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3G

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see 3G (disambiguation). This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve this article to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details. The talk page may contain suggestions. (October
2011)

3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. The following standards are typically branded 3G:

the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
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The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China. The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.

the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.

Contents [hide] • • • 1 Overview ○ 1.1 Africa 3.5 India 3.2.6 Turkey 3.2.1 Nepal 3.7 New Zealand 4.3 Applications of 3G 4 Features ○ ○ ○ • • • 5 Evolution 6 See also 7 References [edit] Overview The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard: .A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982.1 Detailed breakdown of 3G systems 2 History 3 Adoption ○ ○ 3.4 China 3. but is a pre-4G or 3.7 Philippines ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • 3.2.4 North America 3. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands. however sometimes branded "4G" by the service providers.6 North Korea 3. higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology.2.3 Bangladesh 3.2 Security 4. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced.9G technology. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G.2. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G.5 Middle East 3.2 Asia        3.2.3 Europe 3.2 Pakistan 3.2. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology.1 Data rates 4.

S.7 Mbit/s while Rev. ○ ○ • The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. South Korea. but it is difficult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth of 200 kHz. just as the original UMTS WCDMA versions. a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods. HSPA is a revision and upgrade to W-CDMA UMTS. but is not commercially used. and thus formally fulfills the IMT2000 requirements on 3G systems. but a 2. It is based on the three times as efficient 8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the original GMSK modulation scheme. China. and it is thus a dead end. is used especially in North America. base station sites and frequencies as GPRS.MHz band. B offers downstream peak rates of 14. E more than triples the voice capacity from the widely deployed Rev. However. Europe and Africa.[2] ○ CDMA2000 1x Rev.9G system. including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or EVDO). typically broadcasting on the 850 MHz band. India. commonly operated on the 2100&NBS. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware. HSPA requires updates to the  ○ HSPA+ a revision and upgrade of HSPA. has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400kbit/s upstream.5G technology is called EGPRS. A few others use the 900 and 1850 MHz bands.• EDGE. • The CDMA2000 system. EVDO Rev. Japan. and allows peak data rates in the order of 200 kbit/s. It utilises multiple base stations to potentially double the channels available utilising MIMO principles. Telstra and Telecom NZ. today ceased. EDGE shows slightly better system spectral efficiency than the original UMTS and CDMA2000 systems. While DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements. can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. or IS-2000. C enhanced existing and new terminal user experience. created and revised by the 3GPP. but new base station and cellphone RF circuits. utilizing the same switching nodes. Evolved EDGE. in practice EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system. although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cell-phones. ○ EDGE combined with the GPRS 2. they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones. evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system. ○ W-CDMA is the most common deployment. [edit] Detailed breakdown of 3G systems . the latest revision. used by AT&T Wireless. EDGE was also a mode in the IS-135 TDMA system. standardized by 3GPP2 (differing from the 3GPP). Southeast Asia. 0 and is in the process of being deployed in the U.

[7] UMTS is the common name for a standard that encompasses multiple air interfaces.[3] There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backwardscompatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M. which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000. WiMAX (IEEE 802. Asia. ^ development halted in favour of LTE. Overview of 3G/IMT-2000 standards[5] ITU IMT-2000 bandw pre-4G geograp common dupl descripti compliant idth of upgrad channel hical name(s) ex on standards data e areas worldwi evolution de.1457 Recommendation. .[4] The latter group is the UMTS family. China SCDMA b 6] TD D FDMA/TDMA DECT (IMT–FT) none IP–OFDMA 1. 3. DMA for US cordless phones worldwi OFDMA de ^ Can also be used as an upgrade to PDC or D-AMPS.16) shortrange.[6] ^ also known as FOMA. ary TDMA Single EDGE likely except EDGE (UWCupgrade –Carrier Evoluti disconti TDMA Japan 136) to (IMT–SC) on nued and GSM/GP South RS[nb 1] Korea evolution FDD ary America CDMA Multi– UMB[nb upgrade s. In 1999.The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition. Carrier (IMT– CDMA2000 EV-DO 2] to some MC) cdmaOne others (IS-95) CDMA Direct Wworldwi Spread (IMT– CDMA[nb CDMA family of de 4] DS) revolutio TD– nary UMT [nb HSPA LTE upgrades Europe [nb 3] CDMA S 5] to earlier CDMA TDD GSM (IMT–TC) TD– [n family. FDMA/T standard Europe. as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX. The cell phones used utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths. but do not support EDGE. 2. WiMAX was added in 2007.

A confusing statistic is counting CDMA2000 1x RTT customers as if they were 3G customers. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. ^ also known as UTRA-FDD. The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks. [edit] History The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998[8]. W-CDMA is sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies. In some instances. The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere[dubious – discuss] was built in Adelaide. 6.75G") and UMTS ("3G") functionality. the operator then owned by British Telecom. Other leading countries by 3G migration include UK. then the total 3G subscriber base would be 475 million at June 2007 and 15. the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. especially so to achieve high-end data .4. The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.[12] The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom.8% of all subscribers worldwide. In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – 3G penetration is over 70%. By June 2007. branded as FOMA. [edit] Adoption 3G was relatively slow to be adopted globally. Out of 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 6. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2100 MHz. 5. South Australia by m.[14] In Europe the leading country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. although it was initially somewhat limited in scope.[10][11] broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability. but this network provider later shut down operations.7%. Austria.28 Mcps low chip rate (LCR) While EDGE fulfills the 3G specifications. Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level.[13] AT&T Mobility is also a true 3G UMTS network. ignoring the other air interface options. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology.[7] ^ also known as UTRA-TDD 3. and the first commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.84 Mcps high chip rate (HCR) ^ also known as UTRA-TDD 1. If using this definition. Emtel Launched the first 3G network in Africa.[9] The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001. The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or "3" in J June 2003. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO. most GSM/UMTS phones report EDGE ("2.

many carriers were not able to or delayed acquisition of these updated capabilities. A lot of companies like Dialog Axiata PLC (First to serve 3G Service in South Asia in 2006). telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks. Nepal first 3G company NTC(Nepal Telecome Corporation) and second is NCEL. and the Android family). and USB Modems connecting to 3G networks are becoming increasingly common. In December 2007. Safaricom launched 3G services in Kenya while later that year by Vodacom Tanzania also started providing services. PTCL. [edit] Africa The first African use of 3G technology was a 3G video call made in Johannesburg on the Vodacom network in November 2004. Canada and the USA. 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries. according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). Airtel.75G Network in selected cities in Kenya with a countrywide rollout planned for later in the year. [edit] Nepal Nepal is one of the first countries in southern Asia to launch 3G services. In February 2012 Bharti Airtel Launched a 3. BSNL. Europe.transmission rates. leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. In Asia. EVO. In May 2007. in mid-2008 and has since then established itself in this sector. In Egypt. bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions. Airtel and MTN provide the 3G services to their numerous customers. Mobinil launched the service in 2008 and in Somaliland. Telecommunication networks in Nigeria like Globacom. and initial excitement over 3G's potential. Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone (for example. Other delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware. Telesom started first 3G services on 3 July 2011. combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone. . Omantel's WorldCall also provides 3G services in 50 cities Pakistanwide. The first commercial launch was by Emtelltd in Mauritius in 2004.) The license fees in some European countries were particularly high. It provides 3G services in 105 cities across Pakistan. The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mophone. Tata DOCOMO and Reliance have released their 3G services. [edit] Asia Asia is also using 3G services very well. especially for UMTS. Maxis. [edit] Pakistan Pakistan's biggest telecommunication company PTCL launched its 3G network. Aircel. to both prepaid and postpaid subscription customers. a 3G service was provided by the new company Wana in Morocco. In late March 2006. Idea Cellular. Vodafone. WorldCall. (See Telecoms crash. whose deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers. Due to these issues and difficulties with deployment. NCel Also Covered Mount Everest with 3G. the iPhone. 3G has also introduced the term "mobile broadband" because its speed and capability make it a viable alternative for internet browsing.

The private operators like IDEA and Reliance are increasing their 3G coverage as well as the number of subscribers.3 Mbit/s. currently offer 4G WiMAX data services around Bangladesh. the Government owned BSNL is the most successful company with the subscribers of 3G service. And the second is by Reliance Communications. The launch of 3G occurred on 1 October 2009. which is called Koryolink. It also has the widest coverage with around 826 cities across the country. Other providers like Virgin are expected to launch 3G services by Q1 2011. to coincide with the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China. This meant that China would have all three main cellular technology 3G standards in commercial use. According to . 2011 (not GSM but only USB estick). China Telecom's 3G subscriber has exceeded 23 million . [edit] Bangladesh Two operators. and launch 3G on the globally leading W-CDMA (UMTS) standard. Then. [edit] North Korea North Korea has had a 3G network since 2008.[15] [edit] India 11 December 2008. [edit] China China announced in May 2008. another state operator Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Ministry of industry and Information Technology of China awarded licenses of all three standards: TDSCDMA to China Mobile. December 13. Vodafone Launched their 3G by mid of March. Pakistan became the first country in the world to experience EVDO's RevB 3G technology that offers maximum speeds of 9. W-CDMA to China Unicom and CDMA2000 to China Telecom. The CDMA2000 customers of China Unicom would go to China Telecom. 2010. The first Private-sector service provider that launched 3G services is Tata DOCOMO. that the telecoms sector was re-organized and three 3G networks would be allocated so that the largest mobile operator.On 14 August 2010. Idea also launched its 3G services in mid April. (BSNL) launched 3G services on 22 Feb 2009 in Chennai and later launched 3G as Nationwide. China Unicom would retain its GSM customer base but relinquish its CDMA2000 customer base. which would then launch 3G on the CDMA2000 1x EVDO standard. would retain its GSM customer base. After MTNL. China Mobile. By August 2011. CityCell operates a nationwide third-generation CDMA2000 network capable of delivering super-fast mobile broadband. Bharti Airtel launched their 3G services on 24 January 2011 in Bangalore and also launched in Delhi & Jaipur on March 4. 2011. 2010. As of now. All the operators provide 3G services on the 2100 MHz band. The auction of 3G wireless spectrum was announced in April 2010 and 3G Spectrum allocated to all private operators on 1 September 2010. on November 5. At present the services of EVO Nitro (brand name (R)) are available in all over the Pakistan. a joint venture between Egyptian company Orascom Telecom Holding and the state-owned Korea Post and Telecommunications Corporation (KPTC) is North Korea's only 3G Mobile operator. India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Data services by Government owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd MTNL in Delhi and later in Mumbai. MTNL becomes the first 3G Mobile service provider in India. and one of only two mobile companies in the country. Qubee and Banglalion. Aircel also launched 3G in Kolkata in the month of February. All GSM voice networks are still on 2G due a government indecision to provide 3G GSM/UMTS licences. Finally in January 2009. It has more than 3 million subscribers of its 3G service.

the test period is over. Mobitel Iraq is the first mobile 3G operator in Iraq. Currently. Avea launched it on 16 provincial centres.[17] [edit] Philippines 3G services were made available in the Philippines on December 2008. Due to many delays Tamin Telecom will commercially launch in the last months of 2011. Currently Turkcell and Vodafone have 3G networks on most of crowded cities and towns.661 subscribers in May 2010. It was after Turkey's monopoly mobile operator Turkcell accepted number portability. SaskTel[19] and Telus launched a 3G EVDO network in 2005. [edit] Turkey Turkcell. Turkey has 3. It was launched commercially on May 2010. [edit] North America In Canada. The European Union Council suggested that the 3G operators should cover 80% of the European national populations by the end of 2005. It was launched commercially on February 2007.[20] Rogers Wireless was the first to implement UMTS technology. Its only competitor. mass market commercial 3G services were introduced starting in March 2003 by 3 (Part of Hutchison Whampoa) in the UK and Italy. SunNet. Vodafone B and Avea C. It covers Pyongyang. MTC Touch and Alfa began rolling out the new 3G services.000 smart-phone users were selected to enjoy 3G for one month and provide feedback. The Egyptian company owns 75 percent of Koryolink.Orascom quoted in BusinessWeek. and five additional cities and eight highways and railways. the company had 125. new entrants to the Canadian wireless markets including but not limited to Mobilicity.[21] Realizing they would miss out on roaming revenue from the 2010 Winter Olympics. uses GSM technology and suffers from poor call quality and disconnections. WIND Mobile and Vidéotron have deployed their own UMTS networks in Canada using the AWS spectrum. with HSDPA services in eastern Canada in late 2006. MTN Syria is the first mobile 3G operator in Syria. In Lebanon Ministry of Telecoms launched a test period on September 20. In Iran Tamin Telecom won the bid for the third Operator license . Tamin Telecom is going to be the first 3G operator in Iran. Turkcell got A band. Bell and Telus formed a joint venture and rolled out a shared HSDPA network using Nokia Siemens technology. mobile operators attended frequency band auction and frequencies for 3G usage distributed around mobile operators. 2011. [edit] Middle East In Jordan Orange is the first mobile 3G operator in Jordan. Bell Mobility. Avea and Vodafone launched their 3G networks commercially on 30 July 2009 at the same time.9G networks now.[18] [edit] Europe In Europe. After the AWS spectrum in 2008. where 4.[16] Phone numbers on the network are prefixed with +850 (0)192. Turkcell and Vodafone launched their 3G service on all provincial centres. and is known to invest in infrastructure for mobile technology in developing nations. [edit] New Zealand .

Wellington. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. although this is not strictly a 3G property.9G or Pre-4G. the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. Some of the applications are: • • • • • Mobile TV Video on demand Videoconferencing Telemedicine Location-based services [edit] Evolution Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are currently working on extensions to 3G standard that are based on an all-IP network infrastructure and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO.[6] . whereas Qualcomm has halted development of UMB in favour of the LTE family. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users. These specifications already display features characteristic for IMTAdvanced (4G).In late 2005. However. 3GPP plans to meet the 4G goals with LTE Advanced. [edit] Applications of 3G The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. [edit] Features [edit] Data rates ITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. so various rates are sold as 3G intended to meet customers expectations of broadband data.[23] In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security. However."[22] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum or average rates or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G. these standards are classified as 3. and is now self-sufficient in the major cites (Auckland. a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified. Hamilton. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to. [edit] Security 3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. followed by Telecom NZ's XT Network in 2008. and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle. 2degrees has since built more towers. end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. Christchurch and Dunedin) but relies on a roaming agreement with Vodafone to cover the rest of the country. and Newcomer 2degrees running off a combination of Vodafone's 3G towers and their own in 2009. Vodafone NZ Launched their 3G Network. This gives it essentially the same footprint as Vodafone. falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which is 1 Gbit/s for stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation). the successor of 3G.