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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

Designing with Ultra Polymers
Practical Guidelines for Metal-to-Plastic Conversions
July 25, 2007

MO RE PL AST ICS WIT H MO RE PERFO RMANCE
© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

Topics Introduction to Solvay Advanced Polymers Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs. Plastics Simulation Technology Case Study

© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

Solvay Advanced Polymers
Headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia (US) with manufacturing, R&D sites and affiliates in NA, Europe and Asia Formed in 2001 when the Solvay Group acquired BP Amoco’s high-performance plastics business Dates back to 1974 and the inception of high-performance plastics production at Amoco and Union Carbide Recently acquired Mississippi Polymer Technologies and Gharda Polymers in Panoli, India 14 distinct product families which include Sulfone Polymers, Aromatic Polyamides and SolvaSpire™ Ultra Polymers

Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance Than Any Other Company in the World
© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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LLC 4 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Plastics Performance Pyramid PrimoSpire™ self-reinforced polyphenylene Ultra Polymers Exceptional thermal properties Excellent mechanical properties Superior chemical resistance Outstanding flame resistance Un-matched wear resistance © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

PrimoSpire™ SRP Why PrimoSpire™ SRP? Superior strength and stiffness without reinforcements Excellent chemical resistance Superior surface hardness Ease of machinability Orthopedic Fixation Device Semiconductor Test Sockets Fasteners Stock Shapes © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Applications . LLC 5 .

MPa Strength Modulus Modulus. GPa 8 6 100 50 0 PrimoSpire PR-120 PrimoSpire PR-250 PPS PI PEEK PEI 4 2 0 ™ PrimoSpire™ SRP is the Stiffest and Strongest Unreinforced Plastic in the World © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 6 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS PrimoSpire™ SRP – Comparison with Unfilled Plastics Tensile Properties 250 200 150 10 Strength.

296 Carbon Steel. 301 Titanium 62-4-2 ™ PrimoSpire™ SRP has Properties Similar to Metals On a Strength-to-Weight Basis © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 7 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS PrimoSpire™ SRP – Comparison with Metal Specific Tensile Strength (MPa/g/cm3) 250 200 150 100 50 0 PrimoSpire PrimoSpire Aluminum. C1018 Magnesium Stainless AE42-F Steel. Aluminum PR-120 PR-250 Heat 6061-T4 Treated Die Casting.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs. Plastics Simulation Technology Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 8 .

LLC 9 . Plastics Reinforced Polymers Metal Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Flow Direction STRESS STRESS PrimoSpire™ SRP Unfilled Polymers ELONGATION Transverse Direction ELONGATION PrimoSpire™ SRP has Exceptional Strength and PrimoSpire™ SRP has Exceptional Strength and Stiffness Without Reinforcements Stiffness Without Reinforcements © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Metals vs.

LLC 10 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Material Strength in Molded Part Several Factors Affect Strength Fiber orientation Weld line Gate location Processing WELD LINE GATE OR IE ON ATI NT GATE © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 11 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Metals vs. PrimoSpire™ SRP Tensile Strength (MPa) Metals Aluminum Die Cast Zinc Magnesium Self-Reinforced Polymers PrimoSpire™ PR-120 PrimoSpire™ PR-250 207 152 8 5 1.2 1.2 320 280 225 70 70 40 2.8 Young’s Modulus (GPa) Specific Gravity © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.6 1.8 6.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Equivalent Stiffness METAL PLASTIC W T/3 x T x W = 2T W x x W For Same Deflection: Tensile Modulus (E) x Moment of Inertia (I) for metal and plastic should be the same With Same Area: Moment of Inertia of plastic cross section is approximately 12 times the Moment of Inertia of metal cross section along the x-axis Difference in Modulus Can Be Compensated By Difference in Modulus Can Be Compensated By Geometrical Stiffness Without Increasing the Volume Geometrical Stiffness Without Increasing the Volume © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 12 .

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Stress vs. LLC 13 . Strain Linear 30% GF Polymer Tensile Stress. MPa 250 200 150 100 50 0 Non-linear 23°C 50°C 70°C 80°C 100°C 120°C 130°C 150°C 180°C 200°C 0 2 4 6 8 Latch Assembly Strain (%) Ultra Polymers Offer Higher Strain and Ultra Polymers Offer Higher Strain and Strength at Higher Temperature Strength at Higher Temperature © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS What is Creep? Creep Is Deformation Under Constant Load 1 Elastic STRAIN Viscoelastic Relaxation Elastic 3 2 TIME TYPES OF INSERTS 1. Press fit © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 14 . Molded in 2. Ultrasonically assembled 3.

LLC 15 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS What is Tolerance? Tolerance is a Combined Effect of Variations in Tool dimension Shrinkage Process parameters Optimize Tolerance in Part Design Design for plastics Make Certain CPk is Achievable Plastic has advantage of lower modulus Interference Fit Metal Plastic Tight Tolerance Represents Poor Plastic Design Tight Tolerance Represents Poor Plastic Design © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 16 . Plastics Simulation Technology Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Optimization Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Advanced Polymers Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Stress Analysis – FEA
(Finite Element Analysis)

Flow Analysis Flow balance Pressure profile Weld line Fiber orientation

Stress distribution Deflection Optimization

CAE Insures Functionality and Moldability CAE Insures Functionality and Moldability
© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

Stress Analysis (FEA)
Objective: Based on success of a smaller charged air cooler, conduct feasibility study to convert to larger size

Edge clamped on aluminum body

Design Requirements
1 million thermal cycles at 210°C with 2 bar internal pressure
© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS

FEA Results – Stress Distribution

Structural stiffness increased by adding rib

Maximum Stress Level Should Be Well Within Maximum Stress Level Should Be Well Within Design Limit of Plastic in a Given Environment Design Limit of Plastic in a Given Environment
© 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers, LLC

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SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Flow Analysis Objective: Recommend gate location to minimize warpage and improve flatness for better sealing surface Options Edge gate Center gate Warpage affected by Flow balance Fiber Orientation Uniform Cooling © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 20 .

LLC 21 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Pressure Profile Edge Gate Center Gate Flow Balance Provides Minimum Warpage Flow Balance Provides Minimum Warpage © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Optimization Design Use only where needed Processing Insert molding Machining stock shapes New Approaches Collaboration CAE Integration Stock Shapes Insert Molding © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 22 .

LLC .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Collaboration .Team Approach Designer Molder Material • Performance • Geometry • Regulations • Cost • Processing Part Design Tooling & Processing • Tooling • Moldability • Cycle Time • Material Characteristics Resin Supplier • Application Database • CAE Support • Secondary Operations • New Product Development 23 © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS CAE Integration Traditional (Silo Effect) CAE Integration (Accurate Prediction) Material Material Stress Analysis Flow Analysis Tooling & Processing Flow Analysis Part Design ORIENTATION EFFECT Final Design Part Design Stress Analysis Tooling & Processing Design Team Final Design Integration of Flow Analysis with Stress Analysis Integration of Flow Analysis with Stress Analysis Gives More Accurate Prediction Gives More Accurate Prediction © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 24 .

Metals Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 25 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Description of Ultra Polymers Plastics vs.

LLC 26 .Motor End Cap Background Metal cap with thermoset brush card Five different parts Machining and anodizing Critical features Creep and flatness Chemical resistance Benefits Cost reduction Weight reduction Parts consolidation © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Case Study .

strength. secondary operations Solvay has Over 20 Years Experience Solvay has Over 20 Years Experience Successfully Replacing Metal with Plastic Successfully Replacing Metal with Plastic © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. fabrication. plus improved creep requirements and flatness Design → Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for improved performance and Flow Analysis for optimized gate location Prototype Development → tooling and molding Testing → process verification (viscosity and crystallinity) Production → cycle optimization. improved flatness Material Selection → chemical resistance. crush ribs. LLC 27 . and stiffness.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Technical Support Concept → insert molding. assembly.

LLC 28 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Keys to Success Apply team approach Use flow analysis and stress analysis to validate functionality and moldability MUST redesign and optimize the design Select the right ultra polymer for the job Well-Designed Part Made from the Right Plastic Well-Designed Part Made from the Right Plastic Can Outperform a Metal Part Can Outperform a Metal Part © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 29 . highest strength AvaSpire™ modified PEEK Best way to bridge price and performance gaps PrimoSpire™ self-reinforced polyphenylene World’s stiffest and strongest unreinforced plastic EpiSpire™ high-temperature sulfone Best combination of exceptional creep resistance at high temperatures with processing ease Torlon® polyamide-imide Best wear-resistance and lowest friction properties Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS SolvaSpire™ Ultra Polymers KetaSpire™ PEEK (polyetheretherketone) Broadest chemical resistance.

LLC BUSINESS CONFIDENTIAL 30 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Want To Know More? For additional information. please e-mail us at advancedpolymers@solvay.com © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

2007 MO RE PL AST ICS WIT H MO RE PERFO RMANCE © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Designing with Ultra Polymers Practical Guidelines for Metal-to-Plastic Conversions July 25. LLC 1 .

LLC 2 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Advanced Polymers Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs. Plastics Simulation Technology Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

Europe and Asia Formed in 2001 when the Solvay Group acquired BP Amoco’s high-performance plastics business Dates back to 1974 and the inception of high-performance plastics production at Amoco and Union Carbide Recently acquired Mississippi Polymer Technologies and Gharda Polymers in Panoli. Georgia (US) with manufacturing. Aromatic Polyamides and SolvaSpire™ Ultra Polymers Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance Than Any Other Company in the World © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Solvay Advanced Polymers Headquartered in Alpharetta. R&D sites and affiliates in NA. LLC 3 . India 14 distinct product families which include Sulfone Polymers.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Plastics Performance Pyramid PrimoSpire™ self-reinforced polyphenylene Ultra Polymers Exceptional thermal properties Excellent mechanical properties Superior chemical resistance Outstanding flame resistance Un-matched wear resistance © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 4 .

LLC 5 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Applications .PrimoSpire™ SRP Why PrimoSpire™ SRP? Superior strength and stiffness without reinforcements Excellent chemical resistance Superior surface hardness Ease of machinability Orthopedic Fixation Device Semiconductor Test Sockets Fasteners Stock Shapes © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

MPa Strength Modulus Modulus.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS PrimoSpire™ SRP – Comparison with Unfilled Plastics Tensile Properties 250 200 150 10 Strength. GPa 8 6 100 50 0 PrimoSpire PR-120 PrimoSpire PR-250 PPS PI PEEK PEI 4 2 0 ™ PrimoSpire™ SRP is the Stiffest and Strongest Unreinforced Plastic in the World © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 6 .

301 Titanium 62-4-2 ™ PrimoSpire™ SRP has Properties Similar to Metals On a Strength-to-Weight Basis © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 7 . Aluminum PR-120 PR-250 Heat 6061-T4 Treated Die Casting. 296 Carbon Steel. C1018 Magnesium Stainless AE42-F Steel.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS PrimoSpire™ SRP – Comparison with Metal Specific Tensile Strength (MPa/g/cm3) 250 200 150 100 50 0 PrimoSpire PrimoSpire Aluminum.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs. LLC 8 . Plastics Simulation Technology Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 9 . Plastics Reinforced Polymers Metal Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Flow Direction STRESS STRESS PrimoSpire™ SRP Unfilled Polymers ELONGATION Transverse Direction ELONGATION PrimoSpire™ SRP has Exceptional Strength and PrimoSpire™ SRP has Exceptional Strength and Stiffness Without Reinforcements Stiffness Without Reinforcements © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Metals vs.

LLC 10 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Material Strength in Molded Part Several Factors Affect Strength Fiber orientation Weld line Gate location Processing WELD LINE GATE OR IE ON ATI NT GATE © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

8 6.8 Young’s Modulus (GPa) Specific Gravity © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. PrimoSpire™ SRP Tensile Strength (MPa) Metals Aluminum Die Cast Zinc Magnesium Self-Reinforced Polymers PrimoSpire™ PR-120 PrimoSpire™ PR-250 207 152 8 5 1.2 320 280 225 70 70 40 2.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Metals vs.6 1. LLC 11 .2 1.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Equivalent Stiffness METAL PLASTIC W T/3 x T x W = 2T W x x W For Same Deflection: Tensile Modulus (E) x Moment of Inertia (I) for metal and plastic should be the same With Same Area: Moment of Inertia of plastic cross section is approximately 12 times the Moment of Inertia of metal cross section along the x-axis Difference in Modulus Can Be Compensated By Difference in Modulus Can Be Compensated By Geometrical Stiffness Without Increasing the Volume Geometrical Stiffness Without Increasing the Volume © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 12 .

LLC 13 . MPa 250 200 150 100 50 0 Non-linear 23°C 50°C 70°C 80°C 100°C 120°C 130°C 150°C 180°C 200°C 0 2 4 6 8 Latch Assembly Strain (%) Ultra Polymers Offer Higher Strain and Ultra Polymers Offer Higher Strain and Strength at Higher Temperature Strength at Higher Temperature © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. Strain Linear 30% GF Polymer Tensile Stress.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Stress vs.

Molded in 2. LLC 14 . Ultrasonically assembled 3.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS What is Creep? Creep Is Deformation Under Constant Load 1 Elastic STRAIN Viscoelastic Relaxation Elastic 3 2 TIME TYPES OF INSERTS 1. Press fit © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 15 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS What is Tolerance? Tolerance is a Combined Effect of Variations in Tool dimension Shrinkage Process parameters Optimize Tolerance in Part Design Design for plastics Make Certain CPk is Achievable Plastic has advantage of lower modulus Interference Fit Metal Plastic Tight Tolerance Represents Poor Plastic Design Tight Tolerance Represents Poor Plastic Design © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 16 . Plastics Simulation Technology Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Optimization Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Advanced Polymers Description of Ultra Polymers Metals vs.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Stress Analysis – FEA (Finite Element Analysis) Flow Analysis Flow balance Pressure profile Weld line Fiber orientation Stress distribution Deflection Optimization CAE Insures Functionality and Moldability CAE Insures Functionality and Moldability © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 17 .

LLC 18 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Stress Analysis (FEA) Objective: Based on success of a smaller charged air cooler. conduct feasibility study to convert to larger size Edge clamped on aluminum body Design Requirements 1 million thermal cycles at 210°C with 2 bar internal pressure © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 19 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS FEA Results – Stress Distribution Structural stiffness increased by adding rib Maximum Stress Level Should Be Well Within Maximum Stress Level Should Be Well Within Design Limit of Plastic in a Given Environment Design Limit of Plastic in a Given Environment © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 20 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Flow Analysis Objective: Recommend gate location to minimize warpage and improve flatness for better sealing surface Options Edge gate Center gate Warpage affected by Flow balance Fiber Orientation Uniform Cooling © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 21 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Pressure Profile Edge Gate Center Gate Flow Balance Provides Minimum Warpage Flow Balance Provides Minimum Warpage © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

LLC 22 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Optimization Design Use only where needed Processing Insert molding Machining stock shapes New Approaches Collaboration CAE Integration Stock Shapes Insert Molding © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

Team Approach Designer Molder Material • Performance • Geometry • Regulations • Cost • Processing Part Design Tooling & Processing • Tooling • Moldability • Cycle Time • Material Characteristics Resin Supplier • Application Database • CAE Support • Secondary Operations • New Product Development 23 © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Collaboration .

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS CAE Integration Traditional (Silo Effect) CAE Integration (Accurate Prediction) Material Material Stress Analysis Flow Analysis Tooling & Processing Flow Analysis Part Design ORIENTATION EFFECT Final Design Part Design Stress Analysis Tooling & Processing Design Team Final Design Integration of Flow Analysis with Stress Analysis Integration of Flow Analysis with Stress Analysis Gives More Accurate Prediction Gives More Accurate Prediction © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 24 .

Metals Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Case Study © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Topics Introduction to Solvay Description of Ultra Polymers Plastics vs. LLC 25 .

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Case Study . LLC 26 .Motor End Cap Background Metal cap with thermoset brush card Five different parts Machining and anodizing Critical features Creep and flatness Chemical resistance Benefits Cost reduction Weight reduction Parts consolidation © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Technical Support Concept → insert molding. and stiffness. plus improved creep requirements and flatness Design → Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for improved performance and Flow Analysis for optimized gate location Prototype Development → tooling and molding Testing → process verification (viscosity and crystallinity) Production → cycle optimization. strength. secondary operations Solvay has Over 20 Years Experience Solvay has Over 20 Years Experience Successfully Replacing Metal with Plastic Successfully Replacing Metal with Plastic © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. fabrication. LLC 27 . improved flatness Material Selection → chemical resistance. crush ribs. assembly.

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Keys to Success Apply team approach Use flow analysis and stress analysis to validate functionality and moldability MUST redesign and optimize the design Select the right ultra polymer for the job Well-Designed Part Made from the Right Plastic Well-Designed Part Made from the Right Plastic Can Outperform a Metal Part Can Outperform a Metal Part © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 28 .

SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS SolvaSpire™ Ultra Polymers KetaSpire™ PEEK (polyetheretherketone) Broadest chemical resistance. highest strength AvaSpire™ modified PEEK Best way to bridge price and performance gaps PrimoSpire™ self-reinforced polyphenylene World’s stiffest and strongest unreinforced plastic EpiSpire™ high-temperature sulfone Best combination of exceptional creep resistance at high temperatures with processing ease Torlon® polyamide-imide Best wear-resistance and lowest friction properties Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance Solvay Offers More Plastics with More Performance © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. LLC 29 .

com © 2007 Solvay Advanced Polymers. please e-mail us at advancedpolymers@solvay. LLC BUSINESS CONFIDENTIAL 30 .SOLVAY ADVANCED POLYMERS Want To Know More? For additional information.