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Assignment of fundamental of information technology

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It is matter of pleasure for me to acknowledge my ineptness to my computer teacher miss shalini in Kamla lohtia sanatan dharma collage, Ludhiana for lending me a helping hand in completion of my academic session and helped me in finding the suitable project for me. I would also like to thank my collage principle for providing us better facility through out my academic session.

Ms Dos
Ms dos /Pc dos is a most powerful operating system. Ms dos mean Microsoft disk operating system, where as pc dos mean disk operating system for personal computer. Dos are similar to old operating system. Ms dos were marked by the Microsoft Company. It was essential the same operating system that bill gates young company developed for IBM as personal computing. Most user of either Dos system simply referred to their system as disk operating system. Its prompt looks like this:

C :>
The first Microsoft windows operating system was really an application that ran on top of the ms-dos operating system. Today windows operating system supports dos for special purpose by emulating the operating system. In the 1970s before the personal computer was invented, IBM had a different and unrelated DOS. That was replaced by the IBMµs VSE operating system.

Features of MS DOS
The salient features of the dos are as follows:DOS interprets command typed on the DOS prompt. 1. There is a Microsoft drive space which integrates the disk compressions files. It has scan disk, a new utility that decades diagnoses and diagnoses and repairs disk errors. Scan disk can also repairs errors about file system such as in crosslink and lost clusters. It can scan and remove any physical disk errors. Microsoft Mapmaker, a memory optimization programs provided by MS-dos moves devices and memory resident programs from conventional memory into the upper memory area on computers that have 80386 or higher Micro processor. The MSBACKUP programs backs up the data and restores the data is stored by backup command. The Microsoft anti virus programs command is a program that can identify and remove more than 800 different computer viruses from users system. It has an important and an enhanced menu command that provides more information about the memory.

There is an enhanced EMM386 device that access more upper memory blocks and users extended memory to simulate expanded memory. Microsoft undeletes command that is quite useful in recovering all deleted files. It configures the system by deleting the various configurations commands in CONFIG.SYS files.

Internal and external commands
Internal commands The internal commands are those commands which are automatically loaded in the memory when the operating system DOS is loaded into the memory. They are loaded in the booting process. These commands can be used without the need of any DOS file. Internal commands are always available for the user and these commands are not seen when user views the directory by using DIR commands. Some internal files as follows: CLS DIR DATE TIME REN DEL MD

The explanation of the internal commands as follows: 1. CLS: - The purpose of this command is to clear the display screen redisplay the DOS prompt at upper left corner of the screen. This is an internal command which is available on the 2.0 and its later versions. Syntax: C :\> 2. DIR: - it displays the list of directories and files on screen. It is introduced in version 1.0 and later on modified. Now question arises what is directory and what is a file? Storing group of files into different directories makes it easy to find out files. Directories can be divided into three parts as follows: A. current directory, B. Sub directory C. root directory Syntax: C ;\> 3. File:- A file is the primary unit of storing on the computer. A file is a collection of text or data stored on a device as a floppy or hard disk. The different type of document like letter, invoices, remainder, and memo sets. Are stored in convention files. Every file has its different name. If names are same, than they must have different extensions. C:\>dir/switches or C:\>dir/drive name

4. Date: it displays the current system·s date. It was introduced in version 1.0 and later on modified. In older version, the date command run automatically when used insert the diskette and switch on the computer. Syntax: C:\>Date 5. Time: It displays the current time of the system· time. It was introduced in 1.0 version. This command is similar to the date command. In older version of dos, time command run automatically after date command when user inserts the dos diskette and switch on the computer. User can also change the existing tine with a new time by using this command. Syntax: C:\>Time 6. Vol: Its purpose is to displays the volume label or name of the volume given by the user to specific disk. The command is available to the DOS 2.0 and latest versions. The label command is used to get the name of the current name of the volume which user has been entitled by the external command LABEL or FORMAT. Syntax: C :\> vol drive name

7. Copy con: This command is used for the purpose to create a file. The file created by this command can not be modified. If user will try to modify the contents of the file using Copy con, it will display a message ´file already exists. Overwrite it[y/n]?µ So user can not edit the contents of the file using this command. Syntax: C :\> copy con filename. Extension For example: copy con Mohit Palial I am an honest in my work. ^Z 1file[s] copied C :\> 8. Type: The purpose of this command is to view the contents of standard text. This command only displays the information of the file is displays. The contents of the file moves upward so rapidly that it is difficult to read it. This command is available on the DOS 1.0 version. There are many purposes to use this commands as: 1. TO displays the contents of a file by freezing. 2. TO displays the contents of a file by scrolling 3. TO displays the contents of a file by printer. Syntax: C :\> Type file name. Extension

9. Ren: the purpose of this command is to rename particular files of a single file. This command is available on the version 1.0. The REN command is straightforward and easy to use. It is also called RENAME command. Syntax: C :\> Ren {old filename} new {file name] 10. Del: The purpose of this command is to delete a particular files or a file. We have to be careful about the files to which we are going to delete. Once the file is deleted can not be recovered back. This command is available on DOS 1.0. Syntax: C :\> Del {file name}

12. MD: This command is used to create a new directory or sub directory that is subordinate to the logged directory. This command is introduced in version 2.0. It is also called MKDIR command. Syntax: C :\> MD\directory name C :\> MD\subdirectory name Example: suppose user has two directories MANTU and SARITA at the root level as shown.

13. Rd: This command is also called RMDIR command and introduced in 2.0 versions. The purpose of this command is to remove a directory or subdirectory, then first delete the first files and subdirectories in it are important. Uses can move the files to another directory if the files or subdirectories in it are important. Users can remove only empty directory or subdirectory. Syntax: C :\> RD root directory C :\> RD subdirectory 14. Path: The command is available on DOS 2.0 and its latest version. The purpose of this command is to provide access to the files located in other directory path or other disk. User can access only those files that have extension .EXE, .COM, .BAT. There are two options of setting of path to the executable files. 1. To set the path 2. To see the path 3. To remove the path Syntax: C :\> path=drive name: \drive name

15. Copy: This command is available on the DOS1.0 and on the advanced versions. The purpose of this commands is to another disk with the same file name, date and time information·s. Syntax: External commands The commands are not a permanent part of the memory. To execute or run these commands are .EXE, .COM, .BAT. These internal commands are not used for relatively complex jobs such as copying an entire diskette into another diskette. Some commonly used external commands are as follows: DISKCOPY FORMAT DELTREE ATTRIB MOVE BACKUP POWER FIND RESTORE C :\> source path target path

Explanation of the external commands as follows: 1. Edit: It is an external command. To execute edit command file is required. This file utilizes the 413 kb space of the memory. The edit program is a convenient full screen editor. It was introduced with the releases of DOS 5.0 Versions. The EDIT command is organized from QBASIS>EDIT dose not operate without QBASIC.EXE program file. It is a full screen editor different from line editor i.e. EDLIN command of DOS.


C :\> EDIT file name. Extinction

Then a window will be open.
2. Attrib: the attrib command is an external command. To execute this command ATTRIB.EXE required. This file requires 11208kb disk space. The purpose of this command is to change the attribute of a file i.e. user can use ATRIB to make a file ´read onlyµ which prevents the file from change of contents. The user can also hide a file as per his requirement.

Syntax C :\> ATTRIB filename ATTRIBattributes

3. Backup: The backup command is an external command and it is used to copy various files from the hard disk to the floppies to create backup disk. The file required for this is BACKUP>EXE and it covers 35715KB for its storage and was introduced in version 2.0 and after on the latest versions.

Syntax C :\> backup<<source path>>/option<<target path>> 4. Restore: this an external command used to restore files copied by backup command. Files required for this command is RESTORE>EXE and space required for this is 38342bytes and was introduced in version 2.0 and modified later on. The files using backup command cannot be retrieved by using copy command.

Syntax C :\> restore<<source path>>/option
5. Chkdsk: This is an external command that is required CHKDSK.EXE file for its execution and takes 12241 bytes for storage. This command is available in all versions of DOS. This command CHKDSK returns the configuration status of the selected disk.

Syntax C :\> CHKDSK<<drive name>>

6. Disk copy: This command is used for the purpose of making duplicate files of the disk like XEROX copy. It first format the target disk and then copies the files by collecting files from the source disk and copies to the target disk. It makes the perfect replica of the source disk. This command is available on all versions of the DOS.

Syntax C :\> DISK COPY<sourcepath> <destination>
7. Disk comp: This is an external command which required DISKCOMP.COM file for its execution and covers 10478 bytes of the storage space. The purpose of this command is to clear from its name DISKCOMP i.e. comparison of disks. The command is used to compare two disks to find out weather they are identical or not. This command is available on all versions of the DOS.

Syntax C :\>DISKCOMP<<sourcediskpath>><<target disk path>>
8. Deltree: This is an external command. DELTREE.EXE file is required to its execution and space required for this is 11111 bytes. The purpose of this command is to delete files and directories same as by the DEL and RD commands. This command is more useful than DEL and RD command if one wants to delete directories; one has to

empty the directories by using DEL and RD commands many times if one wants to delete one directory which further have various files and subdirectories in it.

Syntax C :\> deltree<path>
9. DOSKEY: The purpose of this command is to display the history of the DOS commands typed by the user using keyboard. The DOSKEY command is loaded into the memory and stored number of commands in the memory buffer according to its size. The commands can be displayed on the screen by using up and down arrow keys from the keyboard one by one from the memory buffer. Syntax C :\> DOSKEY/options 10. Format: the purpose of this command is to make a disk useable for operating system by dividing the disk into magnetic tracks and sectors depends upon the capacity of the disk and version of the DOS. THE version earlier than 2.0 introduced 9 sectors per tracks. Syntax C :\> FORMAT drive name

11. Fdisk: it is an external command that was introduced in version 2.0 and required FDISK.EXE to execute it that covers 29336 bytes of storage space. The purpose of this command is to make used to prepare a fixed disk for use. One can use this command to make partition of high capacity fixed disk and can organize cylinders on it to store data. The partition of the high capacity disk is needed as maximum space that DOS 6.22. Syntax C :\> fdisk drive name 12. FIND: The purpose of this command is to search the files stored in the hard disk and data stored in the files. This command is the member of the family of the filter commands. It can search for specific files and also can search specific text in the specific files. This command is available on the DOS 2.0 version. Syntax C :\> FINDS ´textµ<filename> 13. Label: The purpose of these files is to see volume label and to change volume label if already present on the disk. The label name must be of 11 characters. It also promotes for confirmation off deletion of previous volume label name of the disk, before the version 3.0 the label name once assigned cannot be changed without formatting it. Syntax C :\> label<drive name>

14. More: The purpose of the more command is a filter command like GIND and sort. TO see the contents of the file, one full of screen, user can use this command. This command is used with DIR and TYPE command. Syntax C :\> type <filename> 15. Mode: This utility is used to change the display pattern. By using this command user can also use this command to change the resolution of the display of the screen either 40 or 80 character per line and can be used to send output to the monochrome system. Syntax C :\> MODE 40 or Syntax C :\> MODECO40

BOOTING PROCESS The process of switching of the computer is referred as the ´bootingµ process of the computer. This word ´bootingµ comes from the phrase ´picking somebody up by his boot strapsµ, which is similar to when user switches on the computer, wakes it up and it gets ready for the further action. It is also called to startup the computer. The disk from which startup or booting is done is called bootable disk or startup disk or system disk. We can define booting as ´it is the loading of set of programs from the ROM into Ram so that it creates an Environment for execution the commands for further

processingµ. During booting, three files loaded in RAM for further execution. These are as follows: IO.SYS MSDOS.SYS COMMAND.COM Types of booting as follows: 1. Hot booting [switch booting] 2. Cold booting [restarting] Explanation of types of booting as follows: 1. Cold booting: When the PC stares up it loads the bootable DOS programs from the disk to the memory. This type of startup or booting of the computer is a slow process. It can be done only from the on/ off switch button on the cabinets and so called as switch booting. 2. Hot booting: This is also called warm booting. It is faster than cold booting. If computer ´hangsµ or crashes due to some reason, it may be needed to restart by pressing restart button. The computer will be restarted and the process is called HOT booting. The computer will be restart with the help of the restart button on the CPU or it can be restarted

by ctrl + alt + Del by the help of keyboard. Further both types of booting have to face two modules as: 1. Interactive booting 2. Non-interactive booting 1. By the interactive command we can confirm each startup command before their execution and decide whether he wants to execute that command or not. 2. If user has some problems with command CONFIG>SYS or AUTOEXEC>BAT files than the execution of these files can be temporarily bypassed.

Batch files
A file created by some text editor of DOS having various command in it each on different line and can be executed by just using its name is known as batch files. Batch file is the group of internal and external command stored in a single file and all command in batch file are executed automatically with file name only. Batch file has extension .BAT. A special batch file named AUTOEXE>BAT file is executed automatically when user boots the computer. Other than the internal and external DOS commands the batch file have their own commands. Some batch file commands are as follows:

1. Rem


used for comments

2. Pause ² to pause/ stop the execution of he batch file and waits until user presses a key. 3. Call - calls specific batch file, execute it and returns to

the main file. 4. Echo ² to on/off the text display on the screen.

Type of the DOS files
The DOS software is divided into three parts, these are stored into here different files on the disk. The disks that contain all the three files are called a Bootable disk or start up disk or Simply DOS disk these are as follows: y IO.SYS y MSDOS.SYS y COMMAND.COM The explanation of these files as follows: A. IO.SYS: These files have two main parts. In one part device driver like printer, VDU, keyboard etc. are configured by the file. It verifies some more inputs output devices and its drivers. All these drivers are often called ´disk biosµ. Second part of this IO.SYS file is SYS.INI, which loads the

file MSDOS.sys from the hard disk into memory and it becomes a memory resident programs. B. MSDOS.SYS: This file is also called DOS kernel. It is a link between the BIOS and user·s application programs. It provided the facilities of the isolating the programs from the physical aspect of the system and intricacies of the hardware. This kernel contains DOS service routines that are called by application programs using software interrupt. MSDOS kernel has four main important functions as follows: 1. Process control 2. Memory management 3. Application programs interface [API] 4. File management system [FMS] 1. Process control: In the process control the kernel dose the management of the programs that is being executed. Process control includes loading the programs requested by the user from the disk into the memory and initiates the execution of loaded programs. 2. Memory management: Memory management allocates the memory to different application programs. It also dose file allocation according to memory demand.

3. Application programs interface: It provides the user with
an interface to the hardware. This interface is independent

and works like an intelligent agent so that every program is allocated to the various hardware devices. The programmer can write programs to directly interface with the hardware, which in no doubt would work faster than application interface. A programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware; otherwise he may face the problem. 4. File management system: The largest portion of the MSDOS.SYS is File management system, because it can read, write, display and print the files and can also rename, copy and remove the files.

y The file contains command processor or command executer and has all memory resident programs that are it has all internal command in it. It is the user·s interface to the operating system. This command loads and executes application programs. The programs handles· and users of the other system resources that are in ROM-BIOS, IO.SYS and MS-dos. Further has two portions as: 1. Resident portion 2. Transient portion

Resident portion: As we switch on the computer, DOS first loaded into the resident portion of the memory, stay there till user switch off the computer and can only be interrupted by the ctrl-c in case of any execution error for the job termination. It displays the error message likeµ Bad command and file nameµ, abort, ignore?µEtc. and contains code required to reload the transient portion of the COMMAND.COM. Transient portion: It is the temporary portion of the If at any time an application programs has shortage of the memory space, than the transient portion of COMMAND.COM is erased and erased memory space is made available to the application programs. The transient portion also displays the DOS prompt like A :\>, b :\> or c :\> and can read the command from the keyboard. If it is find that the transient portion has been erased than it fetches a fresh copy of it from the disk and places it in the memory.

The CONFIG.SYS file is used for adjusting the various setting of system after the booting. It contains various commands related to the configuration of the system. The CONFIG.SYS file is introduced in the version 2.0. There are many commands available for the configuration commands. The new users found difficulties while creating this file. The experienced users use it for configuration of the system and to enhance the speed of the computer system. There are many commands which are available which are used in CONFIG.SYS i.e. configuration file. Some commonly used commands are: 1. Device 2. Buffer 3. Files 4. Install

y Device: Device command is used to load device driver in
the memory for the proper functioning of the various devices. For example: Device =keyboard.sys Where keyboard.sys file contains driver related to the keyboard.

y Buffer: A buffer is a block of the memory in computer to store data. The number of the total buffers for storage of the data is defined in CONFIG.SYS file by using this command. For example: buffer=40 y Files: File command is used to number of files that can be opened at a time. One cannot open more than specific number of files at a time. For example files=40 It will tell the users to open 40 files at a time. y Install: install file used to install some executable program after booting of computer. For example: SHARE.EXE program can be loaded into memory after booting by using this command in CONFIG.SYS as: INSTALL=SHARE.EXE