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The Female Reproductive System

•  Ovaries •  System of Genital Ducts
– fallopian tubes – uterus – vagina

•  External Genitalia

The notes compiled in this will guide you in histology. This is just one little way to help you breeze through medical school. As a favor, PLEASE DO NOT REPRODUCE =(

Functions:
•  production of female gametes •  reception of male gametes •  provision of a suitable environment for fertilization •  development of fetus and its expulsion •  nutrition of newborn

OVARY
•  flattened ovoid bodies suspended on either side of the uterus on the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity •  gland of double function: –  exocrine (cytogenic) –  endocrine •  Hilum: –  Vascular CT of the mesovarium becomes continuous with the ovarian stroma –  Germinal epithelium: •  a layer of cuboidal cells that replaces the peritoneal covering of the mesovarium •  a misnomer because it does NOT give rise to the primordial germ cells •  a specialization of the peritoneal mesothelium resting on a thin basal lamina

Ovary
•  Tunica albuginea: a layer of dense CT beneath the peritoneal mesothelium which increases in density with advancing age •  Has a cortex and a medulla

Ovary

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plenty of loose fibroelastic CT . interstitial glands * fusiform shaped fibroblasts present Thin Inner MEDULLA .Berger’s cells (hilus cells) *sympathicotrophic hilus glands *epithelioid cells associated with vascular spaces & unmyelinated nerve *rich in lipids & crystals of Reinke *homologous with Leydig cells -androgen secreting cells .Poor demarcation between the medulla and cortex . rich in lipid and resemble lutein cells -aka. spiral.scattered strands of smooth mm . and nerves .. lymphatics. thick walled blood vessels.Thick Outer CORTEX -Surrounds the medulla except at the hilum where the medulla becomes superficial -dense fibrocellular CT stroma -Few elastic fibers -Stroma *swirly appearance *Ovarian follicles containing the oocytes in various stages of development are embedded in this region *Stromal cortical cells: -spindle shaped -resemble smooth muscle but no myofilaments in their cytoplasm -differentiates into ovarian interstitial cells.large convoluted.

GERM CELLS •  Located in the ovarian follicles at cortical region of the ovary •  Germ cells: arise in the yolk sac and of endodermal in origin .

surrounded by numerous small mitochondria . the ovum. surrounded by a layer of smaller flattened cells called the follicular or granulosa cells •  Theca folliculi: condensation of dense CT around the follicle •  Oocyte has an eccentrically placed nucleus with a large nucleolus. well developed golgi apparatus.Primordial follicle or Unilaminar follicle •  A big spherical cell.

it forms a stratified epithelium (granulosa cells) .Primary Ovarian Follicle •  the growing follicles gradually move deeper into the cortex •  Characterized by: –  growth and differentiation of the ovum –  redistribution of organelles –  Golgi complex becomes dispersed in the cytoplasm along the periphery near the cell membrane or oolema –  RER becomes extensive & increased in free ribosomes –  Few lipid droplets –  proliferation of follicular cells –  becomes cuboidal or low columnar cells –  through mitosis.

penetrated by small vessels.Primary Ovarian Follicle •  Theca Folliculi: development of a CT capsule from the surrounding stroma –  theca interna: highly vascular inner layer of secretory cells –  theca externa: outer layer composed of CT. rich in collagenous fibers and fusiform cells –  Shows irregular microvilli on the surface of the oocyte into spaces between oocyte & surrounding granulosa cells •  Zona pellucida: –  amorphous material deposited around the microvilli containing mucoprotein substance –  homogenous in fresh condition –  elaborated by the granulosa cells .

separated from the ovum only by zona pellucida •  Membrana Granulosa: a regular continuous layer around the antral cavity formed by the stratified epithelium •  Call-Exner bodies: small accumulations of densely staining material that appear among the granulosa cells with a (+) PAS reaction located extracellularly in EM .Secondary Follicle (antral follicle) •  Antrum: a single cavity within the follicle formed from the fusion of small spaces filled with fluid during the proliferation of follicular cells. •  Oocyte has reached its full size by the time the formation of antrum begins •  Cumulus oophorus –  Projection of follicular cells into the antrum forming an eccentric mound or hillock –  The follicular cells of the cumulus oophorus becomes radially arranged and form the corona radiata.

surrounded by a thick zona pellucida and a characteristic corona radiata •  coronal cells share communicating junctions both with each other and with the oocyte . albuginea and theca folliculi are attenuated in the region where the follicle bulges on the free surface of the ovary •  Ovum has attained its full size.Mature Antral Follicle (Graffian Follicle) •  Requires 10 to 14 days from the beginning of the cycle •  Contains a large oocyte with large nucleus and prominent nucleoli •  occupies the full breadth of the cortex. the t. and indents the medulla •  Macula Pellucida: aka stigma.

Graffian Follicle •  Granulosa cells: –  stratified cuboidal epithelium with the basal layer of low columnar type resting on a prominent basal lamina –  cells are small with irregular cell outlines and uniform nuclei •  Theca folliculi: greatest development in the mature follicle –  Theca interna: •  composed of large spindle-shaped or polyhedral cells with oval nuclei and fine lipid droplets in the cytoplasm •  contains rich capillary plexus •  responsible for secretion of estrogen –  Theca Externa •  composed of concentrically arranged fibers & fusiform cells of ABSENT secretory function •  may have a significant role in post-ovulatory collapse of follicles .

Muscularis. Mucosa. T. T. Serosa •  Tunica Mucosa –  Thrown into characteristic longitudinal folds •  •  •  •  Ampulla: numerous elaborately branched folds Isthmus: short and rarely branched Interstitial part: Loxw folds Infundibulum: folds are continuous with the fringes . while the other end •  opens into the uterine cavity •  Composed of T.OVIDUCT OR FALLOPIAN TUBES (UTERINE TUBES OR SALPHYNX) •  Paired structures ~12 to 15 cm long and 6 to 8 mm in diameter •  The end of the tube in relation to the ovary opens into the peritoneum.

Oviduct .

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–  Deeper layers contain longitudinal bundles of muscularis . –  Ciliated Cells: •  Greatest at the region of infundibulum and least at the isthmus •  The cilia beat in the direction towards the uterus •  Epithelial cells: undergoes cyclic changes along with the uterine mucosa •  True glands are absent and there is no true muscularis mucosae •  Tunica Muscularis: Inner circular or Spiral while Outer Longitudinal in arrangement •  Tunica Serosa: areolar CT –  Contains large blood vessels . ciliated or nonciliated –  Peg Cells: non-ciliated cells secreting glycoprotein into the lumen to provide nutrition to the ovum.OVIDUCT •  Lining Epithelium: Simple columnar epithelium. lymphatics & nerves.

hollow pear-muscular organ.e. flattened in a dorsoventral direction •  Anatomical Divisions: –  Upper expanded body or Corpus Uteri –  fundus (rounded. dome-shaped top) –  Isthmus (narrow transition between the corpus & cervix) –  cervix (narrow neck whose terminal portion projects to the vagina. i.UTERUS •  thick walled. portio vaginalis) .

UTERUS •  Histological Divisions: – Perimetrium or Serosa • Peritoneal layer of broad ligament covering the corpus & a portion of the cervix • Composed of a single layer of mesothelial cells supported by a thin CT layer that is firmly adherent to the muscular layer • Constant all throughout the cycle .

e. veins) in the interstitium .Uterus •  Muscularis or Myometrium –  Shows changes only during pregnancy –  Massive coat of smooth muscle about 12 to 15 mm thick –  3 layers: •  Inner layer or sub-vascular stratum: –  longitudinally arranged –  absent in the cervix •  Middle layer or vascular stratum: –  thickest and forms the bulk of the muscularis –  composed of circular or spirally arranged muscle fibers –  with numerous blood vessels (i..

UTERUS –  Outer layer or supra-vascular stratum: »  relatively thin »  composed of both circular and longitudinal fibers »  Longitudinal fibers becomes continuous with the longitudinal muscle coat of vagina –  Fibers are shortest during the 1st week after menstruation & has the greatest length during the 4th week of the cycle –  During pregnancy. –  Cervix: has a firm consistency due to its dense fibrous nature . there is both an increase in muscle length and number.

pink.UTERUS •  Mucosa or Endometrium –  Undergoes all the changes that take place in the different phases of reproductive cycle –  Thin. ciliated & nonciliated cells •  Ciliated cells are located in discrete patches •  Non-ciliated cells exhibit secretory activity •  Epithelium rests on a delicate basement membrane and a considerably thick lamina propria with characteristic embryonal CT rich in fibroblasts . velvet-like membrane with perforations by the ostia of the uterine glands –  Intermenstrual phase •  Lined by simple columnar epithelium.

Normal Uterus .

Non-pregnant Uterus Pregnant Uterus .

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UTERUS –  Two principal layers: •  Stratum Functionalis –  Thick superficial portion –  Supplied with coiled arteries –  Subdivisions: »  Stratum compactum or superficial dense portion »  Stratum spongiosum or deeper portion of looser texture •  Stratum Basalis –  Thin deeper portion of the lamina propria –  Contains uterine glands and a network of straight coursed capillaries that are independent from the blood vessels of the stratum functionalis –  The ONLY LAYER THAT REMAINS INTACT DURING MENSTRUATION .

UTERUS •  Vascular Architecture: –  Uterine & Ovarian arteries  arcuate arteries (middle third of uterine wall)  radial arteries coiled or spiral arteries & basal arteries –  Coiled or Spiral arteries •  Supplies most of the the mid portion & ALL of the superficial third of the endometrium •  Walls of these vessels are sensitive to the action of hormones •  Show pronounced modifications during menstruation –  Straight basal endometrial arteries •  Smaller in caliber and length than the coiled arteries •  Extend only into the basal layer •  Not responsive to hormones •  Do not undergo changes during menstruation .

UTERUS •  Uterine Glands –  Found in the lamina propria of the fundus & corpus of the uterus –  Slightly branched tubular glands extending to the entire thickness of the endometrium to the myometrium –  Lined by simple columnar ciliated epithelium –  Secretes a thin alkaline fluid to keep the uterine cavity moist .

contains many collagen & elastic fibers & cervical glands . ciliated cells are occasionally seen –  at the level of external os.CERVIX •  Lining Epithelium: tall columnar non-ciliated mucous secreting epithelium –  at the level of internal os. an abrupt change to stratified squamous epithelium is seen that is similar to the vaginal epithelium •  Tunica propria: less cellular than those of fundus and body.

CERVIX •  CERVICAL GLANDS –  Large branched tubular glands lined by simple columnar mucous secreting cells that is affected by estrogen –  Branches of these glands are closed off from the lumen forming cyst-like dilatations filled with mucus. i.e. Nabothian cysts / follicles / ovules –  Spinnbarkait: property of cervical mucus that permits it to be drawn out in long strands. which is maximal at the time of ovulation .

Cervix .

there is a “bladed or cellular appearance’ –  Cervical mucosa does not participate in participate in menstruation and is thicker than the body of the uterus –  Plica palmitae or arbor vitae: numerous branching folds of the cervical mucosa .CERVIX –  Mucus: •  change in the consistency of mucus from highly viscous state to a less viscous. more highly hydrated at the midcycle •  Microscopic patterns: –  ‘fern-like pattern’ -7th to 18th day of menstrual cycle –  By day 21. there is no fern or palm leaf pattern –  During pregnancy.

CERVIX •  Muscular Coat: thinner than that of the body of the uterus and fewer blood vessels present •  Fibrous Coat: Loose Areolar CT •  Portio Vaginalis: –  stratified squamous epithelium rich in glycoprotein from a tall columnar –  epithelium of the endocervix –  Site of Cervical CA (Papanicolaou Smear: desquamated cells from the vagina and cervix are examined microscopically for CA detection) .

endometrium thickness decrease d/t loss of fluid  3 zones become well-defined *basal zone (layer adjacent to myometrium) *Spongy zone (layer between the compact & basal layers) undergoes little histologic changes during menstruation mitosis in the glands present lacy labyrinth with scanty stroma between the tortuous glands (characteristic of the luteal phase) *Compact Zone (immediately beneath the endometrial surface)  thickening of endometrial stroma (d/t edema) . and has larger nuclei  2-3 days after ovulation. macrophages. succulent & rich in glycogen . lyphocytes & monocytes) undergo hypertrophic changes .increase in stromal ground substance .appearance of spiral or coiled arteries becoming more tortuous & dilated) Late Secretory or Luteal Early Late .Stromal cells (fibroblasts. vesicular. these cells are packed loosely.STAGE ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE HIGHLIGHTS Proliferative or Follicular Early follicular growth & estrogen secretion  period varies greatly .narrow tubular glands of straight course toward the basal layer  epithelium is low columnar with round nuclei  stromal cells are packed densely with small deep staining nuclei * in the superficial layer. PMN.glands are nearly straight & narrower in the compact & superficial layer with the lumen often filled with secretions .thicker endometrium  progestational stage  active corpus luteum .endometrium (5-mm thick) is extremely vascular. mitotic figures appear in the gland  no lymphocytic infiltration .thin endometrium . rounded.glandular hyperplasia  glandular epithelium is taller & pseudostratified by ovulation .

decrease thickness of endometrium d/t loss of fluid & secretion (2 days) .functional layer is pale d/t:  collapse of arteries & glands  constriction of coiled arteries .vasoconstriction of arterioles & coiled arteries precedes the onset of menstrual bleeding  superficial ½ to 2/3 of mucosa becomes inadequately supplied Menstrual .regression of corpus luteum d/t decrease estrogen & progesterone levels . does not clot d/t presence of fibrinolytic enzymes -whole functional layer is lost -basal layer remains intact -anovulatory type: cycle wherein bleeding is due to a non-production of a ripe follicle .2-3 days before menstruation .ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE Pre-Menstrual or Ischemic  interruption of coiled arteries . superficial endometrium is distended & ruptures  necrosis  shed  coiled arteries relax. the vessel walls break and blood is added to the secretion  hemorrhage stops when the coiled arteries vasocontrict again  MENSTRUAL DISCHARGE -35 ml. bear the surface.external menstrual discharge:  decrease in estrogen & progesterone  endometrium undergoes involution & is partially destroyed  bleeding maybe of either arterial or venous in origin  upon hematoma formation.disintegration of reticular framework of stroma in the superficial layer .stromal infiltration by PMN or mononuclear WBC .

starts 1st in the region around spiral arteries) .Days 14 to 16 Histologic changes of Normal 28 day cycle: Subnuclear glycogen rich vacuoles in the glands Vacuoles have displaced the nuclei toward the middle of the cells Mitosis ceases 17 to 18 18 20 Few vacuoles 20 to 21 Considerable interstitial edema 23 to 24 Predecidualization (increase in stromal cells.

fewer and shorter uterine glands (may appear cystic).•  Role of Prostaglandins: –  Both endometrium & deciduas are enriched with arachidonic acid –  Initiation of parturition & maintenance of Labor –  Menstruation in non-pregnant –  Mechanism is by induction of vasoconstriciton •  Menopause: –  cessation of cyclic changes in the uterus –  atrophic mucosa. lamina propria changes to areolar type –  Increased amount of fibrous tissue in the muscular coat .

it consists of 2 layers (cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast) . & some lipids •  endometrium is thick & edematous •  Blastocyst –  Trophoblast – a single layer of cells comprising the wall •  becomes several layers as it implants •  by the eleventh day. mucinogen.UTERUS During Pregnancy •  by the 6th day. implantation in the endometrium occurs (blastocyst stage) •  lumen & glandular cells appear large. containing glycogen.

•  Cytotrophoblast – inner layer of cells with clearly defined cell boundaries •  Syncytiotrophoblast – outer layer of mutinucleated protoplasmic mass –  Forms the primitive villi which are epithelial cords extending out into the surrounding space –  Chorion: •  Primitive embryonic CT comes in relation with trophoblast •  Chorionic or Secondary Villi: Embryonal CT with fetal blood vessels extending into the into the Villi –  Chorion Leve: surface of the chorion degenerate by the 3rd month of pregnancy –  Fetal component: deeply embedded (chorion frondosum) –  chorionic plate: firm plate-like structure which is a portion of the chorion to which the villi are attached .

mucosa lying beneath the enbryo •  maternal component of placenta •  Site which is penetrated by the chorionic villi –  Decidua Capsularis or reflexa .•  Decidua Graviditatis: Endometrium –  Decidua basalis or serotina .mucosa between the embryo & lumen of the uterus –  Decidua Parietalis or Vera – remaining mucosa of body & fundus of uterus •  endometrium increase in early part of pregnancy •  glands enlarge & become more tortuous •  Decidual cells: large & rounded endometrial stromal cells –  may contain two or more nuclei (large with sparse chromatin & nucleoli) –  Vesicular cytoplasm containg glycogen –  rarely present by the end of pregnancy .

basalis b.outer layer next to the spaces filled with maternal blood 2. cytotrophoblast in the 1st trimester b.k. it becomes loose in texture due to rich venous plexus -decidual cells  prominent during 1st half of pregnancy:  smaller decidual cells contain glycogen  protective role in preventing trophoblast from penetrating into the myometrium (placenta acerata)  secretory role: prostaglandins & prolactin -glandular epithelium is rich in glycogen & lipid droplets -Placenta Septa: projections formed as the deciduas is deeply eroded by the spiral arteries located opposite the anchoring villi .absent intercellular boundaries 4. a. Hofbauer Cells: large cells with spherical nuclei found in the core of phagocytic function  lined by typical endothelium Trophoblasts covering the villus  cellular trophoblast (cytotrophoblast) 1.cytoplasm contains glycogen & vacuoles -desmosomes present  Syncytial trophoblast (syncytiotrophoblast) 1. Langhan’s layer . Composed of: a.Fibrinoid: irregular masses of acidophilic homogenous substance present on the outer surface of the placenta Placental Barrier: 1. basal lamina of the trophoblast c.PLACENTA FETAL COMPONENT MATERNAL COMPONENT -chorionic plate -chorionic villi 2 types of Villi a. anchoring villi -pass from the chorionic plate to d. free or floating villi Structure of a villus has a central core of mesenchymal tissue containing fetal blood vessels which are covered by trophoblasts.Syncytial sprouts or knots: protuberances formed in the latter half of pregnancy as syncytiotrophoblasts aggregate 7.a.consists of large. Syncytial trophoblast separates the maternal circulation from the fetal circulation. discrete pale cells .microvilli present on the outer surface 5.dense cytoplasm (lysosomes & RER abundant) 6.dark layer of variable thickness showing numerous small dark nuclei 3. basal lamina of the fetal capillaries. 2. & fetal endothelium)   Placental Secretions: -human chorionic Gonadotropin *maintenance of corpus luteum of pregnancy -placental Lactogen *stimulates milk synthesis -progesterone & estrogen -decidua basalis *by the 4th month.inner layer of cell mass (undifferentriated) 2. wall of the fetal blood vessels (fetal CT.

Placenta: Chorionic Villi .

Umbilical Cord .

which is important in maintaining a suitable type of bacterial flora in the vagina •  During estrogen phase of the cycle. •  Serves as a nutrient for male germ cell •  Fermented by bacteria converting it into lactic acid. thus appear vacuolated.VAGINA •  hollow. collapsed under ordinary conditions •  Histological Divisions: –  Mucosa •  Thrown into folds (rugae) and is lined by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium •  Glycogen: accumulated by epithelium. particularly at the time of ovulation. musculo-fibrous organ. the vaginal fluid is acidic (lower pH) than at other times •  Tunica Propria: loose areolar CT which has papillae that project towards the lining epithelium .

Vagina .

The mucus found in the lumen is derived from the glands of the cervix –  Muscular Coat •  Smooth Muscle : Outer layer is longitudinally arranged continuous with the myometrium while inner portion is circular •  Skeletal Muscle: present at the level of introitus or ostium which are fibers of the bulbocavernosus that acts as a sphincter –  Fibrosa or Adventitia: dense CT with many elastic fibers . there are numerous –  Contains abundant elastic fibers & WBC –  Dense plexus of small veins are found in the deeper portion –  Vaginal wall is devoid of glands. there are less papillae while in the posterior wall.VAGINA –  In the anterior wall.

FEMALE EXTERNAL GENITALIA •  Clitoris •  Consists of two corpora cavernosa ending in a rudimentary glans •  Composed of dense areolar CT rich in venous sinuses •  Genital corpuscles are present. thus is very sensitive •  Vestibule: •  Vaginal and urethral openings are lined by stratified squamous •  Skene’s glands or glandulae vestibulares minores –  Resemble the glands of Littre and contains mucous cells –  Located around the opening of the urethra and on the clitoris •  Bartholin’s Glands or vestibular glands major –  Tubuloacinar mucus secreting glands –  Homologous to the bulbo-urethral gland thus for lubrication .

more pigmented & contains several large hair follicles. sweat and sebaceous glands –  Undersurface epithelium is smooth & hairless •  Labia Minora –  Stratified aquamous epithelium with tunica propria rich in elastic fibers & blood vesseks –  No hairs but numerous sebaceous glands •  Hymen –  Lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized –  Sensory Receptors •  Meissner’s corpuscles: papillary region •  Genital Corpuscles in the sub-papillary region •  Lamellar or pacinian corpuscles: deeper portion of CT of the l.FEMALE EXTERNAL GENITALIA •  Labia MAJORA –  Contains large amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue and smooth muscle similar to the dartos muscle –  general structure of skin –  Epidermis is thicker in the outer covering. majora & clitoris .

scanty fibrous stroma with few.MAMMARY GLANDS •  specialized cutaneous glands located within the subcutaneous tissue •  a fully developed mammary gland is similar to that of the sebaceous glands (modified sweat gland) •  Before puberty: mammary glands are similar in both sexes. short and narrow blind ducts •  After puberty: in the female –  an increase in the CT stroma and accumulation of adipose –  developed ductal system beyond the rudimentary stage & several branches start to appear –  Cluster of cells soon appear to differentiate into true alveoli .

•  Compund tubulo-alveolar gland of 15 to 20 irregular lobes –  Each lobe is divided into several lobules •  Main Lactiferous duct Resting Mammary Gland (breast of a sexually mature non-pregnant woman) –  lined by stratified squamous epithelium –  Lactiferous sinus: dilatation near its termination at the summit of the nipple –  gives off branches that drain lobules –  Intralobular ducts »  Lined by a single layeR of columnar cells »  Smaller ducts are lined by a double layer of cuboidal cells »  Smallest ducts are connected to the alveoli (alveolar ducts) –  Duct opens at the apex of the nipple .

fewer collagenous fibers and almost no fat –  Loose CT surrounding the duct system permits greater distensibility when it undergoes hypertrophy .Resing Mammary Gland •  Interlobar septa: dense CT separating the lobes –  Suspensory Ligaments of Cooper: Dense fibrous trabeculae –  Stroma is both fibrous and fatty in nature •  Fat surround the gland in the deeper regions and superficially (except at the areola) •  Few fat droplets are present within the gland •  Interlobular CT: dense type –  More cellular.

Resting Mammary Gland •  Parenchyma –  Scanty in a resting mammary gland –  Clusters of cuboidal or columnar cells at the end of the ducts separated by CT with fat cells •  Represents underdeveloped alveoli as there are NO true secreting alveoli in the resting gland –  Myo-epithelial cells (basket cells •  Resemble the fusiform smooth muscle cells •  Located between the secretory cells and the basal lamina whose processes form loosely meshed basket – like a network enclosing the cells •  Contains parallel array of myofilaments. occasional mitochondria and spindle shaped densities .

Areolar glands of Montgomery or glands of duval a. tip of the nipple is supplied with free nerve endings and meissner’s corpuscle. smooth muscles oriented longitudinally along the lactiferous ducts and circumferentially both within the nipple and around its base 3. big modified sweat glands around the nipple in the areolae 4. contains long dermal papilla with blood capillaries 2.Resting Mammary Gland -Nipple & Areola 1. .

–  Intralobular ducts undergo rapid proliferation & form buds which enlarge into alveoli –  Decrease in interlobular fat & CT decrease in amount –  Decrease in Intralobular CT with lymphocytic infiltrates –  Secretory alveoli •  Lined by a single layer of columnar cells of granular & acidophilic cytoplasm •  These cells rest on a basal lamina containing basket cells (myoepithelial cells) •  Develop first at the ends of the duct & gradually increase in number .Mammary glands during pregnancy •  In the first half of pregnancy.

Mammary Glands Resting Active .

granular-slightly acidophilic cytoplasm. colostrums •  Colostrum: –  secretion formed during the first few days after parturition –  Contains cellular debris. and more Immunoglobulins than milk –  Secretory Alveoli: •  Varies from tall epithelium to low columnar cells •  If tall: distal ends separated projecting into the lumen.•  Later months of pregnancy –  Breast Enlargement: •  hypertrophy of parenchymal cells •  distention of the alveoli with a eosinophilic secretion. few mitochondria •  Lumen is crowded with lipid droplets & fine granular material •  Apocrine in nature (partial disintegration) •  Milk •  Protein component: merocrine Secretion •  Fat component: Apocrine secretion •  CT stroma is greatly thinned •  Ducts are numerous •  Milk Let down: Oxytocin . including cells of probable leukocytic origin. with more organelles •  If short: smooth surface. large fat globules.

with ducts but no alveoli or lobulation .•  Mammary glands after Lactation: –  Undergo retrogressive changes & returns to a resting state with many alveoli containing remnants of secretory material –  The gland does not return to its nulliparous state –  CT & fat cells again become abundant –  Involution of Ducts •  Mammary glands after menopause: –  Progressive atrophy of both its parenchyma & CT stroma –  Epithelium & excretory ducts atrophy –  The gland returns to its pre-pubertal condition –  Involution of ducts •  -Male mammary gland: –  Undergoes involution.