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Definition News is the communication of selected information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience. Various Kind of News and Examples of News 1. Newspapers Most large cities in the United States historically had morning and afternoon newspapers. As the media evolved and news outlets increased to the point of near over-saturation, most afternoon newspapers were shut down. Morning newspapers have been gradually losing circulation, according to reports advanced by the papers themselves. Commonly, news content should contain the "Five Ws" (who, what, when, where, why, and also how) of an event. There should be no questions remaining. Newspapers normally write hard news stories, such as those pertaining to murders, fires, wars, etc. in inverted pyramid style so the most important information is at the beginning. Busy readers can read as little or as much as they desire. Local stations and networks with a set format must take news stories and break them down into the most important aspects due to time constraints. Cable news channels such as BBC News, Fox News, MSNBC, and CNN, are able to take advantage of a story, sacrificing other, decidedly less important stories, and giving as much detail about breaking news as possible. News organizations are often expected to aim for objectivity; reporters claim to try to cover all sides of an issue without bias, as compared to commentators or analysts, who provide opinion or personal point-of-view. Several governments impose certain constraints or police news organizations against bias. In the United Kingdom, for example, limits are set by the government agency Ofcom, the Office of Communications. Both newspapers and broadcast news programs in the United States are generally expected to remain neutral and avoid bias except for clearly indicated editorial articles or segments. Many single-party governments have operated state-run news organizations, which may present the government's views. Even in those situations where objectivity is expected, it is difficult to achieve, and individual journalists may fall foul of their own personal bias, or succumb to commercial or political pressure. Similarly, the objectivity of news organizations owned by conglomerated corporations fairly may be questioned, in light of the natural incentive for such groups to report news in a manner intended to advance the conglomerate's financial interests. Individuals and organizations who are the subject of news reports may use news management techniques to try to make a favourable impression. Because each individual has a particular point of view, it is recognized that there can be no absolute objectivity in news reporting. 2. Newsworthiness Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values. For example, mid-twentieth-century news reporting in the United States focused on political and local issues with important socio-economic impacts, such as the landing of a living person on the moon or the cold war. More recently, the focus similarly remains on political and local issues; however, the news mass media now comes under criticism for over-emphasis on "nonnews" and "gossip" such as celebrities' personal social issues, local issues of little merit, as well

while WBBM also carries programming revolving around the NFL Chicago Bears. Many stations brand themselves Newsradio but only run continuous news during the morning and afternoon drive times. It may also refer to a long. 6. WBBM and WCBS. Newsworthiness does not only depend on the topic. which provide a variety of functions and services. 4. The dominance of celebrity and social news. using algorithms which carry out contextual analysis and group similar stories together. and is carried in some form on both major US satellite radio networks. and national radio shows revolving around news such as the CBS News Weekend Roundup. carry biased sensationalism of political topics such as terrorism and the economy. and the BBC World Service. as that station airs the play-by-play for the team. These stations are properly labeled as "news/talk" talk radio stations. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a given location. but also the presentation of the topic and the selection of information from that topic. simulcasts of TV news magazine or political affairs shows like 60 Minutes and Face the Nation. some National Public Radio stations identify themselves as News and Information stations. 3. and the advent of citizen journalism may suggest that the nature of ‘news’ and news values are evolving and that traditional models of the news process are now only partially relevant. A news ticker (sometimes referred to as a "crawler") resides in the lower third of the television screen space on television news networks dedicated to presenting headlines or minor pieces of news. RSS reader or simply aggregator. many selfdescribed infotainment websites exist. podcasts. According to many dictionaries infotainment is always television. All-news radio is available in both local and syndicated forms. and the term is "mainly disapproving. referring to a type of media which provides a combination of information and entertainment. The news ticker has been used in Europe in countries such as Britain. a nightly program featuring rebroadcasts of old time radio. Some all news stations. and the United States has been catching up recently. thin scoreboard-style display seen around the front of some offices or public buildings. There are also websites like Google News. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia. Germany and Ireland for some years. a feed aggregator. Infotainment is "information-based media content or programming that also includes entertainment content in an effort to enhance popularity with audiences and consumers. like KNX and WBZ. the blurring of the boundary between news and reality shows and other popular culture. like KYW. run talk radio programs on weekends and during off peak hours. All-news radio is a radio format devoted entirely to discussion and broadcast of news. and therefore are affiliated with the CBS Radio network. and vlogs in a single location for easy viewing. news reader. where aggregation is entirely automatic. Talk of the Nation. is client software or a Web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as news headlines. and formally since the nineteenth century. 7. Some CBS news radio stations also air When Radio Was in the overnight hours. Examples of this sort of website are the Drudge Report and the Huffington Post. and all-news stations may occasionally carry public affairs programs. 5. Some all-news stations. Also. Weather forecasts are made ." It is a neologistic portmanteau of information and entertainment. they run other information programs such as Day to Day." However. also known as a feed reader. Most of these stations are owned by CBS Radio. It is also used in several Asian countries and Australia. which means that in addition to running the NPR news magazines like Morning Edition and All Things Considered. News Aggregator In computing. blogs.

by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve. .

(See also Agenda.: memo) is from the Latin verbal phrase memorandum est. and arguments of a court case. A specific type of memorandum is the policy briefing note (alternatively referred to in various jurisdictions and governing traditions as policy issues paper. such as may be used in a business office. Presidential memoranda do not have an established process for issuance or publication. It is therefore a note.MEMORANDUM Definition A memorandum (abbrev. (5) The memorandum of association of a company. which is a proper noun and usually includes other words). (2) A Bench Memorandum (pl. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. bench memoranda)(also known as a bench memo) is a short and neutral memo which summarizes the facts. . Presidential memoranda are generally considered less prestigious than executive orders. a briefing note may be denoted as either “for information” or “for decision”. (4) A memorandum of agreement (MOA) or cooperative agreement is a document written between parties to cooperatively work together on an agreed upon project or meet an agreed objective. a document for transmitting policy analysis into the political decision making sphere. It is one of the documents required to incorporate a company in the United Kingdom. 2. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement. (3) A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract.". In law specifically. but if the word is deemed to have become a word of the English language. issues. abbreviated to memos. The plural form of the Latin noun memorandum so derived is properly memoranda. document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic. 1. indicating an intended common line of action.[1] which means "It must be remembered (that). "to mention. when drafting a decision. recount. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties.. The purpose of an MOA is to have a written understanding of the agreement between parties. Bench memos are used by the judge as a reference when preparing for the trial. making sure that the memo remains neutral. often simply called the memorandum (and then often capitalised as an abbreviation for the official name. the gerundive form of the verb memoro. such as. although lawyers can also submit their own memos that argue their case. Ireland. when hearing the lawyers' arguments. Corrigenda. India. or it may have a format specific to an office or institution. call to mind. Addenda) Various kinds of memorandum and examples A memorandum may have any format. It is a more formal alternative to a gentlemen's agreement. the plural memorandums. and just generally to give the judge an idea of what the arguments given by each side in the court case will be. policy memoranda. Bench memos are generally written by the judge's law clerk. (1) A policy memo. may be used. (6) A presidential memorandum is a type of presidential order issued by the President of the United States to the executive branch of the United States government. or cabinet submission amongst other terms). relate". Typically. Bangladesh. is the document that governs the relationship between the company and the outside. and is also used in many of the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth..

the word mémoire. stocks. . A prospectus commonly provides investors with material information about mutual funds. any litigation that is taking place. In English it can be deemed a form of essay. briefing notes. Alternative formats include memos. (8) Mémoire In French culture. memorandum of disapproval. financial statements. a prospectus is distributed by underwriters or brokerages to potential investors. such as an initial public offering. reports. and hortatory memorandum. bonds and other investments. biographies of officers and directors. a list of material properties and any other material information. detailed information about their compensation. logically approaching a series of facts in order to arrive at a recommendation or conclusion. letters or binders. such as a description of the company's business. a prospectus is a document that describes a financial security for potential buyers. as in un mémoire (the word has no direct English translation) is used for a (usually short and incisive) piece of writing allowing the author to show his or her opinion on a given subject. In the context of an individual securities offering.There are three types of memorandum: presidential determination or presidential finding. (7) Private Placement Memorandum In finance.

EXAMPLES OF MEMORANDUM 1. A Bench Memorandum . Policy Memorandum 2.


A memorandum of understanding (MOU) .3.

A memorandum of agreement (MOA) or cooperative agreement .4.

The memorandum of association of a company .5.

6. A presidential memorandum .

Private Placement Memorandum .7.