

Gerbert, Vetus

Liturg. aleman.,

p. 980.

54
establishes
St.

The Lectionary
a

comparison between the writings of

Leo and the words used in the Sacramentary, to show that in one way and another the documents
agree regarding the Quatuor Tempora the Gregorian Sacramentary, like the Leonine, mentions some Satur
:

days having twelve lessons which correspond to the Saturdays of our Quatuor Tempora, and in which
the lections were

more numerous as well as longer. Why then is the document of Toledo silent ? D. Morin, in an article in the Revue Benedictine in 1897,
338 and
fol,,

p.

on the origin of the Quatuor Tempora,
:

gives this reason
"The

Quatuor Tempora were,
In
;

originally, a purely

local institution

Rome.

this

belonging properly to the Church at Church they had an exceptional
half
of

importance

there they are regarded as established
(first

by the Apostles themselves
century).

the

fifth

From

this

time onwards, the Bishops of
insist, in their letters to their

Rome do

not cease to

colleagues of Italy and elsewhere, on the necessity of observing these fasts of the four seasons, and reserve
for these

days the ordination of the sacred ministers.

Their manner of speaking leads us to believe that the Quatuor Tempora were accepted very early by a In reality very little large part of Christendom.

was done

for

some

centuries.

Neither at

Capua

under the Bishop Victor in the middle of the sixth century, nor at Naples in the following century, nor
in

any other part

of Italy

do they seem

to

have con-

Peculiarities of the

Church at Rome

55

formed to the

Roman

usage.

pericopes, there were three entitled

Besides the Neapolitan Cottidiana per

messes in addition to three fast days after Pentecost
(edition of the Liber Comicus,
fast
i.

p.

434)

;

but this

last

only corresponds

in

appearance to the

summer
Pope

Quatuor Tempora.
St.

The
the

missionaries sent by

Gregory really introduced the
just

Roman

usage into
did in

England,

as

Anglo-Saxon monks
Before

Germany during
of the Alps,

the eighth century.
the strong
:

we can
in

see this institution generally accepted on both sides

we must await

Romanizing

fluences of the Carlovingian epoch
of Spain

still

the Churches

and Milan
;

for a long
fact,

time refused to adopt
practice

this innovation

as a

this

formed a
J

double use with the days of canonical litanies * observed by them at different parts of the year from time immemorial. The Quatuor Tempora only

appear

in

Spain to

start

from the adoption of the
later

Roman
St.

liturgy at the

end of the eleventh century.

At Milan they were introduced very much
Charles Borromeo.
"

by

Relationship between the

"

Comes

"

and the Work

of A Icuin and

A malarius

the Gallican Liturgy. Before the in signalizing peculiarities which, respect of the lections, distinguish the Roman from other rites,
1 On these canonical litanies see further back, de Litanias canonicas and lections indicated.

The Roman and

56
it

The Lectionary
will

be well to notice the indications that these
If one may with as to their origin. is not much to glean in
"

latter furnish us

believe certain authors, there
this field.

Thus, the author of the

article

"

Pericope

Realencyclopadie of Hertzog, after having cleared up

some

obscurities on the state of the pericopes at the time of Pope St. Gregory, adds that the com mentators of the Middle Ages, Amalarius, Rupert, Honorius d Autun, etc., do not give any authentic

explanation of the use and extent of these lections. Doubtless to this opinion some exception must be made. The author has not mentioned Alcuin, to

whom, however, he does

justice in using the Comes ab Albino editus as a source of information this is
;

could not, moreover, forget already something. the great role played by Alcuin (or Albinus, 735804) in the study of the liturgy, and the care taken

He

by

this

tions.

author for the preservation of ancient tradi On this ground, his Lectionary, Comes ab
ex
Caroli
of

Albino

(manuscript
of

Imperatoris prczcepto emendatus the tenth century preserved in the

Library of Chartres, No. 32), published in the works B. Tommasi, tome v. pp. 297-313, merits our
attention.

ment
of
his

in

which the

collection

followed by an appendix or supple author revises the preceding to put it in harmony with the liturgy
It is

time.

The Lectionary

consists of 242 titles
;

or lections, and the
to

the

Appendix of 65 it is adapted Gregorian system, and thus presents us

The Roman and the Gallican Liturgy
1

57

with the state of the Liturgy at the end of the eighth
century.

A

work

of

comparison between

this

document and
of peculiarities
lections for

the Comes edited by D. Morin, will allow us to take

count both of the

Roman

practice

and

(whether) Mozarabic or Gallican.

The

Advent, to the end of the
is

in the

Lectionary of Alcuin, are carried
liturgical year.

on

At Christmas

there

the

same

lection of Isaias for the station of St.

Mary, but two other stations are signalized, St Mary again and St. Peter, with a passage of the Epistle to
Apparuit gratia, and the beginning of the In the octave of Christmas Epistle to the Hebrews. the feasts of St. Stephen and St. John are the same
Titus
:

;

the

immediately after, with the passage of the Apocalypse Vidi supra montem The feast of St. Sylvester has a passage from Sion.
figure

Holy Innocents

the Epistle to the Hebrews Plures facti sunt sacerdotes, or the Ecce Sacerdos of the Book of Wisdom.
:

Then comes

the Epiphany, with the Surge ULuminare
;

of the prophet Isaias

but this

feast,

otherwise called

Theophania, is followed by five days during which is read a passage from the Epistles of St. Paul (Romans,
i

Timothy,

Hebrews,

Romans,

and

Romans

or

In this period come the feasts of St. Timothy). Felix (Epistle to the Hebrews), St. Marcellus

(Wisdom),
1

St.

Sebastian (Hebrews), St. Agnes

(i

Corinthians),
See Diet.

the Presentation of

Our Lord
de Liturgie,
i.

in
c.

the
1073.

cT Archdologie chretienne et

58

The Lectionary
(Malachias),
St.

Temple

Agatha (Wisdom),

St.

Valentine (Wisdom), and the Annunciation (Isaias). In inserting here the Sundays of Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima posterior to the time
of
St.

Gregory, Alcuin conforms to the additions
before

made

him

;

the epistles of these Sundays are

those that
of those

we read to-day. The same may be said of Ash Wednesday (taken from the prophet
Friday (passage of
Isaias), of

Joel), of the following

the

first
:

Sunday

of Lent,

and

of the

two days which
In
:

follow

notice that Alcuin indicates the stations of

Rome

just as our
:

Roman

Missal mentions them.

this rubric

Feria IV. mensis primi, and in this other
lestiones,

Sabbato in XII.
to the

we ought
its

to see

an allusion

Quatuor Tempora, made by Tommasi, which rests
;

according to the

remark

authority on the

Venerable Bede
of

in reality

one reckons two lessons

Wednesday and six of Saturday, so that, to com plete the number of twelve, one should also add on

the lesson of the Friday and the three evangelical peri-

copes of Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday. We find in the Ordo Romanus IX. (Migne, P.L. torn. Ixxviii.
,

fol.) another explanation of the rubric, in duodecim lectionibus. This expression indicates

col.

1005 and

XII.

not twelve lections but twelve different lectors Propter lectores dicuntur non propter XII. varietates
:

lectionum.

It will

be the same for the Lectiones mensis
;

for the Lectiones Pentecost Sunday quarti, mensis septimi, after the sixth week which follows
after

The Roman and the Gallican Liturgy
St.

59

Laurence

;

for the Lectiones mensis decimi,

between

the third and fourth

Sundays

of Advent.

Thus does
:

Alcuin understand the Quatuor them at the same time as we do
later the

Tempora
;

he places
little
;

he mentions a

same

lessons as those in our

Roman

Missal

the only exceptions are the

where he

gives

a

Wednesday of Pentecost, pericope of Exodus and Kings
of the

instead of the

book

Acts

;

for

the lesson of

Saturday of the Quatuor Tempora of September, in place of Daniel, Alcuin gives in the fifth place a
passage of Exodus (prayer of Moses). Lastly, in Alcuin s compilation, as in our Missal, for the Quatuor

Tempora

December, the lessons of the Old Testa ment are taken wholly from Isaias, save the fifth of
of

the Saturday, where occurs the passage of Daniel such as one has seen it in the first and fourth months.
a presence of a lection for \heferia 5 is another proof of the additions that Alcuin admits the office for these days was composed by St. Gregory II.

The

:

(7 1 5~73

1

)

The Sundays

of

Dominica

in trigesima, in vigesima for the third

Lent have special names and

:

fourth, so called, doubtless, because they

draw nearer
;

to the thirtieth, to the twentieth

day before Easter

the

designated by the simple mention Dominica the second is called Dominica in quadragesima
first is
;

prima mensis primi, because it immediately follows the Quatuor Tempora of the first month our Palm Sun
;

day

is

called

Dominica
for

indulgentice.

The

lection of the
is

New Testament

each of these Sundays

not, a

60
in

The Lectionary
the

of Toledo, drawn from the Catholic but from the Epistles of St. Paul, and, with Epistles, the exception of the second Sunday, where the passage

Comes

of the

first

to the

instead
that

of chapter

Thessalonians varies (chapter v. iv.), the lections are just those
in

we have now

the

Roman

Church.

Alcuin

a lection for each day of the week, with the indication of the Roman station (except for Thurs day) except for this one Thursday, the lections are
gives
;

the

same

as ours

:

a

new proof

that Alcuin copied
find,

from the

Roman

liturgy.

We

for

the

first

three days of

Holy Week, two lections wholly taken from the Old Testament (Wisdom or Prophets) for
;

Friday, six lessons only from the Old Testa ment, known in our Missal as the ist, the 4th, the 8th, the nth, another taken from the 55th chapter of
Isaias,

Good

and the

last

from Daniel, just as we

find

on the
which

Saturdays

of the

Quatuor Tempora.

The Sundays

after Pentecost are distributed into groups, of

the points of separation are the feasts of SS. Peter and
Paul, of St. Laurence

and
for

St.

Michael

:

in the first

group, four

Sundays
i

which Alcuin indicates a

passage of
i

Corinthians,
in the

Romans,

i

St.

Peter,

and

second group, for the five Sundays John the after feast of SS. Peter and Paul, the lection is taken
St.
;

from the Epistle to the Romans
for the six

;

in the third group,

Sundays
in

after the feast of St. Laurence,
i Corinthians, Galatians, the fourth group, for the six

the lections are taken from

and Ephesians

;

The Roman and

the Gallican

Liturgy

61

Sundays after the feast of St, Michael, the lections continue Ephesians and then go on to Philippians and Thus the writings of St. Paul fill the Colossians.
greater part of the

Advent.

Sunday lections from Pentecost to During the Sundays of Advent, the
from the prophet

Isaias, except for when there is a Christmas, preceding in drawn from Gaudete Domino, joyful invitation, Between these St. Paul s Epistle to the Philippians.

lections are taken

the

week

Sunday
ferias,

lections

Alcuin intercalates lessons of the
days, others lastly for the

others for saints

feasts special,

however

less

numerous, to the

Roman
of St.

calendar.

One

sees in succession the

names

Philip and St. James, St. Pancratius, SS. Gervasius and Protasius, SS. John and Paul, the vigil and feast of St. John Baptist, vigil and feast of SS. Peter

and Paul, octave of the Holy Apostles, St. Laurence, SS. Cornelius and Cyprian, Beheading of St. John Baptist, a feast in honour of Holy Mary (the Nativity),
the dedication
of

the

Basilica

of the

Holy Angel

(St. Michael), vigil

and

feast of All Saints, the vigil

and
St.

feast

of

St.

Martin, the feasts of St. Cecilia,

Clement, the

follow
tion,

Then vigil and feast of St. Andrew. some lessons for ordinations, for the dedica etc. ... for different circumstances, and lastly,

nine lessons for days which have none assigned. One thus sees more of a resemblance to the
repertory of lections which the Church of Toledo preserved to the seventh century, and on the other

62
hand
to

The Lectionary
some
peculiarities

which

denote

a

certain

liberty side

by

side

with a desire to draw nearer

Rome.

As

has

been

said,

the

ensemble

of

the

Lectionary of Alcuin presents an old
the lections.

Roman
adds

rite of

The Carlovingian

liturgist

an appendix to put the collection in line with the Gregorian revision brought about by Charlemagne to

were none

assign the lections to the days where formerly there for example, the ferias of Christmas
;

week, the Wednesday of the Theophany, the Thursday of Quinquagesima, the nights of Easter and Pentecost,

Wednesdays of the weeks after Easter, Invention of the Holy Cross, and certain particular circum The source of the lessons and the choice of stances.
the the Scriptural passages are purely Gregorian, accord Imitando ac sequendo ing to what Tommasi says
:

libellum Papce Gregorii sacramentorum. 1
nevertheless,
Gallican.
in this

There
to

is,

appendix a

likeness

the

Amalarius (f 850), educated by Alcuin, furnishes in his liturgical works some indications relative to the
lections
;

one finds there a confirmation of those
;

which were pointed out in Alcuin s Lectionary the lections that he signalizes in his De officiis ecclesiasticis

are practically the
;

same

as those of the actual

Missal
six
1

as to the

Quatuor Tempora, he describes the
Mass.

or
Cf.

twelve lections of the

Thus

in the

Tommasi

in the edition that
t.

he has given of the manu

script of Chartres, Opera,

v.

pp. 314-318.

The Ambrosian Liturgy
ninth century Gaul was in accord with lections of the Bible in the liturgy. 1

63
for the

Rome

The Ambrosian Liturgy.
at this

The same harmony reigns

throughout epoch and from the same point of view between the liturgy of Milan and that of Rome.

But

in other

ways

speaking of the

In has an important aspect. the even and Ambrosian, Gallican,
this
is

Roman
differs

liturgy,

it

from each other

in the

not to point out that they differ way that an Oriental liturgy

from a Western, but that they are related rites which have the same origin and points in common,
yet have nevertheless freely developed and adapted themselves to the customs of the countries in which

they were implanted.
If

we appeal
teachings,

to the writings of St.
it is

Ambrose

for

some

undeniable that

in the

time of this

holy doctor the three lections had their place in the Mass of the Catechumens and in the following order
:

Prophetic, Apostolic, Evangelistic (P.L., torn. xv. col. 1443) the word Prophets implies all the Old Testa
:

ment.

In the discourse which he addressed to the
subject of the affair of the synagogue
of the

Emperor on the
St.

and the destruction
lesson

temple of the Valentinians,
"

Ambrose appeals

successively to the Prophetic
:

"

and the Gospel of the day Behold," says he, what we have gathered from the Prophetic lesson, see again what the reading of the Gospel furnishes us

with."
1

And

the discourse has

place

immediately
i.

Diet. cF Archeologie

chretienne et de Liturgie,

c.

1325.

64

The Lectionary
,

before the oblation (P.L. torn. xvi. letter 41). One cannot say that this Prophetic lection fell into disuse
in the following centuries,

although no trace

is

found

of of

it

in the

manuscripts

;

likewise the Sacramentary

l Bergamo, written

in the tenth

and eleventh cen

turies, containing the prayers, prefaces, epistles, and But it should be gospels, makes no mention of it.

noted that

this lection, different

from the others, was

read by a cleric of lower rank and in a separate book. As to the epistles (or the Apostle), Tommasi (v. p. 424)
and, after him, Georgi (torn, iii., Liturg. Rom. Pontif.) have published an incomplete list, which appears to have been the usage of the Church of Milan the bad
;

condition of the manuscript that Tommasi had at his disposal did not allow him to decipher the whole. Here are the peculiarities of this very ancient document
:

The eve

of Christmas

:

Romans

viii.

Mission of

Jesus for justification. Christmas Galatians
:

iv.

Jesus has delivered
Benefits
of

us

from the servitude of the law.
St.

Stephen

:

2

Timothy
I

iii.

Holy

Scripture.

The Holy
St.
1

Innocents:

Corinthians

iii.

The Apostle
children.

desires to speak to Christians as to

little

James

:

Galatians

ii.

St.

Paul

defends

his

A document in
The
i.

Bergamo.

the Library of Sant Alessandro in Colonna at Prophetic lesson is also wanting in a good
Diet, cTArcheol. chretienne et de
that
c.

number

of other documents.
c.

Liturgie,

1402,

and before

1375-1376.

The Ambrosian Liturgy
and

65

apostolate in the presence of St. Peter, St. James,
St.

John.
:

St.

John

Romans
:

x.
i

The Circumcision
Eve
is

reproved for its fault. Corinthians viii. Instruction
idols.
iv.

Israel

on the usage of food offered to
of the

Epiphany
:

:

2 Corinthians

To whom

the Gospel accessible

?

Epiphany

Titus

ii.

The

manifestation of Jesus

leads us to holiness.

Here a scarcely
feasts of St.
in

legible indication
;

seems to have
then follow the
;

relation to the feast of St. Sebastian

Agnes,
the

St.

honour of

Vincent, St. Agatha a feast Blessed Virgin, doubtless her

Purification,

which
I

in certain

churches

is

only cele
St.

brated on the

ith or I5th of February.
:

Sexagesima Sunday

2

Corinthians

vi.

Paul

exhorts the Christians to avoid dealings with infidels. 2 Corinthians vi. The Quadragesima Sunday
:

same passage that we read nowadays exhortation to profit by the acceptable time. Third, fourth, and fifth Sundays of Lent embrace some analogous exhortations taken from Galatians,
:

I

Corinthians,

Romans. The
:

lection of

Holy Thursday

the passage of the Epistle to the Corinthians where St. Paul speaks of the Last Supper.
is

the

same

as ours

Easter and during the week which follows the from St. inculcate the idea of Paul, teachings, always
:

renovation, of combats for the cause of the Lord, of the reward of mercy, of joy in the Lord.
5

66
Ascension

The Lectionary

Day

:

to the Ephesians,
is

is

the lection, taken from the Epistle an exhortation to unity. There

also a lection for the Litany, another for the eve,

afterwards for Pentecost.
tion of feasts
:

There follows an enumera

St. Eleutherius, St.

St. Pancratius, St.

George, St. Victor, Vitus, SS. Gervasius and Protasius,

the eve of St. John Baptist, Nativity of St. John Baptist, SS. Peter and Paul, St. Thomas Apostle
(celebrated

3rd July),
Nazarius,
St.

SS.

Nabor and
St.

Felix,

St.

Apollinaris, St.
St.

Holy Machabees,

St. Sixtus, St.

Laurentius,

Hippolytus,

Mammes,

Genesius, Beheading of St. John Baptist, St. Cyprian, St. Euphemia, SS. Cosma and Damianus, St. Martin,
St.

Anthony,
see,

St.

Romanus,
of

St.

As we

most

these

Andrew. names belong

to the

Ambrosian liturgy mentions them, but consecrates them with a different lection.
calendar:
the

Roman

Tommasi

s

list

which are six
always taken

in

ends with the Sundays of Advent, number and have special lections
St.

from

Paul

:

for

the

rest,

it

is

characteristic of this

document

to

have exclusively

passages from the great Apostle.

The Mozarabic and

Celtic Liturgies,

To

that which

concerns the Mozarabic liturgy, we have nothing to add here. The Comes in the usage of the Church of

Toledo has shown us that Spain had some points

in

common

with

Rome

in its lections before the

seventh

century, but this does not prevent us thinking that

during the following centuries

it

used the liberty

The Mozarabic and
allowed
it

Celtic Liturgies

67

to introduce certain peculiarities.

As

to

the state of the Celtic liturgy, a passage from the Ecclesiastical History of the Venerable Bede throws
sufficient light.

The head
St.

of the mission sent

from

Gregory the Great, St. Augustine of Canterbury, thought he ought to consult the Sovereign Pontiff on certain customs for the celebra
tion of Mass,

Rome by Pope

and received
in the

this

answer

:

As
of the

to

what

you have pointed out
see

customs, be

it

Roman

or of the Gallican Church,

make

a judicious choice,

most pleasing to Almighty God, and make this the rule for that Church of England which is still so young in the faith." 1 The Church of England flatters itself on having faithfully pre
what
is

served the Lectionary established according to these The homilies of the Venerable Bede do principles.

not suggest great differences between its lections and the Roman lections, and the Book of Common Prayer
bears traces of this ancient agreement on the whole.

2.

THE EVANGELARIES
For
the

East

The Distribution of the Gospel Lessons throughout
the

Greek

Year.

Documentary evidence

affords

clear

proof that among the Greeks it was desired that the entire Gospel text be read at least once each

year

:

there

was a pericope
1

for
xcv.

each day, but
c.

it

does

Migne, P.L.,

t.

58-59.

68

The Lectionary

of saints

not say that the lection was impeded by the solemnity days rare enough, by the way, at this period.

The choice, except for the Saturday, Sunday, and the mysteries of the life of our Saviour, is not very complicated they contented themselves with follow
:

ing the order of each Evangelist, reading them as follows St. John, St. Matthew, St. Mark, St.
:

Luke.

The
of St.

ecclesiastical year
filled

began

at Easter

:

the Gospel

up the seven weeks between Easter John lesson of the Sunday being longer, the and Pentecost, and apparently chosen according on a determined
plan,

the account of the most remarkable miracles,

most developed parables, and most important teach note on the ings of the Saviour being then set forth
:

fourth

Sunday

the conversation of Jesus
(iv.

with the
fifth

Samaritan

woman

5-42),

and then on the
(ix.

the miracle of the

man

born blind

1-38).

At

Matins on Pentecost the appearance of Jesus to the Apostles in the absence of St. Thomas, read before

on

Low

Sunday,
is

is

Mass

the discussion

given again (xx. 19-23), and at among the Jews about Jesus and
1

His mission

brought up

(vii. 53-viii. i).

The Gospel
after

according to St.

Matthew begins the day
;

Pente

cost, the pericopes of

which follow each other during
special pericopes are reserved

the days of the week for the Saturday and
1

Sunday

only.

Likewise,

when

Scrivener, i. p. 81, here remarks that the pericope concern ing the adulterous woman is wanting in all known manuscripts.

Evangelaries of the East
St.

69

Mark

is

the twelfth

taken for the week-days, beginning from Sunday, St. Matthew is continued on

the Saturdays and Sundays up to the seventeenth. Sometimes these readings of the Saturday and Sunday
follow each other in an inverse order.

on the fourth Sunday,
eve, St.

St.

Matthew
;

viii.

For example, 5-13, and the

Matthew
Sundays
:

viii.

14-23

from the fourth to the

the miracles of Jesus (the centurion s the two possessed in the country servant, viii. 5-15 of the Gerasenes, viii. 28-ix. I the paralytic, ix. 1-8
twelfth
; ; ;

two born blind and the dumb man possessed by a
ix.

devil,

27-35

I

fi

rst

multiplication of loaves, xiv. 14-22);

the

parables (the rich

young man,
;

xiv.

16-26

;

the

unjust husbandman, xxi. 33-42
xxii.

the marriage feast,
;

2-14

;

parable of the talents, xxv. 14-30
;

lastly,

seventeenth Sunday carries us approximately to the I4th September.
the Chananean, xv. 21-28)
this

Then

the
:

Gospel of

St.

Luke commences, under

for the new year. Scrivener (vol i. p. 86) thinks that this indication refers to 24th September, and not the ist. new set of Sundays continues
this rubric

A

without

interruption
is

up

to

Quinquagesima

;

St.

read each day, in the same order of the text, up to the beginning of the thirteenth

Luke s account

week (Saturdays and Sundays

always

excepted).
St.

From
is

the beginning of the thirteenth
of

week

Mark

resumed, part the thirteenth and

which had been read between
seventeenth weeks after Pente

cost; nevertheless St.

Luke

is

continued on Satur-

70

The Lectionary The seventeenth Sunday of with that which, among
;

days and Sundays.
this

new

series

coincides

for

Westerns, precedes Septuagesima the Greeks resume the second time the gospel of the Chananean

(St.

Matt

xv. 21-28).
to the beginning of

During Lent and up
ordinarily from St.

the passages of the Saturday and

Holy Week, Sunday are taken

Mark

;

one should, however, except
the sixth Saturday, eve of

that of the

first

Sunday, the discourse of Jesus with
i.

Nathaniel (John

44-52)

;

Palm Sunday, called the Saturday of Lazarus (John xi. 7-45) Palm Sunday, when the account of the at repast Bethany is read (John xii. 1-18). Each day
;

are two distinct passages from the Gospel, the first for Matins, the second for the Liturgy the passages recall the events of the last days of the
of
:

Holy Week there

Passion.

On Holy Thursday

the histories

of

the

Passion according to the four Evangelists are com bined and united in twelve lections, which is also

done on Good Friday.

Likewise, on Easter Day, the

account of the Resurrection and the appearances of
Jesus according to the four Evangelists in eleven lessons.
is

combined

The Menology attached to the manuscripts Cyprius and Campianus presents in turn the peculiarities of the Greek Church the beginning does not coincide
:

with the beginning of the ecclesiastical year at Easter, but with that of the civil year, towards the 1st

September

(fifteenth

Sunday

after

Pentecost)

;

the

Evangelaries of the East

7

1

solemnities are few in number, and the presence there of some is a proof that the copyist or author of this
list

was

later

One

sees there as

than the eighth century. feasts of our Lord,

those of

Christmas fixed to 25th December, with the evangelical pericopes from St. Matthew ii. 13-23 and i. 18-25

;

the Circumcision on 1st January, with the passages from St. Luke ii. 20-21 and 40-52; the Epiphany, on

6th January, the account of the Baptism of Jesus is read (St. Mark i. 9-11 and St. Matthew iii. 13-17) and the Presentation in the Temple, 2nd February,
the account given by St. Luke. The feast of the Exal tation of the Holy Cross is kept on I4th September

;

and the passage of St. John xii. 28-36 is read, where Jesus foretells that He will be glorified by the Cross, and the account of the Crucifixion as it is given

by the same Evangelist, xix. 6-35. The feasts of Holy Virgin are numerous enough the Nativity on 8th September, with the account of the visitation by
the
:

Mary to her cousin Elizabeth
followed by the

Luke 39-49 and 56), passage about Martha and Mary (St.
(St.
i.

Luke x. 38-42); the Annunciation (25th March) and the mission of the Archangel Gabriel (St. Luke i. 24-38); the Assumption (i5th August), where the
passage about Martha and
8th

Mary
a
feast

is

read again.

On
St.

November

there

is

in

honour of

Michael and the Archangels, on which occasion two Gospel passages are read which have not much to do
with
the

Angels

:

they

are

St.

Matthew

xviii.

72
10-20 and
St.

The Lectionary
Luke
i.

x.
:

16-21.

St.

John Baptist
January,
as

is

mentioned many times
precursor (St. John
finding of his

on
;

7th

the

29-34) on 24th February, the head, with two passages from the

Gospels

;

Luke

vii.

the embassy of the precursor to Jesus (St. 18-29), the praise of St. John Baptist by
;

Matthew xi. 5-14) on 24th June, his birth (St. Luke on 29th 1-25 and 57-80) his Matthew xvi. 1-13 and August, beheading (St. St. Mark vi. 14-30). The 3Oth June has a feast for
the Saviour (St.
i.
;

the twelve

Matthew

x.

Apostles, with the passage from 1-18 each Apostle has also his
;
:

St.

own
(St.

particular feast

St.

Thomas on
Mark
i.

6th

October

John xx. 19-31), St. James the brother of the Lord
on 23rd October
1

(St.

vi.

1-7),

St. Philip

on

November (St. John 44-55), St Matthew on November (St. Matthew ix. 9-13), St. Andrew on 3Oth November (St. John 35-52), St James the son of Zebedee on 3Oth April (St. Matthew x. 1-7), St.
4th
1

6th

i.

John the Theologian on 8th May (St. John xix. 25-27), St. Jude on 26th May (St. John xiv. 21-24),
St.

Bartholomew

at the

same time
vi.

as St. Barnabas
St.

on

nth June

(St.

Mark

7-13),

Jude the

brother of the Lord on
7-13), SS.
xxi.

i9th

June

(St.

Mark

vi.

Peter and Paul on 29th June (St. John 15-31 and St Matthew xvi. 13-19), lastly St.
(St.

Thaddaeus on 2Oth August
Distribution
Churches.

Matthew
in

x. 16-22).

of

the

Lections

other

Eastern
II.,

Scrivener remarks (Introduction

Ap-

Evangelarics of tke East

73

Church up
In the

pendix A) that the ordinary lessons of the Syriac to the eleventh century were the same as
Church,
;

those of the Greek Church.

Coptic
is

the distribution

of

the

passages the Sunday.

quite different

there are none save for
tells

Nevertheless, Cassian expressly

us

that in the fifth century the Egyptians read a passage
of the Epistles
tions,
iii.

and Gospels every Saturday

{Institu

2).

Each Sunday has

three Gospel lections,
;

St. generally taken from three different narrators is in read the months of January and John alone

February, and during the five weeks following Easter. Ceremonial observedfor the Reading of the Gospel. The distribution of the Gospel pericopes has taken

1

up some considerable space, and yet we are far from having exhausted the subject and so we can
;

only give a brief sketch of the usages of these churches relative to the lection itself. Renaudot, in

on the Syriac liturgies, mentions that the gospel was read in Syriac and afterwards in the vulgar Arabic that it was read by the priest and not
his notes
;

by the deacon, and that a double interpretation of it, one literal and simple, the other by way of a para As to the prayers and phrase or homily, was given.
formulas of veneration, they are, he says, the same in all the rites, and tend to inculcate in their hearers the
necessity of attending to the Divine
all

Word, and above
Here, for
ii.

of putting
1

it

into practice in their lives.

Smith, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities,

p. 959.

74
example,
is

The Lectionary
one
of

Evangelium prcedicatum per Matthceum aut apostolum, per Johannem, vitam et salutem annun:

these

formulas

Sanctum D.

N. J.

C.

tians

mundo or else Annuntiatio vivificaper Marcum Lucam Evangelistas quce annuntiat vitam et salutem mundo and it goes on In tempore igitur dispensa; :

or

;

:

tionis

Domini Dei

et

Verbi Dei quod annuntiatum fuerat

Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi^ and after the
:

gospel he says
et

:

Domino

laudts, et benedictiones propter verba ejus vivo

nostro Jesu Christo, hymni, ad nos ;
et

Patri ejus qui misit ilium ad salutem nostrum
vivo
et

Spiritui

sancto

qui vivificat nos in

scecula

sceculorum.

Amen}
;

the Nestorians exactly the same marks of the respect are shown at the reading of the gospel

Among
is

book

saluted and

lighted torches to

incensed, two acolytes carry the place for the gospel, and it is
in a

sung

in all

churches

loud voice.

But

it

ere long

became the custom

in the

East as well as the West to

allow the deacon to sing it at Solemn Masses. 2 The historian Socrates (Hist. EccL, bk. vi. c. 5) alludes to
it,

Sedens in suggestu speaking of St. Chrysostom unde antea quo facilius audiretur concionari solebat,
:

orationem in reprehensionem ejus habuit. 3 The custom of the deacon asking for a blessing
1

Renaudot, Liturgiarum
19.

orientalium

collectio^

ii.

pp.

69

and
2

3

Catalani, De Codice Evangelii, p. 35. Diet. d Archtol. chrttienne et de Liturgie,

Ambo,

i.

c.

1330.

Evangelaries of the East
before

75

singing

the gospel

is

general

and obtains
, ;

everywhere, says Catalani (de Codici Evang. p. 67) only the formula varies. Thus, in the liturgy of St.
:

and Domine benedicito Mark, the deacon says the priest answers Dominus benedicet et fortificet, et auditores nos faciat sancti sui Evangdii qui est bene;
:

dictus Dominus,

nunc

et

semper

et in scecula

sceculorum.

Amen.
says
istce
:

In the liturgy of St. Chrysostom, the deacon Benedic prceconem sancti Apostoli et Evangel-

;

the
:

priest

making

the

sign

of

the

Cross

answers
toli

Deus per
x

intercessionem sancti gloriosi

Apos
multa

det tibi evangelizanti

verbum ad virtute

evangelizandum.

The
is

procession to the place where the gospel

is

sung

more solemn among the Greeks than among the
:

Latins
priest,
it

it

is

called Introitus sancti Evangdii.
altar,

The
gives

taking the book which was on the

back to the deacon, and both go out of the sanctuary, coming in by the door on the north side to a special
place where the priest says the prayer of entry
;

this

is,

says

St.

Germain
to

of Constantinople, to signify the
;

coming

Son of God then, all the assistants show their veneration for the book kneeling of the gospels, one of them carries it round the Church during this procession the cantors sing
of the

down

:

:

Venite adoremus et procidamus Christo.

The deacon
;

goes up to the priest and gives him the book to kiss
Martini, in his De antiquis other monastic formulas.
1

monachorum,

ii.

c.

4,

2,

gives

76
then he holds
it

The Lectionary
up and shows
it,

saying

:

Sapientia,
listen to

recti (this is interpreted as

an invitation to
;

wisdom standing up) the deacon then puts the book on the altar, and five times invites the attention of the people: Attenti simus he then in censes the altar, sanctuary, and even the veil over the
the Divine
;

oblations,

and goes to the priest who is before the altar; taken the book, he bows his head and asks having for a blessing. Then he goes out of the sanctuary

where the gospel is sung, preceded by The priest remains at lighted torches and incense.
to the place

the altar and, turning to the west, says in a loud voice
Sapientia,
recti

:

audiamus sanctum Evangelium
:

;

the

deacon answers
:

Lectio sancti Evangelii
;

;

the choir
:

say Gloria tibi Domine and the priest again says Attendamus. The lection over, the deacon again
enters the sanctuary and gives the book to the priest,

who says to him Pax tibi. Among the Ethiopians, the deacon in like manner goes round the church before the gospel and cries out Surgite, audite Evan
: :

gelium sanctum
nostri et

et

bonam

annuntiationem
;

Domini

Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi the priest, having taken the book, incenses it three times, and then, after a solemn prayer, himself sings the gospel
as usual.

Among
when

the faithful

the Greeks, not only does the bishop stand do to listen to the gospel, but,

of Pelusium,

according to an author of the sixth century, Isidore he puts off the omophorion (in Latin,

Evangelaries of the West

77

pallium}, a sort of ornament of wool which he wears over his shoulders as a symbol of the Divine Shepherd

and this bearing the lost sheep on His shoulders is a off of the omophorion testimony of the taking
;

respect rendered to the chief and
in the gospel.

supreme Pastor who

is heard standing speaks in the attitude of a servant and disciple when he

The

lection

receives the instructions of his master, to

show

his

respect for the teaching

wish to carry out his

and person of the master, his orders, and to seek after the

eternal happiness which will be the reward.

For

the

West

Distribution of the Gospel throughout the Year.

At
they

Rome and

in the

churches of Southern

Italy,

such as
;

Naples, the ecclesiastical year began at Advent reckoned four or five Sundays in this season.
the
fifth

For

Sunday before Christmas, Pamelius gives the for the fourth, multiplication of bread (St. John vi. 5)
;

the Bethany (St. 1-9) third, second, and first Sundays have a passage of St. Luke on the last days (St. Luke xxi. 25-33), tne
the episode of
xxi.
;

Matt.

account of the sending by St. John Baptist to Jesus (St. Matt. xi. 2-10), the inquiry of the Jews of John
Baptist to
19-28).

know
It
is

if

he was the Christ
last

(St.

John
that

i.

a passages homily of St. Gregory the Great refers, the first, the sixth, and the seventh. Christmas Eve recalls

to these three

the appearance of the angel to St. Joseph (St. Matt.

78
ii.
;

The Lectionary
;

2-10) the same day, at cock-crow, St. Luke ii. I at the Mass of the at the sunrise, St. Luke ii. 15
;

For the feasts day, the prologue of St. John, i. 1-14. that follow Christmas, St. Stephen, St. John, the Holy Innocents, Sunday within the octave, the
Circumcision, the Epiphany, and
following up to pericopes that
for

the

Sundays

Holy Week, Pamelius

gives the gospel

we have

Sunday
xi.

after

Epiphany, when
;

to-day, except on the fifth a passage of St. Matthew

25-30 is read the second Sunday of Lent, when the episode of the Chananean is read (St. Matt. xv. Some of the homilies of St. Gregory agree 21-28).
with this distribution, the loth for the Epiphany, the
1

1

9th for Septuagesima, the i5th for Sexagesima, the 6th for the first Sunday in Lent, the i8th for Passion

Sunday. The same agreement is found between the Comes published by Pamelius and the actual distribu
tion of

the gospels in the

Roman Church
;

for

each

Holy Week and Low Week it is the same also for the Sundays and feast of the Ascension, In the octave of this feast, right up till Pentecost.
day
of

the Comes of Pamelius sets before us the discourse of

Jesus with Nicodemus (St. John iii. 1-15) which we read on the Monday of Pentecost For the Sundays
of the

which follow, it seems simpler to give the distribution Comes according to Pamelius
:

Sundays
Lazarus

after Pentecost

:

2nd, St.

Luke

xvi.

I

or

19-31, the unfaithful steward, or the rich
;

man and

3rd,

St.

Luke

xiv.

16-24, parable of the

Evangelaries of the West
supper
5th,
;

79
sheep
6th,
;

4th,

St.
vi.

Luke
36-42,

xv.
to

i-io,

the lost
;

St.
v.

Luke

be merciful

St.

Luke
lake

i-n, the miraculous draught
Gennesareth
;

of fishes
v.

on the
20-24,

of

7th,

St.

Matt.

the offering at the altar and reconciliation with thy brother 8th, St. Mark viii. 1-9, second multiplica St. Matt. vii. 15-21, false tion of loaves 9th,
; ;

prophets denounced
unfaithful

Jesus
9-14,

Luke xvi. 1-9, the Luke xix. 41-47, over Jerusalem; I2th, St. Luke xviii. weeps the Pharisee and publican I3th, St. Mark
;

loth, St.

steward;

nth,

St.

;

vn

-

3

I
~37>

cure

f

the deaf an d

dumb
; ;

;

I4th, St.

23-37, the good Samaritan xvii. 11-19, the ten lepers cleansed
x.
vi.

Luke

I5th, St.

Luke

i6th, St. Matt,
;

24-33,

we cannot

serve

two masters

I7th, St.
;

i8th, 11-16, son of the widow of Nain xiv. i-u, the cure of the dropsical man, and the choice of the first places I9th, St. Matt,

Luke vii. St. Luke

;

xxii. 34-46, the great

commandment, and Jesus son
Matt.
xix.
;

of

David

;

2Oth,

St.

1-8,

cure of the

paralytic,

and remission of

sins

2ist, St. Matt. xxii.
;

1-14, parable of the marriage feast
iv.

22nd, St. John
;

46-53, the ruler of Capharnaum s son cured 23rd, St. Matt, xviii. 23-35, tne unjust servant who refused
the debt
; ;

to forgive

24th,

St.

Matt.

xxii.

15-21,

tribute to Caesar of

25th, St Matt. ix.
;

18-22, the issue

blood, and Jairus
of

38-34, the end

daughter 26th, St. Mark xii. time the Sunday immediately
;

preceding Advent,

St.

John

vi.

5-14, multiplication

8o
of bread.

The Lectionary
Comparing
this list

our prayer-books or
see easily that the

Roman

with the gospels of missals, the reader can

change

difference consists in a slight of order, although the pericopes are the same.

The

40th, 36th,

of St.

and 34th homilies of the collection to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th correspond Gregory

Sundays.

one looks more closely into this list of pericopes of Burchard s Evangelary (D. Morin, Revue Bened., 1893, p. 113 and following), and afterwards at
Capitulare Evangeliorum Neapolitana (appendix to the Liber Comicus published by D. Morin), one easily
notices a

When

the

common source some of the peculiarities are story of the Samaritan woman (St. John iv. 5 fol.)
:

placed on the second Sunday after Epiphany, some special gospels for the Sundays of Lent, with mention
of the preparation of the
for

example

:

dominica

accipiuntur (St.

baptism quadragesimce quando psalmi Matt. xx. i) dominica 4 quando
;
3"

catechumens

for

;

orationem accipiunt (St.

Matt.

vL 9)

;

dominica
5"

quando symbolum accipiunt (St. Matt, xxi.-xxii.) de indulgentia (St. John xii. I and follow dominica

;

&

good number of pericopes are marked under the rubric quotidiana and ought to be read in the week
ing).
;

A

are assigned to certain ferias, to certain fasts, others for the commons of a martyr or confessor, others

some

In the calendar, or proper of saints, those differences are chiefly met with which have led
for the dead.

to the attribution of

one such collection to the Church

Evangclaries of the West
of Milan

81

and

of another to the

Churches of Gaul or

From the many manuscripts belonging to the Spain. Gallican Liturgy, one of the monastery of St. Martin
at

Autun, two

in the

well as the Lectionary of Luxeuil,

National Library of Paris, as it seems that an

attempt was made
of Spain

in

Gaul to approximate the texts
In the interesting notes that D.

and Ireland.

Morin adds to

his publication of the Liber Comicus, a

collection of lections for the

Church

of Toledo, let us

of

take the following in passing: On the third Sunday Advent, the episode of Bethany there are five
;

Sundays
this

for this time of preparation, during

which

occurs a feast in honour of Mary, the only one that Codex includes in Lent, lections in the week, for
;
;

Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday on the first Sunday of Lent, the story of the Samaritan
the

woman
blind
;

:

on the second, the miracle of the man born

the fourth
is

Sunday
to say,

is

noted

in the rubric, in

vicesima, that

the twentieth

day before

Easter, and

still

called de mediante diefesto, because of

the passage of St. John vii. 14, which is read on that the fifth is called de Lazaro, because the day account of his resurrection is read (St. John xi. 1-52)
; ;

Hildephonsus dies unctionis, and the passage read is from St. John xi. 55xii. These Sundays of Lent have a gospel passage 3.

Palm Sunday
1

is

called

by

St.

distinct

from that of the Mass

;

the Thursday and
this is

Friday of

Holy Week have an

account of the Passion
;

formed from the text of the four Gospels

an

6

82
echo of the
speaks
in
first

The Lectionary
discourse of which St.

Augustine

one of

his

sermons (serm.

232).

During Easter week, the passages read are about
the Resurrection
13-15,
xxiv.
:

St
;

Mark
St.

xvi. 1-7

;

St.

Luke

xxiv.

1-12
the

John

xv.

1-9, xx. 10-18,

xxi. 1-14.

ance to
19-31)
;

Sundays following: the appear the Apostles and St. Thomas (St. John xx.
the paralytic
at the pool of Probatica (St.

On

John
xiii.

v.

1-18); mutual love
;

recommended

(St.

John

33~xiv. 13)
;

Jesus the true vine (St. John xv.

Jesus announces His departure (St. John xvi. !6-33) on the Ascension is read the account of His 1-15)
;

last

appearance given by
octave,

St.

Luke
of

(xxiv. 36-53)
St.

;

Sunday within the
1

that

Mark
xvii.

(xvi.

5-20)

;

Pentecost, divers passages of the discourse

after the

Supper

in

chapters xv.,

xvi.,

and

Then

the

follow gospel passages for certain feasts, pericopes for common of saints, for certain circumstances, the

consecration of a church, the litanies.
places

Save

for

some

missing, the
is

series

of

twenty-four

Sundays

after Pentecost

quotidianos\
to the 6th
viii.

given under the rubric de dominicis passages from St. Matthew from the 1st
v.

Sunday:
7th
x.

17-26;
vii.

iv.

18-23

;

viii.

1-13;

14-26; xxiv. 3-36;
the
;

12-21;
:

from

St.
v.

Mark
21-31;

from
x.

to

the
;

loth

i.

35-44;
iv.

17-31 the 22nd

46-52

from

St.

Luke from
31,

the roth to
v.,
;

;

in this set the

Sundays,

vi., vii.,

follow each other up till the I4th Sunday on the 1 5th Sunday, the parable of the prodigal son, xv.

Evangelaries of the West

83

11-32; the i6th, the parable of the wicked rich man, xvi. ip-xvii. 4 I7th, parable of the unfaithful
;

steward,

xvi.

i-io
xviii.

;

i8th,
;

and publican,
of the

10-14
I

parable of the Pharisee iQth, standard of conduct
5

in invitations, xiv.

and 12-14
vii.

2Oth, resurrection
2 1st,
xvii.

widow s
of

son,

11-16;

??

;

22nd,

murmurings
St.

the

Pharisees,

11-19;

and

lastly, for the last

Matthew v. We do not know why, in this document, the Sundays after Epiphany are wanting. Thus, in the whole of the West, we find the gospel lections organized, and,
;

Sundays, 23rd and 24th, reappears 43-48 xvii. 13-19.

from the different documents that past ages have bequeathed to our liturgists, it seems that a line of
unity manifested
of later times.
itself

and prepared the uniformity

Ceremonial observed for the Lection, In the West, as in the East, great were the marks of respect to

wards the gospel
St.

Origen, Jerome, St. Augustine, to mention some of the Latin Fathers in passing, assure us that as great

text,

from

earliest times.

honours were paid to it as to the Holy Eucharist. There is nothing astonishing in the modification of
the practice of which St. Cyprian speaks, by which

what was primitively allowed

to

simple lectors
this

is

now

reserved to the deacon.

The
of

Apostolic Constitu
reserve
;

tions,

book

ii.

ch.
it

Ivii.

Jerome
(Epist.

speaks of
93)
;

in

speak one of his
,

St.

letters to

Sabinian

St.

Isidore the

same

(Epist.

ad Leude-

84
fredum,
P.L.
,

The Lectionary
t.

Ixxxii.

c.

895).

A

council

of

of other functions attributed

Vaison, held in 529, gives this privilege as the motive to the deacon St
"

:

presbyter, aliqua infirmitate prohibente,

per seipsum non
homilice a dia-

poterit predicate, sanctorum

Patrum

conibus recitentur,

si

enim digni sunt diacones quod

Chris tus in evangelio locutus est legere^quare indignijudicentur sanctorum Patrum expositiones publice recitare"
Primitively,
it

is

true,

the ordination of the deacon

did not include the tradition of the

Book

of the Gospels

(this did not invalidate a power elsewhere recognized and used), but, if we may so express it, the Ordinals
will very soon make good this defect. The Wisigoth Liber ordinum (a manuscript of the eleventh century published by D. Ferotin) says that the Gospel is

given to the deacon by the bishop at the ordination with this formula Ecce Evangelium Christi, accipe,
:

ex quo annunties bonam gratiam fideli populo. The documents referred to further back (from the Liber
"

Comicus published by D. Morin) mention the fact that on certain days there were two lections of the Gospel,
of

which one was for Matins and the other

for the

Mass: a manifest proof that the Gospel pericope figured
at the office as well as at the celebration of the holy

we know, moreover, from the Ordines mysteries Romani (Martini and Durand, Thesaurus nov. anecdot., v. 103) that the practice existed in the West. More
;

Matins, the Gospel pericope of the corresponding Mass was read in its entirety.

often, at the

Roman

Evangelaries of the West

85

When

St.

Benedict

monastic

office,

organized the lessons of the he took as a model the order of

a passage from the Prophets, a passage of the Apostle, a passage of the Gospel. This latter was probably abridged in the

biblical lections read at

Mass,

viz.

:

1 Breviary by St. Gregory VII. For the High Mass, the Ordo Romanus gives the following ceremonial for the singing of the Gospel

Roman

:

The deacon having
and asked
kisses

kissed the feet of the celebrant

his blessing, goes to the altar,
is

takes the

book from which he
it,

going to sing the Gospel,
it

partly on his left shoulder goes to the ambo. Two subdeacons precede him with one or two censers another subdeacon
raises
it
;

up, and holding

follows after to put in incense from time to time.

On arriving at the ambo the acolytes bearing the candles separate so as to allow the two subdeacons and the deacon with the Gospel to pass between them. The subdeacons walk in front with their censers,
ascend the
other,

ambo by one

side

and come down by the
;

when they remain

at the foot of the stairs

the

subdeacon who has not a censer turns himself towards the deacon, puts forward his left arm, on which the

deacon

rests

the

Gospel that the subdeacon

may

He after point out to him what he ought to read. wards ascends the ambo, and, placing the book on a high lectern, he sings Dominus vobiscum. All
:

1

D. Baumer, Histoire de Brtviaire, translated by D. Biron,

i.

p.

396.

86
answer
:

The Lectionary
Et cum
him
spiritu tuo.

The Gospel being

the deacon comes
is

down from

sung, the ambo, and he who
;

facing
it

receives

holding

in front of

the book of the Gospels him, he immediately takes it to

the bishop and the priest to kiss." l Some analogous rites are read of in the ceremonial of Milan.

p.

The Ordo Romanus secundus (Muratori, loc. cit., The deacon after Dominus 1010) adds some details
:

vobiscum

.

makes the
which
staff
all

etc. and says Sequentia S. of the on his Cross forehead and breast, sign the assistants also do each puts down the
. .

:

Ev.>

.

.

.

;

on which he
;

wards uncovers
all

pray standing, and after the deacon turns to the south and
rests to

down their lighted The Gospel being ended, the assistants The Ambrosian again make the sign of the Cross. rite introduces the expression Dominus Jesus to de
look at him, the acolytes put
torches.
.
. .

signate the Saviour (Mabillon, Mus. ItaL, p. 105). At Rome, the Gospel, like the other lessons, was

sometimes read

in

Latin and

Greek,

not only to

satisfy hearers talking in different dialects, but also to show the unanimity of belief among them (see Ordo

Romanus,
p. 972).

i.

No. 40, and Amalarius
the

s

note in Muratori,

After

the

lection,

early

faithful

answered

Amen
1

according to the Deuteronomic rule as to the
d*Archol. chrdtienne et de Liturgie, under word See also Ordo Romanus primus, in Muratori, 1336.
a
,

Diet.

"Ambo,"

c.

xiii.,

part 3

P- 994-

Evangelaries of the West
reading of the Ancient Law. The same practice found in the Mozarabic liturgy, and is still observed

87
is

in

the Benedictine order, at Matins, in conformity with the prescriptions of St. Benedict in ch. xi. of the Rule. It was modified in the course of time they
:

used to say

:

of the divine offices,

Deo gratias (Durand, in his Rationale makes mention of this formula
:
:

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini) we now say Laus tibi Christe (Catalani, de Codici Evangelii,
;

ch. xxv.).

The custom
of

enclosing Gospels, and the early Ordines

in

also arose, chiefly in the sixth century, precious articles the book of the

Romani

include in

structions which

already assume this practice.

We

shall see in the following chapter

what developments

have been given

it.

CHAPTER
The

III

THIRD PERIOD
Lectionaries and Evangelaries from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries

I.

GENERAL GLANCE AT THE DOCUMENTS
i.

THE LECTIONARIES
of
"plenary"

UNDER
aries,

the denomination
(preface to

Lection-

Tommasi

Book V.

p. xxi.)

means

the collection

wherein one finds set

in

order the

passages of the Old and New Testaments which should be read each day at Mass. He considers
that

some books

of

this

kind must

in

fact

have

existed, that there were also occasionally
collections
:

two separate that containing the lections of the Old Testament keeping the generic name of Lectionary
;

that of the Epistles of the Apostles, called sometimes the Missal or Epistolary, sometimes the book of the

Apostle, or more simply the Apostle the one and the other of these latter cannot be termed the complete In spite of the indications given at the Lectionary.
:

beginning of

this little

book, this word of explanation
88

General Glance at the Documents

89

has seemed necessary here to enable the reader to fully understand to what documents we wish to con
fine ourselves.
i.

It is still

the Blessed

Tommasi who
the

will

be our

principal guide in establishing the Lectionary of the

in

Mass according Book V. of

to the rite of
his

Roman Church
are
:

:

works,

p.

320, he enumerates

the manuscripts used by him.

They

(1) Mary Esquiline Homilary Major, containing the homilies for the third nocturn on the Epistles and Gospels for Sundays and feasts the canon Benedict, in his Ritual, edited later by D.
:

E

The Great

of St.

;

Mabillon, often mentions the lessons on the Epistles.
(2) (3)

G

A H A
: :

manuscript of St. Gall. Homilary with ancient Epistolary edited
in 1527.

by the Spaniard Nunez
(4)

L

:

A manuscript of
A

the Basilica of the Saviour

at the Lateran.
(5)

O:
P
S

manuscript Missal of the Oratory of the
of the Palatine Library at

Vallicella.
(6)
:

The manuscript

the Vatican classed under No. 497.

manuscript Missal of Cardinal Sirleto at the Barberine Library.
(7)
:

A

(8)

V

:

A

manuscript of the Basilica of
that

St.

Peter

at the Vatican.
(9) Still

the rubric

some others MS.

Tommasi

designates under

N.B.

"

As

to the order of the lessons arranged

by

QO

The Lectionary
these documents,

Tommasi on
"

we

have,"

says Vezzozi,

compared that of a manuscript of the Church called Birtironensis, which seems to go back to the beginning
of the tenth
century."

The Lectionary

as established

under these conditions represents, therefore, the state of the lections of the Mass, such as the Roman Church
practised

them during more than

six centuries, from

the tenth to the seventeenth.

This embraces not only

the period of the manuscripts that we are study ing, but that of the plenary missals and the early printed books. 2. Ehrensberger, who published a volume on the

manuscripts of the Vatican Library (Fribourg, 1897), furnishes us with some new documents in We shall addition to those used by Tommasi.
liturgical

only notice in a general

way

the

Lectionaries,

in

cluding the sermons and homilies of the Fathers, and embracing a period of some length, namely, from
the ninth to the fifteenth centuries
(v.

pp.

102-158)

:

they apply chiefly to the lections of the Breviary, but bear indirectly also on the passages from the

which ought to be read at Mass. But special mention must be made of the Epistolaries (i) Palatine Epistolary, No. 510, manuscript of the
Scriptures
:

It gives the Epistles Proper to the eleventh century. season of Christmas, up to the close of Epiphany,

with the lessons for the Wednesdays after that, the Proper of the Saints. After Quinquagesima Sunday,
;

it

resumes the

series of
it

Sundays and

ferias.

Begin

ning from Easter,

gives the Epistles Proper to the

General Glance at the Documents
time up to the 25th Sunday after Pentecost,

91
in

cluding the lessons for the Wednesdays and Fridays. Then follow the Sundays of Advent, to the number
of five

(Wednesdays and Fridays)

;

after that,

the

votive masses and the masses of
(2) Epistolary of

Commons.
8701,

the Vatican, No.
century.

manu

script

of

the
of

thirteenth

Lesson for the
of

Saturday
Pentecost,

the
of

Quatuor Tempora
the

Advent
after

The Proper
Fridays and

time up
lessons

to 24th
of

with the
of
all

Sunday Wednesdays
ferias.

and

the Quadragesimal

The

Proper of the Saints, beginning with St. Andrew and The Common of Saints. finishing with St. Catherine.
(3)

Urban

Epistolary, No. 542, manuscript of the

fifteenth century.

Proper of the time from Advent
after Pentecost.
St.

to the 24th

Sunday

Proper of the
to

Saints from the feast of
Saints.

Andrew up

All

Common
letters.

of Saints.

Mass

of the dedication

of

a church

and votive masses.

Illuminations and

ornamental
(4)

Benedictine

Epistolary,

Palatine,

No.

497,

manuscript of the twelfth century.

Epistles of the

Proper of the time from Christmas to the here are Friday following the octave of Pentecost from for the time the first included, Sunday after
:

Mass

;

Epiphany to Ash Wednesday, the Wednesdays and Fridays, the lessons
of Lent.

lessons

of

the

for all the

days
of

Saints.

The Proper of Saints. The Common The twenty-four Sundays after Pentecost.

92

The Lectionary

The Sundays of Advent, with the lessons for the Wednesdays and Fridays and for the Quatuor
Tempora.
five

An

inserted page bears the

date

mi,
tells

years after the foundation of the
in the diocese of

monastery of
us

Luxheim
that

Metz
been

;

another leaf

the

collection

has

restored,

afterwards

embellished by the Prior of Luxheim in 1500, at an expenditure of about eighty florins. Some ad
ditions have been

made

in the

margins of the leaves,

and coloured designs (the Annuncia Christmas, descent of Christ into Limbo, the women at the Sepulchre, the Ascension, Jesus on
illuminations
tion,

to Zachary,

His throne, the apparition of the Archangel Gabriel and the nativity of St. John Baptist).

(5) Lectionary of the Mass, Palatine, No. 502, Proper of the manuscript of the fourteenth century. time Epistles and Gospels for all the Sundays, for the
:

Wednesdays and Fridays
of

days Lent (the graduals and other parts which are sung
Votive
masses.

of

Advent,

for all the

are noted).

Proper
the

of
;

Saints.

Common

of Saints.

Beautiful binding

type of the

intermediary

book

between

Lectionary

and

complete Missal.

There follows
missals, of

in Ehrensberger a list of complete which the oldest is of the eleventh century.

2.

THE EVANGELARIES
distinction

i.

We

must here draw a

between the
fact, in

Evangelaries and the Plenariums.

As a

the

General Glance at the Documents
ninth century, a

93
which

new

liturgical

collection,

in

the Gospel

appearance
to
its

;

its found a place, had already this is the Plenarium, the origin of the

made

,

complete missals
existence
is

which we now
found
in

use.

A

witness

Leo IV. (847):
cura Pastorali,
(Disquisitio,
II.
i.

"Let

each

church,"

an instruction of Pope he says "have
"

a plenarium, a lectionary,

and an antiphonary
viii.
1

(de

Labbe, Condi.,
29, p.

36).

Gerbert

the Plenarium was
for

108) thinks that primitively a Sacramentary giving the masses

each day and not for the Sunday only.

Indeed,

before this time, in the churches of Gaul the lessons
(Epistles and

Gospels), without the anthems, were D. Mabillon sometimes put in the Sacramentary in the Sacramentarium Gallicanum gives us an example
:

which he published (Musceum Italicum, following, and Liturgia Gallican., bk.

p.
i.

272 and
ch. 46).

Amongst
or

the works of

Alcuin there

is

extant
in

a

manual or Liber Sacramentorum composed
even
earlier,

785

at

the

time

that

Charlemagne

endeavoured to get the Gregorian Missal adopted. Alcuin himself points out the object of this collection
in a letter to the

monks

of St.

Waast

;

he

calls

it

a

missal for week-days.

There one

finds the collect,

the secret, the post-communion, often the preface, and sometimes the epistle and gospel Alcuin had modelled
;

it,

it

seems, on a Sacramentary of his abbey of St.
ii.

1

See Smith, Diet, of Christian Antiquities,
t.

c.

1206; and

Tommasi,

v.

of his works, preface, p. 12.

94
Martin of Tours. 1

The Lectionary
There is even a weighty opinion Alcuin to be the author of the
:

which considers

in this case the Gregorian revision for the Gauls churches would have received their Carlovingian

Missal from him, a work

simplified later
2

on to the

detriment of historical exactitude.

Thus, during the following centuries, the Missal should be considered parallel with the Evangelary, as
the collection containing the Gospel passages of the insensibly, it became the more diffused of liturgy
;

the two, until

the day

when

it

almost completely

supplanted
2.

its rival.

As

to the Evangelaries of all this period, rely

we must

principally

on the authority and competence
This seventeenth-century by Pius VII., has

of the Blessed

Tommasi.
to

author, a Theatine cardinal, beatified

mightily contributed

knowledge by
the
Instit.

his publications

the progress of liturgical and his annotations on

monuments

of the
torn.
ii.

Liturg., the mention of his

Western liturgy (Gue"ranger, p. 103); we have kept back
until the

work

moment when, on
back

the evidence he affords,

we can

refer the reader

to actually existing manuscripts, that he has himself,
at least in part, utilized for his
3.

work
the

of synthesis.

Under the heading
ci. c.

of

Capitulary of the

See P.L., t. which precedes,
2

1

445 and following, and the advertisement

c.

439-445.

See, in the Diet, d? Archtologie chrttienne et de Liturgie, the article on Alcuin, t. i. c. 1078.

General Glance at the Documents
Gospels,

95

Tommasi

(torn. v. of his

works,

p.

429) in

dicates the

documents from which he established the
:

distribution of the Gospel pericopes the enumeration alone speaks of the solidity of his work A. Codex Vaticanus, No. 43 and B. C. Palatinus,
:

;

No.

50,

in Biblioth. Vatic.

:

Vezzozi, the publisher

and annotator of Tommasi
to the time of

s

the Stations of
C.

Charlemagne or Pe"pin Rome, says Tommasi.

works, says they belong they contain
;

Codex

of St.

Genevieve of Paris, published by

in 1652 (Stat Rom.). D. Lectionary of the Church of Chartres, the connection of which with the edition of Fronton and

Fronton

various
(Stat.

others

has been brought out by Mabillon
of the

Rom.).

Four Gospels, No. 10, of the Library of the Queen of Sweden, also containing the Stations of Rome.
E.
F. The Great Codex of the Vatican, No. 5729, which appears to be of the twelfth century it includes the
;

The Codex

Psalter according to the

G

and H.

Two

edition of St. Jerome. manuscripts of the Gospels belong

Hebrew

ing to the

as Nos. 57
I.

Oratory Library at the Vallicella, designated and 50, of the eleventh and tenth centuries.

An

ancient Missal of the

same Oratory, com
and Gregorian Sacrathe

posed according to the Gelasian
mentaries,

marked B viii. K. Another Evangelary

of

same Oratory,

No.

E

1

6, of the eleventh century.

96
L.

The Lectionary
Another
Codex
Vaticanus,

No.

44,

of

the

eleventh or twelfth century. and N. Duo Codices Regince Suecice, Nos.

M

1 1

and

1454

;

the second

may

be

about

ninth

or tenth

century.

O

and

P.

Two

other manuscripts of the

Queen

of

Sweden, numbered vi. and ii. Q. Codex Palatinus in Vaticano, No. 44: besides the Gospels, it sometimes even gives the Epistles.
R. Mutinensis cathedralis
ecclesice

Codex

:

gives the

Gospel lessons for the masses.
S. Evangelary of the twelfth century for the Vatican Basilica, under the number 6, in the archives

of the

same
this

basilica.
list

To

Vezzozi has thought

fit

to

add two

other manuscripts of the Barberine Library, one of which, No. 10, Barberinus primus, is tenth century, and

and

contains the Gospels in the following order Sundays after the feasts some saints. feasts of the year
:

;

No. 1862, Barberinus secundus, is of the ninth century, and gives a few of the feasts in their
other,

The

place during the year. 4. Let us here notice the Evangelaries or Missals known by more recent works
:

Gudranger, 278 and the following, notices Eighth a Greek from magnificent Evangelary Naples century, an Evangelary in the Imperial Library of Vienna
torn.
iii.

(A)

Dom
p.

in his Institutions liturgiques,
:

;

said to

have been Charlemagne

s,

compiled by the

General Glance at the Documents

97

monk

Godiscalc and preserved in the Library of the Louvre an Evangelary of the greatest magnificence
;

executed by the nuns of the abbey of Eike, in another Lectionary written in the abbey Belgium of St. Wandrille by an indefatigable copyist named
;

a rich Evangelary Michael to sent by the Emperor Pope Benedict III., the beautiful and written by the monk Lazarus
;

Harduin

for the ninth century,

;

Greek Evangelary kept
Mihiel, diocese of

in
;

the

monastery of

St.

Verdun

an Evangelary written by

Alcuin and given by Charlemagne to the abbey of Aniano another written by the monks Lieuthard
;

and B6renger, given by Charles the Bald to St. Emmeran of Ratisbon, and placed in the Royal
Library of Munich
Peter,
;

the Evangelary of the

Abbot

the abbey of

which Ebbo, archbishop of Rheims, gave to Hautvillers, and which is now in the
of

Library

Epernay
of

;

an

Evangelary written by
etc.
;

Hartmon, abbot
century,
of

St.

Gall,

for

the tenth

the

Augsburg,
in

Evangelary wrote with
the

that
his

St.

Udalric,

bishop
is

own hand, and
;

preserved

an Royal Library of Munich executed a monk of St. Evangelary by Sintram, Gall, and to which the abbey chronicles make the
following
allusion
:

Hoc
par

hodie

est
;

Evangelium

et

scriptura

cui nulla

erit

ultra
;

monk Witikind
century,

of Corbie-la-Neuve

another by the for the eleventh

the Evangelary of

Nieder-Altaah, in the

Library of

Munich

;

that of the Laurentian Library 7

98

The Lectionary
by a bishop
of Amalfi;

at Florence, given to Julius II.

that of the Vatican, offered to St. Benedict of

Mantua
Denis

by the Countess Matilda
in

;

two Plenariums

of St.

France and of

St.
;

Maur

des Fosses at the Biblio-

theque Nationale

bishop of Canterbury, to the

by Robert, arch and abbey in of the Library Rouen three Evangelaries and kept two Lectionaries for the Epistles and Gospels written by Othlon, monk of St. Emmeran of Ratisbon some
the Missal given
of Jumieges,
; ;

others written
for

by an indefatigable nun of Weissbrunn the twelfth and following centuries one can only
;

mention the more remarkable manuscripts, such as
the beautiful Evangelary of the monk Lieutold, in the Imperial Library of Vienna a Plenarium sumptuously
;

executed by the abbess of Quedlimbourg, Agnes of Misnia there is as well a book of the Epistles and
;

Gospels per anni circulum executed by Conrad, a monk of Scheyrn an Evangelary for the great feasts
;

in

which

this

calligrapher
all

had,

in

richness

and
the

elegance, surpassed

his other works.

From

fourteenth
rich

century,

D. Gueranger only quotes the

Evangelary written

by John
in the

of

Oppau, a monk

of Bruner,

Imperial Library of Vienna, because in this case the name of the calli

and preserved

grapher has come down to us. That is to say that this enumeration many documents are passed over
silence either because they are less noteworthy in

in

in

exe

cution or because the copyists have remained unknown. (B) M. Leopold Delisle has not devoted himself to

General Glance at the Documents
;

99

the Evangelaries but in the collection that he has of ancient Sacramentaries (Me moires de r Academic, torn.
xxxii. pt. i) he brings forward a certain

number

of

documents which include, with the prayers and pre faces, the epistles and gospels of the Mass.
There
in
is

first

a

series of

the

Ambrosian
:

manuscripts which are Library under the following

designations

A

24

bls
:

Sacramentary of the Church of Milan,

transcribed in the tenth century.

A 24 Another Sacramentary comes ex ecclesia Lodrini in Lepontiis. The writing is eleventh cen
:

tury, in the Carlovingian style.

T
for

Sacramentary of the Church of Milan, the masses of the summer part, transcribed in
120:
of

eleventh century. Three other Sacramentaries

the

Church

of

Milan date from the eleventh century, and are to be found, the two first (in whole or in part) in the
treasures of the cathedral, the third in
sion of the

the

posses

Marquis

Trotti.

(Delisle,

work quoted,
the
different

pp. 199-206.)

After that the Sacramentaries

of

churches

:

in

Sacramentary of the Church of Albi, the Public Library of that town, numbered 4. It may be assigned to the beginning of the eleventh

Page 227

:

century, and contains, in

fol.

1

13-123, the epistles and

gospels of the masses of a

Common.

ioo
Page 272
:

The Lectionary
Sacramentary or Missal of the Abbey of

The Bobbio, kept in the Ambrosian Library, D 84. execution of it may be placed at the eleventh century the capital letters recall the Carlovingian style of
;

ornamentation.

Page 296
of

:

Sacramentary or Missal of the Church

Troyes

;

Nationale.

Latin manuscript 818 of the Bibliotheque It affords an excellent example of the
liber

transformation of the Carlovingian
it

is

entitled

:

Incipit

Sacramentary Sacramentorum a S.

;

Gregorio papa Romano editus, qualiter missa Romana celebratur^ but it contains all that constituted the
missals properly so called, like those of which

we have
;

examples century with the prayers and the preface we find the epistle and gospel, the introit, etc. The date may be

innumerable

from

the twelfth

assigned to the middle of the eleventh century. (C) In the work by Ehrensberger, Libri liturgici
Bibliothecce Vaticance

we gather
No.

the following indica
:

tions concerning the Evangelaries
I.

Vaticani,

Reginae,

15

;

MSS.
is

saec.

xi.

:

Evangelarium.
follows
:

The

liturgical

year

distributed as

the proper of the time from Christmas then the proper of Eve to Sexagesima Sunday after that the proper of saints up to the Annunciation
first
;
;

the time

(

.

ad

XXV.
;

usque ad Pascha annotina usque domin. post Pentecostum VI. ante natale
. .

.

.

.

Domini)
of St.

lastly,

Thomas

the proper of saints up to the feast the Apostle.

General Glance at the Documents
2.

101
Litteris

Vatican!,

No.

5100; MSS.

saec.

xi.

:

evangeliarum dominicarum de adventus,festorum tempore et sanctorum per annum .... Communis sanctorum.
Beneventanis
Lectiones
3. It.

No. 8892

;

MSS.

saec.

xi.

:

in the

same order

as the preceding.

At
in

Pretty nearly the end one
natale singu-

finds

:

Recapitulatio Evangeliorum

lorum sanctorum.
I MSS. saec. xii. Gives the gospel Borghes, lessons for the proper of the time all the Sundays of the year up to the twenty-fifth after Pentecost

4.

A

;

:

;

;

from the

fifth

to the

first
;

the Quadragesimal ferias
lastly, for the

before Christmas, for all for the proper of saints
;

common

of saints with

numbers

referring

to the proper.
5.

ventanis
after

Ottobon, No. 296 MSS. saec. xii.; litteris Bene Begins with the first Sunday of Advent
;
:

;

of

mixes the proper of saints with proper the season, divides the year into two or three
that,

periods.

recent

MSS. saec. xii. A more Ottobon, No. 578 hand has written the days after the Epiphany. This manuscript contains the proper of the season for
6.
;
:

the whole year, the Sundays of Advent being placed In folio 93, a later hand, probably of the at the end.
fifteenth century, has written in the

margin
venit

:

Nicolaus

de Blenodio clericus Tullensis

diceces.

domini Thome, die veneris post

ad domum Pentecostem. Then
the feast of the

comes the proper

of saints

up

to

IO2

The Lectionary
;

Apostle St. Thomas lastly, the common of saints with numbers referring to the proper.
7.

Vaticani,

No. 7815,
:

gelianum monasticum
day
after the

EvanMSS, saec. xiii. Commences with fourth Sun
;

Epiphany

(thirteen pages missing)

;

the

proper of the season goes up to the twenty-fifth Sun day after the octave of Pentecost (evangelica etfestorum
orationes)
;

the

same

for the proper of Saints,

which

extends up to St. Martin. Numerous additions have been made at a later date among others, the feasts
of
St. St.

Dionysius and his companions, the feast of
in the

Hugh

(D) Indications

month of November. drawn from different sources
Sotteranea,
p.

:

De

Rossi, in

Roma

127, speaks

of

an Evangelary of Aix-la-Chapelle which was found in Charlemagne s tomb (it was written about the seventh
or early part of the eighth century). Of the ninth century, the admirable Evangelary of

Ada
Of

of Treves.

the tenth century, the Evangelary of Erkanbold, bishop of Strasbourg, on which Dom de Dartein

published an interesting study. In England, St. ^Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, in the tenth century, gave the monks of Abingdon a

copy

of the Gospels, enriched with gold

and precious

stones and enclosed in a casing of silver.

An

invent

ory of this
order of

same Church
s

of Winchester,

executed by

Henry VIII.
"A

commissioners, contains the
of the four Evangelists

following entry:

book

General Glance at the Documents
written
all

103

with gold

"

(John Gage,
St. ^Ethelwold,"

Dissertation

on the Benedictional of
vol.

Arch&ologia,

xxiv. p. 43).
of these lines cannot pass over the
of

The author

manu

Autun, among which Seminary some Evangelaries of different epochs were found. Two Evangelaries of the Great Seminary of Autun,
scripts of the Great

although of an older date, are here mentioned because of their ornamentation. These are the manuscript

No.
it is

3,

in small folio

on vellum, of the eighth century
containing some mar
;

:

written in uncial letters,

ginal notes in Merovingian characters

the

first

page

has some extremely clumsy miniatures which repre sent our Lord between two angels called cyrabin

;

around

it

are four medallions depicting the attributes

of the Evangelists.
it

What

gives

it

most value

is

that

is

dated from the third year of Pepin (754), and

has the

name

of

the copyist,

Gundolsinus.

Each

Gospel is preceded by a Capitularium and by a Breviarium by chapters. The manuscript No. 4, in small folio on vellum, has for a title Quatuor
:

Evangelia cum

prcefationibus
;

;

it

seems to be older

the prefaces and canons are in Merovingian writing. The canons are separated and set in between some kind of columns, and sur

than the preceding one

mounted by arcades. The collection contains some smaller and less clumsy figures than those in No. 3. 1
General Catalogue of the Libraries of France, t. scripts of the Grand Seminary of Autun," pp. 10-11.
1
"

i.,

Manu

104
No.
title
:

The Lectionary
5.

Evangelary of the ninth century, under

this

Evangelia quatuor cum prcefationibus
6.

et indice. et

No.

MSS.

of

the tenth century

:

Evangelia

Epistola per annum.

No. 130. MSS. of the twelfth or thirteenth century
Evangelia per annum. Here we must close
necessarily incomplete,
field
still

:

this
it

already lengthy list gives an idea of the vast

:

unexplored

in

which the students of the

future

may

exercise their activity in a

work

of

com

parison on the Gospel pericopes.

II.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE LESSONS
i.

THE LECTIONARIES
1

Roman Rite The collection of Tommasi (torn. v. pp. 32 and fol.), resulting from the comparison made by him of the
documents which he had
540 lections
(a)
:

they
:

may

at hand, includes more than be divided as follows
:

No. 1-233
year.

Lections for the Sundays and ferias of the
:

(b)
(c)

(d)

No. 234-299 Lections No. 300-490 Lections No. 491-540: Lections
:

for the

Common

of Saints.

for the feasts of the year.
for certain circumstances, as

for a dedication, ordinations, daily masses, etc.

Nearly all the lections are given in their entirety, because some omit a certain number of verses of the
Bible, others are

composed

of different passages of

Scripture.

Distribution of the Lessons

105

The Liturgical Year :
It

x

Sundays and Ferias

begins with Christmas Eve. For this vigil, as for the three masses of the following day, the second
lection
is

that of our

Roman

Missal, but there
:

is

a

first

taken from the prophet Isaias
Ixii.,

passages from

ch.

where the prophet
;

foretells the

coming glory
;

of
,

Jerusalem the Messias shown as a consoler

ch. ix.,

prophecy of

Emmanuel
;

ch. Ixi.

ch. Hi., as

the re

deemer

of

His people.
feasts

For the

of

St.

Stephen,

St.

John,

Holy

Innocents, St. Sylvester, the Circumcision, the lection is the same as in our Missal.

Let us at once notice
for St. John, the first

this peculiarity of
its

two masses

having for

lection the begin

ning of the Epistle to the Ephesians.
cision

The Circum

and the

vigil of the

Epiphany have also two
lection of Isaias as has

epistles.

The Epiphany has
the

the

same

Roman

Missal.

The Codex

Vaticanus contains a

passage of St. Paul or Isaias for each day the octave of the Epiphany. The octave of during the Epiphany has also a lection where the Church
special

has combined different

passages of Isaias, notably

from

ch. xii.,

deliverance.
1

where the ransomed souls sing their For the Sundays after the Epiphany, the
:

of lections

here the first category mentioned by Tommasi it is, moreover, the most characteristic. For the notes on the calendar, we must see what is said in the next section of this article The Evangelaries
("
").

We

shall content ourselves with giving

io6
lection
1

The Lectionary
is

as in the

Roman

Missal, taken from the

2th

third,

and i3th chapters of Romans (first, second, and fourth Sundays), from the 3rd chapter and
is

of Colossians (fifth Sunday),

this

same passage

of

the Epistle to the Colossians

repeated for the sixth

Sunday.
of the

During the weeks

of this season, the lections

Wednesday and Friday

are taken, the one from

the second Epistle of St. Peter (invitation to read the inspired Word), the others from the Epistles of St.

Paul (Romans, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy,

Hebrews,
Epistle of

I

Corinthians)
St.

;

only one from
to

the

first

John (recommendation

practise

fraternal charity).

Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima present our actual lections of St. Paul to the Corin
thians (exhortation
to

penance,

I

Cor. ix.

and

x.

;

sufferings of the Apostle, 2 Cor. xi.

and

xii.

;

beautiful

eulogy of charity,
for the

I

Cor.

xiii.)

;

in the

week, a lection

Wednesday from
Friday
(i
;

two

for the

the Epistle to the Hebrews, St. John and Epistle to the the

Ephesians
lonians).

Epistles to

Hebrews and Thessa

LENT
Lent commences with Ash Wednesday, and its lection is from the prophet Joel (ch. ii., invitation
to penance) there will be henceforth a lection for It is Isaias who each feria during this holy season.
:

commences during the

three days preceding the

first

Distribution of the Lessons

107

Sunday

:

ch. xxxviii., illness

of king Ezechias
;

and

the warnings
;

of

the

prophet

ch.

Iviii.,
;

paid to God there is a false and a true one us to make a good choice.
ist

it

worship behoves

Sunday: 2 Cor. good use.
:

vi.

To

put the acceptable time to

Monday
Tuesday

Ezechiel xxxiv.
flock.

God

promises to take care of

His
:

Isaias

Iv.

God

ready to forgive provided we

repent.

Wednesday two month
:
:

lessons.

Quatuor Tempora of the

first

Exodus
3

xxiv.
xix.

Kings

Moses speaks with God on the mount. Elias on Mount Horeb invited to take

his forces.

Thursday
Friday
:

:

Ezechiel

xviii.

Exhortation to penance.
personal
;

Ezechiel
will

xviii.

The penance must be
for himself.
:

each

answer

Saturday has twelve lessons 1 Deut. xxvi. Prayer for the offering of tithes and
.

first-

fruits.
2.

Deut.
2

xi.

Exhortation

to

obedience:

promises for

fidelity.
3.

4.

Prayer of Nehemiah at the time of the the temple. of purification Wisdom (or rather Eccles.) 1 xxxvi. Prayer for the

Maccab.

i.

deliverance of Israel after the return from captivity.
1

Note

that,

either to designate the one of those which are

in the liturgy, the expression Wisdom is used book so called in the Bible, or to indicate

known
;

Ecclesiasticus

is
is,

one of these

the book of as Sapiential Books there it speaks of the teachings of
:

Wisdom

(that

either of the uncreated

wisdom, or

God

Himself,

io8
5.

The Lectionary
Daniel

This

6.

i

young men in the furnace. Tommasi, is found in the other Quatuor Tempora, and it is followed by the canticle of the three young men. Thess. v. Our duties towards our neighbours and God.
iii.

The

three

lection, says

2nd Sunday

:

i

Thess.
ix.

iv.

Rules

for

our sanctification.
sins.

Monday
Tuesday

:

Daniel
3

Prayer and confession of

:

Kings
:

xvii.

The prophet

Elias at the house of

the

widow of
Esther

Sarepta.
xiii.

Wednesday
:

Thursday Jeremias man.
Friday
:

xvii.

Prayer of Mardochus. Confidence in the condemned

Genesis xxxvii.
:

Saturday

Genesis

xxvii.

Joseph sold by his brethren. Jacob supplants Esau in the

blessing.

3rd Sunday

:

Ephes.

v.

What

Christian sanctity ought

to be.

N.B.
the

Tommasi

here mentions,/^ Scrutinio^ that

Codex Birtironensis gives no more. He deals with the test to which the catechumens were sub

jected for admission to baptism.

For

this

circum

stance there were three lections
Ezech. xxxvi.

:

The prosperity of the new kingdom under the symbol of the purification. Invitation to a sincere conversion. Isaias i.
xlviii.

Genesis

Jacob adopts the two sons of Joseph.
v.
iv.

Monday
Tuesday

:

:

4 Kings 4 Kings

Naaman

is

cured of his leprosy.

Eliseus multiplies the

widow

s oil.

or else the
creatures,

wisdom and more

that

God communicates

to

His reasonable

especially to the authors inspired by Him).

Distribution of the Lessons
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
: : :

109

Exod.

xx.
vii.

Jeremias
xx.

Promulgation of the Law. Vain trust of the people
waters of
strife

in the

temple and the

sacrifices.

Numbers
:

The

on the entry

to

the promised land.

Saturday Daniel xiii. History of Susannah. 4th Sunday Galat. iv. The two sons of Abraham, symbol of the two testaments.
:

Monday
Tuesday

:

3 Kings

iii.

Judgement

of Solomon.
Israel, the

:

Exod.

xxxii.

Apostasy of

golden calf

:

pardons. Wednesday: ist, Ezech. xxxvi.
for the

God

God

will

save His people
i.

honour of His name.
iv.

2nd, Isaias
raises

Invita

tion to a sincere conversion.

Thursday: 4 Kings
son to
Friday
:

Eliseus

the Shunamite

s

life.

3

Kings
s

xvii.

Elias

raises to life the

widow of
expia

Sarepta

son.

Saturday

:

Isaias xlix.

The work
ix.

of

God s

servant

;

tion for sin.

Passion Sunday

:

Heb.

The

Christ mediator of the

New
Monday
Tuesday
: :

Testament.

Jonas iii. God pardons the penitent Ninevites. Daniel xiv. Daniel in the lions den.
:

Wednesday
Thursday
:

Levit. xix.
iii.

Different laws of morality.

Daniel

Prayer of Azarias.

Friday: Jeremias

xvii.

The prophet

puts

his

trust

in

God.
Saturday
1
:

1 quando datur eleemosyna.

Four lessons:

See next section on Evangelaries for the explanation of this The Codex Birtironensis does not mention it, and only gives one lection, in which it is like the Roman Missal. The second lection is a preparation for Palm Sunday the others
formula.
:

prepare us for the events of Holy Week,

no
1. 2.

The Lectionary
Jeremias xviii. Conspiracy against the prophet. The humble and peaceful king Zachar. ix.
peaceful reign.
his

:

3.

Wisdom

ii.

Language of the impious against the

4.

Just One. 2 Thess. ii.
:

One must
Exod.

hold

fast to

the faith.

Palm Sunday

For the Blessing
:

:

xv.

and

xvi.

Murmurs

against

Moses in the desert. For the Mass Philip, ii.
of His glory.

Humiliations of Jesus, cause

Tommasi

thinks there was not a lection for the
till

Blessing of the Palms

the twelfth century

;

and

that even later this did not take place at the station of the Pontiff, as the rituals edited by Mabillon

show

it.

Monday

in

faithful

The servant of God is Holy Week Isaias in the accomplishment of his mission of
:

1.

sufferings.

Some manuscripts
lection
his sheep, sold, broken.

have,
xi.

for

this

day,

another

from Zacharias

The

pastor injured by

Tuesday

in

Holy Week
xi.

:

Two

lessons

:

Jeremias

The prophet

persecuted by his

fellow-

citizens.

Wisdom

ii.

See further back, Saturday in Passion Week

(3).

Wednesday
Isaias
liii.

in

Holy Week

:

Two

lessons

:

Ixii.

That salvation will come to Jerusalem. Sufferings and death of the Messias foretold.
:

Holy Thursday

2

Cor.

xi.

The

Last Supper, as in the

Roman

Missal.

Distribution of the Lessons

1 1 T

Good

Friday
vi.

:

Two

lessons

:

Osea
Exod.

Hypocrisy of Israel

;

God announces He

will

withdraw from them.
xii.

Institution of the Pasch.
: :

Holy Saturday Twelve lessons without title Account of creation. 1. Gen. i. and ii. 2. Gen. v., vi., vii., viii. Account of the
3.

flood.

4.

Gen. xxii. Sacrifice of Isaac. Exod. xiv. and xv. Passage of the Red Sea
of the deliverance.
Isaias
liv.,

;

song

5.

Iv.

Glory of the new Sion

;

invitation to

salvation.
6.

Baruch

To seek the true wisdom and communicates. possesses
iii.

that

God

alone

7.

Ezech. xxxvii.
Isaias
iv.
xii.
iii.

Vision of the resurrection of dry bones.

8.

The remnant of Juda sanctified andglorified.
Institution of the Pasch. Preaching to Nineveh and the repentance

9.

Exod.
Jonas

10.

of the Ninevites.
11.

Deut. xxxi.

Joshua succeeds Moses

in the

govern
to adore

ment
12.

;

canticle of Moses.
iii.

Daniel

The
Colos.

the statue set

three young men refuse up by Nebuchodonosar.
iii.

At the Mass

:

How

to gain resurrection with

Jesus Christ.

says Tommasi, day the Gregorian Sacramentary has only four, namely, the first, fourth, eighth, and fifth of those which have been enumerated.
indicates twelve lessons for this
;

N.B.

The Gelasian Sacramentary,

order given here appears to be that which was from the earliest times adopted for the preparation of
the catechumens for baptism
:

The

the principal facts of

1 1

2

The Lectionary

sacred history, the more remarkable passages from the Prophets. St. Augustine makes allusion to this catechetical procedure in his treatise de catechizandis
rudibus, ch.
vii.

and

viii.

EASTER AND PASCAL TIME
Easter
the

Day i Cor. v. new leaven.
: :

Spiritual

renewal symbolized by

Monday
Tuesday

Acts
Acts
:

x.
xiii.

:

Preaching of St. Peter. St. Paul in the synagogue at Antioch.
St.

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
:
:

Acts

iii.

Peter at Jerusalem

;

the day of

Pentecost.

Acts

viii.
iii.

Baptism of the eunuch by

Philip.

i

St. Pet.

To
ii.

suffer patiently after the

example

of Jesus Christ.

Saturday

:

i

St. Pet.

Christian sanctity by union with

Jesus Christ.

Low Sunday
In

i St. John v. Faith in Jesus Christ, the true Son of God. Pascha Annotina (see footnote on p. 138). Two lections, of which one is from the Apocalypse and the other is the same epistle as for Easter.
:

2nd Sunday

after

Easter

:

i

St.

Pet.

ii.

The

suffering

Christ, our model.

3rd Sunday after Easter i St. Pet. ii. tion and submission to authority.
:

Interior sanctifica-

St. Jas. i. 4th Sunday after Easter God, the Author of all good, wishes our sanctification.
:

5th

Sunday

after

Easter

:

St. Jas.

i.

Strict obligation of

the Precepts.

Following each Sunday
the Wednesday and Friday

there

is

a

lection

for

of each week, also

one

Distribution of the Lessons
for

113

Saturday

the reform of

they contain teachings on conduct, life, drawn from the Epistles of St. Paul.
:

Roman

For the Rogation Days, besides the lection of the Missal, in which St. James exhorts us to

prayer after the example of Elias, a special lection for each
:

Tommasi

gives

ist:

i

St.

Pet.

v.

Common
Union

duties; humility, vigilance,

trust in

God.
in prayer

2nd
3rd

:

i

St.

Pet. v.

and the
king

practice of
to

charity.
:

Jer.

xxii.

Exhortation to

the

of

Juda

practise good.

Further, for the vigil of the Ascension, three other
lections
:

Acts of the Apostles iv. Union of the first faithful. Ephesians iv. Motives to preserve unity in the Church. Acts of the Apostles ii. Admirable life of the early
Christians.

Ascension

Day The beginning of the account of the Acts of the Apostles ; last moments of Jesus Christ on earth, and His last instructions to the Apostles.
:

Apropos

of the

two following days, a note by
a

Tommasi

acquaints us with

double practice at
of the

Rome
Curia.

:

that of the Lateran

and that
as

Roman
and

This carries us back to the twelfth
centuries,

thirteenth
office,

when,

regards the divine

sprang up between the basilicas and the clergy of the Roman Court (see work by same author on The Roman Breviary, translation
a division
8

1

1

4

The Lectionary

In the margin of certain published by C.T.S., 1909). Lectionaries one reads Vacat, quia non legitur
:

secundum Curiam
i St. Pet. iv. Sunday within the octave of Ascension Stirring up the practice of virtues. Lections for the Wednesday and Friday Epistles to the Hebrews, Ephesians, and i Corinthians.
: :

Vigil of Pentecost

Six lessons taken from Holy Saturday, but the different manuscripts do not quite agree as to the choice and order.
:

The Codex
sembles our
of

Lateranensis,

which most nearly

re

Roman
:

Missal, gives

among

the lections

Holy Saturday ist The third. Sacrifice of Abraham. 2nd The fourth. Passage of the Red Sea. Remnant of Juda sanctified. 3rd The eighth. 4th The eleventh. Joshua succeeds Moses. To seek the true wisdom. 5th The sixth.
:

:

:

:

:

6th

:

The

seventh.

Vision of the dry bones.
its

Another manuscript takes
passage of

third

from another

Habacuc fifth, and
of

;

Holy Scripture: Habac. Hi., prayer of appeal to the mercy of God. The fourth,
;
:

Holy
of

sixth are the eighth, sixth, and eleventh the Epistle of the Mass Saturday

Acts

the

Apostles

xix.,

St.

Paul

comes

to

Account of the mystery according to the Acts of the Apostles, ch. ii. This same book furnishes the lections for each day
:

Ephesus. Pentecost

of the week.

Distribution of the

L essons

1 1

5

We have

more

for the
ist

Quatuor Tempora:
:

The Wednesday

lection

Wisdom
:

i.

Pure morality
Effusion
of

leads to wisdom.

2nd

lection

Isaias

xliv.
;

the Spirit of heathen.

God
ii.

conversion of the

The Saturday

ist

lection

:

Joel

God
on

promises to

pour out His

Spirit

all flesh.

2nd

lection

:

Lev.

xxiii.

Sanctification of

feasts.

3rd lection

:

Deut. xxvi.

Renewal of the

compact.
Lev. xxvi. 4th lection Blessings on those who keep the law. Dan. hi. The three young 5th lection
: :

men

in the fiery furnace.

Epistle to the

Romans

v.

The

love of

God which
N.B.

justifies.

in the

Certain churches put the Quatuor Tempora second week of June, and were content, for the Saturday of which we speak, with the reading of a
:

passage from the 1 3th chapter of the Acts results of Paul and Barnabas preaching at Antioch of Pisidia.

AFTER PENTECOST
(A) Tommasi here gives a
first series
:

of

Sundays

divided in the following manner five after Pentecost, five after the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, six after St.

Quatuor Tempora
the feast of the

Laurence, one vacant Sunday (that which follows the of the seventh month), eight after

Holy Angel

(St. Michael).

For these

1

1

6

The Lectionary
Sundays he indicates
St.

twenty-five

as lections

some
a

passages from the Epistles of
Corinthians,
Galatians,

Paul (Romans,
Colossians),
first

Ephesians,

passage from the Apocalypse, another from the
Epistle of
St.

Peter

;

nevertheless,

four

Sundays

remain without any indication of a lection, doubtless because he did not find it in the manuscripts.
(B) Afterwards, he resumes the series, according to the manuscripts of the Basilica of the Lateran and of
St.

Peter at the Vatican
the number

:

the Sundays are ranged
lections

there to

of twenty-five, according to our

way

of proceeding,

and have the

which are

to be found in our Missals:
1. i

St.

John
Peter Peter
vi.

iv.
iii.

14. Galat. v.
15. 16.
v.

2.

3.
4. 5.

i

St.

v.

Ephes.
,,

iii.

Romans
i

viii.
iii.

17.
18. 19.
i

iv.
i.

St.

Cor.

6.
7.

Romans

Ephes.

iv.

vi.
viii.
i

20.

v.
,,

8. 9.

21.
22. 23.

vi.
i.

Cor.

x.
xii.

Philip,

10.
11.
12. 13.
2
,,

iii.
i.

xv,
iii.
iii.

24. Coloss.

Cor.

25. Jeremias xxiii., the fifth

Galat.

Sunday before Christmas.

N.B.

The

figures placed at the right indicate the

chapter from which the lection is taken, without, however, including the whole chapter; thence a like
figure for

two different Sundays.

Distribution of the Lessons

\ 1

7

To
the

this

second

list

are

added some

lections

for

Wednesday and

Friday of

each week:

they

also are taken, for the

of St.

from the Epistles Paul or the Catholic Epistles, and one scarcely
part,

most

finds even

one or two taken from the Acts of the
It signalizes in

Apostles or the prophet Malachias. particular those of the Quatuor

Tempora

of

the

seventh month (September), placed between the seven teenth and eighteenth Sundays.

Wednesday:

ist,

Amos

ix.

(13-15).
viii.

Relief and prosperity

foretold.

2nd, 2 Esdras

Solemn reading of the

Friday Osea xiv. Saturday (notice the rubric
:

Law. Promise of
:

salvation.
.

in xii. hctiones

.

.

et

kguntur
seventh

sex lection fs)
i.

:

Lev.

xxiii.

Sanctification of feasts

for

the

month.
2
3.
j)

M
vii.

jt

j>

Micheas

God s answer

to

the

prayer

of the

4.

people. Zachar. viii.
blessings.

Conditions for the reception of

God s
first

5.

Daniel

iii.

As

in the

Quatuor Tempora of the

month.
6.

Hebrews

ix.

Description of the ancient tabernacle.

(C) The manuscript of the Oratory of the Vallicella has nearly the same lections as those given above (B) it gives some lections for the for the Sundays
;

Wednesdays

only,

and divides the Sundays as
:

in
;

A,

but with some variations

one

Sunday vacant

four

1 1

8

The Lectionary
;

after Pentecost

six after SS.
;

Peter and Paul

;

six

after St.

Laurence

of

the seventh

then come the Quatuor Tempora month nine after the feast of St.
;

which, including the vacant Sunday after the Quatuor Tempora, make up a total of twentyMichael,

seven Sundays.

ADVENT

Wednesdays and Fridays are from Isaias in the first place, from taken chiefly Malachias or the Epistles of St. Paul in the second
lections for the
place.

The

our

Roman

The Sundays have the same Epistles Missal, and number as first, second,
numbering, fourth,
first

as in
third,
third,

and

fourth, or, in the inverse

second, and

before Christmas.

For the Quatuor

Tempora,
from
the

all

the supplementary lections are taken prophet Isaias, except the fifth of the
is

Saturday, which

Tempora

of the first

from Daniel, as month.

in

the Quatuor

Ambrosian Rite
In the comparisons which he establishes between the Ambrosian and the Roman rites, M.

N.B.

Paul Lejay proves undeniably that the Ambrosian Missal has undergone some changes, between the
eleventh century and the time of the discovery of printing, and that these changes had for their end
to bring about a greater resemblance to the

Roman

Missal (there had formerly been more considerable As regards the Prophetic lesson of the changes).

Distribution of the Lessons

119

Old Testament, it is not met with to-day in the Ambrosian Missal, except in the masses of Lent, the
Blessed Sacrament, of the time after Pentecost
Easter, Ascension,
lection of the
;

at

and Pentecost

it is

replaced

by a

Acts of the Apostles.

Although

in the

eleventh century it was customary to read the Gesta Sanctorum at the Mass of feasts of the saints, the

transformation of the Prophetic lesson is entirely lost sight of later (see the letters of Paul and Gebhardt
:

Mabillon,

Mus&um

Italicum,

I.

ii.

x

p. 97).

Here are the Prophetic lections in the masses in the places where they survive at present, according to the Ambrosian Missal published by Ceriani (Milan,
1902)
:

A.
ist

ADVENT
Isaias
li.

Sunday

ist

lection:

Exhortation

to

the

faithful Israelites.

2nd

lection

:

2

Thess.
iv.,

ii.

2nd
3rd
4th
5th 6th

,,

(Jerem.)

Baruch

v.

Joyful

promise

to

Rom. xv. Jerusalem. Isaias xxxv. Deliverance and glory of Israel.
Isaias
,,

xl.

Rom. xi. The promised
v.
iv.

salvation.

Heb.

x,

Micheas
in

Peaceful reign
hiemali,
i

of the Messias.

Galat.
Eccles.

Ezech.
Cor.
i.

xliv.

Sanctuary

described.

In omnibus

ecclesiis

:

Isaias Ixii.-lxiii.
iv.

Salvation asked

and

obtained.
1

Philip,

Dictionnaire
c.

de

Thdologie

catholique,

Vacant-Mangenot

t.

i.

962 and 964.

I2O
Note.

The Lectionary
Ordinarily the lections of the New Testa adapted to those of the Old Testament

ment

are

;

hence the reason
Missal.

why
B.
:

they differ here from the

Roman

CHRISTMAS
Israel delivered

At the third Mass Isaias ix. Messias. Hebrews i. Acts vi., vii., and viii. St. Stephen 2 Tim. iii. and iv.
:

by the

History of the martyr.

St.

John i St. John i. Rom. viii. Holy Innocents Jerem. xxxi. Cry of Rachel.
:

;

:

Rom.

viii.

St.

Thomas

Sunday

2 Tim. ii. Slavery of Sion ended. within the octave Isaias viii. Confidence ; chas
:

Isaias

Iii.

:

tisement of those

who have not

faith.

Rom.

viii.

Circumcision: (Jerem.) Baruchvi. Vanity of idols.

Philip.iii.

C.

EPIPHANY
New
Jerusalem. Love of
Titus
ii.

Isaias
i st

Ix.

Glory of the
:

day of the octave

Osea xi.
Ix.

God misunderstood.
Titus
ii.

Heb.

xi.
:

The
ist

other days
:

Isaias
Ixi.

As

for the feast.

Sunday

Isaias

Servant of

God

the messenger of
in

salvation.

2nd
3rd

Num.
Ezech.

xx.

Ephes. iv. Waters of contradiction
viii.

the

desert.

Rom.

Israel incorporated into one under the sceptre of the new David. kingdom
xxxvii.

Gal.

v.

4th

,,

Jerem.

xxxiii.

Promises of
i.

salvation

con

firmed.

Coloss.

5th 6th

,,

Num.
Ezech.

xx.

As

for

2nd Sunday.

Rom.

xiii.

,,

xxxiii.

The prophet

established

as

guardian in the midst of the people.

Coloss.ii.

Distribution of the Lessons
N. B.
This Mass
is

1

2

1

always celebrated the Sunday preceding Septuagesima.
D.

SEPTUAGESIMA AND LENT
Mai.
ix.,
ii.

Septuagesima Sunday:
judgement.
i
:

iii.

God

will exercise

His

Cor.
Joel

as in the

Roman.
to

Sexagesima
1

Sunday
ix.

Invitation

penance.

Cor.

Quinquagesima Sunday: Zach.
2

vii.

Fasts to observe.

Cor.

vi.

Lent
ist

Sunday:
Sunday
:

1

Isaias

Iviii.

What
Mosaic

fast displeases

God.

2 Cor. vi.

2nd

:

Exod.
i.

xx.

Law

promulgated.

Ephes.

Exod. xxxiv. 3rd Sunday i Thess. ii.

Renewal of the compact.
Renewal of the compact.
Passage of the
Sacrifice

Exod. xxxiv. 4th Sunday i Thess. iv.
:

5th

Sunday
Ephes.

:

Exod.

xiv.

Red
the

Sea.

v.
:

Palm

Sunday

Isaias
2

liii.
ii.

of

Messias

announced.

Thess.
in

On

the week-days

Lent,

there

is

only the

lesson of the

Old Testament, Prophets or Exodus,
(life

or the book of the Kings

of Elias or Eliseus),

Deuteronomy.
Sunday,

On

the

in traditione symboli,

Saturday night of Palm we find two lections.

Ezech. xxxvi., prosperity of the new kingdom, and but nothing in particular disEphes. vi.
. .
.

;

1

For the denominations given

for

these

Sundays see next

section of this article, p. 148.

122

The Lectionary

tinguishes the other days of the Quatuor Tempora. The three first days of Holy Week resemble the other

days of Lent

;

Holy Thursday
lections,

is

like

ours, except

that the Passion according to St.

Good Friday has two
E.

Matthew is read. Acts ii. and Rom.
i.

EASTER AND PASCAL TIME
(1)
ist

Easter Sunday
lection:

Acts

iii.

St.
:

Peter
v.

s

first

miracle.

2nd

lection

Rom.

Justi

(2)

fication by Jesus Christ. Acts of the Apostles i. Ascension; last i Cor. xv. appearance of Jesus Christ.

Monday:

Apparition of Jesus. Acts viii. (i) Philip baptizes the eunuch.
Gal.
(2)
iii.
iii.

Acts
i

All one in Jesus Christ. Second preaching of St Peter.
v.

Cor.

New

leaven.
leprosy.

Tuesday:

(i) 4

Kings

v.

Naaman s

Rom.

vi.

Baptism, resurrection. Acts iii. (2) Preaching of St. Peter, and

results.

Rom.
Jesus.

x.

Salvation by faith in Christ
Eliseus

Wednesday:

(i) 4

Kings
i

vi.

Cor.
v.

x.

makes the iron swim. Hebrews in the desert.

(2)

Acts

delivered.

Apostles arrested but afterwards i Cor. viii. Question of
Results of the
first

foods.

Thursday:

(i)

Acts
i

ii.

preaching.

Cor.

x.

Union by
Vision
Coloss.

participation in the

Eucharist.
(2)

Isaias

vi.

prophet.

and calling of the Sursum corda.

Distribution of the Lessons
Friday:
(i)

123

Gen.
Acts

xiv.
iv.

Melchisedech and Abraham.
Jesus our Pontiff.
St.

Heb.
(2)
vii.

Stephen begins the history
ii.

of the Jews. Philip, ated and exalted.

Jesus humili
the author of dwells in

Saturday:

(i) Isaias Ixi. salvation.

Servant of

God

Ephes.

iii.

Jesus

purified souls.
(2)

Acts

ii.

Preaching of

St. Peter.

i

Tim.

ii.

Jesus the Mediator.

Low Sunday:

Acts

Preaching and appearance before the The risen Jesus Sanhedrin. Coloss. ii. is our Saviour.
iv.

N.B.

During
:

all this

has two masses

the

first in

week, the Ambrosian Missal favour of the newly baptized,

to celebrate the

wondrous effects of baptism by recall miracle of the Old or New Law, by giving some ing some teachings of St. Paul on justification. At the
in the

second are read the accounts

Acts of the Apostles

recalling the beginning of the evangelical preaching. On the following Sundays, the first lection con

tinues the account of the Acts, the second clings to

the teachings of St. Paul (Epistles to Philippians, The same for the Ascension Corinthians, Hebrews).

and following Sunday. For the Rogation
inviting to

litanies,
:

one
(ii.)

lection

drawn
(xiv.),

from the Old Testament

Joel

and Osea

Penance

;

Eccles. xxxvi., prayer to God.
i

Vigil of Pentecost, one lection,

Cor.

ii.

Pentecost, two masses, the
at Easter.

first

for the baptized, as

124
F.
ist

The Lectionary

TIME AFTER PENTECOST
In honour of the Holy Trinity: Gen.
xviii.

Sunday

(i)

(2)

Angels Acts xiv.
xii.

appear to

Abraham.
St. Peter.
i

Preaching of

Cor.

Blessed Sacrament
i

:

3

Kings
;

xix.

Elias in the desert.

Cor.

xi.

Last Supper.
Gal. v.

2nd Sunday
3rd
4th
5th 6th
7th 8th
,,

:

Isaias Ixvi.

Jerem. Ezech.
Isaias

xvii.
xviii.
;

;

Rom.
;

xiv.
iii.

Coloss.

,,

,,

Rom. vii. Ezech. xiv. Rom. xii. Rom. xii. Jerem. xxxi.
Ivi.
;

;

,,

Isaias xxx.

;

Gal.

vi.

9th loth

,,

Jerem. xv. ; Rom. vi. Ezech. xxxiv. ; Coloss.

iii.

nth
1 1
1 1

Dan.
,,

iii.;

i

Cor.
;

vi.

2th

Isaias

xlviii.
iii. ;

3th

4th
5th

,,

Jerem. Ezech. xxv.

Rom. xii. Rom. v.
;

Dan.

ix.;

Heb. xiii. Heb. xiii.

Post decollationem

Sunday 2nd
3rd 4th
5th

ist

:

Isaias Ixv.

;

Ephes.
2
;

v.
viii.
vi.
i.

Jerem.

vii.

;

Cor.

Isaias xxxiii.
,,

Ephes.
Philip,

Jerem. xxxi.
Isaias
Ixiii.

;

,,

Coloss.

iii.

N.B.

This Sunday was perhaps
October
ist

suppressed

in

certain years.

Sunday: Baruch
,,

iv.
ii. ;

;

Rom.
2

vi.

2nd
3rd

ix.
;

iii.

Tim.

ii,

Distribution of the Lessons
Post dtdicationem
ist

125

Sunday

:

Ezech.

xxxiii.
;

;

i

Cor.
xiii.

xii.

2nd
3rd

Isaias Ixvi.
xxxi.

Rom.
;

iv.

As one sees, the lections during this time limit themselves to the four great prophets, who come in almost regular turn, and to the Epistles of St. Paul,
with a predominance of the Epistle to the Romans.

2.

THE EVANGELARIES
Tommasi 1
by
;

I.

Distribution of the Gospel Pericopes in the Church

of Rome according

to

The resume

of

the document furnished

this

author compels us to make some repetitions never theless, we do not hesitate to give it here, in the hope
that a clearer view will be gained. shall, moreover, eliminate the variants pointed out as more or less
certain
;

We

and, contrary to what

Tommasi has
in
fine,

done,

we

shall give separately the

proper of the season
shall,

proper of saints.

We

and the abandon the
and

numbering according

to the canons of Eusebius,

adopt the division by chapters and verses existing in our actual editions of the New Testament.
i.

The Proper of the Season.
;

with Christmas
the end.
1

The
Tome

The collection begins the Sundays of Advent are put at stations of the feast are the night at
:

v.

of his works, p. 431

and

following.

126
St.

The Lectionary
the morning at St. Anastasia, the day

Mary Major,
Peter
;

at St.
ii.

s,

with the passages
i.

(St.

Luke

ii.

1-14,

15-20

St.

John

1-14) which we have to-day and

as they have been pointed out before in the Comes.

During the octave of Christmas, there are grouped
together the feasts of St. Stephen (St. Matt, xxiii. 3439), St. John (St. John xxi. 19-24), the Holy Innocents
ii. 13-18 others mark up to 22), St. Sylvester Matt. xxiv. (St. 42-47), the gospel differing from that in use nowadays, but which is nevertheless found in

(St.

Matt.

;

the

common

of

a

confessor pontiff.

The Sunday
of the

within the octave of Christmas recalls certain incidents
in the infancy of Jesus

and the prophecy
33-41)
;

aged
the

Simeon

(St.

Luke

ii.

the octave of

Nativity (New Year s Day) is marked by all which goes before in the account of St. Luke ii. 22-34, the circumcision and the presentation.

The eve
Epiphany
ii.

of the

Epiphany
to
St.

tells of
ii.

the return from
19-23.

Egypt, according
itself,

Matt.

On

the

of the

coming

of the

Magi (St. Matt,

A good at St. Peter. documents have a different gospel for each day of the octave, such as the passages which speak of the work of the Precursor or the witness that he
2-12), with the
of

station

number

gives of Jesus, or the

ministry (St. Matt.

iii.

beginning of the Saviour 1-6 and vii. 12 St. Mark
;

s
i.

4-8

;

St.
i.

Luke
;

Mark

9-11)

13-17; St. on the same day we have the testi
iii.

7-10;

St.

Matt.

iii.

mony which

the Precursor gives of Jesus to his disciples

Distribution of the Lessons
(St.

127

John i. 29-34), or, according to other manuscripts, the account of the baptism of Jesus according to St. Luke iii. 21 and fol. The Sundays after Epiphany

number ten
reason
for the
less
:

Tommasi gives the following as the the most ancient collections have no gospel
:

weeks of Septuagesima and Sexagesima, doubt because these weeks had the gospel of the weeks
l Epiphany, the number of these going up to Lent.

after

Sunday within the octave of the Epiphany
42-52.

:

St.

Luke

ii.

Jesus in the midst of the doctors.

SUNDAYS AFTER THE EPIPHANY
II.
St.

John

ii.

i-n.

III. St. Matt.

viii.

Marriage of Cana. 1-13. Leper cleansed and centurion

s

servant healed.

IV.

St.
St.
St.

Matt.
Matt.

viii. xiii.

23-28.

The storm calmed.
Parable of the
tares.

V. VI. VII.
VIII.

24-30.

St.

Jesus walks on the water and into the passes country of Genesareth. Matt. xii. 9-15. Cures the man with the withered
vi.

Mark

46-56.

St.

hand on the Sabbath day. Luke ix. 1-6. Mission of the Apostles.
Matt.
xxii.

IX. St.

1-13.

Parable

of

the

marriage

supper. X. St. Matt. xv. 21-28.

The Chananean.

be noticed that for each of these weeks a gospel assigned for the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, sometimes even for the Monday. St. Epiphanius tells us, in his
It
is

1

to

pericope

is

held,
till

exposition of the Catholic faith, that on this day the meetings were and that on Wednesday and Friday a fast was observed up

None (Tommasi,

loc. cit., p.

436,

Note A).

128

The Lectionary
to Easter
:

according to what has been said, this manner of counting is found in the
less ancient collections
:

From Septuagesima

Septuagesima Station at St. Laurence: St. Matt. xx. 1-16. Parable of the labourers in the vineyard. Sexagesima Station at St. Paul: St. Luke viii. 4-15.
Parable of the sower.

Quinquagesima

St. Luke xviii. 31-43. Station at St. Peter Prediction of the Passion and the cure of the one bom
:

blind from Jericho.

A

station

is

indicated for each

day

of

Lent

:

ASH WEDNESDAY
Wednesday
of the
St.
fast.

Sabina:

St.

Matt.

vi.

16-21.

Practice

Thursday
Friday

St.

George:

St.

Matt.

viii.

5-13. Matt.

Centurion

s

servant healed.

Church of Pammachius Love of enemies, charity.
St.

:

St.

v.

43-vi. 4.

Saturday

Laurence, 3* region
sixth

:

St.

Mark

vi.

47~5 6

-

As on the

Sunday

after the

Epiphany.

LENT
i st

Sunday
St.

At the Lateran

:

St.

Matt.

iv.

i-u.

Temp
Last

tation of Jesus.

Monday

Peter in chains

:

St.

Matt. xxv. 34-46.

judgement, sentence. Tuesday St. Anastasia: St. Matt. xxi. 10-17. sellers cast out of the temple.

Buyers and
Sign

Wednesday
Jonas.

St.

Mary:

St.

Matt.

xii.

38-50.

of

Distribution of the Lessons
Thursday
:

1

29

St.

Matt. xv. 21-28.

The Chananean.
s

Or
Friday

else St. Matt. x. 34-42.

Character of the Saviour
St.

mission.

The Holy
St. Peter:
:

Apostles:

John

v.

1-16.

The

paralytic at the Probatica.

Saturday

Saturday with twelve lessons, Quatuor
xvii.

Tempora
ind Sunday

St.

Matt.

1-9.

Transfiguration.

Vacant (no station). The gospel of the pre ceding Thursday about the Chananean is read. Monday St. Clement: St. John viii. 24-39. Jesus up braids the Jews for their incredulity. Jesus de Tuesday St. Balbina St. Matt, xxiii. 1-12. nounces the hypocrisy of the Pharisees.
:

Wednesday
foretold
;

St.

Passion Cecilia: St. Matt. xx. 17-28. the favour asked for the sons of Zebedee by
Callistus

their mother.

Thursday
19-31.

St.

across

the Tiber:

St.

Luke

xvi.

The

Friday Holy the wicked husbandmen.

parable of the rich man and Lazarus. Parable of Apostles: St. Matt. xxi. 32-46.
St.

Saturday SS. Marcellinus and Peter Parable of the prodigal son.

:

Luke

xv.

11-32.
Jesus

yd

Sunday
St.

St.

Laurence:
;

cures the demoniac

St. Luke xi. 17-28. accusation of His enemies.

Monday

Luke iv. 23-30. Jesus despised by For the Mass, where the examination of the claims of the catechumens to be baptized begins,
Mark:
St.

His own people.

St.

Mark
St.

x.

13-16.

Tuesday

Pudentiana St. Matt, xviii. 15-22. correction and forgiveness of injuries.
:

Jesus blesses the children. Fraternal
Matt. xv. 1-20.

Wednesday

St.

Sixtus

:

St.

True and
iv.

false purity.

Thursday SS. Cosmas and Damian Cure of Peter s wife s mother, etc.

:

St.

Luke

38-43.

9

130

The Lectionary
St.

Friday St. Laurence in Lucina: Samaritan woman.

John

iv.

5-42.

The

Saturday St Susanna: ous woman.
tfh Sunday

St.

John

viii.

i-n.
St.

The
John
:

adulter

Holy Cross

in

Jerusalem:

vi.

1-14.

Multiplication of loaves. Monday The four Holy Crowned Martyrs St. Merchants cast out of the temple. 13-25.

John

ii.

Tuesday

In titulo Damasi : St. John vii. 14-31. Jesus answers the Jews in the temple as to His doctrine and works.
St.

Wednesday
Thursday

Paul

:

St.

John

ix.

1-38.

Cure of the

man born

blind.
St.

St. Sylvester:

Luke
John

vii.

11-16.

Son of the
Raising
of

widow of Nain.
Friday St. Eusebius Lazarus.
:

St.

xi.

1-43.

Saturday St. Laurence: St. John viii. 12-20. Testimony borne by Jesus concerning Himself. St. Peter St. John viii. 46-59. $th Sunday Jesus defends
:

Himself against the accusation that Monday St. Chrysogonus St. John answers His attackers.
: :

He
vii.

is

possessed.

32-39.

Jesus

Tuesday St. Cyriac St. John vii. 1-13. Jesus at Jerusalem. Wednesday St. Marcellus St. John x. 22-28. Jesus before His accusers. St. Luke vii. 36-47. Thursday St. Apollinaris Jesus and the sinful woman at the house of the Pharisee. Alarm of the Friday St. Stephen St. John xi. 47-54.
:
: :

Pharisees after the raising of Lazarus.

Saturday

Datur fermentum

in Consistorio Lateranensi.

rubric

Different interpretations have been given of this Tommasi thinks that it was a morsel of un;

Distribution of the Lessons

131

leavened bread which the Pope consecrated and sent
to the neighbouring bishops of

Rome, and

that on

Easter
the

Day this particle was put into the chalice at moment of the Mass when the celebrant says Hcec
: . . .

commixtio

a symbol of the union which ought to

exist between the bishops

and the Sovereign
is

Pontiff.

According

to Amalarius, there

also a general

alms-giving on this day, and the Gospel of St. John is read, vii. 43-53, different opinions of Jesus among the
people, or even St. John xvii.
i-ii, the

prayer of

Jesus to His Father.

HOLY WEEK
Dominica Indulgentice in the Comes published by Pamelius, in the Ordo Romanus,

Palm Sunday

;

called

by the synod
other ancient

of Frankfort, held in 794, as well as in

monuments

like the life of St. Heribert,

Archbishop of Cologne, by the Abbot Rupert, in Du Cange under the words Dominica in palmis.
D. Martene (De antiqua Eccl. discipli. in divin. celebr. i) thinks it comes from the solemn officiiS) 20, No.

indulgence granted on this day Du Cange says, with more reason, it seems it is because of the reconcilia
;

tion of the penitents

Thursday.
the Passion

The
is

station

which takes place the following is at St. John Lateran, and

read according to St. Matt, xxvi.-xxvii.

Different codices have the episode of Bethany for the blessing of the palms, either according to St.

Matthew

or St. Mark.

132

The Lectionary
in
xii.

Monday
John
Tuesday

Holy Week
1-36.

:

SS. Nereus
at

The supper

and Achilleus Bethany, and the
xiii.

:

St.

last

incidents accomplished in the Temple. St. Prisca in Holy Week St. John
:

1-31.

The washing
goes out.

of the feet

;

the traitor

is

pointed out, and

codices have only the second part of this passage others, the account of the Passion according to St. Mark.
;

Some

Wednesday
Holy

in

Holy Week

St.

Mary

:

St.

Luke
:

xxii.-xxiii.

History of the Passion.
Conficitur Thursday Church of the Lateran Chrisma: St. John xiii. 1-15. Washing of the feet. Good Friday In Sessorio, quod est in Basilica Hierusalem St. John xviii.-xix. History of the Passion. of the Lateran St. Matt, xxviii. Church Holy Saturday
:
:

1-7.

The

holy

women

at the sepulchre.

This same day, before the solemn office of this very holy night, probably about nine o clock, there used to be read the account of the Passion and the Resur
rection.

appearances, it was that of St. Mark, ancient capitularies do not speak most of which the on Tuesday of Holy Week. See in the sermons of St. Leo I., Pope, 19, de Passione Dom., an allusion to
all

To

the practice of his time.
Easter

Day

Matins:

St.

Matt,

xxviii.

8-15.

First appear

ance of Jesus; the soldiers bribed.

Station at St.
1-7.

Mary Major, Mass: St. Mark women at the sepulchre. Easter Monday St. Peter St. Luke
:

xvi.

The

holy

xxiv. 13-35.

Disciples

from Emmaus.

Distribution of the Lessons
Tuesday
St.

133

Paul:

St.

Luke
;

xxiv.

36-37.
xxi.

Appearance of
1-14.

Jesus at the cenacle

instruction.

Wednesday

St. Laurence: St. John ance on the Sea of Tiberias.

Appear

Holy Apostles: St. John xx. 11-18. Mary Magdalen. Friday St. Mary and the Holy Martyrs St. Matt, xxviii. 16-20. Appearance in Galilee. Church of the Lateran St. John xx. Saturday 19-24. Appearance in the absence of St. Thomas.
to
: :

Thursday The Appearance

St. John xx. 1-9. John at the sepulchre. Low Sunday: St. John xx. 24-31. Appearance in pre sence of St. Thomas.
St.

Some

other

manuscripts have:

Peter and

St.

Sundays after Easter 2nd: SS. Cosmas
3rd
St.

:

et

Damian.

St.

John

x.

11-16.

The Good Shepherd.
:

4th:

St.

John John
John

xvi.
xvi.

16-22.
5-15.

Sadness turned into joy.

The Holy

Spirit will teach all

things.

5th:

St.

xvi.

25-30.

Exhortation to prayer.

Certain of the more ancient manuscripts mention either of the Rogations or Litanies.
Vigil

make no

of the Ascension

:

St.

John

xvii.

1-14.

Priestly

prayer of Jesus.

Ascension:

St.

Mark

xvi.

14-20.
St.

Last appearance and
xv.

ascension.

Sunday within the octave
tells

:

John

26-xvi. 4.

Fore

persecutions.
St.

Wednesday:

John
:

xv.

7-11.

Exhortation to observe

Eve

the precepts. of Pentecost

Two

Gospel passages, one of which
at

is

doubtless at the

Mass of the Fast

None, the other

134

The Lectionary
during the night
baptism.
offices,

after

the

administration of

St. John xiv. 15-21. The Holy Spirit foretold. 2nd. St. John vii. 37. Promises of the Saviour. Pentecost Station at St. Peter: St. John xiv. 23-31.
i st.

Peace by the Holy

Spirit.
St.

Monday
Tuesday

St.

Peter

s

chains:

John
x.

iii.

16-21.

God s
is

love for the world.
St.

Anastasia

:

St.

John
St.

i-io.

Jesus

the

Good Shepherd. Wednesday St. Mary Major:
to Jesus trusting in

John

vi.

44-52.

Go

Him.

Thursday St. Luke ix. 1-6. Mission given to the Apostles. Friday Holy Apostles: St. Luke v. 17-26. Cure of the
paralytic.

Saturday

Twelve
blind

lessons, St. Peter

:

St.

Matt. xx. 29-34.

The

men

of Jericho healed.
St.

Octave of Pentecost Nicodemus.

John
vi.

iii.

1-14.

Sermon with
Charity,
true

The same vacant
wisdom.

St.

Luke

37-42.

TIME AFTER PENTECOST
N.B.

The

ancient capitularies divide this season
:

into several subdivisions as follows

A. After Pentecost

l

2nd week:

St.

Luke

xvi.

19-31.
St.

The
v.

rich

Lazarus.

Or

Luke

i-n.

man and The mira

culous draught of

fishes.

3rd
1

St.

Luke

xiv.

16-24.

Parable of the supper.
for

the

This period has, furthermore, some Gospel pericopes Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday.

Distribution of the Lessons
4th week
:

135

St.

5th 6th

St.
St.

Luke xv. 1-7. Parable of the lost sheep. Luke vi. 36-42. Mercy and true wisdom. Luke v. i-n. The miraculous draught of
fishes.

B. After
ist

the feast of
v.

SS. Peter and Paul
Charity

week:

St.

Matt.

20-24.

towards

our

neighbour.

2nd
3rd
4th
5th
,,

St.
St.
St. St.

Mark
Matt.

viii.
vii.

1-9.

15-21.

Multiplication of loaves. False prophets.

Luke Luke

xvi. 1-9.
xix.

The

unfaithful steward.

41-47.
9-14.

Jesus weeps over Jeru

salem.

6th

,,

St.

Luke

xviii.

Pharisee and publican.

C. After St. Laurence
ist

week:

St.

Mark
Luke Luke

vii.

31-37.

Cure of the deaf and

dumb man.
2nd
3rd
4th
St.
St.
x.

25-37.
11-19.
vi.

xvii.

The good Samaritan. The ten lepers cleansed.

St.

Matt.

23-33.
11-16.
St.

We

cannot serve two
of Nairn
s

masters.

5th

St.

Luke

vii.

The widow
Cyprian
Dropsical

son.

D. After
ist

week:

St.

Luke
first

xiv.

i-n.
34-46.
St.

man

cured; the

places at table.
xxii.

2nd

St.

Matt.

The

great

commandment.

E. After
ist

Michael

week:
,,

St.

Matt.
Matt.

ix.

1-8.

Paralytic cured.

2nd

St.

xxii.

1-14.

Parable of the marriage

feast.

136
3rd week:
4th
5th
St.

The Lectionary
John iv. 46-53. Capharnaum.
Matt. Matt.
xxii.
ix.

The son

of the ruler of

St.

St.

15-21. 18-22.

Tribute to Caesar.

The

issue of blood

and

Jairus daughter.

6th

,,

St.

John

vi.

5-14.

Multiplication of loaves.

SUNDA YS OF ADVENT
4th week before Christmas:
St.

Matt.

xxi.

1-9.

Episode

of Bethany.

3rd

St.

Luke
Matt.
sent
xi.

xxi.

25-33.

The

latter days.

2nd

,,

St.

2-10.
St.

Messengers
Baptist

by
i.

John

to Jesus,
ist
St.

John
as
to

19-28.

Inquiry
Baptist
s

St.

John

baptism.
2.

Proper of Saints.

The

antiquity of the calendars

brought forward by the Blessed Tommasi reveals a double fact some saints which were then celebrated
:

have now only a simple commemoration
not figure at
Without
all.

;

others

do

January
date.
St.

Martina:

St.
St.

treasure, pearl.

Or

Matt. xiii. 44-52. Matt. xxv. 1-13.
St.

Hidden
Parable

of the ten virgins. 13. St. Felix (statio in pincis] of the Apostles.
16.
St.

\

Luke

x.

16-20.

Mission

Marcellus:
talents.

St.

Matt. xxv. 14-23.
xiii.

Parable of the

17. St. Prisca:

St.

Matt.

44-52.

Hidden

treasure.

Distribution of the Lessons
20. St. Sebastian: St.

137

20. St.
21. St.

Luke vi. 17-23. True happiness. Watchfulness. Matt. xxiv. 42-47. Parable xxv. Matt. St. 1-13. Agnes (de Passione) of the ten virgins.
Fabian:
St.
:

22. St.

Vincent

(static S. Eusebii)
suffer.

:

St.

John

xii.

24-26.

We

ought to
healed.
28. St.

22. St. Anastasius: St.

Mark
:

v.

24-31.

The

issue of blood

Agnes

(de Natimtate]

Com. on

the i7th January.

Pebruary
2.

Ypopanti ad
tion of
St.
St.

5.

14.

Purifica St. Luke ii. 22-32. S. Mariam Mary and presentation of Jesus. Agatha: As on 2ist January. We must bear Valentine: St. Luke ix. 23-27.
:

our cross.
St.

Peter
the

s

Chair:

St.

primacy
:

(according
St.

Promise of Matl. xvi. 13-19. to an ancient Roman
xi.

calendar).
St.

Mathias ap.

Matt.

25-30.

We

are to bear

the yoke of Jesus.

March

The forty Holy Martyrs
12.
St.

:

See

St.

Sebastian, 2Oth January.
xxiv.

Gregory Pope:
fulness.

St.

Matt.

42-47.

Watch
on a

St.

Benedict:
candlestick.

St.

Luke

xi.

33-36.
i.

The

light set

25.

The Annunciation:
of the Word.

St.

Luke

26-38.

Incarnation

April
14.

SS. Tiburtius, Valerianus,

and Maximus

:

St.

John

xv.

12-16.

Mutual

love.

138

The Lectionary
1

In Pascha Annotina: with Nicodemus.
24. St.

St.

John

iii.

1-15.

Discourse

George:

St.

Luke
St.

xxi.

14-19.

The

disciples

and

their judges.
25.

Greater

Litany:

importunate wisdom.
28. St. Vitalis: St.

soul.

Luke xi. 5-13. Prayer Or St. Luke vi. 36-42.
xv. 1-7.

of the

True

John

Jesus the true vine.

May
i.

SS. Philip and James, ap. the Holy Spirit.
SS. Alexander, Eventius,

:

St.

John

xiv. 27.

Peace

in

3.

and Theodulus.

St.

John

xv.

The world s hatred of Jesus disciples. 17-25. Exaltation (Finding, according to other manuscripts) of the Holy Cross: St. John iii. 1-15. Nicodemus. St. John before the Latin gate Refer back to the
:

feast of St.

James.
:

Feast of the Holy Angel
of humility.
10. St. 12.

St.

Matt,

xviii.

2-10.

Lesson

SS.

Gordian Nereus

:

St.

Matt.

x.

34-42.
:

Necessary separation.
xix.

12.
13.

St.

and Achilleus Matt. St. Marriage and virginity. Pancras St. John xv. 12-16. Mutual
:

3-11.

love.

Dedicatio Ecclesicz Sancta

martyres : The gospel of the day corresponding in the proper of the
season.

Maria ad

19.

St.

Pudentiana:

St.

Matt.

xiii.

25. St.
1

Urban:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 42-47.

44-52. Hidden treasure. Watchfulness.

The anniversary of the Easter of the preceding year. At Rome, those who had been baptized on this great day met to
gether in the church, on the following year, to celebrate the anniversary of their regeneration. See the Micrologus, P.L.,
t. cli. c.

1018.

Distribution of the Lessons
June
2.

139

SS. Peter and Marcellinus
xxi.

(via Lavicana)

:

St.

Luke
12-16.

9-19.

End

of time.

9.

SS.

Primus and Mutual love.

Felicianus

:

St.

John

xv.

12.

St.

Basilides: St. Lukexii.

i.

Leaven of the Pharisees.

14. St. Felicula:
1 8.

See igth May.
:

SS.

19.

Gervasius, Prot, of time.

Marcus and Marcellianus See 9th June. and Vital. St. Mark xiii. 1-12.
:

End

23. Vigil of St.

John Baptist St. Lukei. of the birth of the Precursor.
:

i.

Announcement
ii.

24. Nativity of St.

John Baptist:
St.

St.

Luke
xii.
i.

Birth of the

Precursor.
26. SS.

John and Paul:
Pharisees.

Luke
St.

Leaven of the
Matt. xxv. 14-

28. Translation of the
23.

body of

Leo:

St.

Parable of the talents.

38. Vigil of SS. Peter

and Paul:
;
:

St.

John

xxi. 13.

Triple

question to Peter power conferred. St. Matt. Peter and Paul, ap. 29. SS. Promise of the Primacy.
30. St. Paul
:

xvi.

13-19.

St.

Matt.

xix.

23-30.

Renouncement.

July
2.

SS. Processus

and Martinianus

:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 3-13.
Matt. xiv.

End
6.

of time.
St.

Octave of the Holy Apostles: Jesus walks on the water.

22-33.
Beati

10.

The Seven
tudes.
St. Felicitas

Brothers:

St.

Matt.

v.

1-12.

The

:

St.

Matt.

xii.

46-50.

The mother and

brethren of Jesus.
15.
St.

Cyriac

:

St.

Luke

ix.

12-23.

Christ must suffer.

140
21.
St.

The Lectionary
Praxedes:
St.
:

Matt

xiii.

44-62.

Hidden

treasure.

23. St.

St. Luke xxii. 24-30. Apollinaris dispute as to who is greatest.

The

Apostles

Vigil of St.

James
:

:

St.

Luke

x.

1-7.

Mission of the

Apostles.
St.

James

St.

Pharisees.

Luke xii. 2-8. Or St. Matt. xx.

20.

Hypocrisy of the The mother of
St.

the sons of Zebedee.
29. SS. Felix, Simplicius, Faustus,

Beatrice

:

Luke

xii.

35-40.
30. SS.
love.

Watchfulness.
:

Abdon and Sennen

St.

John

xv.

12-16.

Mutual

August
1.

St.

Peter

s

Chains:
waters.
St.

St.

Matt. xiv. 22-33.

Jesus walks
of the pounds.

upon the
2.

St.

Stephen:
Sixtus,

Luke xix. 12-26. Parable
Agapit
:

6.

SS.

Felicissimus,

St.

Matt.

x.

16.

Apostles, sheep amidst the wolves.
8. St.

9.

Transfiguration: St. Luke ix. 28. Mission to the Apostles. Cyriac St. Matt. x. 26-32. of St. Laurence St. Matt. xvi. 24. Invitation Vigil
:

:

to follow Jesus.
10.
St.

Laurence: above all.
Tiburtius
:

St.

Matt.

x.

37-42.

To

prefer
love.

Jesus

n.
11.

St. St.

St. St.

John
Matt.

xv. 12-16.
xiii.

Mutual

Susanna:
Euplus:

12. St.

St.

John
St.

xvi.

Hidden treasure. 44-52. The sadness of the 20-23.
xii.

disciples turned into joy.
13. St.

Hippolytus:
Pharisees.

Luke

2-8.

Leaven of the
Watchfulness.

14.
15.

St.

Eusebius:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 42-47.
St.

Pausatio S.

Maria:
St.

Luke

x.

38-42.

Martha and

Mary.
19.
St.

Agapitus:

Luke

xii.

35-40.

Watchfulness.

Distribution of the Lessons
22. St.

141
can be

Timotheus:

St.

Luke

xiv.

26-35.
xv.

Wno
i.

disciples of Jesus. Vigil of St. Bartholomew: St.

John

Jesus the

true vine.
St.

Bartholomew
the greater.

:

St.

Luke

xxii. 24.

Strife as to

who

is

25. St. Genesius: St. Mark xiii. 5-13. 28. St. Hermes: St Luke vi. 17-23.
St.

The

latter days.

True happiness.

29.

Augustine: St. Luke xii. 32-34. Confidence. Eve of the beheading of St. John Baptist. St. Luke Ambushes of Herod. xiii. 31-35. Hidden treasure. St. Sabina: St. Matt. xiii. 44-52. Beheading of St. John Baptist: St. Mark vi. 17-29.

Martyrdom of

St.

John

Baptist.

September
i.

St.

Giles:

Common

of Confessors.

8.

St. Antoninus M.: See i4th February. Visitation St. Luke i. 39-55. Nativity of the B.V.M. to St. Elizabeth and the Magnificat. Some other manuscripts give the genealogy accord
:

ing to St. Matt.
St.

i.

i.

Adrian:

SS. Protus

John xv. i. and Hyacinthus
St.

Jesus the true vine.
:

St. Matt. x.

23-33.
xi.

Perse

cutions of the disciples. 14. SS. Cornelius and Cyprian: Threats of the Pharisees.

St.

Luke

47-xii.

3.

Exaltation of the
15.
St.

Nicomede:
the cross.

St.

Holy Cross As on 3rd May. Luke ix. 23-37. One should bear
: :

1

6. SS.

Lucy and Euphemia Hidden treasure.

St.

Matt.

xiii.

44-52.
2-8.

SS.

Lucius and Germinianus Leaven of the Pharisees.

:

St.

Luke

xii.

142
20. St.

The Lectionary
Eustace:
St. Luke Matthew:
xii.

35-40.

Vigilance.
v.

Vigil of St Levi.
St.

St.

Luke
9-13.

27-32.

Calling of

Matthew:
Digna:
St.

St.

Matt.

ix.

Calling of Levi.

21.

St.

Matt.

xiii.

44-52.

Hidden
St.

treasure.
v.
i.

SS.

Emmeran and Maurice:
Beatitudes.

Matt.

The

27. SS.

Cosmas and Damian

:

St.

John

xv.

12-16.

Mutual

love.

29.

Dedication of

30.

St.

St. Michael: St. Matt, xviii. i-io. Humility and likeness to children. Jerome. As in the common of confessors. The

salt of

the earth.
October

7.

St.

Mark:
talents.

St

Matt.

xxv.

14-23.
St.

Parable of

the

SS.

Sergius

and

Bacchus:

Luke
:

xxi.

14-18.

Courage
9.

in persecutions.
St.

Translation of the body of St. Petronilla Parable of the ten virgins. 1-13.
St.
St.

Matt. xxv.

14.
1

Calixtus

:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 42-47.

Watchfulness.

8.

Luke:
cross.

St.

Luke

ix.

27.

We
St.

must

bear

the

25. SS.

Chrysanthus and Darius:

Matt.

xxiv.

3-13.

The end

of time.

Vigil of SS. Simon the true vine.

and Jude
St.

:

St.

John
i.

xv.

i.

Jesus

SS.

Simon and Jude:

Matt.

v.

The

Beatitudes.

November
i. St.

Csesarius

:

St

John

xii.

24-26.

A

cross to bear here

on

earth.

Distribution of the Lessons
All Saints:
ii.
St.
]

143

St.
St.

Matt

v.

i.

The
23-27.

Beatitudes,

Mennas:
cross.

Luke

ix.

We

must bear our

St.

Martin

:

St.
2

Luke

22.

St.

Cecilia:
virgins.

St.

Watchfulness. xii. 35-40. Matt. xxv. 1-13. Parable of the ten
Matt.
Matt.
xxv.

23.

St.

Clement:
talents.

St.

14-23.

Parable of the

St. Felicitas

:

St.

xii.

46-50.
xv.

The mother and
Mutual
love.

brethren of Jesus.
24.
St.

Chrysogonus
:

:

St.

John
St.

17-25.
5-13.
i.

29. St. Saturninus

St.

Mark
:

xiii.

End

of time.

Vigil of St.
first

Andrew
St.

John

35-51.

Calling of the
first

Apostles.

30. St.

Andrew:
Apostles.

Matt.

iv.

18-22.

Calling of the

December
SS. Bibiana
St. St.

St.

13.

St.

St.

As in common of virgins. As in common of a confessor. Nicholas As in common of confessors. Ambrose As in common of confessors. Lucy: St. Matt. xiii. 44-52. Hidden treasure. Damasus As in common of confessors.
and Barbara
:

Sabbas

:

:

:

:

In a very ancient Sacramentary of St. Gregory, among the of these examples in circulation in the time of Charle magne, no mention is made of the feast of All Saints on the ist

1

number

November, but one
Collecta

ad SS. Cosman et Damian
Thus

finds the following words alia
:
.

Natale

S. Ccesarei.

.

.

ad Missam ...

as

in the edition of Pamelius.

seems that on this day there was a litany of procession from the Church of SS. Cosma and Damian to the Church of St. Caesarius. (Tommasi, t. v. p. 502.) 2 The station at the Church of St. Cecilia in Trastevere existed before St. Gregory the Liber Pontificates speaks of it in regard
it
:

to

Pope

Vigilius.

(Tommasi,

t.

v. p. 506.)

144
Vigil of St.
St.

The Lectionary
Thomas As in the vigil of an Apostle. Thomas: St. John xv. 17-25. Mutual love.
: :

Or

according to others
Jesus to
3.

St.

John

xx. 24.

Apparition of

St.

Thomas.

gives as follows the Lectiones Evande causis diversis geliorum
:

Tommasi

Pro ubertate pluviae St. Luke viii. 22-25. Tempest stilled. Pro sterilitate pluviae Matt. xv. 32-39. St. Second
: :

multiplication of bread.

In commotione gentium:
the world.

St.

Luke

xii.

22-31.

Fear of

In die
In

belli: St.

Matt. xxiv. 3-13.
:

Signs of the last days.

natali

Papae cedence.
St.
St.

St.

Luke

xxii.

24-30.

Dispute on pre

Item, alia: Item, alia:

Luke

xix.

12-26.

Parable of the pounds.

Item, alia: St. In ordinatione Presbyteri
fulness.

Matt. xvi. 13-19. Promise of the Primacy. Luke xix. i-io. Zacchaeus the publican.
:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 42-47.

Watch
the

Item,

alia:

St.

Matt.

xxiv.

45-51.

The good and
24-26.

bad

servant.
:

In ordinatione Diaconi
of wheat.

St.

John

xii.

The

grain

Pro ordinantibus

:

St.

John

viii.

30-39.

The
vi.

true sons of

Abraham.
In ordinatione Episcoporum
:

St.

Mark

6-12.

Mission

and

instruction of the Apostles.
:

Item, alia

St.

Matt.

ix.

35.

Numerous

cures effected by

Jesus.

Mission of the Apostles. Item, alia St. Luke ix. 6. In dedicatione Basilicae St. Luke vi. 42-48. Maxims for
:

:

true wisdom.

Item, alia:

St.

Luke

xxix. i-io.

Zacchaeus the publican.

Distribution of the Lessons
Pro velatione
ancillse Dni.
:

145
Parable
Last

St.

Matt.

xxii.

1-14.

of the marriage feast.

Ad velandam
mony
Item, alia
:

maritatam
Matt.
xix.

:

St.

John

iii.

27-29.

testi

of the Precursor.
St.

1-6.
:

Marriage and
St.

virginity.

Ad

sponsas benedicendas

Matt.

xxii.

1-14.

The

wedding
:

feast.

Item, alia St. Matt. xix. 1-6. Marriage and virginity. In vigilia unius Apostoli: St. John xv. i. Jesus the true
vine.

In

vigilia

Apostolorum

:

St

Mark

vi.

6-12.

Mission and

instruction of the Apostles. In natale unius Apostoli: St. Johnxv. 12-17.

Mutual

love.

Mutual love. Item, alia: St. John xv. 17-25. In vigilia unius sacerdotis St. Matt. xxiv. 42-47.
:

Watch
Parable
Matt. Matt.

fulness.

In natale unius sacerdotis:
of the talents.

St.

Matt. xxv. 14-23.
St.

In
In

vigilia

34-42.
natale

unius martyris sive confessoris Persecution and reward.

:

x.

unius martyris sive confessoris Persecution and reward. 28-33.

:

St.

x.

In
In

vigilia

plurimorum sanctorum:
:

St.

Matt. xxiv. 4-13.

Signs of the last days. natale plurimorum sanctorum

St.

Luke
Matt.

xii.

35-40.

Watchfulness.

In

natale

plurimorum

martyrum

:

St.

x.

16-22.

Sufferings of the future apostles.

Then
most

follow

some other

passages, identical, for the

part, with those

now

existing in our

common

of saints.

In natale virginum
ten virgins.

:

St.

Matt. xxv. 1-13.

Parable of the

10

146

The Lectionary

Hidden treasure. Item, alia: St. Matt. xiii. 44-52. In agenda mortuorum St. Martha John xi. 21-27.
:

beseeches Jesus to raise Lazarus. Item, alia St John vi. 51-85. Jesus the Bread of Life.
:

Etc. etc.

Some

other similar passages for different

sorts of persons, judges, travellers, benefactors.

Distribution of the Gospel Pericopes in the

Ambrosian Rite
In this enumeration,

we must be content

just

to

point out the peculiarities relative to the proper of the season moreover, they suffice to characterize the
:

liturgy of Milan from the point of view of the
;

Evan-

gelary a simple reference to the Roman Missal will indicate which passages are the same in the one and
the other
rite.

The Ambrosian
gives six
ist
:

Missal begins with
for this season
:

Advent, and

Sundays

St.

2nd:
3rd:
4th

St.

Matt. xxiv. 1-42. The last judgement. Luke iii. 1-18. Beginning of the preaching of the Precursor.
Matt.
Jesus.
xi.

St.

1-15.

Embassy of the Precursor

to

:

St.

Matt.

xxi. 1-9.
i.

The

5th: St. John

19 to the end.

episode of Bethany. John Baptist bears witness
St.

to Jesus.

6th:

Two

masses,

ist,

de Adventu
visitation of

:

Luke

i.

The

Mary.
:

St. Luke i. The 2nd, de Incarnat. Incarnation announced to Mary.

Distribution of the Lessons
St. Joseph Christmas Eve: St. Matt. i. 18-23. structed about the mystery of the Incarnation.
is

147
in

Christmas Day

ist

Mass:

St.

John

i.

9-14.

Second part

of the prologue.

2nd Mass
3rd Mass
St.
:

:

As
St.

in Missale

Romanum.
paid

Luke

ii.

1-14.

Stephen

:

St.

Matt,

xviii.

23-36.

The didrachma

as tribute.
St.

Of
St.

the octave

John and the Holy Innocents As in M.R. As in second Mass of Christmas.
: :

John i. 1-14. The prologue. in M.R. The Sunday following St. Luke iv. 14-22. Jesus
Sylvester: St.
:

Circumcision

As

:

in

the

synagogue.
Vigil of the Epiphany In festo Christophoriae
:

As
:

in

M.R.
Matt.
ii.

St.

19-23.

The

return

from Egypt. During the octave of Epiphany

:

As on day

of the feast.

AFTER EPIPHANY
ist

Sunday:

St.

Luke

ii.

42-52.

Jesus in the midst of the

doctors,

and

Feast of the Holy
i.

Name

of Jesus

:

St.

Matt.

1

8-2

1.

St.

Joseph instructed concerning

the mystery of the Incarnation.

3rd
3rd 4th
5th 6th

,,

St.

St.

John ii. i-n. The marriage at Cana. John iv. 46-50. The ruler of Capharnaum
son healed.

s

,,

St.

St.

John iii. 16-21. God s love for the world. Luke ix. 1 0-17. First multiplication of loaves.
Matt.
xvii.

St.

14-20.

The
the

cure of the lunatic.

Always
Septuagesima
:

said

on

Sunday preceding

Septuagesima.

As

in

M.R.

148
Sexagesima
:

The Lectionary
St.
:

Matt.

xiii.

3-23.

The

parable of the seed.
Different parables.

Quinquagesima St. Matt. xiii. 14-23. Quadragesima As in M.R.
:

N.B. Each week-day, except Friday, has a mass and a special gospel
:

Monday

to the Thursday: 17-20; 21-24.
:

St.

Matt.

v.

1-12; 13-16;

Saturday

St.

Matt.

xii.

1-8.

The

disciples pluck the ears

of wheat.

2nd Sunday of Lent, called de Samaritana St. John iv. Monday to Thursday inclusive St. Matt. v. 25-30 31-42 42-48 vi. 1-6. Saturday: St. Mark vi. 1-5. Jesus despised in His own
\ :

;

;

;

country. Lent, 3rd Sunday,

de

Abraham
St.

:

St.

John
;

viii.

36-59.

The

true sons of
to

Abraham.
Matt.
vi.

Monday

Thursday:
St.

7-15

16-18

;

19-21

;

22-25.

Saturday:

Mark

vi.

7-13.
C<zco
:

Lent

4th Sunday, de
to

St.

Mission of the Apostles. John ix. i-end.
vi.

Monday

Thursday

:

St.

Matt.

26-33

;

34~vii.

5

;

6-12; I2-2O. Saturday: St. Matt.
Lent

xix. 13-15. Blessing of the children. St John xi. 5th Sunday, de Lazaro
:

Monday to Thursday, different Monday: St. Mark viii. 27-33.
Tuesday:
St.

gospels.

John

vi.

Promise of the Primacy. Conclusion of the 65-72.
31-34.

Eucharistic promise.

Wednesday:
Thursday:
Saturday:

St.

Luke
vii.

xviii.

Announcement

of

the Passion.
St.

John

43-53.

in

traditione
all

Discussion about Jesus. symboli\ St. Matt. xi. 25-31.

Jesus invites

to follow

Him.

Distribution of the Lessons
Lent
at

149 The
repast

Palm Sunday:
Bethany.
in authentica

St.

John

xi.

55-xii.

n.

Monday,

\

St.

Luke
John
:

xxi.

34-36.

Conclusion

of the sermon on the end of time.

Tuesday, in authentica

:

St.

xi.

47-54.
xxvi.

Conspiracies

against Jesus. Wednesday, in authentica

St.

Matt.

1-5.

Con

Holy Thursday,

spiracies against Jesus. in cazna Domini: St. Matt. xxvi.
first part.
:

History

of the Passion,

Holy Saturday,
holy

in cedes, cath.

St.

Matt,

xxviii.

1-7.

The

women

at the sepulchre.
:

Holy Saturday, pro baptizatis St. John iii. The discourse with Nicodemus. Easter Day, Missa de solemnitate St. John xx. 11-18. The
:

apparition to

Mary Magdalen.

N.B. Each day in this week has two masses, the one under the rubric pro baptizatis in Ecclesia hiemali,
the other in omni Ecclesia.

Monday

ist:

St.
:

Matt.

v.

1-14.

2nd

St.

Luke xxiv. 1-12.

The Beatitudes. The holy women

at

the sepulchre.

Tuesday

The probatic pool ; the healed. paralytic 2nd: St. Matt, xxviii. 8-15. Appearance of
ist: St. John v. 1-15.
ist:
St.

Wednesday

Jesus ; the guards bribed. Matt. v. 44-48. Love of enemies.
xxiv. 13-35.

2nd: St Luke

The

disciples of

Emmaus.
Thursday
ist: St.

John
Matt,

vi.

51-57.

Promise of

the

Eucharist.

2nd

:

St.

xxviii.,

the end.

Power given

to

the Apostles.

150
Friday
ist:

The Lectionary
St.

John

vi.

35-40.

Promise of the

Eucharist.

2nd
Saturday
ist

:

St.

Mark
John

xvi. 1-7.

The

holy

women

at

the sephulcre.
:

St.

xiii.

1-15.

The washing

of the

feet.

2nd:

St.

John xxi. 1-14. the Sea of Tiberias.

Appearance near

Dominica in Albis As in M.R. 2nd after Easter: St. John i. 29-34.
:

The

Precursor bears

witness of Jesus.

As in M.R. 3rd, 4th, and 5th As in M.R. Vigil of the Ascension
:
:

The Ascension

:

St.

Luke

xxiv.

26-59.

Last appearance
1-26.
Priestly

and Ascension. Sunday within the octave:
prayer of Jesus.
St.

John
Matt.

xvii.

In

litaniis
,,

minoribus die
,,

i

a
:

St.

2a

:

St.

v. 1-14. Beatitudes. Matt. xv. 29-31. Crowds of sick come to Jesus.

a

3
Vigil of Pentecost: St.

:

St.

Matt. xv. 32-38.
xvi.

Multipli

cation of loaves.

John xv. 26; ment concerning the Holy Spirit.

15.

Announce

PENTECOST
pro baptizatis
2
a
:

St.

John
St.

vii.

37-39.
xiv.

Teaching and

invita

tion of Jesus.

de Solemnitate:
Spirit.
a i

John

15-27.
St.

Promises of the
xv.

Holy Dominica
See

de

SS.

Trinitate-.

John

26; xvi

4.

vigil

of Pentecost.

Distribution of the Lessons

151

AFTER PENTECOST
ist

Sunday:

St.

Mark

xvi.

i4-end.

Diffusion

of the

Gospel.

2nd
3rd 4th
5th

St. Matt. ix.

10-15. Calling of St. Matthew and repast with publicans and sinners.

St.
,,

St.

Luke vi. 36-42. Exhortation to mercy. Luke xvi. 19-31. The rich man and
Lazarus.

,,

St.

Luke Luke

xvii.

11-19.

The

ten

lepers

cleansed.

6th
7th 8th

,,

St.
St.

,,

xiv. 16-24. Matt. xx. 29-34.

,,

St.

Luke

xv. 1-7.

The wedding feast. The two blind cured. The lost sheep, the lost The miraculous draught
Against avarice, The Pharisee and the towards our

groat.

9th
loth

St.

Luke
Luke Luke

v.

i-n.
13-22.
9-14.

of fishes.
,,

St.

xii.

nth
1

St.

xviii.

2th

St.

publican. Matt. v. 20-24.

Charity

neighbour.
1

3th

,,

St.

Mark

viii.

1-9.

The

multiplication of

loaves.

i4th
1

,,

St.

5th

,,

St.

Mark vii. 31-35. Cure of the deaf and dumb. Luke vii. 11-17. Raising to life of the son of the widow of Nairn.

A
1.

new
:

series of

Sundays commences post
Herod s opinion of

decolla-

tionem
St.

Luke
Matt.

ix.

7-11.

Jesus.

First

multiplication of loaves.
2.

St.

vii.

15-25.

The

false prophets.

152
3.

The Lectionary
Luke
x. 25-37. The good Samaritan. The fig-tree cursed. Matt. xxi. 18-22.

St.
St.

4.
5.

St.

Matt

xxi.

33-46.
:

The

faithless

husbandmen.

Another Dom.
i

series
:

a a

octobris

2

St. Luke xiii. 6-17. The barren fig-tree. The St. John viii. 1-12. quae ante dedicat. adulterous woman.
:

a

3
a

in

dedic. Eccl. majoris. St. John x. Christ consubstantial with the Father.
dedicat.
:

22-31.

i

post
a

St.

Matt,

xviii.

33-35.

The
tribute

wicked servant.
2

post dedicat.
to Caesar.

:

St.

Matt.

xxii.

15-22.
xxii.

The
1-14.

a

3

post

dedicat.

:

St.

Matt.

The

marriage

feast.

We
further

shall

add

nothing

to

what we have
Gallican

said

back with regard to the

liturgy

should like to point out here, as for the (p. 38). Lectionaries, in the work of Alcuin a step in advance towards the more complete adoption of the Roman
cycle, but

We

no mention
;

is

made

of the Gospels in the

Comes ab Albino editus
Latin

and the

collection of homilies,

manuscript of the twelfth century of the National Library of Paris, No. 14,302, that D. Morin

(Revue Bened., 1892, pp. 491-497) believed should be attributed to Alcuin, was rather destined for
moreover, preachers than is the Contest
;

it

is

more

like the

Gallican

1

Diet,

d

Archeologie chretienne

et de Liturgie,

i.

c.

1077-1078.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections

153

III.

CEREMONIAL OBSERVED FOR THE
LECTIONS
i.

THE LECTION ARIES
writing,

N.B.

The

the ornamentation

of

the

manuscripts, the splendour of the bindings in the Lectionaries are far from equalling the magnificence that we have attempted to describe in the Evangelaries

;

because these collections of writings, though doubt less venerable because of the divinely inspired Word, were not held in such high esteem. Nevertheless,

one

warranted in thinking that the Lectionaries too were in some way embellished like the Bibles and
is

some examples may be quoted. Thus, in Psalters the series spoken of further back by Ehrensberger in the col there are Nos. 3 and 5 (pp. 91 and 92) lection of the Great Seminary of Autun is a Lection:

;

arium

czduense

of

the thirteenth

century.

It

is

true that, in this collection, the complete missals of

the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are

specially

remarkable for their illuminations and ornamented
lettering

the magnificent Sacramentary of the ninth century (No. 19 bis\ so often described, does not belong to the kind of collections which occupy us
:

now.

To sum up
the

the ceremonial of the lections of the
:

Mass during the course of ages, is to speak of (i) ministers to whose care their performance was

154
entrusted
lections
;

The Lectionary
(2) of the variety

and multiplicity of the

the languages in which they were written (3) of the part of the Church where they were performed, of the formulas and rites which
of
;

and

accompanied them.
these points.
(i)

We

shall briefly treat

each of

The Ministers

to

whom

the Lections

of the Mass

were assigned
order and function of lector appear in the very earliest ages of the Church both in the East as well
as the West. In the East, it seems that the lector was the only minor order recognized, as can be gathered from the eighth book of the Apostolic
Constitutions,
ch.

The

22 (see

Migne,
,

P. G.,

torn.

i.

col.

1118)

;

the Apostolic Canons

in can. 42,

lector (avayvua-Tris)

and

of the cantor,

speak of the which clearly

supposes two distinct orders among the Easterns. Cantors and lectors were effectively the two existing
orders in
(an. 692).

the East, as attests the council in Trullo

The

distinction
;

is

very rarely met with in

the Western Church
nized the lectors.
is

this

From
:

Church nevertheless recog the third century, this order

Pope St. Cornelius, writing expressly mentioned to the Bishop of Antioch, to acquaint him with the
status of the
his

Roman

clergy, speaks of the lectors in
1

enumeration

(towards

250).

In

Africa,

the

lectors
1

were known to Tertullian (de Prcescriptionibus,
vi.

Eusebius, H.E.,

ch.

43

Migne, P.G.,

t.

xx.

c.

220.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
41,
P. L.,
torn.
ii.

155

col.

57),

to St.

Cyprian (see the

letters of this holy doctor, torn. iv. col. 287, 317, 324, the letters 24, 33, and 34), to Origen (Homil. in /. libr. Regum, de Engastrimytho, P.G., torn. xii. col.

1011).

From an early time, not only did the lector exist, but he was of great importance in the Church. St. Cyprian says that to the lectors was given the lection
of the gospel at Mass. This importance appears, besides, in the rite of their ordination. Among the Greeks this consists

and the singing

signs of the Cross and the imposition of with hands, prayers, the handing of the book of the The separated Churches Epistles without formula. added still to this ceremonial have, moreover, thus,
of three
;

the Maronites,

now united to Rome, add
;

the tunic and the stole

the handing of the Armenians have, with the

tradition of the Book, a formula like the Latins. 1

In the West.

a.

In the

Roman

rite.

The Canons
for
"

of Hippolytus, a document which has preserved
:

us the discipline of the third century, say Qui constituitur avayvwvrw (this is the name that the

Greeks give to the
neque manus
episcopo ei
ei

lector) ornatus sit virtutibus diaconi,

imponatur primo sed evangelium ab See Duchesne, Origines du porrigatur.
"

culte chretien, p. 528.

It

would seem that
is

it

is

to the
in the
8,

order of lector that the following allusion
1

made

See Assemani, Codex liturgicus ecclesia univers., ordine Denzinger, Ritus Orientalium, t. ii.
;

lib.

de

156
Ordo Romanus,

The Lectionary
viii.
:

in schola cantorum.

Pueri bene psallentes nutriuntur Ex hac accipient primam bene-

dictionem ab archidiacono (P.L., torn. Ixxviii. col. 999). In our own day, the ordination of the lector, in the

Church, consists in the tradition of the book with the formula Accipe, et esto verbi Dei relator,
:

Roman

habiturus si fideliter

et

utiliter

impleveris

officium

tuum, partem cum Us qui verbum Dei bene administraverunt ab initio. This book which is presented is the Missal or perhaps the Breviary, or the text of

Holy Scripture the last words of the formula are a manifest allusion to the primitive functions and
;

importance of the lectors
Gallican
rite.

in the

Church.

ft.

In the

The

ancient Statutes written for the

Church
Caesar,

of Aries, perhaps under the direction of St.
at the beginning of

the sixth century, and
"

often mentioned under the rubric,
of
Carthage,"
;

Fourth Council

give us the rite for the ordination of the

lector

the resemblance to our

Roman

Pontifical

is

most striking both
well
as

in the tradition

of the

book as

the formula pronounced by the bishop. From the works of St. y. In the Ambrosian rite.

exactly the state of the hierarchy of ministers at the time of this holy doctor. The Pontifical of the ninth century

Ambrose,

it

is

difficult

to

know what was

usage of the Church of Milan presents, for the ordination of the different ministers, a combination of
for the

the the

Roman and
Ordo
of

Gallican

rites.

Beroldus, the custom

In the twelfth century, is recorded by

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections

157

the ceremoniarius of the Milanese Church, enumerated
the

members

of

the clergy, and

among them

are

twelve lectors with their primicierius. 1 S. In the Mozarabic rite. No ritual is found for the conferring of minor orders. Nevertheless, the Council of Toledo,

about the year 400, speaks of the ostiarii and the the lectors are also mentioned in the second lectores
;

can. 45 Ut non ascendat in liceat in non pulpito psallere aut pulpitum LECTOR, sunt ordinati. a LECTORES presbytero legere nisi qui

Council

of

Braga,

:

It

was therefore a simple

priest

who, without the

intervention of the bishop, ordained the lesser clergy, and this circumstance explains the absence of any

formula

in the

book destined

for the use of the bishop. 2

But, in the lections of the Mass, what part did the
lectors take?

What

part
is

was reserved
a delicate one.
in the

to the sub-

deacons

?

The

question

For, from

an early time, subdeacons existed

Church

:

in

the third century, in the letter of which we have just spoken, Pope St. Cornelius speaks of the subdeacons
as distinct
is

from the
it

lectors.

True, the distinction
later
in

not so clear as

became

the

Eastern

Church.
discipline,
is

As

a matter of fact,

according to actual

the reading of the epistle at High Mass reserved to the subdeacon as the gospel is to the
Diet. d^Archeologie chretienne
et de Liturgie,
i.

1

c.

1391

-

1434-

See in the Monumenta Liturgica, t. edited by D. Ferotin, p. 41 and the note.
2

v.,

Liber Ordinum,

158
deacon.

The Lectionary
At what age
did this discipline begin ? 1 says Cardinal Bona, "that
"I

am

inclined to believe,

"

it

was about the seventh century.
at the

Amalarius, who wrote
:

beginning of the ninth century, tells us Miror de re sumptus sit usus in Ecclesia nostra, ut subqua diaconus FREQUENTISSIME legat lectionem ad missam,

cum

hoc non reperiatur ex ministerio sibi dato in con-

secratione

ex nomine

commissum^ neque ex litteris canonists, neque suo." Later he adds, at the end of the

chapter: Sed postquam statutum est a patribus nostris ut diaconus legeret Evangelium, statuerunt ut et subdiaconus legeret Epistolam sive Lectionem. Cardinal Bona, after having touched in passing on the expression
frequentissime, ventures to form an opinion,

and argues

thus

"

:

Amalarius does not

tell

us at what period our
;

Fathers established what has been said
is

my

opinion

that the deacons began to read the gospel before council of Rheims, the subdeacons did the epistle.

A

in 823,

speaks

in this sense;
III.

Pope Benedict

and Anastasius says of (855-858) that he reconstituted

a book, lost before his time, in which they found the lessons that the subdeacons according to custom

more

solito,

read at

all

the stations of the churches

;

he adds the Greek and Latin lessons that the sub-

deacons customarily read on Holy Saturday and the Saturday before Pentecost he enriched it with very From suitable and marvellously wrought gold."
;

which

it

follows
1

that the custom
liturgicarum,
ii.

adopted by the

Rerum

ch. vi.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
Church
of

159

Rome
"

in turn

The author
inferior

of the
:

passed to other churches. Micrology confirms this view in
the subdeacons alone

what he says

To

among

the

members

of the hierarchy, the authority of

has accorded the right to wear the sacred this vestments and to read the epistle at Mass
;

Rome

concession they have obtained, not by virtue of their consecration, but rather in virtue of a concession of
the ecclesiastical
authority."

This passage of Cardinal Bona s deserves to be given in its entirety, not only because it enlightens

on the privilege which the subdeacons to-day enjoy, on its origin and extent, but because it fur
us
nishes us with

used

in

some evidence as to the language once the lections, and as to the jealous care with

which the Popes themselves guarded the collections of writings. It has, it is true, been pretended that St. Gregory the Great had, in a council at Rome,
decided to
let

the deacon read the gospel at before

High
the

Mass, and the subdeacon to read the psalms or other
lections
;

but,

accepting

this

opinion,

commentator

of Cardinal
cceteras

Bona would

expression than
decision of this
epistle,

require a clearer lectiones to interpret the
to

Roman

council as referring

the

and

it

is

astonishing that Amalarius and the
it.

author of the Micrologus were not moved by

If,

nowadays, the singing of the epistle at High Mass is reserved to the subdeacon, one must conclude that
other lections were set apart for the simple lector
;

160
for,

The Lectionary
unless they were,
in

some expressions
of
in

of the
latter

Roman
mean

Pontifical

the

ordination

the

early times gave nothing. the lector power to read the different lections at the Mass indeed, one reads in an ancient commentary
;

The Eastern Church

of St.

Denys

:

Deinde per

lectores
et

divinarum scriptur-

fit.^

arum, Prophetarum, Apostoli But it seems that the East has since placed some restrictions on so extended a faculty see here,
:

Divini Evangelii lectio

indeed, what

Renaudot
In

tells
ii.

us in his Liturgiarum

orientalium Ritus, torn.

p. 68,

Syriac

liturgy

:

orientali

speaking of the non solent ecclesia,
in

lectores vel subdiaconi

sacram Scripturam cujus multce
:

sectiones leguntur^ publice legere

idque vulgo perficitur

a diaconis.

In priorum ordinatione nihil occurrit quod
illud legendi

ad officium
that
is

tineat ; into subdiaconi
in

ut apud Latinos\perepistolam> ad altare vix accedunt. Finally,

accord with the idea which Amalarius

got of

the

Roman
;

practice,

when he

said that this

privilege did not seem to result ex ministerio sibi dato nor is it opposed to the conception in consecratione

which the author of the Micrology formed when This faculty is rather the effect of a he said But the concession of the ecclesiastical authority.
"

:

East has restricted

this

faculty, whilst

Rome
ii.

has

extended
1

it."

Passage quoted

in

Bona,

Rerum

liturgicarum,

ch. vi.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections

161

(2)

Variety

and

Multiplicity of the Lections

and

the

Language used for them

reader need have no fear of seeing us here return to a point which has been amply dealt with in

The

we shall at once resume the preceding chapters our consideration of the practice of the Church
;

"Many churches," says throughout the centuries. the Cardinal Bona, reading of the epistle by precede some passage drawn from the prophets, especially on
*

great solemnities

;

the Comes furnishes us with a proof
still

:

at present certain missals
this

have some lections of

of the feast

kind for Christmas night and the three Masses Raoul of Tongres assures us that such
;

was the case with the Roman Missal before the Friars The Church of Minor changed the Roman rite.
Milan, as well as the Mozarabic liturgy, has preserved Let us for our part add that the this custom."

Missal actually bears traces of this ancient practice on the days of the Quatuor Tempora and on The Eastern liturgies are even now certain vigils.
full of

Roman

such lections
period

;

Renaudot

asserts that

one could,
(i)
(2)

at the

when he
from the

wrote, count

five:
;

the

lection

taken

Old Testament
;

the

lection of the

Acts of the Apostles
Epistles
;

(3) the lection

of

St.

Paul

s

;

(4)

the
of

lection

from the
In

Catholic

Epistles

(5)

lection

the

Gospel.

place of the lection
substituted,

both

in

from the Acts, there has been the East and the West, the
ii

1

62

The Lectionary
life,

account of the
the saint

sufferings,

and martyrdom
shall

of

who
in

is

honoured.

We

find

some
by D.

examples
Morin.

the

Liber Comicus published

prescribed that in certain circum stances the two languages, Latin and Greek, should
rite

The Roman

be used successively, or at
of the Pope.

least could

be at the

will

We

shall find proof of this in

the Ordines Romani.
of

Thus, the
1

many of Ordo Romanus X.
,

the

twelfth

century,

makes mention
the

of

the

following:

"The

blessing of

Paschal

candle

being finished, the subdeacon, going up to the pulpit, begins the lections without giving the title of the
book.

The

lesson being finished,
it,

if

the Sovereign

Pontiff wishes

a Greek subdeacon comes to read

the

same

lection in his language.
"

And one

proceeds

thus for the twelve lessons.

In the Ordo

Romanus

XV. (Migne, P.L., torn. Ixxviii. col. second Mass of Christmas, we are told
finished, the epistle
is

1276), for the
:

first

sung

in

Lauds being Latin and after
attends the
to

wards

in

Greek.

The Latin subdeacon
Sovereign Pontiff.
1014 an d following.
in the

Greek subdeacon, and the two together go

bow

down
1

at the feet of the

"

Migne, P.L., t

Ixxviii. c.
is

2
t.

A

like

remark

made

Ordo Romanus XIV.
Epistola LATINA et

(P.L.,

Ixxviii. c.

1030) apropos of the solemnity of the coronation of

the

Pope

:

Laudibus

finitis^ legitur

subsequentur super pulpitum.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
The Side of the Church where

163

(3)

the Lections are read

The pulpit (ambo) has been spoken of already. One will find ample details of its notion and destination in the Dictionnaire d Archeologie chretienne
et

From
gospel

de Liturgie, i. col. 1330 and following. the remotest times," says Cardinal Bona,
to

"it

was the custom
there
;

read

or

it

was
his

from

sing the epistle and there also that the

bishop
people,

addressed

homilies or sermons to

the

and that he made any announcements he have to make, etc. In what concerns the might the Ordo Romanus I. makes a difference epistle,
for the reading of the gospel
:

The subdeacon ought
but not on the

to read this lection

up
"

in the pulpit,
is

highest part

:

this latter

reserved to him

who has

to read the gospel.

adds Cardinal Bona, "had two one the east to go up, and the other facing stairs, turned to the west to descend sometimes the sub"Certain pulpits,"
:

deacon ascended by one side and the deacon by the
"

other.

(4)

Formulas and Rites which accompanied the Lections
shall

We
is

now

look at the

way

in

which the lection

certain days, for instance on Holy the lesson is read without the reader Saturday, giving the title of the book but generally the title is

given out.

On

;

announced.

We

do

not

find

here any

of

the

164
ceremonies which
;

The Lectionary
accompany the reading
of

the

Rupert, in his treatise, De divinis officiis, gospel 1 ch. 36, gives us a reason, which he assigns to the absence of any blessing preceding it, but which we

can easily extend to the absence of other rites. The text read by the subdeacon represents the Law and
the Prophets, an instruction given by God, without splendour, as under a shadow, to a particular people, ignorant of other nations, and unrecognized by them.

The reading
answers

of the epistle being finished, the server

in the

name

of those present

:

Deo

gratias.

God be

He

praised for the food of His doctrine which has deigned to give us, for the food of His divine
satisfied

wisdom with which He has

our hungry souls. This practice appears to date to the time of St. the holy doctor makes an indirect Augustine
:

allusion to

it

in

one of
33)
:

his

sermons,

when he

says

(serm.

133, alias

In

lectione Apostolica

gratia

Domino aguntur de fide Gentium. The blessing, which the subdeacon goes
after

to receive

the singing of the epistle, according to the Roman rite, appears to be a sign of submission and
:

dependence towards the representative of our Lord the priest does not say anything, but merely makes the sign of the Cross and gives him his hand to kiss.
This
1

is

doubtless a vestige of the practice mentioned

St.

for the lector to

Gregory of Tours says that at Milan it was customary come with the book in his hands to ask the
permission to read
:

bishop

s

De

miraculis S. Martini.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
in the

165

Ordo Romanus XV., where it tells us that the two subdeacons, Greek and Latin, go together to The same Ordo kiss the Sovereign Pontiff s foot.
has, in the

passage mentioned, another expression
explanation
said.
:

which

calls for a little
is

Finitis laudibus,

cantatur Epistola,
Finitis

What do
They
:

these words,

laudibus,

mean?

are,

says

Cardinal

1 Bona, an allusion to the custom practised by the Churches of Rome and Gaul the collect or prayer finished, there are some formulas of prayers, some

litanies

ending

:

Christus

vincit,

Christus

regnat,
:

Christus imperat. To which the choir answer Rex The Oriental noster ; spes nostra ; gloria nostra. to these ex formulas have added some liturgies

clamations which are often very long, and which seem to be a preparation of the congregation for the subsequent lection thus, the Nestorian liturgy
:

includes the two prayers following

:

AD LECTION ES
mortalis,

:

Sanctus, laudandus, fortis, imet requiescit

qui in sanctis habitas

in

eis

voluntas tua, respice, Domine, propitius esto et miserere
nostri.

Domine et Deus noster, motus cogitationum nostrarum, ad audiendum et intelligendum auditiones suaves mandatorum tuorum
:

AD APOSTOLUM

Illumina

nobis,

vivificantiuvi et divinorum, et concede nobis per gratiam
et

misericordiam tuam, ut ex illis colligamus argumentum

dilectionis et spei,
1

salutemque animce
liturgicarum,
ii.

et corpori convenich. v.

Rerum

1

66

The Lectionary
omnium Domine^

entem, cantemusque tibi gloriam perpetuam indesinenter
et

semper,

Faithful children of the
assist at the sacrifice of the

Roman

Church, while we

to

Mass, and while we listen the Divine word of the Old and New Testaments,
:

may our minds be animated by like dispositions let us ask understanding of the Divine teachings that this understanding may direct all our voices in the
;

love of God, and that

it

may conduct

us to the

happy

end when we
Saviour
!

shall for ever sing the

goodness of the

Up

to

now we have

said nothing of the general

expressions that the Church has added to the sacred text in her liturgy, either to announce the lection, or to enter actually on the subject. Nevertheless, these

formulas with which
ancient origin
:

we
to
;

are familiar have a

very

they are found for the most part in
liturgical

manuscripts

adapted

uses

;

they are

written in the margins they vary according to cir cumstances. Those that we find in the Roman

Missal or the Ambrosian Missal
:

may

be resolved into

a few types the lections from the Old Testament, like those taken from the New, which relate to a
historic fact,

begin either with these words In illo the formula for the beginning of the or else gospel), by these In diebus illis (historical books of the Old Testament, sometimes also the
:

tempore (this

is

:

passages from the Prophets which treat of an event,
1

Renaudot, de Liturgiis Nestorianis,

t.

ii.

p. 579.

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
Acts of the Apostles and Apocalypse
in the

167
New).

The

lections of the Prophets or Sapiential

Books begin
:

ex abrupto with the word of the sacred text Justum deduxit Dominus Dilectus Deo et ho minibu s or Hcec
.

.

.

y

dicit

Dominus Deus

after
.
.

having given out the
.

title of

the book, Lectio Libri.

The

Epistles of the
(this

New
the
;

Testament begin with the word Fratres

is

case in the greater number of St. Paul s Epistles) or by the word Carissime (Epistles of St. Paul to or by the word Carissimi Timothy and Titus)
;

(Epistles of St. Peter, St. James,

and

St. John).

No

addition the

is

made when
as

same

the

the beginning of the lection is beginning of the book (see, for

example, the beginning of the Epistle to the Romans for Christmas Eve, or the first Epistle of St. Peter for
the
feast

of

St.

Peter

s

Chair at

Rome

on 22nd

January).
2.

THE EVANGELARIES
this

We

have seen what

to the first

two Ordines Romani
tells

ceremonial was according Catalani, a liturgist of
;

the eighteenth century, 1

us what he has gathered

from Amalarius, Innocent
D. Martene, Cardinal Bona,

III.,

and others
,

too, like

down what were

competent to lay the liturgical traditions of the Church.
etc.
all

According to Amalarius (de Ecclesiasticis Officiis^ Migne, P.L., torn. cv. col. 1112 and fol.), the Evangelary

was solemnly
1

carried to the altar

by the subdeacon
ch. 12

Catalan!, de Codici

EvangelU^

t.

ii.

and

following.

1

68

The Lectionary
beginning of the Pontifical Mass.
Mysteriis Missce, Migne, fol.) makes the following remark
"

at the
III. (de

Innocent

P.L., torn, ccxvii. col.
:

802 and

The
;

sub-

deacon
is

at that

time carries the Evangelary closed

there

in this action a

the

way

type of St. John Baptist, who prepared for the Gospel it indicates at the same time
;

Apocalypse v. 4, the book of the Gospels is a sealed book, and can only be opened on the altar by Christ Himself or the priest represent
that, according to the

ing Him." After having said the prayers, Introibo, etc., the prelate goes up to the altar, kisses it, and then they offer him the beginning of the Gospel text to

sung by the deacon. At this moment, according to a ceremonial of the Church of Hcec est lex sancta, Rheims, the archdeacon says and the answers Credo et confiteor. Pater, archbishop
kiss also,

which

later

is

:

:

on the

Amalarius says that afterwards the Evangelary is put altar, and remains there till the deacon comes
it
:

to take

to sing the gospel

;

this practice has

been

modified

the deacon, a

little

the gospel, carries the book text to the altar, and it is from there that he comes
to take
it
:

before the singing of containing the sacred

again after having said, on his knees, the
.

prayer
is is

come,

Munda cor meum, etc. When the time the Roman Ordo prescribes that the deacon
. .

to kneel to kiss the prelate s feet,
;

to receive his

blessing then he goes to the altar, kisses the Evan gelary, and holds it up in his hands. Nowadays the

deacon kisses the bishop

s ring,

and kneels on the steps

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
of the altar to say
:

169
taking

Munda cor meum, and then,

the book of the Gospels, goes to ask his blessing.

says Catalani, is general and pertains everywhere; what do vary are the formulas pronounced by the deacon and priest. According to the general

This latter

rite,

rubrics of
:

the

Roman

Missal, the deacon ought to

say Jube, Domne, benedicere, and Catalani notes the difference in the terms used by the priest and deacon.

The

celebrant, bishop or priest, also asks a blessing

before reading the gospel, but addressing himself to God, the Sovereign and Universal Master, he says
:

Jube,

D omine,

benedicere.

immediately

to

Jube, Domne.

The deacon, speaking not but to His representative, says God, Peter Damian St. explains why this
:

this

formula: Jube, Domne, benedicere, is preferred to other Domne benedicito, which is used in the
:

liturgy

of

Venice.

It

is,

he says, that

:

Lecturus
eo cut

magncs humilitatis gratia, non a sacerdote sed ab
sacerdos jusserit se postulat benedici.

According

to the

given to the deacon, who sings the gospel, and not to the subdeacon, who has to sing the epistle, to mark the difference
this blessing
is

Abbot Rupert,

between the Prophets of the Old
of the

Law and the Apostles

the Prophets, represented by the subreceived their mission from God in an invisible deacon, manner, but the Apostles, represented by the deacon,
:

New

were sent openly by the Incarnate Saviour. The the Dominus bishop gives blessing in these terms
:

sit in

corde tuo et in labiis tuis ut digne et competenter

170

The Lectionary

annunties Evangelium suum, in nomine Patris et Filii. This prayer tells the deacon that his heart
.
.

.

ought to be
that this

harmony with the words of the Saviour, same Saviour ought to dwell interiorly in
in

him and speak by his mouth. We said that there was among the Greeks, as among the Latins, a pro
cession to the

ambo
(work

to sing the gospel.

We

see in

Innocent

III.

quoted, P.L., torn, ccxvii. pp.
details

822-

824) some more circumstantial

about the order

of the procession of the ministers, the use of incense,

and also of a cushion on which

to rest the book.

The

heretics of these latter days, says Catalani (he speaks

of Protestants), have not failed to turn into ridicule

or to pervert these different ceremonies, notably the use of candles, of incense, consecrated to persons and

things

;

they have forgotten, these ardent defenders

of the Scriptures, that the

Old

Law

prescribed the

use of
i

incense in

the

sacrifices

(see

Exod. xxx.

and

35), that the candles are symbolical of the joy

which accompanied the preaching of the Gospel. We burn incense at the gospel to show our respect to Jesus Christ, true God and supreme Priest, hidden
in the letter

and speaking to us
persons
;

in

it.

It is

true one

also

incenses

but,
i.

says
c.

Cardinal
it

Bona
it

(Rerum

liturgicarum,

lib.

25),

is

from a
to

religious motive, in

which one

invites

them by

consider the effects of Divine grace, to direct their prayers to God from a motive of recognition and love.

The

signs of the Cross on the forehead, mouth,

and

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections

171

breast (the early Roman Ordos do not mention the sign on the mouth) mark the turning from false

shame, the purification of the lips and the heart, conformably with what the deacon asked when he
addressed

God

:

Munda

cor

meum
:

ac labia

mea.

Others explain the rite in this way the lector, they say, wishes to show that his sentiments are the same
as those of the Great Apostle
;

he repeats interiorly

:

Corde credo ad justitiam, quod credo confiteor ad The assistants salutem, non erubesco evangelium.
strengthen themselves with the same sign, for even if they have not officially to proclaim the Gospel,

they ought to regulate their acts and words conform At the word Sequentia ably with its teachings.
. .

.

the faithful turn to the altar and answer

:

Gloria tibi

Domine,

"

Glory to Thee,
"

O

Lord,

who

hast sent us the

As to the attitude that the teaching of salvation. hearers should observe during the singing of the
gospel, an archbishop of Tours, formerly bishop of Mans, named Hildebert, has left us some verses in

which he summarises the

liturgical prescriptions with
:

their mystic interpretation

Inde sinistrorsum Domini sacra verba leguntur
Plebs baculos ponit, stat retegitque caput.

Ut

eis attentus, patiens, erectus in hostem Et caput et baculus et status ipse docet ; Quippe caput retegens, attente audire moneris, Parcere cum baculum rejicis, instrueris ;

Stans, discis

quoniam

stantes pugnare solemus,
vigili

Quod

te

culpa gravis sub

hoste manet.

172

The Lectionary
at

Catalani establishes
Evangelii,
lib.
ii.

c.

24,

length in his De codice that the gospel was to be

heard with the head uncovered, and in it he adduces many undeniable proofs in support of this view the
:

authority of the holy Fathers, of Sovereign Pontiffs,
indeed, some of theologians, canonists, liturgists the very highest personages, as, for instance, Pope Benedict XIII., of whom he says Quo recentius, eo
;
:

item validius ac venerabilius est
subire periculum,
discedere

.

.

.

malens salutis
vel

quam a

sacris

ritibus

latum

; adeo erat ecclesiastics disciplines, unguem quam probe callebat tenax servator et custos. And he

concludes

:

Everyone knows that

this act is a

mark
it

of respect paid to the gospel, but one can support
:

by other reasons (a) the gospel preaching has dis persed the shadows of the Old Law, and given to man a full knowledge of the truth (b) it signifies that all the senses should be disengaged and attentive
;

to listen to this Divine
of our submission

word

;

(c)

we owe
this

all

the marks

and respect to

Divine teaching.

The

prescription about laying down the staff seems
first

to us at

sight rather strange

:

the staff appears

to have been a rest, a prop (perhaps even an

arm

of

defence), which the faithful took with them at a time when it was not permissible to sit down (and when the

meeting might be disturbed)
staff

;

the putting

during the gospel was to

show

that

down of human

the
aid

was no longer necessary, because the Saviour Jesus was there and made His word heard, and it was at the

Ceremonial Observed for the Lections
same time
to

173

show

that

it

was desired

to practise

forgiveness of

injuries.

The usage has long
staff is

since

been abandoned, and the
the dean.

only preserved in

certain chapters as the insignia of the precentor or

Perhaps the bishop
in the

s

crozier

regarded as a staff of be astonished to read
(lib.
ii.

this nature,

may also be and we may well
RETINET

Ceremonial of Bishops
stans versus

ch.

viii.,

n.

46): Ipse Episcopus
ejus

BACULUM

inter

ambas

manus junctas,

diaconum cantantem.

But the reason of

this exception,
:

the authors say, is in the character of this insignia it is not a material support for the bishop, but a mark
of his authority, of his solicitude,

and

at the

same

time an instrument of correction
insigne ipsius
tionis,

:

Episcopi baculus est

auctoritatis

sollicitudinis atque correc-

nor

is

he to give
is

it

up whilst he

listens to that

of

which he

about standing shows
be,

the representative. how watchful

The direction we ought ever to
to execute

the eagerness with which

we ought
filled

the Divine

ardour with which

commands as set forth we should be

in the gospel, the

to fight

the

enemy

of our souls, to defend the gospel teaching with our whole strength, even to the shedding of our blood.

These dispositions manifest themselves in the words which the Church puts into the mouths of her hearers

when
is

the singing of the gospel is over these words, it some, according to true, vary to a certain extent
; :

the season, answer

Amen,

in its full signification

:

yes,

174
that

The Lectionary
God may make
:

gospel
dictus

or else

Deo

us persevere in the faith of the gratias, thanks be to God for so
;

holy and salutary a doctrine

some even add

:

Bene-

qui venit in nomine Domini^ answering the Divine teaching by the very cries that greeted Jesus on His triumphal entry into Jerusalem. To-day we Laus tibi Ckriste, thus renewing the simply say
:

sentiments

already expressed at the beginning. In agreement with the Ordo Romanus, Alcuin says

that the faithful

made the sign of the Cross again because the teaching of salvation was in some way
sealed within their souls and persevered against the The attempts of the devil to take it from them.

custom also existed
kissed not only

of presenting

the text

to

be

and

this

by the bishop but by all the clergy, custom was extended to all those assisting, or
;

at least to those of higher dignity

but the Sovereign

Pontiffs have not sanctioned this extension.

The

actual discipline
:

now

is

for the priest to kiss

the book, saying Per evangelica dicta deleantur nostra if he celebrates before delicta the bishop of the diocese or a cardinal or papal legate, he does not do
;

this,

kiss, to

is then offered to the dignitary to thus better emphasise the unity of Christ. Much more might be said on the usage of reading publicly the gospel text outside the Mass, and on the

but the text

graces, favours,

God

sometimes extraordinary, with which has rewarded the confidence of faithful, but it is
Catalani devotes a third of

beyond our subject now.

The Decoration of
his work, already quoted,

the Evangelaries

175

De

Codice Sancti Evangelii,

to these practices.

Let

it

suffice for us to

say

:

Who
and

ever

knows how

to abstain

from

all

irreverent

superstitious practice, keeping within the wise limits determined by the Church, will, in having recourse
to the gospel, experience

what
i.

St.

Paul says
to

:

Virtus

enim Dei
note that
it
"the

est credenti

(Rom.

6), or the characteristic
it

St.

Chrysostom applies
all

when he
all
"

calls

health-giving

medicine by which
are freely cured.

our

maladies and

our

ills

IV.

DECORATION
From an
of magnificence

THE INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR OP^ THE EVANGELARIES
early age Christian piety put a

1

good deal

of the liturgical books, the writers

and gorgeousness into the compiling and copyists them

selves being almost exclusively recruited in the
asteries.

mon

shall

Beginning at the time of Charlemagne, we be content to mention the monastery of St.

Martin of Tours, made famous, thanks to the direction which Alcuin gave it, the schools of St. Gall, Metz,

Rheims, Orleans,

etc.,

the abbey of Corbie, etc., etc.
particular,

took part in this eminence where art vied with richness. D. Martene
Evangelaries,
in

The

speaks of an Evangelary on purple vellum, given to
St.
1

Angilbert by Charlemagne, preserved later
For further
details see
iii.

in

the

D. Gueranger on the ornamentation
p. 31.

of the liturgical books, Institutions liturgiques,

176
abbey of
often
of

The Lectionary
St. Riquier,

and to-day

in the Bibliotheque

In the ninth century, the first pages were this kind of adornment a purple colour does not seem to have lasted beyond the tenth
Nationale.
;

century, the Evangelary of Lieutold being one of the rare exceptions found in the twelfth.

To

this

kind of richness

may

be added also the

custom of inscribing certain particular pages in gold and silver for instance, the Evangelary of Charles
:

de Rohan-Soubise was written with the
rubrics in gold.

title

and

Other Evangelaries, with only certain

pages in colour, are written throughout in letters of gold such is the Evangelary of St. Martin des Champs,
:

in the

The

Library of the Arsenal at Paris, and others. greater number, however, have the first pages

in great

and small
:

initials lettered in

gold or set in
its

golden setting

this

magnificence attained

highest

point during the Carlovingian period, and one does not come across it any more, except in rare cases, during the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.

The

fourteenth century brings in again the custom to

ornament certain letters, and this is followed during The design the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
and colouring were employed both
to embellish as
;

the well as to put reality into the liturgical books calligraphers paid particular attention to the orna

mentation of the

initials

of the texts.
:

Besides,

it

preserves the symbolic language

M. Lecoy de
p.

la

Marche (Manuscrits

et

Miniatures,

120) calls this

The Decoration of

the Evangelaries
it

177

period the phase hieratique, to distinguish
later

from the
artist

period,

phase

naturaliste,

where

the

copied nature. In the beginning of the seventh century the Missale Francorum, the Missale Gothicum, and the Sacrament-

arium Gallicanum,
faces

at the beginnings of certain pre

or prayers,

have some

letters
;

very slightly

ornamented

the Evangelary of the Cotton Library also shows this intention of ornamenting the initials among the Anglo-Saxon
calligraphers.
their

with flowers and birds

But ere long one
art
:

finds

them putting
of

whole

into

the

embellishment

the

principal letters

often, at the

head of an Evangelary,

the

first letter

extends over two-thirds of the upper

part of the page, breaking out into filigree work at then come the other letters which com the bottom
;

pose the word or phrase, each vying with the other in richness and ornamentation sometimes, indeed, the prolongation of the initial letter extends along
;

the lower margin and form a sort of setting.

is

carried

up the right side to

To

enliven

and put

life

into these initial letters,

the idea

came

in of representing buildings,

people,

and even whole scenes. In the Evangelaries, we begin with the Canons of Eusebius, which were in use
in association with the sacred text (these

canons are

a sort of concordance, which allows us to find, at a glance, the doings and parables of Christ met with
in

the

Evangelists

;

cf.

Migne, P.G.,

torn.

xxii.).

12

178

The Lectionary
necessity of arranging the synoptic tableaux in columns gave birth to the design of a portico

The

several

with arcades and columns in the decoration of which
the
skill

of

the artist displayed

itself

:

the canons

sometimes extend over twenty or twenty-five pages with various ornamented settings. The most remark
able Evangelaries of this kind, in the ninth century, are those of St. Medard of Soissons, of the Church of

Mans,

of
it

Hautvillers.

This custom
to

disappeared

when

practice only put, in the the which read at were Evangelaries, just passages the Mass nevertheless the calligraphers of the twelfth
;

became the

to

century wishing to transcribe an Evangelary according the first form brought back the old style of the
;

canons

this

was what the monk Lieutold did
in

in

the beautiful manuscript

To

this

kind

the Library at Vienna. of ornamentation we may apply the

compositions of architecture, afterwards the vignettes
of the Carlovingian period.

We

see a specimen on

the

first page of St. Mark in the Evangelary of Claude Fauchet, in the Bibliotheque Nationale. In the thirteenth century, and indeed before, the

design, which had

came
and

realistic

;

up to now been symbolical, be the illuminators and miniaturists no
flowers,
historical

longer contented themselves with foliage,
fruits as a

bordering

;

subjects, reproduced personages,

they depicted made tableaux and

In the Evangelary of St. Medard of Soissons, already spoken of as ninth century, on the first page
scenes.

The Decoration of
of St. Luke, Christ
is

the Evangelaries

179

represented in the initial letter the third letter of the word of the word Quoniam Visitation of the Blessed of the scene the represents
;

Virgin.

Such examples are met with
;

of manuscripts

every age but the marvels of miniature paint
the fourteenth
century,

in

ing

belong
is

to

where the
perfect
:

design

more

correct, the colouring

more

thus, in the

Evangelary of the Bibliotheque Nationale,

bound in red, each gospel has its chief letter orna mented with some personage. This perfection went
even so far as to reproduce the great persons of the period, and it is to the books of divine service that

we owe

the preservation of a great

number of

historical

portraits which, without them, we should not have The donors of these beautiful manuscripts, the had. people to whom they were given, the artists who

executed them, figure there in turn the Bald in the Evangelary of
Ratisbon
;

:

such are Charles
St.

Emmeran

of

empress, Agnes, Henry Conrad the Salic and Gisela on that of the Escurial
the Countess

III.

and

his

;

Mathilda on her Evangelary in the Vatican Library. If we wish to follow, century by

century, the miniaturists and their work, we ought to quote more still for the ninth century, the
:

Evangelaries of St.
of

Me"dard

of Soissons, St.

Emmeran

Ratisbon, Hautvillers, Lothaire, the Church of Mans, etc. for the tenth century, the Greek Evan
;

gelary preserved at Florence in the Library of the Badia, that of the Bibliotheque Nationale spoken of by

180

The Lectionary

D. Montfaucon, and which shows, on a groundwork of gold, the four Evangelists in a remarkable design
for the eleventh century, the

;

Evangelary given by

the Countess Mathilda to the

Abbey

of St. Benedict
;

for at Mantua, from whence it passed to the Vatican the twelfth century, two Greek Evangelaries of the Vatican, the Evangelary of the monk Lieutold for
;

the thirteenth century, the Evangelary of St. Martial of Limoges, of which two subjects, the Magi before

Herod and the Flight
of the time
;

into Egypt, rival the best

work
the

for the fourteenth century, the

Evange

lary of

John

of

Oppau

in

German.

Lastly,

fifteenth century is the golden age but the ornamentation passes from the Evangelaries to the plenariums, the breviaries, and after that time

for the illuminator,

we can occupy ourselves no The binding of the manuscripts and we must distinguish three
idea of ornaments
:

longer with
is

them. 1

also magnificent,

classes to give

any

the plaques of chased ivory, the of The or silver, the precious stones. plates gold to of seems be derived tablets employment ivory

from the ancient consular diptychs (under this name are designated the plaques of ivory on which was
1 To gain any idea of the marvels that painting put into the manuscripts during the Middle Ages, one ought to consult

P. Cahier,
vol. xviii.

Melanges d Archeologie, articles which appeared in of Annales de Philosophie chretienne, afterwards put
;

in

one volume

and

also

M.

le

painting of the manuscripts
century.

Comte de Bastard s publication, from the eighth to the sixteenth

The Decoration of the Evangelaries

181

engraved in relief the personage of the dignity of between these consul, with the insignia of his office plaques could be inserted some memoirs or works of
;

The Church adopted these kinds of other writers). for the liturgical service, in particular for binding
the Evangelaries which were exposed on the altar Christian art was addicted to designing scenes and
Christian symbols on these ivories. memory, in the ninth century, the
;

We

can
ivory

call to

which

adorned one of the sides of the Evangelary of Lorch at the Vatican, those which bound the Evangelary
No. 99 of the Bibliotheque Nationale
;

in the tenth

century, the ivories of the Evangelary of Epternach, one of which is met with at Paris (Museum of the

Hotel Cluny)

;

in the eleventh century, the celebrated

covering of the
like gold

Evangelary of Besancon. ivory plaques, one needed to use a more
or silver
;

To

fix

the

solid metal

but ere long the piety of our
of these

fathers

made complete bindings

precious

metals.

In this category ought to be mentioned the

Gothic Evangelary of Ulphilas, called Codex argenteus, because of its binding the Evangelaries of St. Me"dard of Soissons and of St. Emmeran of Ratisbon,
;

already
St.
St.

many

times mentioned
;

;

the Evangelary of

Eusebius of Vercelli
Louis, from the

the Evangelary, called of

Holy Chapel.

Sometimes the

bindings were formed of one plaque of gold and one of silver they were called by the special name of
;

Codex or Textus dimidius.

Lastly, they inset precious

1

82

The Lectionary
covers of these books.
"It

stones in the
reason,"

is

with

says the
23),

Abbot Rupert

(de Divinis Officiis^

bk.

ii.

ch.

"that

the books of the Gospel are

decorated with gold, silver, and precious stones, for in them is contained the gold of heavenly wisdom,
in

them

glistens the silver of

an eloquence founded
of

on

faith, in

miracles,
Christ,

of

them shine forth the precious stones those wonders worked by the hand
hands
which,

of

by those

according

to

the

words

of the Divine Canticle, 1 are

turned, and as

of gold full of

hyacinths.

To

these motives let

on the
the

us add the custom of laying the book of the Gospels altar, of placing it at Councils on a throne in

midst
in

of

the assembly room,
it

of

solemnly
to kiss.

procession, of giving

carrying it to the clergy

Sometimes they even went so
precious relics in the binding

far as to set
:

some

itself

as Desiderius of

Monte Cassino

inset a piece of the

True Cross and a

small piece of the clothing of St. John the Evangelist in an Evangelary on which he had lavished the richest

ornamentation.
1

Canticle of Canticles,

v. 14.

CHAPTER

IV

GENERAL SURVEY OF THE LECTIONS OF THE ROMAN MISSAL
i.

THE LECTION ARIES
as to the
it

[LEST there be any mistake
of
this

end and object

chapter,

we

think

well to say that these

which are repeated in this translation are not destined to give, as an afterthought,
mystical
considerations

the historic law of the development of our actual system of lections in the Roman Missal they are
:

only put forth as a stimulant for the piety of the faithful, and in this they do not seem to us to be
out of place in the liturgical setting of this chapter.] The Lectionaries suffered the fate of the Evangelaries
;

side

by

side with these collections, towards

the eleventh century, had appeared complete Missals.

Rare enough at first, they gradually multiplied in number, and for many centuries took their place side by side with the Lectionaries which they eventually

The invention of printing facilitated supplanted. the multiplication of copies, and at the same time it lessened the size of the volume, and from that
183

184

The Lectionary

time only the Missals were in use, wherein was put
everything needed for the lections of the Holy This change did not make the differences Sacrifice.
lections disappear and, as the divergences each day became accentuated, the Council of Trent put an end to it by setting up uniformity for the
in the
;

Missal as for the Breviary. Pope St. Pius V. ac the this publication of the new complished design by Roman Missal, which was made obligatory for the whole

Church.

In the bull of promulgation, Quo primum tempore, he declares that a commission appointed
"

by him has accomplished this work, after having diligently compared the manuscripts of the Vatican Library with others, and that he has attempted to
restore

primitive purity the rule of the a fact, in what concerns the reading of the epistles as well as the gospel and of this proof has been given during the course of these studies
to
its
Fathers."

As

Roman Missal is in agreement with the general ensemble of the documents some particular practices
the
:

churches which had not a special approval of the Holy See in their favour, or a custom of more than two hundred years of existence, were

were modified

;

ordered to adopt the Roman Missal (1570). Let us rapidly run over this precious monument
to our liturgy, to which, during three

some
*

modifications in detail

hundred years, have been added.

Penetrated with the thought of St. Paul that whatsoever things ever written were written for

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
our learning, that

185

patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope (Rom. xv. 4), the Church chose her lections with the end of teaching
"

we through

and

edification, she has distributed

them throughout
as
possible,

the liturgical

year, giving, as

far

the

passage most suitable
literal

to each mystery, either in the

sense, or the spiritual, or the accommodated She is when she sees a motive of piety there. more attached to the New Testament, considering
it

that

is

full

of

allusions

to

the facts of sacred
;

history and

to the

Mosaic

Law

but she has

left

a large enough place for the prophecies wherein one
finds described the evolution of the Incarnation

and

the

Redemption Books (Wisdom, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, to etc.), bring before us the merits and the glory of
;

she has also taken part of the

Sapiential

the

Holy Virgin and the

saints.

of

Thus, the whole liturgical year relates to the life our Divine Saviour (the hidden, suffering, and
life),

ought on earth according to His example, in con formity with the teachings of the Church established by Him.
glorious
to lead
i. The hidden life of Jesus has its preparation in the period of expectation, its commencement in the accomplishment of the Incarnation, its development

and

to the life that the Christian

in the years passed at Nazareth. That is all set before us during the seasons of Advent, Christmas,

and Epiphany.

1

86

The Lectionary

taken from
of

(A) During Advent the epistle at the Mass is St. Paul, and dealing with the motives
at

the awakening of the soul Jesus, the Light of the world
first
;

the approach of (Rom. xiii. for the

Sunday) on the reunion of Jews and Gentiles one family to receive the benefits of the Re this reunion had been preached by the demption prophet Isaias (Rom. xv. for the second Sunday) on
in
:

;

the happy effect that the thought of the coming of the Saviour ought to produce in us (Philip, iv. for the third Sunday) on the dignity of the Christian
;

priesthood, the scope of which is enlarged by the ordination of Christmas (i Cor. iv. for the fourth

Sunday).
This is the birth of Jesus Christ, (B) Christmas. the son of David, according to the flesh the
:

Apostle St. Paul tells us how we should hail it (Rom. i. he shows us Jesus Christ, in i, Christmas Eve)
;

His cradle, as personifying the purifying and redeem
ing grace (Titus
ii.,

ought

to be our duties
;

of the Aurora)

Mass of Midnight) tells us what and our hope (Titus iii., Mass brings before us at the same time
;

that this Jesus, in spite of His humiliations, is to be saluted as the Son of God, equal to His Father, King
of the Day). His Wrapped swaddling clothes, humanity, Jesus nevertheless remains impassible and immortal
i.
,

eternal of angels
in

and men (Heb.

Mass

in

in

His divinity

:

this is the teaching also of St.

John
"

in the

beginning of his gospel,

when he says

:

And

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
the

187

and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as it were of the only begotten Son of His Father." This Jesus made Him self one of us that He might be able to call us His

Word was made

flesh

brethren and co-heirs (Galat. iv., Sunday within the it is for this that He shed the first drops of octave)
;

His Blood at the Circumcision (Titus
Christmas).

iii.,

octave of

(C) Epiphany.
to

To

call to

mind how Jesus
His
light, of

willed

bring

all

peoples to receive

whom

the

Magi were the first-fruits, the Church has deemed well to set before us, on this solemnity,
one of the prophecies of Isaias (Isa. Ix.) and the realisation (St. Matt, ii.), and during each day of the
octave she brings the same teaching before the faith it is like a ful joyous refrain which recounts the goodness and mercies of the Most High. In the
:

measure that Jesus grew under the shadow of obscurity, not without having to suffer, the Church traces out
of the Apostle St. Paul
itself in

before the faithful their duties, always by the mouth that their gratitude must show
:

a spirit of sacrifice and immolation (Rom. xii., Sunday in the octave) that they use the gifts and graces received to the edification of their brethren, and
;

do

all

to the glory

and service

of
;

God (Rom.

xii.,

second Sunday after Epiphany) that they exercise themselves in charity to their neighbour and keep
peace with
all

(Rom.

xii.,

third

Sunday

after

Epi

phany)

;

for in this love of our

neighbour are included

1

88

The Lectionary

the other precepts of the
;

Law (Rom.

xiii.,

fourth

the other virtues are day after Epiphany) in charity, which is the bond of perfection (Coloss.
all

Sun bound up
v.,

Sunday Doing this, they happily partake of the fruits that the preaching of the gospel should produce in them (i Thess. i., sixth
Epiphany). Thus the Christian belief ought to correspond with belief in the Infant Jesus. 2. The suffering life of Jesus has its preparation in

fifth

after Epiphany).

will

Sunday

after

the work of His preaching, the privations to which He subjected Himself it has its end in the sacrifice of the
;

Cross

:

that

is

represented to us in the seasons of

Septuagesima, Lent, and Passiontide.

(A) Septuagesima, The Church often epitomizes the preceding period, to make the Christian realize that his life on earth cannot be without works, wrest
lings,

nor without

trials.

On
:

she says to us with St. Paul

Septuagesima Sunday Life is a combat, one

ought to march on to the conquest of an incorruptible crown, and to work with this view (i Cor. ix. and x.).
us in the Great Apostle a model of the sufferings and wrestlings by which the
soul strengthens itself in virtue (2 Cor. xi.

On Sexagesima, she presents to

and

xii.).

us what ought to vivify our works, namely charity, that virtue without which we can do nothing (i Cor. xiii.).

On

Quinquagesima, she

tells

This holy season, consecrated by can also call to mind to the faithful the penance, the and the years that He conlife of Saviour public
(B)
Lent.

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
secrated to the preaching of His doctrine.

189

By His

example Sundays

as well as

by His words,

He

never for an
:

instant ceased to excite us to penance

during the

of this part of the liturgical year, the lection
St.
:

from the Apostle

Paul will recall us to this subject more than any other time one should respond to grace
life

by a

renouncement and mortification, for these are the days of salvation which are offered us (2 Cor. God wills above all that we should vi. first Sunday)
of
, ;

apply ourselves to the work of our sanctification suppression of sin (i Thess. iv., second Sunday)
is

by the
;

there

no more anything in common between us and the unfaithful who have effaced from their soul all traces
:

of the Divine likeness
in

let

us walk as children of light

the love

of

our Saviour Jesus,

who hath
;

first

us (Ephes. v., third Sunday) Jesus Christ brings to us true liberty, and with it the promise of joy and happiness (Gal. iv., fourth Sunday); also is

loved

He

the

High

Priest

and Mediator between God and

man, who ought to re-establish the covenant by the shedding of His Blood (Heb. ix., Passion Sunday)
;

and His sufferings as a bond-slave, who, going
death of the Cross
in the practice of obedience,

to the

merited
that

for us the possession of glory, at the

same time

they serve as our

example

in the

pilgrimage of this

But side by present life (Phil, ii., Palm Sunday). side with this Apostolic doctrine, the Church in the
course of each week and during all the days of Lent makes us read whatever is most strict and urgent

190
on penance
in

The Lectionary
:

the writings of the prophets the austere invitations of the prophet Joel, ch. ii. (Ash Wednesday) the counsels that God gave to King
;

Ezechias, afterwards to the people forgetful of true penance by the mouth of the prophet Isaias, ch.
xxxviii.

and

Iviii.

(the

three

days preceding

first

God as a good shepherd deigns to in Lent). work to overcome every us (Ezech. xxxiv.) us from Him (Isaias lv.) (first which separates thing
Sunday
visit
;

to the second

Sunday)

;

let

us for the

moment omit

the special lections of the Quatuor Tempora; Daniel addressing himself to God in his distress (Dan. ix.), the

widow
(3

of Sarepta
xvii.
),

Kings

having recourse to the prophet Elias Esther praying to God for her people

(Esther

xiii.),

the sons of Jacob imploring the mercy

of their brother Joseph (Gen. xxxvii.), Jacob preferred
to his elder brother in the distribution of the Divine

blessings

(Gen.

xxvii.),

these

are

some

of

the

examples which speak to sinners of their attitude before God (second to the third Sunday). Like

Naaman
like the

they are covered with leprosy (4 Kings v.), poor widow they have not the means where
:

with to pay their debts (4 Kings iv.) that they may have recourse to God. God Himself dictates the con
ditions of

pardon

in calling
all

xx.)

;

but before

them to His law (Exod. we must do penance (Jerem. vii.)
Israel

and guard against any opposition to God, as did
once
in the wilderness
;

(Num. xx.) like the chaste Susanna we should only be in expectation of God s

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
justification

1

91

and deliverance (Dan.

xiii.,

the third to

the fourth Sunday). Jesus is the true Solomon who like Moses, we judges with equity (3 Kings iii.) should appease the anger of God against a wayward
;

people (Exod. xxii.)
fidelity

;

this

is

He who

will

bring back
their stains

and prosperity to the heart of His people
all

(Ezech. xxxvi.), in purifying them of
(Isaias
i.),

in

(4

Kings

iv.)

and Elias

snatching them from death as Eliseus (3 Kings xvii.) did when they

raised the son of a poor
will

widow

to life

;

this is

he who

the captives according to His promise the fourth Sunday to Passion Sunday). (Isaias xlix.,
deliver

are

(C) Passiontide. the lections of
of
this

We

have spoken above of what
Apostle
:

the

during

the

two

Sundays fortnight during the week, the Church desires to set before us the penance of the
Ninevites (Jonas
iii.),

the triumph of Daniel over his

She shows us, in Jesus persecutors (Dan. xiv.). suffering, the Prophet who recalls the Law of the
Lord
of

(Levit. xix.), the victim
iii.),

who appeases

the anger

God (Dan.

the Prophet exposed to the hatred

of

His fellow-men, yet preserving in the midst of His sufferings and humiliation the most undaunted

confidence (Jerem. xvii. and xix., from Passion to

Palm Sunday). Finally, during Holy Week Jesus appears, like Moses in the desert, exposed to the complaining of those whom He would save (Exod.
xv.

and

xvi.),
ii.),

humiliated in obedience even unto death

(Philip,

the

Man

of

Sorrows Isaias

(1.

and

Ixii.)

192

The Lectionary
;

and Jeremias (xi.) have described working the cure foretold by Osea (vi.) and shedding His blood, which,
;

better than that of the Pascal lamb, will effect the

deliverance of His people (Exod. xii.). have already seen that the lections of

We

Holy
:

Saturday have a special character, having for their primary end the instruction of the catechumens
the

has preserved them to teach the faithful that the Resurrection of Jesus Christ is for them a new baptism, the beginning of a new life.

Roman Church

The Glorious Life of Jesus : Easter and Pascal With the practical lesson that St. Paul deduces Time.
3.

from
this

this

mystery

(i

Cor. v.), throughout the whole of

season the Church sets before the eyes of the faithful the preaching of the Apostles, all founded on
the great wonder of the Resurrection (Acts x. xiii., iii. viii.), the teaching of the chief of the Apostles
,

,

concerning Jesus, the Saviour of His people and the corner-stone of the new edifice (i Pet. ii. and iii.).

One must
in

therefore, according to
of

St.

John, believe

Jesus (Low Sunday, i John the vi.). Sundays which follow up to the During Ascension, the Church wishes us to draw some salutary
divinity

the

doctrine from the Catholic Epistles of St. Peter and St. James, the practice of which will make us live the
of Jesus risen but especially does she direct us to the teachings on the necessity and efficacy of prayer. On Ascension Day, she takes from the book of the
life
;

Acts the

last

counsels of Jesus and the account of

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
His ascension into heaven
;

193

she wishes lastly that we should practise watchfulness and recollection in the faithfulness of the Holy Spirit (i Pet. iv.) for the

Sunday within the octave. At Pentecost and during the

octave,

we meditate

on the accomplishment of the mystery as it is described in Acts ii., we are invited to look on the happy effects
of the glorification of Jesus
;

the transformation of the

Apostles and the foundation of the Church as the (See Acts x. prophet Joel had told beforehand.
,

viii.,

ii.)

Life of the Christian from the Foundation of the It is represented to us till the End of Time. by the time which follows Pentecost the lections particularly insist on the practice of the virtues which
4.

Church

:

outcome of the foregoing mysteries the Catholic Epistles and the Apostle St. Paul in the
are the
;

moral part of his

letters furnish the matter.

Thus,

Jesus loved, in return for the says the disciple love that God has bestowed on us, we must answer

whom

with the love of our brethren

(i

and even lay down our lives Sunday). We must abide in humility and watchful
,

John iv., ist Sunday), for them (Item iii. 2nd

Sufferings of this time are not to be compared to the glory to come (Rom. must return good for evil viii., 4th Sunday).
ness
(i Pet. v.,

3rd Sunday).

We

(i Pet.

iii.,

5th Sunday).

For the following Sundays,
:

St.

Church successively takes

Paul alone furnishes the practical lessons that the for her epistles Rom. vi.,
13

194
that the sinful that our
;

The Lcctionary

man

die in us, 6th

Sunday
life

;

Rom.

vi.,

life

of sin

may become

a

of holiness, /th

Sunday Rom. viii., let us mortify our flesh, 8th Sunday i Cor. x., let us not ask of God the impossible, 9th Sunday I Cor. xii., because the various gifts have God for their author and work for the good of the
; ;

Church, loth Sunday

;

I

Cor. xv., the resurrection of

Jesus Christ the guarantee of our resurrection,

nth

Sunday
faith
in

;

2 Cor.

iii.,

authority of the Apostolic ministry
I2th
of

under the

New Law,

Sunday;

Galat.

iii.,

rule of

the

economy
;

salvation,

I3th

Sunday;

Galat.
other,

the flesh and the spirit war against each Galat. v. and vi., one should I4th Sunday
v.,
iii.,

practise mutual charity, I5th Sunday; Ephes.

that

strengthen us in the faith, immensity of the love of Jesus Christ, i6th Sunday Ephes. iv., let us abide united in faith, living according to our vocation,
;

God

1

I

N.B. Let us notice here a return to 7th Sunday. Cor. i., thanks for God s gifts to His creature,

Sunday following Quatuor Ternpora of September, 1 8th Sunday Ephes. iv., we must imitate God and Jesus Christ to acquire sanctity, I9th Sunday; Ephes. v., different virtues to practise, 2Oth Sunday Ephes.
; ;

vi.,

spiritual

warfare of
;

the
i.,

Christian
St.

against the
s

devil, 2 1st

Sunday

Philip,

Paul

expression
;

of affection for the Christians,
iii.

22nd Sunday

Philip,

and

iv.,

to always

go forward clinging to Jesus
Coloss.
i.,

Christ, 23rd

Sunday
:

;

person and work of

Jesus Christ

His

benefits, 24th

Sunday.

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
5.

195

The
:

lections of the

form a teaching apart,
picture

Quatuor Tempora seem to which fits into the foregoing
between the
first

they are actually placed between the third
of Advent,

and fourth Sundays

and

second Sundays of Lent, between Pentecost and Trinity Sunday, lastly between the seventeenth and
In Advent, eighteenth Sundays after Pentecost. the prophet Isaias bids us celebrate in advance the
to gather

mystery of the Incarnation which he announces, and ch. ii., vii. xi., xix., xxxv. xl., xlv. its fruits
:

,

,

Nevertheless, in a most mysterious passage, St. Paul tells us of the terrors that the coming of Jesus at the

end

of time will occasion (2 Thess.

ii.).

In Lent are

called to

God on

passed indeed do penance,
(Ezech.
xviii.)
;

mind the forty days that Moses spent with the mountain (Exod. xxiv.) those that Elias in the desert (3 we must Kings xix.)
;
;

each one for his

own account
to the law to

that

(Deut. xxvi. and xi.)

we should be faithful that we should go
; ;

God

as

our liberator (2 Mac. i.) trust wholly in the mercy of God for our forgiveness (Eccles. xxxvi. ). St. Paul
exhorts us to encourage each other in the practice of a patient charity (i Thess. iv.). During Pentecost, the

with the account in the Acts, us of the foundation of the Church, but which they also recall to us that there was under the Old Law
lections
tell

harmonize

an obligation to offer the first-fruits to God (Levit. Deut. xxvi.), and that we ought to xxiii. and xxvi.
;

consecrate the fruit of our works and sufferings

to

196

The Lectionary

the Lord, for they are above all the work of the Holy In September, the Spirit in our souls (Rom. v. ).

teachings of the prophets are relative to the relief of Israel (Amos ix.), to the promises of salvation made to them if they would turn from their sins (Osea xiv.)
;

there

what took place in the seventh feasts month under the Old Law (2 Esd. viii.)
is

also recalled

;

celebrated

in

tents

(Levit.

xxiii.)

;

prayer for the
;

salvation of the people (Micheas

vii.)

and

finally

St. Paul the details of the captivity (Zach. viii.). of the Old us a Tabernacle, with description gives

applications to the

work

of the finest of the

of

the

New

Law

(Heb.

ix).

For each

Quatuor Tempora

Missal gives as the fifth lesson of the Saturday the deliverance of Daniel (ch. Hi.), and the canticle Benedictus es Domine.
of the year, the
It is from the Sapiential 6. Common of Saints. Books that the Church draws her most characteristic

Roman

she takes expressions for the eulogy of the saints an encomium of a general character like that of the
;

(Prov. xxxi.), to apply it to the female that attitude of the wise man who or like saints,

strong

woman

has

his

(Eccles.

eyes fixed on God, to speak of doctors xxxi.), or the disinterestedness that one
;

by enjoys in the confessors who were not bishops and by it is the panegyric of someone in particular, like Abraham, Moses, Aaron, Joseph, that she applies to
her martyrs or confessors (Wis. x. Eccl. xliv.-xlv.) at other times, to celebrate the martyrs, she shows the
; ;

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
rewards they have received
iii.

197

for their sufferings (Wis.

and

v.

for the

Common

of Martyrs)

;

afterwards

the Epistles of St. Paul (Rom., Cor. i. and ii., Tim. i. and ii. Heb.) are put forth to show us, in the saints,
the true wise

men whose
immense

sufferings are but

little in

the face of the

glory, the true priests

who have

borrowed
the

their priesthood in imitating Jesus Christ,
Priest, the chiefs
all

High

and guides that one should
of
St.

follow in

docility

and submission.
Peter and of St.
of the

Finally,

some passages

James
saints,

tell

us how, according to the

example

we ought

to patiently bear our part in all the
;

sufferings of Jesus

to give us courage, a passage or

two from the Apocalypse lets in a gleam of that glory which the eye of man hath not seen. In this school,
the Christian realizes that he ought to imitate the he is encouraged to accomplish it by the saints
;

thought that those who have gone before him have had the same nature and the same weaknesses Quid
:

isti et istce

cur non ego (St. Augustine).
2.

THE EVANGELARIES
which the lections were distributed
is

The manner

in

throughout the liturgical year in the Evangelaries than in

not less instructive
Lectionaries,
in

the

regard to the thought-out plan which the Western liturgies followed and which the actual Roman Missal
reproduces.

The Easterns

read each of the four Gospel histories

198
in turn
;

The Lectionary
they finished reading the first before they to the second. The Latins have preferred

passed on

taking the passage, from one or other of the four Gospels, which is best suited to the mystery then

being celebrated.
before us the
Christian
life

Thus the
of Jesus

liturgical
;

year

on earth

then,
It

how

puts the

should copy the Divine
into

life.

may

be

divided

three

cycles:

Christmas, Easter,

and

two represent and recall to us the mysteries of the Incarnation and the Redemption, and are chosen according to the feast which is the
Pentecost.
first

The

central point

;

the last describes what the fruit

of

these mysteries ought to be in the Church and each of the faithful, and takes its name from the feast

which

the point of departure. After a summary review of each of these three divisions, we will add
is

some

reflections

Gospel lections for the ferias of

on the Common of Saints, and on the Lent and on the Quatuor
,

Tempora.
i.

Cycle of Christmas.

It

comprises twelve Sun
after the

days, of
feast.

which four come before, and eight

The

four

Sundays

of

Advent

are a preparation

for the Christian to celebrate the anniversary of the

birth of

Jesus at Bethlehem: the liturgy first puts forward the last judgement, as it did at the end of
the preceding year (St. Luke xxi. 25-33) ^ * s tne signal of the awaking to the first Sunday. Passing to the testimony borne by St. John Baptist to Jesus,
:

it

affirms the divinity of the Child

who

is

born (2nd

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
Sunday,

199

St. Matt. xi. 2-10), puts us on our guard the against danger of allowing Him to pass unnoticed

(3rd Sunday, St. John

i.

19-28), lastly, tells us the

conditions of a good conversion to greet His
(4th Sunday,
St.

coming

Luke

iii.

1-6).

Thanks Son

to the

Gospel passage of the three Masses
assist, as it

of Christmas,

of the prescribed of the the enrolment, appearance angels, we sing the song of the heavenly host (Midnight Mass, St.

of God,

we we

were, at the birth of the

see

the results

Luke

ii.

1-14),

the Infant in
ii.

we go with the shepherds to adore the manger (Mass of the Aurora, St.

Luke 15-17); from these wonderful humiliations we draw the eternal generation of the Word (Mass of the day, St. John Afterwards we see 1-18). how this Child will be a sign of contradiction (Sunday with the octave of Christmas, St. Luke ii. 34-40). We
i.

see the
St.

first
ii.

drops of His blood shed (Circumcision,
21).

Luke

We

have the return from Egypt

brought before us, leaving us to understand that even when an infant He has excited persecutors (vigil of the Epiphany, St. Matt. ii. 19-23). But already the

approaching participation of the Gentiles
of the Gospel

in the light

the East
St.

is foretold, and some wise men from come to adore the King of the Jews (Epiphany,
ii.

Matt.

1-12).

Lastly, there are the touching scenes of the hidden
life

Nazareth which are so edifying after that it was necessary that Jesus should fulfil His mission to
at
;

2OO
instruct

The Lectionary

men (Sunday
St.

within

the

octave

of

the

Epiphany,
of

42-52). In the Sundays which follow

Luke

ii.

we

see the beginning

His public

life:

the marriage and miracle of

Cana
the

(2nd Sunday,
leper

St.

John
viii. viii.

iii.

i-n); cleansing
s

of

and the healing of the centurion
1-13)
; ;

servant (3rd
stilled

Sunday, St Matt.

tempest

(4th

Sunday,

St.

Matt.

23-28)
xiii.

parable of the cockle

(5th Sunday, St. Matt.

24-30); parables of the mustard-seed, the leaven, and the conclusion of the The parables (6th Sunday, St. Matt. xiii. 31-35). variability of the date of Easter causes the latter of

these

Sundays
;

to

be carried over to the end

of

Pentecost

hence we must not be astonished that the

liturgy gives here a sketch of the miracles of Jesus

and His teaching by parables.
2.

Cycle of Easter.

Sundays, nine of which the feast, and six after.

This period includes sixteen come before Easter, one for
In this cycle,
:

we have

the

to encourage us to preludes to the life of penance follow Jesus, the Christian learns there the conditions

labour in the vineyard of the heavenly Father (Septuagesima, St. Matt. xx. 1-16), of the good seed
of

which was made

fruitful (St.

Luke

viii.

4-15).

After

wards Jesus shows us beforehand that the Cross is the end of His life on earth, and that doctrine, under
stood truly,
will

heal

the

sinner

of
:

his

disease

(Quinquagesima, St. Luke xviii.3 1-43) He gives us an example of penance and of resisting temptation

Survey of the Lections of the Missal

201

(Quadragesima, St. Matt. iv. i-n); He shows at His transfiguration that the glory of His divinity will
cruel torments (2nd

not hinder His sacred humanity enduring the most Sunday of Lent, St. Matt. xvii.
1-9)
;

the cure of the demoniac, He tells us that the sacrifices made for our salvation will not prevent the danger and the evil of relapse (3rd Sunday of
in

Lent,

St.

bread

He

17-28) teaches us that if
it

Luke

xi.

;

in the multiplication of

for our food,

is

that

He consents to be broken He may finally reign within
Sunday
of Lent,

us after having purified our faith (4th
St.

John

vi.

1-14).

foretold,

the
will
St.

The approaching death of Jesus Gospels tell how the hatred of His
viii.

enemies

break forth, false accusations (Passion

Sunday,

John

48-59).

The

sufferings

and

death of the Son of

God

are told beforehand (Palm

Sunday,
this

St.

Matt. xxvi. and xxvii.).

Nevertheless, on
of the triumphal

same Palm Sunday, the account
into
recalls

Jerusalem entry claimed the divinity of the victim who was to be immolated some days later (St. Matt. xxi. i-ii).
Easter.

how

the people pro

This

is

the realization of the triumph over
;

death which

He had foretold

it is full

of promises for

the Apostles. All

Easter week, the liturgy recalls the Divine

promises by putting the several appearances of Jesus The appearance on the eighth day brings before us.

peace and a promise of Divine powers to the Apostles (Quasimodo Sunday, St. John xx. 19-31). But it is

2O2

The Lectionary
the separation
:

to prepare the Apostles for
tells

Jesus

them He

is

their

Shepherd and model (2nd

Sunday
ness at

after Easter, St.

John

x.

11-16).

The sad
John
xvi.

His departure

will,

however, produce some

joyful fruits (3rd

Sunday

after Easter, St.

16-22)

;

a heavenly consoler will
fruitful (4th

come

to render their

Apostolate

Sunday

after Easter, St.

John

xy

i-

may
John

S^S)) tney are to pray that all the promises be accomplished, and that the Redemption may
(5th

be truly effectual
xvi. 25-30).

Sunday
of

after

Easter,

St.

The
and
of

glorious

departure
St.

Jesus

takes
;

place

(Ascension Day,
trials foretold

Mark

xv.

14-20)

persecutions

promise of within octave abide the Jesus (Sunday In xv. 26-xvi. St. conclusion, 4). Ascension, John all these passages of Jesus discourse after the Last
will

for the Apostles, but the

Supper are admirably suited to the period extending from the feast of Easter to Pentecost. This cycle, which is as long 3. Cycle of Pentecost.
as

the

others

together,

normally has
;

twenty-five

Sundays, counting the day itself it finds itself even increased from the end of the cycle of Christmas when
Easter happens to fall early. Throughout all this season of the year, the fruits of the Incarnation and
the Christian.

Redemption are shown These

in the life of the
fruits

Church and

many and various. It is first the descent of the Holy Spirit which effects a marvellous transformation, a peace which produces
are

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
a charity
St.

203

unknown
is

before Jesus Christ (Pentecost,

John There

xiv. 23-31).

which
(ist

man

inaugurated the reign of mercy, under learns not to condemn his fellow-creatures
vi.

Sunday after Pentecost, St. Luke Each member of the human race is called

37-42).

to take his

part in the Church, as we learn from the parable of the great feast (2nd Sunday, St. Luke xiv. 15-24)
;

the Apostles receive their mission to go and seek the strayed parables of the lost sheep and the groat
;

(3rd Sunday, St.

Luke

xv. i-io)

;

their mission

is

like to a fishing-net
fills full

which their

invisible

Master now

In of fish (4th Sunday, St. Luke v. i-n). new kingdom, perfect charity ought to reign among all the members (5th Sunday, St. Matt. v.
this

20-25) they will live on a bread that God will be pleased to multiply for the joy and comfort of all who
;

hunger (6th Sunday, St. Mark viii. i-io) if they meet with false prophets and brethren they will know
;

them by
;

their

works (7th Sunday,
is

St.

Matt.

vii.

15-21) guard carefully the treasures committed to his care, but that as far as
possible, even in this
life,

that each

to take care, to

wrongs against God are to

be repaired (8th Sunday, St. Luke xvi. 1-9). The Master that we serve is ever ready to turn eyes of compassion on those who go astray (9th Sunday, St.

Luke
St.

xix. 41-47).

But those who have received the

gifts of

God

Luke

xviii.

are not to get puffed up (loth Sunday, 9-14) they are rather to think of
;

204

The Lectionary
God
has delivered them

the infirmities from which

(nth Sunday,
to imitate the

31-37); that they are good Samaritan in the alleviation of
St.
vii.

Mark

another

s

miseries (i2th Sunday, St.

Luke

x.

25-37)

;

to live in the practice of thankfulness (i3th
St.

Sunday,

Luke

xvii.

11-19)

;

m

fidelity in the service of the

only

true Master,
St.

and trusting
vi.

in

His help (i4th
its
;

Sunday,
troubles

Matt.
the

23-33).

The Church has

accomplishment of its mission consoles her more than the return of her nothing
in

children to

life

moreover, when her

(i5th Sunday, St. Luke vii. 11-16); children are sick, they are to be

healed and sustained by the practice of humility (i6th Sunday, St. Luke xiv. i-ii); then to strengthen them in the practice of the great commandment of
the

Law which
is

cannot be too frequently dwelt on

(i7th Sunday, St. Matt. xxii. 34-40).

The

Christian

by power which the Church possesses
;

life

to be preserved

frequent recourse to the
of forgiving sins

(i8th Sunday, St. Matt. ix. 1-8) by participation in the Holy Eucharist (i9th Sunday, St. Matt. xxii.

by the consideration of the nearness of death (2oth Sunday, St. John iv. 46-53). Lastly, the thought of our last end will make the Christian ensure for
1-14)
;

himself a merciful sentence by being generous in the forgiveness of injuries (2ist Sunday, St. Matt, xviii.
23-35), careful to render to
is

God and man
St.

that which

due

to

them (22nd Sunday,

Matt. xxii. 15-22),

eager to receive the graces of the universal redemption

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
(23rd

205
he

Sunday,

St.

Matt.

ix.

18-22).

Thus,

prepares himself well for the last judgement after the general resurrection (24th Sunday, St. Mark xxiv.
15-37).
4.

Lections of the Quatnor

Tempora and of the Ferias
for

of

Lent.

The Gospel passages
of

Tempora

Advent

relate to the

Quatuor mystery which is
;

the

to be celebrated the following

week

thus,

for

the

Wednesday, we have
i.

the

Annunciation
the
visit of

(St.

Luke
to St.

Mary Luke the lection of the 39-46) Saturday is the same as for the following Sunday, a peculiarity which we again meet with in the Quatuor Tempora of Lent. In these Quatuor Tempora of Lent, the lection of the Wednesday puts before us
26-38) Elizabeth
;

for the Friday,
i.

(St.

;

the prophet Jonas and the penitence of the Ninevites that of the Friday, the effects (St. Matt. xii. 38-50)
;

of purification of the penitent

:

they are represented
Bethsaida.
is

by Quatuor Tempora
that the return to

the cure of the paralytic of

In the

of Pentecost, the sinner

warned

the work of grace, for none can go to the Father unless He draws him to Himself
is

God

(lection for

Wednesday,

St.

of another paralytic tells

42-52) the cure us again that our pardon

John

vi.

;

depends on God alone (lection for Friday, St. Luke the same lesson is drawn from the healings v. 17-26)
;

recounted in the lection of Saturday (St.
38-41).

Luke

iv.

on the

special lessons of penitence are given Quatuor Tempora of September, where we

Some

206
find
ix.

The Lectionary
cure of a demoniac (Wednesday, St. Mark the remembrance of the anointing at 16-28)
a
;

Bethany already called to memory on Thursday in Passion week (Friday, St. Luke vii. 36-50) lastly,
;

the parable of the fig-tree, which warns us not to wear out the Saviour s patience (Saturday, St. Luke
xiii.

6-17).
feria of

Each
it

Lent has

its

lection

from the Gospel

:

is

the time

when

the Church

makes her

priests

preach more frequently, and it is fitting that the Divine Word has a larger place in her liturgy. In the first place, the passages taken from the different
Evangelists recall the different works of mercy per formed by the Saviour, the lessons of penance given to His disciples, the severe warnings addressed to the Pharisees, the announcement of the Passion, the fears
of the last judgement,
its

results for those

who

die in

impenitence, like the rich man, the lot of the unfaithful

husbandmen, etc. In the second part of Lent, with one or two exceptions, we have the Gospel of St. John, which recounts the goodness of Jesus towards the Samaritan woman and the woman taken in
adultery, towards His contradictors, the scribes Pharisees, whom He wished to convince of

and
His
;

Divinity and of the

injustice of their hatred of

Him

the manifestations of the Divine power in Jesus for the healing of the one born blind, as well as for the
raising to
life

of the

widow

s

son and of his friend

Lazarus

;

lastly,

the events which prepare and put

Survey of the Lections of the Missal
before us the sorrowful Passion.
is

207

Thus the

Christian

prepared for the history of the Passion,
in

which

is

repeated four times during
will inculcate

Holy Week, and which him the sentiments with which he
remembrance
of the Great

ought to be filled in the
Mysteries.

Each feast of an Apostle 5. Common of Saints. has a special Gospel passage, but the Mass of the vigil of an Apostle recalls to our mind a special and

new commandment
xv.
to
1

2- 1 6).

On
Luke
;

of Jesus on mutual love (St. John the feasts of the martyrs, we listen

the

invitation
(St.

to
xiv.

renouncement under
>

its

many

forms
xvi.

24-37)

St. Matt. x. 34-42, 26-33) the lesson about the grain of wheat cast

into the earth (St.
(St.

John
;

xii.

24-26)

;

the pruned vine

John xv.

i-i i)

the tribulations to be undergone

happiness (St. Luke vi. 17-23, Matt. xxiv. 3-11). On the feasts of xxi. 9-19 confessors, two parables, that of the talents (St. Matt. xxv. 14-23) and the pounds (St. Luke xix. 11-27)
in order to attain joy,
;

St.

tell

us

how we ought
;

to

employ the present

life

;

other

passages insist on the necessity of watchfulness (St. St. Mark xiii. 33-37 St. Luke Matt. xxiv. 42-47
;

35-40) then this sweet and consoling promise, that one never tires of hearing, the hundredfold
xii.
;

reward to

leave all for Jesus (St. Matt. xix. feasts of virgins and holy women the Lastly, 27-30). tell of the necessity of keeping our lamps trimmed
all

who

(St.

Matt. xxv. 1-13), and to

make

the one invest-

2o8

The Lectionary
for the future life (St. Matt. xiii.

ment which counts
44-52).

Thus we
in

see that the

Holy Liturgy,

in

the

way

combines the Gospel lections throughout the year, furnishes ample matter for various medita
which
it

tions,

each equally

fruitful

unto salvation.

CONCLUSION
THE
in
last

chapter does not appear at

first

sight to

fit

very well with the foregoing chapter or with the it is well to tell the reader general scope of the work
;

with what end in view

it

has been written.

The

idea

has been to set out a synthetical essay from which the logical connection between the lections of the

Mass may be gathered
subjects for meditation

:

for

they

surely
If

furnish

on the

liturgy.

a priest
his daily

has any desire at
instructive

all

to gain benefit

from

prayer, he will certainly be able to gather

some very

and

fruitful considerations for the sanctifi-

cation of his

own

soul.

How many
of

times have

we
:

longed to say to preachers
Priests of the holy ministry,

pastoral

retreats

you say you do not know how to make your morning meditation, that books fail to give you what you want, that those which exist do not respond to what you wish
for.

Take then as the subject of your meditations your Bible, your Breviary, or your Missal put all its parts together, then, if one may say so, follow it out line by line according as the lection and personal
;

209

14

2io
reflection

The Lectionary
suggest."

Take your

Missal, follow out

the development of the liturgical year in the proper of the season read the Bible passages in the part
;

where the Church has placed them, ask yourselves why they are put at such a period and not at
another,
that

what

relation they bear to the

mysteries

what personal applications you can make to your own soul and condition. To an answer on to a these text give questions given

you

celebrate,

is to put devotion

life

into

it,

to foster a great unction
it

and

when you pronounce

in the celebration

Note down on a sheet of paper the resume of your reflections what you do one year for the lections of the Epistles, do the following year for the Gospels, and compare the one with the
of the Divine sacrifice.
;

other in order to see the connection between them
classify

;

them
be a

together, and you

will

have the best
for,

collection of meditations that
it

you can wish
one.

because

will

real

and

living

You

will

under

stand better then the profound sense of this text of Vivus est sermo Dei, et efficax^ et penetraSt. Paul
:

bilior oinni gladio ancipiti

(Heb.
those

iv.

12).

Many

of

the Christian souls

among

who

are confided to

you are capable of entering on this road if you draw them on they will then understand all that there is
:

to be learnt from the Holy Liturgy, they will Holy Mass with greater interest and profit.

assist at

We
up

shall

be indeed happy
faithful,

if

this

work

is

able to

stir

priests

and

and

to discover to

them the

Conclusion
treasures
of
sanctification

2
in

1 1

hidden

the

Divine

Word.

Has

the plan set out in the beginning of this

little
:

work been realized ? The reader must judge he must forgive any seeming digression. Perhaps certain
uses or practices concerning the holy Gospel ought to have been passed over in silence, enumerations and lists which seem like However, repetitions omitted.

the work of comparison which has been attempted is but a very imperfect outline it scarcely gives an idea of the 1072 evangelaries of which Gregory published
;

the

list

in his

Textkritik des

Neuen Testaments
attempt
will

;

in

reading of such a

number,

this

appear

quite insufficient, but regard compass of a work like this.

must be paid

to the small

the time to which these investigations led one, that is to say, about the middle of the fifteenth century,

At

the Plenariums had already made their appearance some time before long they supplanted the Evangel
;

aries,

both of which underwent the same

fate,

and

printing permitted the multiplication of examples with greater facility. On the other hand, the relative
liberty

which the particular churches enjoyed

in deter

mining the lections led to rather considerable diver gences this it is that necessitated the reform of
:

the

Roman

Missal in the

same way

as the Breviary

To return consequent upon the Council of Trent. to unity in the lections, it suffices to do the
work
of

which

St.

Pius V. speaks in the bull for the

212
publication of the
"Quare

The Lectionary
new
Missal,

Quo primum tempore
onus hoc
collatis

\

eruditis delectis vivis

mandandum
omnibus

duximus,

qui

quidem

diligenter

vetustissimis

incorruptis

codicibus,

undique conquisitis, emendatis, atque necnon veterum consultis ac
scriptis,

probatorum auctorum
pristinam ritum restituerunt.

qui de sacro

eorumdem

rituum institute monumenta.
Missale Sanctorum
"

Nobis reliquerunt, ad

Patrum normam, ac

given in the course of this work will enable the reader to verify it, if he
Certain
lists

does not want to compare them with the Gospel
passages in the Roman Missal. Many resemblances exist between
Missal and the Anglican Book of The author as regards lections.
"

the

Roman
article

Common Prayer
of

the

"

Lectionary
in perfect

in

Smith
"

s

Dictionary

of

Christian

Antiquities observes
is

:

The Comes edited by Pamelius
;

with the

Roman

agreement, as to the Epistles and Gospels, an extract liturgical collection
long

from

this latter,

known

in

England, has been

preserved in all that is important by the compilers of the two prayer-books of Edward VI." A like statement is made by the German Protestants
wisely
:

Ranke s work, Das

kirchliche Pericopensystem, should

be read, to convince of this. Again, Caspari, the author of a more recent and not less documentary
article,

entitled

"

Pericope,"

in

Herzog

s

Realen-

cyclopddie,

has

some

characteristic phrases
:

on

this

subject

;

we

will

quote some

Now

that

we

are

Conclusion

2

1

3

examining the question of the origin of the pericopes
of

the

that

ancient Church, it Luther kept the same

is

well

to
for

remember
Sundays

lections

and

These days as before the Reformation. lessons are the remains of a Lectionary of the Middle Age which still exists this Lectionary had not the
feast
:

same form everywhere,
of
Paris,
little

seen by the tables lections in use in the churches of Rome and
as

may be

but in
further

its

essential parts
after

it

is

the

same."

A

on,

having

alluded to certain

documents,
datus,

among
same
is

others the Comes ab Albino emen-

the

author

adds

*
:

None

of

these

documents

may

they be reproductions of ancient Lectionaries. As and introduced the Charles Roman Pepin liturgy

earlier

than Charlemagne,

but

kingdom, it ought to be admitted that our pericopes come from the Roman Lectionary in use
into their

before the Carlovingians.

Our

have two

lections, epistle

and gospel

pericopes generally these likewise
:

Roman Mass. In comparing the which are met with in the Sacramentary of pericopes Luther with the passages of the Conies Albini and the
are found in the

Homilary
in

of

noticeable, except for certain days

the text.

Charlemagne, a great resemblance is and certain changes The ancient Lectionaries had many

more lections than ours. Luther and his companions have only made lists for Sundays and feasts." This common agreement as to the reading of the

same gospel passage

in the services of

the faithful

214
may,
in

The Lectionary
the

designs of Providence, conduce to some extent to the return of the sheep strayed from the one true fold. Let us by our prayers obtain
the realization of this return, so dear to the Saviour and Shepherd of our souls And other sheep I have which are not of this fold, and them also I must
:

and they shall hear My voice and there one fold and one shepherd (St. John x. 16).
bring,
\

shall be

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY, 69 SOUTHWARK BRIDGE ROAD, LONDON, S.E.

BAUDQXD,

Jules. The Lectionary.

BQT 4297
.Z7B3