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The Role of Reproduction

Readings
y Viruses, Bacteria o Chapter 13 o Pages 282-296 Fungi o Chapter 30 o Pages 650-669 Reproduction in Plants o Chapter 38 o Pages 819-834 Animal Reproduction o Chapter 42 o Pages 896-916

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What is Reproduction?
y y Ability to procreate Creation of copies of oneself, identical, or similar Fundamental property of life

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What is Most Important?
y y Having as many offspring as possible? Creating social units that are able to defend themselves (families)? Ability to adapt to the environment?

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Darwin, Reproduction, and Adaptation
y Reproduction results in increased numbers of individuals within populations: o 8 pairs of birds (16) o ½ (4 pairs) raise 4 young each, annually (8+(4x4)+8=32) o i.e. population doubles annually o 7 years = 2,048 birds o Therefore there is a high potential for adaption

Variation in Reproductive Strategies
y Sex and Gender are not Essential for Reproduction o Asexual o Sexual o Fission o Parthenogenesis o Hermaphrodites o Conjugation o External fertilization o Internal fertilization o In-vitro fertilization o Cloning

Asexual Reproduction
y Eukaryotes: o Based on mitotic division of the nucleus o Anaphase

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Can also produce clones of offspring that are genetically identical to the parent The reproduction of prokaryotes also gives rise to clones

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o Example: Fission  A dividing unicellular Reproduction by mitosis results in relative genetic constancy Does asexual reproduction preclude reassortment of genes? o No, because of the potential for Transformation and Transduction

Transformation
y y DNA from one bacterium genetically ³transforms´ another type Some prokaryotes pick up genes (DNA) from the environment o From their dead neighbours whose DNA has leaked out into the environment o This ³new´ DNA is incorporated into the host chromosome, becoming part of that cell¶s genome

Transduction
y y Viruses carry genes from one cell to another o Are called ³bacteriophages´ Virus forms a phage capsid o Can carry bacterial DNA fragments and transfer them into the next ³infected´ bacterium  Thus the genetic information is ³transduced´ from one bacterium to another

Viral Reproduction
y Viruses are ³obligate intracellular parasites´ o Are acellular and are composed of nucleic acid and a few proteins o ³Hijack´ cell machinery to make viral copies instead of normal protein and nucleic acid activities of the cell  Or immediately kills the host cell o Can use cells of animals, plants, fungi, protists, prokaryotes Example o Equine Influenza Virus  Orthomyxoviridae  Subtype 1: H7N7 Subtype 2: H3N8  RNA virus

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Viral Shedding
y Virus enters the cell o Once the cell is exhausted, its wall is lysed, releasing hundreds or thousands of new viruses into the surrounding extracellular space

Introduction to Sexual Reproduction
y Re-assortment of genes from two individuals allows for greater genetic variability