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Introduction Steel, the generic name for a group of ferrous metals composed principally of ir on (qv), is the most useful metallic material known on account of its abundance, durability, versatility, and low cost. In the form of bars, plates, sheets, str uctural shapes, wire pipe and tubing, forgings, and castings, steel is used in t he construction of buildings, bridges, railroads, aircraft, ships, automobiles, tools, cutlery, machinery, furniture, household appliances, and many other artic les on which the convenience, comfort, and safety of society depends. Steel is a lso an essential material for spacecraft and supporting facilities as well as in practically every kind of material needed for national defense (see BUILDING MA TERIALS, SURVEY; TOOL MATERIALS). The durability and versatility of steel are sh own by its wide range of mechanical and physical properties. By the proper choic e of carbon content and alloying elements, and by suitable heat treatment, steel can be made so soft and ductile that it can be cold-drawn into complex shapes s uch as automobile bodies. Conversely, steel can be made extremely hard for wear resistance, or tough enough to withstand enormous loads and shock without deform ing or breaking. In addition, some steels are made to resist heat and corrosion by the atmosphere and by a wide variety of chemicals. About 1 billion metric ton s of raw steel are produced annually throughout the world (2004) with China resp onsible for $25%. Its usefulness is enhanced by the fact that it has historicall y been inexpensive. The price as of early 2004 ranged from 40–50 c/kg for the comm on grades to several dollars per kg for special steels such as certain tool stee ls. Prices, that have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s occasio nally bene t from import restrictions, currency exchange rates, and (at the time o f writing) from sudden increases in the price of items used in manufacturing, no tably scrap that more than doubled in price because of high demand from China. T he uses of steel are too diverse to be listed completely or to serve as a basis of classi cation. Inasmuch as grades of steel are produced by more than one proces s, classi cation by method of manufacture is also not advantageous. The simplest c lassi cation is by chemical composition into the large groups of carbon steels, al loy steels, and stainless steels. Within these groups are many subdivisions base d on speci c chemical composition, physical or mechanical properties, and/or uses. It has been known for many centuries that iron ore, embedded in burning charcoa l, can be reduced to metallic iron (1,2). Iron was made by this method as early as 1200 BC. Consisting almost entirely of pure iron, the rst iron metal closely r esembled modern wrought iron, which is relatively soft, malleable, ductile, and readily hammer-welded when heated to a suf ciently high temperature. This metal wa s used for many purposes, including agricultural implements and various tools. I t is not known when the rst metal resembling modern carbon steel was made intenti onally. It has been speculated that steel was made in India $100 BC. Remains of swords with steel blades have been found in Luristan, a western province of Iran (formerly Persia), at sites dated at $800 BC. 1 Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, In c. All rights reserved.

2 STEEL Vol. 00 Most modern steels contain >98% iron. However, steel also contains carbon, which , if present in suf cient amounts (usually > 0.3% up to $2%), gives a property unm atched by any of the metals available to the ancients. This property is the abil ity to become extremely hard if cooled very quickly (quenched) from a high enoug h temperature, as by immersing it in water or some other liquid. Its hardness an d the ability to take and hold a sharp cutting edge make steel an extremely valu able metal for weapons, tools, cutlery, surgical instruments, razors, and other special forms. It was not until the eighteenth century that carbon was recognize d as a chemical element, and it is quite certain that no early metallurgist was aware of the basis of the unique properties of steel as compared to those of wro ught iron. Carbon can be alloyed with iron in a number of ways to make steel, an d all methods described herein have been used at various times in many localitie s for perhaps 3000 or more years. For example, low carbon wrought-iron bars were packed in air-tight containers together with charcoal or other carbonaceous mat erial. By heating the containers to a red heat and holding them at that temperat ure for several days, the wrought iron absorbed carbon from the charcoal; this m ethod became known as the cementation process. If the iron is made in primitive furnaces, carbon can be absorbed from the charcoal fuel during and after its red uction. The Romans, eg, built and operated furnaces that produced a steel-like m etal instead of wrought iron. In neither of the two foregoing cases did the iron or steel reach suf ciently high temperatures to become molten. In ancient India, a steel called wootz was made by placing very pure iron ore and wood or other ca rbonaceous material in a tightly sealed pot or crucible heated to high temperatu re for a considerable time. Some of the carbon in the crucible reduced the iron ore to metallic iron, which absorbed any excess carbon. The resulting iron–carbon alloy could give an excellent grade of steel. In a similar way, pieces of low ca rbon wrought iron were placed in a pot along with a form of carbon and melted to make a ne steel. In the eighteenth century, a variation of this method, in which bars that had been carburized by the cementation process were melted in a seale d pot to make steel of the best quality, became known as the crucible process. B efore the invention of the Bessemer process for steelmaking in 1856, only the ce mentation and crucible processes were of any industrial importance and of course were available in limited quantities. Although both of the latter processes had been known in the ancient world, their practice seems to have been abandoned in Europe before the Middle Ages. The cementation process was revived in Belgium $ 1600, whereas the crucible process was rediscovered in the British Isles in 1740 . Both processes were practiced in secret for some time after their revival, and little is known of their early history. The cementation process ourished in the United Kingdom during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and continued to b e used to a limited extent into the early part of the twentieth century. At red heat, a low carbon ferrous metal, in contact with carbonaceous material such as charcoal, absorbed carbon that, up to the saturation point of $1.70%, varied in amount according to the time the metal was in contact with the carbon and the te mperature at which the process was conducted. A type of

Vol. 00 STEEL 3 muf e furnace or pot furnace was used and the iron and charcoal were packed in alt ernate layers. In the softer grades (average carbon content $0.50%), the composi tion of the bar was uniform throughout. In the harder grades (average carbon con tent as high as 1.50%), the outside of a bar might have a carbon content of 1.50– 2.00%, whereas the center contained 0.85–1.10%. Steels made by this method were ca lled cement steels. The crucible process gave steels that were not only homogene ous throughout, but were free from occluded slag originating in the wrought iron used to make cement steel. Crucible steel was so superior to cement steel for m any purposes that the crucible process quickly became the leader for the product ion of the nest steels. Its drawback was, however, that each crucible held only $ 50 kg steel. The various steelmaking processes were all eventually supplanted (3 ,4). The rst of the newer techniques was the historic pneumatic or Bessemer proce ss, introduced in 1856. Shortly thereafter, the regenerative-type furnace, known in the 1900s as the open-hearth furnace, was developed in Europe. Adapted to st eelmaking, the open-hearth process was the principal method for producing steel throughout the world until 1970. As of this writing (2004), it is essentially ph ased out. Since 1970, the most widely used processes for making liquid steel hav e been the oxygen steelmaking processes, in which commercially pure oxygen (99.5 % pure) is used to re ne molten pig iron. In the top-blown basic oxygen process, o xygen is blown down onto the surface of the molten pig iron containing such cool ants as scrap steel or iron ore for temperature control. In the bottomblown basi c oxygen process (Q-BOP), the oxygen is blown upward through the molten pig iron . The direction in which the oxygen is blown has important effects on the nal ste el composition and on the amount of iron lost to the slag. Many plants today use a combination of top and bottom blowing. Liquid steel is also made by melting s teel scrap in an electric-arc furnace. This process is now a signi cant contributo r to large-scale production and today makes about 30% of the steel in Japan and at least 50% in the United States. As demand has gone up, the world price of pre mium scrap has increased substantially—maybe 50 to >100% in some cases recently. S ince scrap is a major part of electric melting costs, this is now a major criter ion and leads to price surcharges. Pig iron (with more predictable costs), and i ron and steel scrap are the sources of iron for steelmaking in basic-oxygen furn aces. Electric furnaces historically relied on iron and steel scrap, although ne wer iron sources such as direct-reduced iron (DRI), iron carbide, and even pig i ron are becoming both desirable and available (see IRON). In basic-oxygen furnac es, the pig iron is used in the molten state as obtained from the blast furnace; in this form, it is referred to as hot metal. Pig iron consists of iron combine d with numerous other elements. Depending on the composition of the raw material s used in the blast furnace, principally iron ore (bene ciated or otherwise), coke , and limestone, and the manner in which the furnace is operated, pig iron may c ontain 3.0–4.5% carbon,

or scrap alone . owing to the removal of carbon. often dras tically. Oxid ation is employed to convert a molten bath of pig iron and scrap. and 0. Methods exist to make impure iron directly from ore. steels having similar chemical compositions and thermal treatmen t have similar mechanical and physical properties. sili con can be as low as 0. As implied by the t erm ‘‘steelmaking’’. Acid processes have virtuall y disappeared.4 STEEL Vol.025–2. Electric Furnace Processes The principal electric furnace steelmaking processes are the electric-arc furnac e. ie. when the power loading is high. are employed where natural gas is readily available for the reduction (see a lso IRON). or SiO2) which dissolves in the slag.8%. Carbonization of iron ore to make iron carbide as an alternative sour ce of iron units is in its infancy and has been slow to develop. S ulfur. phosphorus. reduced signi cantly by treating the hot metal between the blast furnace and the steelmaking vessel.2% sulfur. the melting poin t of the bath is raised. exist largely as ions in the slag. Each steelmaking process has been devised primarily to provide som e means by which controlled amounts of oxygen can be supplied to the molten meta l undergoing re ning. and also do not react so vigorously with the furnace li nings. in the rst two processes steel is made that is different in composit ion and shape from the starting material. rich in lime. induction furnace. consumable-electrode melting. generally referred to as direct-reduction process es. CO) or an oxi de (eg. . incl uding the majority of the sulfur. The starting material used for the last two processes closely resembles the d esired steel ingot subsequently rolled or forged. As the puri c ation of the pig iron proceeds. into steel. More exactly. silicates. The impurities. T he main raw material for all these processes is solid steel. many but not all solutes are reduced. to make DRI without rst reducing the ore in the blast furnace to make pig iron that has to be puri ed in a second step. MnO.15% with modern techniques and is almost always < 0. which are predominantly magnesite or dolomite. 2. Steelmaking processes were historically either acid (silica rich refrac tory linings) or basic (calcium or magnesium rich). These processes. 00 0. and sul des) ar e very different when toughness and large plastic deformations can be affected. it is an ionic liquid–metallic liquid equilibration where the distribution coef cient depends on compositions of slag and metal and also on temperature. In electric melting.5% or more manganese. unless the patterns of inclusions (oxides. In general. and yields very high quality s teel for applications with extremely strict requirements. and electroslag remelting. P2O5. During the steelmaking process. which is usually steel scrap and/or DR I.5% phosphorus. and suf cient heat must be supplied to keep the bath molt en. The increase in oxygen potential in the iron bath may be tho ught of most simply as burning out impurities either as a gas (eg. Basic slags. are able to absorb much of the unwante d sulfur and phosphorus. and silicon can be and today usually are.15–2. as much as 0. it may be necessary to water-cool these linings. no matter by which process th ey are made.

and because they can serv e local markets. The electric-arc furnace is by far the most popular e lectric steelmaking furnace. a 15-t three-phase furnace was installed in the South Works of the Illinois Steel Company. at that time. which minimizes vortexing. was placed in operation in 1899. Electric-arc furnaces offer the advantages of low construct ion costs.6). Scrap is charged into th e furnace. the ability to produce steels o ver a wide range of compositions (carbon. which was. Oxygen is blown to speed the reactions.Vol. At that early date.1. mark et share is at least 40–50%. . A fairly common practice is to use eccentric bottom tapping (Fig. Furthermore. With many million metric tons of new capacity having advanced features now installed. This type of furnace. New York). was historic ally the most common for steel production. other iron units. operated. and stainless) and to operate b elow full capacity without major operating problems. Early processes used thre e-phase ac.and indirect-arc principles in 1878. which made its rst heat in 1906. carbon electrodes of the quality to carry suf cient current for steel melting had not bee n developed (see FURNACES. the ava ilability of electric power was limited and very expensive. in an electric-arc furn ace (EAF). The patent covered single. the largest electric steelmaking furnace in the w orld. Electric-Arc Furnace. Illi nois. 00 STEEL 5 2. ELECTRIC). a plethora of new plants has been built or is being planned as of today. utilizing three-phase ac power. and patented furnaces operating on both direct. A similar but smaller furnace was installed 2 years later at the Firth-Sterling Steel Company in McKeesport. alloy. Various techniques are applied to ensure adequate separation of melt and slag t o permit effective ladle treatment. which do not differ in any signi cant way from basic-oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. patented by Heroult in France. increasingly. 1). but has increased in both quality and quantity of products to compete wit h mills using the blast furnace/oxygen steelmaking route (5. It was the rst round (instead of rectangular) furnace and operated on 25-cy cle power at 2200 V. The rst successful direct-arc electric furn ace. The biggest change in steel making in the last quarter of the twentieth century is the fraction of steel mad e by remelting scrap or. but it had no practical application in steelmaking until Sir William Sie mens of open-hearth fame constructed. Pennsylvania. The carbon arc was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy i n 1800. In 1909. exibility in the use of raw materials. Oxy-fuel burne rs are also used to accelerate scrap heating and reduce electricity consumption. which usually contains some of the last heat as a liquid heel to impr ove melting ef ciency. The high power densities and intense temperatures necessitate bo th water cooling and improved basic refractory linings. competition is expected to remain erce. Because the cost of entry into the market is attracti ve for electric melting relative to integrated plants. in Chicago. This change was originally to serve a relatively nondemanding local m arket.or multiphase furnaces with the arcs placed in series through th e metal bath. The rst direct-arc furnace in the Unit ed States was a single-phase twoelectrode rectangular furnace of 4-t capacity at the Halcomb Steel Company (Syracuse. As of 2004. but increasingly the movement is to a single dc electrode with a con ducting hearth.

It was rst commercially applied. much of the re ning was done in the furnace. how ever. The rst installation in the United States was m ade in 1914 by the American Iron and Steel Company in Lebanon. As of this writing (2004). A coreless high frequency induction furnace is enclosed in a container or tank tha t can be either evacuated or lled with a gaseous atmosphere of any desired compos ition or pressure. To melt steel from room temperature takes <400 kWh/t. Thus it had relatively low productivity. Advances in electric furnace technology are being aggressively countered by developments and cost control in traditional steelmaking. the solid constituents of the charge mel t smoothly and mix with each other. The induction furnace was rst patente d in Italy in 1877 as a low frequency furnace. The energy needed to melt steel is much less than that required to reduce iron oxid e to a molten product. except possibly small amou nts of ferroalloys as nal deoxidizers. The ‘‘quality gap’’ continues to decrease. especially for stainless steel. Today the furnace is usually strictly a melting unit of 50–200 t .h/t for sheet. 2. The best labor practices in integrated mills can now be <3 man.6 STEEL Vol. Most commonly. Induction Furnace. temperatur e control. for melting chrome–nickel alloys and high manganese scrap.5 h/t. The high frequency coreles s induction furnace is used in the production of complex. i nstalled. It is used also for remelting scrap from ne steels produced in arc furnaces. and alloying additions to be made without delaying the next heat. 00 Historically.3.2. 2. the high frequency i nduction furnace is not used extensively. For ordinary melting. this represents a real nancial advantage. Pro- . whereas electric furnaces are easily <1 h/t. The degree to which electric melting can replace more conventio nal methods is of great interest and depends in large part on the availability o f suf ciently pure scrap or other iron units at an attractive price. The materials are continuously cast with various degrees of sophistication. Pennsylvania. Final treatment takes place in a ladle furnace. an advance from 450 to 500 kWh/t needed in the 1980s. which allows re ning. actual electrical usages in best practice can be <395 kWh/t. deep drawing she et. and no chemical reactions occur where gaseous products agita te the molten bath. and operated in Sweden. The charge is selected to produce the composition desired in the nished steel with a minimum of further additions. Other low frequency furnaces have been operated suc cessfully. tinplate. Some improvem ents in quality are also needed to make the highest value products. Vacuum and Atmosphere Melting. Thus electric melting has taken the segment s of the market wherever the product is ‘‘good enough’’ and by continual improvements it is nibbling away at other segments. electrogalvanized steel. The latter can be >2000 kWh/t for the chemical reaction a lone. Little if any re ning is attempted in ordinary induction melting. ie. high quality alloys su ch as tool steels. the melting procedure is essentially a dead-melt process. and more recently for vacuum steelmaking processes. and some high quality bars are still larg ely in the integrated sector. includi ng slabs down to 50 mm in thickness. including a second slag made after the rst meltdown and re ning by oxygen blowing. By using some prehea t from waste gases. it was not successful. Direct casting to sheet is in the advanced prototype stage. The best plants are $0. At labor costs of $18–$28/h.

and to some degree nitrogen) from the steel. A consumable-electrode furnace consists of a tank that encloses the electrode and a water-cooled copper mold. 99. improves its cleanliness. as well as carbon when alloys of very low carbon content are being produced (7. heat-resistant alloys. it is generally mo re useful in applications that include re ning. the residual pores close by diffusion to appr oach 100% density quite closely. No vacuum is employed. to form a m aterial where. often hot and triaxially by gas pressure. Remelting of electroslag has the same general purpose as consumable-electrode melting. A second remelting can further improve quality—of course a t extra cost. Melted metal is deposited in a shallow pool of molten metal on the top surface of the ingot b eing built up in the mold. Much plastic working may be necessary to minimize this susceptibility before service applications. and rotor steels.5. Heat from the arc progressively melts the end of the electrode.5% pure oxygen gas is mixed with hot metal. An ingenious method to avoid or redu ce segregation of alloying elements involves preparing small spheres of material by the atomization of a liquid stream through a nozzle to produce a powder. This re ning process produces special-q uality alloy and stainless steels by casting or forging the steel into an electr ode that is remelted and cast into an ingot in a vacuum (Fig. Consumable-Electrode Melting. this process is called the basic-oxygen .4. Nitrogen is more dif cult to remove comp letely. causing th e oxidation of the excess carbon and silicon in the hot metal and thereby produc ing steel. on further heating. Thi s powder can be compacted. 3). Highly alloyed materials made by the processes described are particular ly susceptible to segregation of alloying elements during solidi cation both on a macro. Electroslag Remelting. 3. After the furnace has been evacuated. 2). and for tilting the furnace to pour it s contents into an ingot mold also enclosed in the tank or container without dis turbing the vacuum or atmosphere in the tank (Fig. and improves hot workability and the mechanical properties of the steel at both room and high temperatures. The remelting operation removes gases (hydrogen. Oxygen Steelmaking Processes In oxygen steelmaking. Grain structure and or ientation are governed by controlled cooling during solidi cation. ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels. Powder Tec hniques. In the United States.8). pro duces an ingot that exhibits practically no center porosity or segregation.Vol.and a microscale. These special steels include bearing steels. ox ygen. power is turned on and an arc is struck between the electrode and a starting block that is placed in the mold before operation begin s. Rate of descent of the electrode is automatically con trolled to maintain the arc. Melting takes plac e under a layer of slag that removes unwanted impurities. 2. 2. 00 STEEL 7 vision is made for additions to the melt. and a conventional air-melted i ngot serves as a consumable electrode. Although vacuum melting h as often been employed as a remelting operation for very pure materials or for m aking electrodes for the vacuum consumable-electrode furnace. 2.6. Oxygen and hydrogen are removed fr om the molten metal in vacuum melting.

Blowing with newly cheap oxygen was investigated in Germany and Switzerland some years before the rst commercial steelmaking plants to use this method began operation in Austria in the early 1950s. the operating temperatures are higher. when up to 45% may be used. which melts at temperatur es well below low carbon steel. The numerica l factors are well understood and are routinely contained in computer programs u sed by operators. it is lined with refractory 600–1200mm thick (11). and Mn. and the cooling provided by scrap or sometimes other endothermic coolants. an d the fuel does not contain sulfur. Because of the generally high consumption of hot metal in the basic-oxygen process.8 STEEL Vol. 4). the heat balance between exothermic oxidation of elements. such as iron ore. The rst U. If the balance is such . or tin are usually considered undesirable. T his furnace has a dished bottom without holes and a truncated cone-shaped top se ction in which the mouth of the vessel is located. commercial installation began operation in 1 955. The furnace shell is made of steel plates $50-mm thick. The manganese residue of the blown me tal before ladle additions is generally higher than in an open-hearth process an d is closely related to the amount of manganese in the furnace charge. Scrap can form up to 30% of the charge unless it is preheat ed. largely displacing open he arths. solid scrap is dumped by an overhead crane into the m outh of the furnace. The furnace i s mounted in a trunnion ring and can be tilted backward or forward for charging and tapping. 00 process (BOP) (4. The top-blown basic oxygen process i s conducted in a cylindrical furnace somewhat similar to a Bessemer converter. A je t of gaseous oxygen is blown at high velocity onto the surface of a bath of molt en pig iron and scrap at the bottom of the furnace by a vertical water-cooled re tractable lance inserted through the mouth of the vessel (Fig. the residual alloy content is usually suf ciently low. Residual alloying elements suc h as copper. The crane then moves away from the furnace and a nother crane carries a transfer ladle of molten pig iron to the furnace and pour s the molten pig iron on top of the scrap. When the furnace is tilted toward the charging oor. Because the basic-oxygen process uses a re nin g agent containing practically no nitrogen. 3. Their main sourc e is purchased scrap. In all types of steelmaking that employ pig iron. such as C. High slag uidity and good slag–metal contact promote transfer of phosphorus from the metal i nto the slag. No external heat source is requi red. Ef ciency of sulfur el imination is as good as or better than that in the basic open-hearth process bec ause the bath action is more vigorous. d epending on the quality of the purchased scrap. Si. Oxygen residues depend on the carbon content. the product has a low nitrogen conte nt. nickel. are critical issues.10). The process spread rapidly throughout the world.9. which is on a pl atform above ground level.S.1. This operation was designed to employ pig iron produced from local ores that were high in manganese and low in phospho rus. even before the carbon reduction is complete. Top-Blown Basic Oxygen Process.

ie. The furnace must be big enough to accommodate this foa my mixture. whereby silico n is oxidized to silica and transferred to the slag. which are largely closed b y environmental constraints but used to be valuable facilities to recycle dusts of various types. part of which disperses rapidly through the bath. Some of t he sensible heat of combustion of this carbon monoxide can be captured enabling more scrap to be melted for a given bath composition. Without access to sintering machines. These materials. 6 the furnace is immediately returned to th e upright position. Slag-forming uxes. short reblow or scrap addition was carried out. a further. and if the reaction was not per fect. Lower si licon values lead to lower slag volumes but take more energy in the blast furnac e. uorspar. oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon d ioxide. Refractory lining life is an import ant maintenance cost. Fig. giving rise to a violent circulation that accelerates re ning.Vol. applies to the basic-oxygen process. and mill scale (iron oxides). the lance is lowered into it to the desired height above the bath. The chemical reactions and results are the same in both cases. which produce a slag of the proper basicity and uidity. and molten metal that occupies a volume about ve times that of t he slag and molten metal. After the oxygen blowing is completed. temperat ure and composition were measured at this point. The mechanism of carbon elimination is similar to those of the earli er openhearth processes. slag. The oxidizing reactions take place so rapidly that a 300-metric-ton heat. The progr ess of the reaction is plotted in Figure 5. and conducts them to a cleaning sy stem where the solids are removed from the ef uent gas before it is discharged to the atmosphere. refractory consumption is increa sed signi cantly. and produce less heat during steelmaking. the oxygen immediately forms iron oxide. eg. and the ow of oxygen is started. Mixing oxygen with the molten pig iron gives a foamy emulsion of oxygen. chie y bur nt lime. are ad ded through a chute built into the side of a water-cooled hood positioned over t he mouth of the furnace.000 heats).8% to as low as 0.15%. The amount of silicon in pig iron varies from $0. Striking the surface of the liquid bath. The intimate mixing of oxygen with the molten pig iron permits this rapid re ning. easy disposal is a problem (12). Today suf cient s ensors (qv) and models are available so that the number of reblows is virtually zero. Most proposed solutions attem pt to recycle the iron units into the system. thereby contributing to productivity. The general reaction. can be processed in 30 min or less. Oxidation of silicon is important mainly because of its thermal effect s. In general. Historically. rather than aiming to ma ke a variety of . the lance is with drawn and the furnace is tilted to a horizontal position. 00 STEEL 9 that the temperature after blowing is too high. After charging. carbon monoxide. are added in controlled amounts f rom an overhead storage system shortly before or after the oxygen jet is started . Carbon monoxide generated by the reaction of iron oxide and carbon is evolved. This hood collects the gases and the dense reddish brow n fume emitted by the furnace during blowing. Only a trace of silicon remains in the steel at the end of the re ning period. but developments using a nitrogen lance to splash slag ove r the walls have reduced this by increasing lining life by a factor of $10 (from 2000 to 20.

called oxygen bottom metallurgy (OBM ) in Europe (Maxhultte) ¨ and Quelle basic-oxygen process (Q-BOP) (quelle is ‘‘fountai n’’ or ‘‘gusher’’ in German) in the United States and Japan. Both the bottom and barrel consist of an outer steel shell that is $50-mm thick and lined with refractory that is 600–1200-mm thick. causing a $2% increase in yield. nely powdered lime is added to the oxygen before it is blown into the fur nace. pebble-sized lime is used with pieces 2. 7).03%. No commercial refractory has been found that withstands such temperatures without cooling. p ermitting increased oxygen-blowing ow rate and thus a decrease in blowing time. However . in the amount of liquid steel produced from a given charge o f hot metal and scrap. In the bottom-blown pro cesses. as in a Bessemer converter. the temperature of the ref ractory immediately adjacent to the oxygen inlet increases when the oxygen is bl own upward through the furnace bottom.5–7. After the steel h as been tapped. If special precautions are not taken. The furnace is charged with steel scrap and hot metal. Considerable heat is generated when the oxygen gas oxidizes the carbon. Oxygen is blown into the furnace throug h the center pipes and natural gas or some other hydrocarbon is blown into the f urnace through the annular space between the two pipes (13–15). The furnace is then turned to char ging position and is ready for the next heat. Su rrounding the oxygen jet with a cylindrical stream of a hydrocarbon such as meth ane imparts the required cooling by endothermic decomposition of the hydrocarbon . the bottom and the barrel. the sudden ejection of appreciable amounts of slag and metal from the furnace. 3. Thus. and oxygen is blown into this mixture to produce steel of the desired composition. slopping is avoided. the method of adding lime to the furnace is different.01% without excessive oxidation of iron into the slag. F urthermore. the slags in the bott om-blown processes contain significantly less iron oxide. the oxygen serves as a carrier gas to transport the powdered lime pn eumatically into the furnace. The furnace is tilted toward its taphole side and the steel is tapped in to a waiting ladle with the slag held back by various schemes.10 STEEL Vol.2. and iron in the m olten pig iron. The bottom-blown basicoxygen process. the furnace is inverted by tilting toward its opposite side and the remaining slag is dumped into a slag pot. However. Manganese is desirable in the nishe d steel and almost always has to be added after the steel is tapped from the fur nace into a ladle. 00 compositions during blowing. that is. the nal carbon can be as low as 0. The powdered lime dissolves rapidly in the slag. silicon. The chemistry of the bottom-blown proc esses is similar to that of the topblown process. In the top-blown process. Because bottom blowing is generally closer to thermodynam ic equilibrium. th e carbon is usually 0. ie.5 cm in diameter. Thus. The bottom conta ins 6–24 tuyeres or double pipes (Fig. a generic low carbon steel is made and modi ed in the ladle. The bottom-blown oxygen process is critically dependent on this technique. a smaller amount of manganese can be added to bottom-bl own steel during . Bot h the OBM and the Q-BOP processes are operated in about the same way as the topblown process. The furnace comprises two parts. Decrease in the iron oxide content of the slag also c auses an increase in the amount of manganese remaining in the liquid steel at th e end of the oxygenation stage (oxygen blow). In top-blown vessels. is also conducted in a furnace similar to a Bessemer converter. a source of serious yield loss. Bottom-Blown Basic-Oxygen Pro cess.

which results in decreased costs. and hence most of the advantages of the Q-BOP bottom-blowing process are obtained in furnaces designed for top b lowing. The introduction of al mostcomplete continuous casting has limited the discards from ingots that histor ically made up a large part of home scrap. the hulk . has been greatly reduced.5–4 t of natural resources. 00 STEEL 11 tapping. etc. However. Industries that have a steady supply of discards from such operations as stamping. Purchased scrap comes in two basic ca tegories. or discarded articles containing iron or steel (17. broken. Robots are now used to carry out analysis in some shops. Top. During the 1970s. The amount of home scrap. and forging count on resale of what is often a premium product (if identity has been maintained) as part of their routine costs . and limestone. coal.and Bottom-Blown Basic-Oxygen Processes. Less economically desirable material comes from salvaging the values in produc ts such as ships. several combinations of top and bottom blowing were developed. machining. unless suf cient uorspar or other slag uidizer is added to t he charge. railroad equipment. ie. By b lowing fully and then using the ladle to add alloys and control temperature. However. and buildings.18). polymers. The bottom injection of nitrogen or argon causes more intimate mixing of slag and metal. Scrap as Raw Material Scrap consists of the by-products of steel fabrication and worn-out. The Linz-Donawitz-Kawasaki gas (LD–KG) process is similar to the LBE proce ss but the nitrogen or argon is injected through tuyeres in the furnace bottom r ather than through porous refractory plugs (15). in cluding iron ore. It is a principal source of the iron for steelmaking. Following removal of some discrete components such as batteries. Determination of Chemical Composition The chemical composition of a given steel may be speci ed by some customers within rather narrow limits for each element (other than residual elements). but also to contribute positively to the goal of total recycling. automobiles. drawing. the other source is iron from blast furnaces. so the ch emical composition of the steel during re ning is followed closely. copper. acc urate composition control has become much simpler. 3. it is no longer necessary to obtain nearly instantaneous analysis during a blow. A whole indust ry has grown up to recycle the many millions of scrapped automobiles. the low iron oxide content o f the slag increases the slag viscosity. In the lance bubb ling equilibrium (LBE) process. 5. while oxygen is top-b lown into the furnace through a lance. 4. Every ton of scrap consumed in steelmaking is estimated not only to displace and conserve for future use 3. nitrogen or argon is injected through a number o f porous refractory plugs installed in the furnace bottom.Vol. either molten as it comes from the furnace (hot metal) or in solid pig form. and liquid steel is entrapped in the sl ag (also a yield loss). the various trimmings tha t accumulate during production.3. Scrap is o f great practical value. a mixture of steels.

electric melting becom es marginal without surcharges). As a result. are becoming of less concern as al ternative elements replace lead. Volatile elements such as lead. The shredded polymers give rise to a product known a s uff. is not recyclable and must be land lled. Preheating of scrap using the s ensible heat of the previous melt is being practiced increasingly and can be sig ni cant in the thermal balance. zinc. Another issue arises in scrap quality.000 t/year—with recent shortages. The total circulation of scrap in the Unite d States is in the range of 70– 90 Â 106 t/year. Finally. Examples are iron carbide. Chemica l Composition. there is increasing demand for sources of iron units other than scrap that is free of impurities. Several million metric tons per year of the latter are on the world market. For home scrap.1. involving the markets to be served and the prices expected. which can harm furnace linings. The United States alone exports some 10. A standard problem in purchased scrap is the accuracy of analysis of composition. The choice of metallic charge is a complex issu e. which is still its early use. including that for foundry operatio ns. Elements such as alumi num can add to the heat of oxidation in the furnace and allow higher amounts of scrap. the products are given further separation. Elements such as lead in free mach ining steels. prices reached $300/ton as noted above) At such prices. For instance. 00 passes through a shredder. which translate to charge density. The ability to tap an array of iron units to provide exibili ty in all parts of the business cycle is a topic of great interest in keeping co sts of raw steel down in the international arena. (In spring 2004 . scr ap of all types is expected to remain important because the energy of melting is so much lower than that for reduction from ore. but samplin g (qv) dif culties and analytical costs can be troublesome in other cases. which. this may not be much of an problem. the amount of scrap in a BOF can app roach 45% rather than 30% if cold scrap is used. Fo r the most demanding brands of sheet steel. 5. there is a long-standing interest in purifying scrap to allow hi gher economic value but these efforts have only been effective sporadically. whether this is to be used to reduce the a mount of additional additives necessary in the ladle or to avoid possible troubl es from copper or tin. Nevertheless. Scrap ca n have many compositions and sizes. and a usab le scrap becomes available.12 STEEL Vol. Scrap is a worldwide commodity. This is being combined with ef forts to reduce the time for a given process by even a few seconds. The dif c ulty of estimating the alloy content. is a continuing worry. and its e conomic value is based in part on these.000. as of this writing. and antim ony vaporize and may require adequate capture mechanisms. and the smaller amount used in BOF melting help s to cushion the price to some degree. which is $10 Â 106t/year. . the price spiked as high as $190/t for the best-quality scrap. and iron ore treated by reducin g gases to give direct-reduced iron. cal ls for export limits have been made. certain impurities affect the produc t and thus are made in integrated shops. During the latter 1980s and early 1990s . modest quantities are charged to blast furnaces when this is economical.

whether basic-oxygen or electric. as well as in almost pure form. Mn. titanium. Ti . The economical manufacture of alloy steels requires consideration of the relati ve af nity of the alloying elements for oxygen as compared with the af nity of iron for oxygen. cobalt. and zirconium. or nickel may be added with the cha rge or during the working of the heat and are fully recovered. copper. 7. but on ly to a minor extent. easily reducible oxides o f molybdenum. Addition Agents In steelmaking. and a num ber of these alloys contain very little iron. copper. 8). nitrogen. is tapped in to ladles. physical. phosphorus. boron . A valve makes it possible to enlarge or close the opening to control the ow of steel through the nozzle. calcium. Originally.Vol. The advent of lad le metallurgy has led to the easily oxidized elements. calcium. tantalum. Some of the se chemical elements are available in addition agents that are not ferroalloys. and nickel. Some rare-earth alloys are also used for special purposes. Cr. ferroalloys are a special class of addition agents. niobium. selen ium. silicon. and sulfur in various form s. Some sla g is allowed to oat on the surface of the steel in the ladle to form a protective blanket. Such alloy s. For this reason. lined with refra ctory brick. Most ladles hold all the steel produced in one furnace heat. nitrogen. carbon. molybdenum. 00 STEEL 13 6. Later. because of their high iron content. having an offcenter opening in its bottom equipped with a nozzle (F ig. control of grain size. Addition agents are predominantly introduced in the ladle. Ladle Metallurgy The nished steel from any furnace. and other speci c results. nickel. the chemical eleme nt to be incorporated into the steel was added to the bath in the form of an all oy that consisted mainly of iron but was rich in the desired element. For example. A ladle consists of a steel shell. the term addition agent is preferred when describing the materials added to molten steel for alte ring its composition or properties. a nd corrosion properties. V. the production of alloys for steelmak ing was carried out in electric-reduction and other types of furnaces. Included in the ferroalloy class are alloys of iron with aluminum. being added after the oxygen content of the bath has been reduced. Excess slag is prevented from entering the ladle by controlling its ex it from the furnace taphole. These include relatively pure metals such as alu minum. chromium. improvement of the mechanical. manganese. vanadium. and Zr. Simple stopper-rod valves have been replaced by more elaborate slide gate systems involving spring-loaded refractory disks. B. thermal. various elements are added to the molten metal to effect deoxida tion. and alloys consisting principally of combinations of two or more of the foreg oing elements. became known as ferroalloys and were most ly produced in iron blast furnaces. molybdenum. such as Al. and tungsten. A marked increase in yield has resulted. each containing a central . manganese. tungsten.

Argon Treatment. Sulfur in solution can be removed as sul de by injecting CaS i or Mg [the Thyssen Niederrhein (TN) process] or 90% CaO–10% CaF2 (Kimitsu inject ion (KIP) process). better alternatives are available. Electric arc s or induction coils are normally used to raise the temperature of the liquid me tal (ladle arc furnace). to even out t emperature gradients and to oat out inclusions such as oxides and sul des. Thus Ca additions can lead to better properties in the direction normal to the rolling direction by avoiding needle shaped inclusions.2. ie. for many purposes less elaborate t reatments are adequate. especially for hydrogen reduction and g eneration of carbon monoxide to make interstitial-free (IF) steels. inclusion otation. With a capped ladle . At rst. calcium additions can give hard. In early ladle furnaces. These are the composition adjustment by capped argon stirring (CAS) and seale d argon bubbling (SAB) processes. as does. Although the expense can be justi ed for steel s with the most dif cult property requirements. can be substantially separated from the melt befo re further treatment. or new combinatio ns of old processes. argon or argon–oxygen mixtures are blown in through bottom tuyeres to lower the carbon content of the bath by makin g escape of carbon monoxide in the argon bubbles easier. When t he proper oxygen–sulfur balance is present in liquid steel. 00 hole and sliding relative to the other. spherical inclusions which do not deform during rolling.03% max. the treatment of liqu id steel in the ladle. Thermodynamically. CaF2 also increases uidity. Vacuum Processes. but as of the 1990s almost all ladles have covers to prevent atmospheric oxidation.14 STEEL Vol. The objectives often incl ude one or more of the following on a given heat: more ef cient methods for alloy additions and control of nal chemistry. as does increasing the bas icity. eg. there was no cover on the ladle. Although this process w orks on carbon steel. addition of ferroalloys into the plume of argon bubbling up through the steel through a synthetic slag (with little or no FeO) is also effective (capped argon bubbling (CAB) process). argon wa s used to provide better mixing of additives. desulfurization and dephosphorization. such as ferroalloys. When the ladle is tted with a tight cap. More complete control over ladl e treatment is achieved by the ability to seal a vessel well enough so that a go od vacuum can exist over the steel. In the argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. increasing Al2O3 and reducing SiO2.1. especially if the steelmaking slag.20). The predominant use of AOD is in making stainless steels more weldable by lowering the carbon content t o 0. Expensive ferroalloys can be added through the area where the slag is displaced by rising bubbles of argon without signi cant oxidation los s. continue to be developed (19. is a eld in which several new processes. improved temperature and composition homo genization. and vacuum degassing. 7. calcium is more effective than magnesium in reducing S. 7. Many possible con gurations exist (21). Better ow control and positive shutoff ar e achieved—both are important in practice. Ladle metallurgy. MnS. other processes become attr active. . sul de and ox ide shape control. CaF2 increases sul de capacity of slags. Argon co uld be added through a porous plug in the bottom of the ladle or through a lance inserted in the bath. which contains considerable iron oxi de and hinders sulfur removal.

Another process was the Dortmund-Hoerder (DH) pro cess. is reduced to no mo re than 20 ppm. some form of ladle treatmen t has become routine in steelmaking. For certain special property requirements. Thus considerable effort has been spent on the uid dynamics necessary to ensu re this. All special processes involve extra capital and operating costs. chemical heating by injecting Al a nd O2.01%. eg. bottom pour ing of the ingot through a refractory riser is common. with oxygen blown into the degasser. The carbon can be reduced to 0. For int erstitial-free steels.03% and oxygen from 400 to 50 ppm occurs. introducing argon into the bottom of the ladle. and blowing oxygen through a lance. except for limited q uantities where the typical 250-mm cast slab thickness is inadequate for the nal product. or by induction stirring with or without vacuum. Today very little steel is cast as ingots. A very high quality sheet steel is produced with exceptional deep-drawing properties. hydrogen is reduced if a vacuum is present. all steel for hot working was c ast into ingots. such as slabs and billets.10%) can be tre ated. Oxygen and nitrogen are also held at levels near 20 ppm. Continuous Casting. Because of increasing quality demands. the start carbon. In the Ruhrstahl-Heraeu s oxygen blowing (RH-OB) process. Water has been a valuable modeling agent. which escapes.1. led to continuous attempts to solve th e problem by many investigators using a variety of machine designs. At one time. and thus eliminating the ingot and primar y-mill stages of rolled-steel production. The possibility of castin g molten steel continuously into useful shapes equivalent to conventional semi nis hed shapes. where on entering the vacuum cha mber the molten steel fragmented into large numbers of droplets. Sulfur and oxygen are re duced even without a vacuum. extra energy to ma intain temperature can be supplied by an arc. A princ ipal purpose of ladle metallurgy is to produce a well-stirred and homogeneous ba th. Fer roalloy additions can be made in situ. The higher carbon conten ts at entry improve the yield of iron in the BOF vessel. and a realistic analysis of markets an d procedures. Because of t he high melting point. 8. Casting 8. Reductio n of carbon from 0. high speci c . T he simpler vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD) process used originally for stain less steels can be used for carbon steel by placing the ladle in an evacuated ta nk. at which po int the steel can be economically killed with aluminum. 00 STEEL 15 Some early processes involved stream degassing. which has two hollow legs as compared to only one in the DH. which may be 0. By bubbling argon into one leg.Vol. A more complicated system is found in the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process (Fig. time. In other systems.13 kPa (1 mm Hg)]. where an evacuated vessel can be lowered into the ladle for 10–20 cycles and thus the steel is exposed to an adequately low vacuum [0. a pressure difference is created circulating steel though the vacuum chamber and back into the vessel. thus offering a large surface for loss of gases such as hydrogen.08 to 0. Ox ygen and carbon dissolved in the steel react to form CO. even higher carbon contents (0. 9). heavy plate. This was not very effective i n inclusion or carbon removal. thus further improving yield.03%.

which included such novel ideas as following the caster with a rolling mill to change the otherwise xed cr oss-section. followed by many other electric melte rs. ba rs and light structural sections are made from billets. Although the continuous casting of steel appears deceptively simple in principle. Early machines built in the 1930s and 1940s w ere not practical. many dif culties are inherent to the pro cess. ie. For nonferrous metals. a constraint that limits yield. and to permit second gene ration improvements such as molds having widths that could be varied during oper ation and sensors that could measure necessary variables of interest to long str ings of casts. Consortia of steel companies and equipment builders arose to provide reliable casters. a thin soli d skin forms on the wall (Fig. Around 1970. and casters had been an integral co ncept. some of whic h are illustrated in Figure 11. The obvious rewards available to successful castin g provided a strong driving force. because of the physical characteris tics of steel. and low thermal conductivity of steel. the rate of heat abstraction from the c asting is low enough that molten steel persists within the interior of the secti on for some distance below the bottom of the mold. the United States was slower than Japan and Europe to install continuous slab casters for the production of sheet. 00 heat. A number of other designs of continuous-casting machines are being used in the production of semi nished sections. Electric melters cast bille ts continuously from about 1975 onward. molds that move up and dow n for a predetermined distance at controlled rates during casting have practical ly eliminated the sticking problem. and because thermal contraction causes the skin to separate from the mold wall shortly after solidi cation. Im provements in the steel supplied were critical (22–24). the whole section solidi es. on the other hand. inclu ding nancial ones. Casting was done crudely at rst but the s ophistication increased rapidly. rounds or round-corn ered squares having . success did not come easily in the case of ferrous metals. once the exclusive province of integrated mills. 10). However. eventually. a great sur ge in capacity was nearly complete in Japan. Slowly it became possible to reach truly continuous operation wit h runs of a week or more. Any tendency for the casting to adhere to the mold wall may cause the skin to r upture—the dreaded but increasingly rare ‘‘breakout’’. continuouscast ing quickly proved practical. This opened up another avenue of attack for them on sheet markets. For example. However. The thickness of the skin inc reases because the action of the water sprays as the casting moves downward and. but progress was made in the 1960s. The decision was made by Nippon Steel to eliminate any ingot casting at t heir then-new sheet works in Oita. The mass of the solidifying section is s upported as it descends by driven pinch rolls that control the speed of descent. The continuous-cast section issuing from the withdrawal or supporting rolls may be disposed of in several ways. making width and composition chances along the way. When molten steel comes into contact with a water-cooled mold. culminating in dramatic change by operation of a thin-slab caster at one of Nucor’s plants.16 STEEL Vol. Some mills today have the ability t o reduce the width up to 30 cm by a high-powered press. For various reasons. Thus the casters had to work without fail and new levels of operating con dence were achieved.

060% aluminum and has excellent deep-dra wing characteristics. This logical extensio n of thin slabs to cast carbon or stainless steel directly to sheet in the 1-mm range is a possibility long recognized but dif cult to realize—the concept was in a patent by Sir Henry Bessemer >150 years ago. 00 STEEL 17 sizes in the range of 100–250 mm. In general. Continuous casting is almost universal. It contains 0. Continuou s-cast slabs are only $20– 25-cm thick and exhibit much less segregation than slab s rolled from ingots that are 3–5 times as thick. great care is taken in later efforts not only to prevent chemical contami nation but to understand and control the uid ow in the mold and the tundish. In fact . It gives a hi gher yield than ingot casting and avoids the cost of rolling ingots into slabs b ecause the slabs are produced directly from liquid steel. segregati on increases with increasing thickness. ie. 9. The aim is to avoid mixing of metal and slag and also to give time and op portunity for any inclusions that do form in the mold to oat to the top and be ab sorbed in a special slag. A vast array of sensors provides data to the operators so that accidents such as breakouts from thin spots in the solidifying shell ve ry rarely occur and the internal and surface quality are extremely good. The most important development in the 1980s was the thin-slab ($50 mm) ca ster. with slower cooling rates. The primary objective .c). and cause cracking during processing. A schematic of a twin-roll sheet ca ster is in Fig. At one time. Exam ples are horizontal casting. which has the potential of reducing the number of hot rolling stands from eight or nine down to perhaps ve or less (Figs. essentially all el ectric shops making at rolled products use thin-slab casters as they await the su ccessful demonstration of directsheet carbon steel casting. pressure casting (Fig. there is usually l ess variation in steel composition from one heat to the next in continuous-cast steel than there is from the top to the bottom in a single ingot. Plastic Working of Steel Plastic working of a metal such as steel is the permanent deformation accomplish ed by applying mechanical forces to a metal surface. 13a) (25). 12). (25a).Vol. and holding up to 70 t of liquid steel. the surface is good enough so that cooling to room temperature for defect remo val is often not necessary if certain criteria are met. Excessive segregation during solidi cation can create problems of low ductility in regions of high carbo n and alloy content. Whereas earlier developments merely involved care in shiel ding the liquid stream from the atmosphere which could produce undesirable inclu sions. 14.025–0. thereby saving much of their sensible heat . and wheel-belt ca sting. Many other casting schemes have been tri ed. There has been some measure of success but limited general application. Today. rounds were cast in a rotating mold but the hop ed-for better quality can be obtained more easily using a stationary mold and mo re care with the liquid feed (Fig. already in early com mercial stages at the Crawfordsville plant of Nucor Steel. Consequently. 13b. and slabs can be and are charged while still hot for rolling. the l atter a buffer between the ladle and the mold. and often having several (typically up to six) s trands in parallel. Continuous-cas t aluminum-killed steel is similar in composition and properties to ingot-cast a luminum-killed steel.

sheet. wire. it can be made very soft and ductile b y heat treatment. however. cold drawing. an d amounts of its metallographic constituents . hot spinning. alternative heat treatments can also impart high strength with good ductility and toughness. and production of thinner material than can be accomplished economically by hot wor king (see METAL TREATMENT). the basic strength of the steel is essentially unchanged. Cold working is gener ally applied to bars. Thus. the shap e changes are made in several stages for reasons of mechanics. on the other hand. 00 is usually the production of a speci c shape or size (mechanical shaping). The force required to deform the metal is very sensitive to the rate of application and t he temperature of working. Trying to get reductions which are too large per pass can le ad to loads high enough to break rolls. Similar limitations on reduction per pass apply. the nature. Prop erties can be closely controlled and changed by heat treatment. ie. bright surface. but the yield str ength of the steel is increased signi cantly. on the other hand. and die forging. the steel is heated to 1090–13108C. after deformation. and tubes. During this process the austenite crystals (grains) no rmally present may recrystallize several times (see below) and the recrystalliza tion can have a significant effect on nal properties (26–31). good dimensional control. Prior to hot working. better machinability. and hot-rolled material is becomi ng a less-expensive competitor for some material traditionally cold-rolled and a nnealed. In cold working. hot dee p-drawing. Thus to reduce a 250-mm slab to a 2-mm hot band takes $10 separate reductions. It reduces the cross-sectio nal area of the piece being worked on by cold rolling. extrusion. and rolling the rst two of which are called forging. roll forging. the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a single roll pass is 10–40% because the ability of the rolls to drag the piece through depends on geometric factors and the coef cient of friction. Metallography and Heat Treatment The great advantage of steel as an engineering material is its versatility. although recrystallizat ion does not occur. Plastic deformation of steel can be accomp lished by hot working or cold working. The principal hot-working techniques are hammering. These desirable properties must be balanced in each case against a loss of ductility. The physical and mechanical pr operties of steel depend on its microstructure. strip. the force required to cause deformation is relatively i nsensitive to the application rate and temperature variations. steel is no t heated before working. distribution.18 STEEL Vol. depending on the grade and the work to be accomplished. For example. althoug h increasingly it also involves the improvement of certain physical and mechanic al properties of the metal (mechanical treatment). 10. pressing. Other less common methods include rotary swaging. The thickness of available hot-rolled material is has been decreasing steadily towards 1 mm. Although at high temperatures the mate rial is not very strong when compared to its room temperature strength. Cold working imparts improved mechanical properties. or cold ext rusion. These two objectives can ofte n be readily attained simultaneously. if steel i s to be formed into some intricate shape.

On reasonably slow cooling from above 7278C. Thes e elements may modify. A nonalloyed carbon steel having 0. nickel. sulfur. although most plain carbon ste els also contain manganese. Cementite. hydrogen.8 wt% for nitrogen.1%. the e utectoid composition. are about BHN 170 and BHN 400. phosphorus. to a certain extent. This is true even of medium alloy steels. By controlling the cooling rate from the austenite r ange. This effect is critical in the heat treatment of steels where ferrite and austenite may also contain different amounts of alloying elements (manganes e. Above (hyper-) or below (hypo-) eu tectoid.76% carbon. Ferrite in both its low o r a (up to 9108C) and high or d. (13908C to mp 15368C) is body-centered cubic (b cc). Thus the solubility in austenite is 2 wt% for carbon and 2. 00 STEEL 19 as distinct from its chemical composition. These elements also serve other purposes. and molybdenum. Most c ommercial steels contain at most a few tenths of a percent of carbon. Iron–nitrogen alloys are essentially not com mercial. Thus when these materials are heated to temperatures where austenite is stable. etc). but not quartz. th ese proeutectoid components form at grain boundaries. 7278C (the eutectoid temperature). and traces of n itrogen.Vol. which may contain considerable amounts of nick el. as opposed to a few hundredths of a percent fo r ferrite. and in some inexpensive tool steels. The amount of proeutectoid constituents offers a . a primary precipitation of cementite or ferrite occurs until the austen ite reaches the eutectoid composition when it transforms as before. The spacing of these plates depends on the temperature of transformation. it scratches gla ss and feldspar. The amount and distribution of iron a nd iron carbide determine most of the properties.67 wt% carbon and the balance iron. At lower temperatures of p recipitation. Eutect oid steels are not common. respectively. As the hardest constituent of plain carbon steel. 16). although small volumes are used as rails. The limiting temperatures and compositions for austenite are given by t he phase diagram (Fig. but by and large the in uence of iron carbide always predominates. It has the formula Fe3C. oxygen. and other chemical elements such as aluminum and copper. the carbon readily dissolves. Cementite is very hard and brittle. transformation of the austenite occurs above $5508C to the series of parallel p lates of a plus cementite known as pearlite. silicon. high streng th wire. The atomic arrangement in the two allotropic forms of iron is shown in Figure 15. but has a much lower Curie temperature. consists of austenite above its lowest stable temperature. the term for iron carbide in steel. however. the main effects of iron and iron ca rbide. chromium. The corresponding Brinell hardnesses (BHN). In fact. from 1000 to 2000 nm at $7008C and <100 n m at 5508C. The spaces between atoms (interstices) are larger in the face-centered cubi c g (fcc) austenite than in ferrite and can accommodate more small interstitial atoms such as carbon and nitrogen. is th e form in which most of the carbon appears in steels. Normally. t he great bulk of sheet steel that accounts for $60% of commercial production has <0. the carbon comes out of solution in a range of microstructures that have v ery speci c properties (32–35). silicon. There ar e two allotropic forms of iron: ferrite and austenite. which correspond approxi mately to tensile strengths. they may also form on certain well-de ned planes in the aus tenite crystals. It exhibits about two-thirds the induction of p ure iron in a strong magnetic eld. a nd thus consists of 6.

Because of its lattice strain. a bcc a-phase supersaturated with carbon and containing small cementite par ticles (bainite). the carbon in the steel typically solidi es as iron carbide. only gra phite is present because iron carbide is metastable with respect to iron and gra phite. are present in slow-cooled steels. This diagram c overs the temperature range from 6008C to the melting point of iron. it is normally too brittle fo r service until some of the carbon is precipitated by a second heating between 2 00 and 7008C. Although th e iron carbide in a steel can change to graphite and iron when the steel is held at elevated temperatures for several days or weeks. bu t not deformed either hot or cold (and not discussed further here). bu t in high carbon and certain alloy steels. carbon can be present either as iron carbide (cementite) or as graphite. but it can be obtained in commercial practice by judi cious alloying and is increasing in importance. 00 rough guide to the composition of the steel. This phase contains all of the carbon in the austenite. occurs.5% carbon covers most of the cas t irons. a fascinating set of materials used as-cast. the formation of a completely different ph ase. tempering. Iron–Iron Carbide Phase Diagram The iron–iron carbide phase diagram (see Fig. such as aust enite. and is the underpinning of much of the i ndustrial world. sometimes heat-treated. a cube extended in one direc tion. Under equilibrium conditions. 11. iron carbide in steel under normal conditions is quite stable for many years. ferrite. even. if all of the above set s of phases can be suppressed by suf ciently rapid cooling. and usually has a plate or need le-like morphology. In steels and cast irons. This guide is more accurate at slow cooling rates. eg. Martensite begins to form at a well-de ned temperature known as Ms and continues to form as the temperature continues to drop. ie. Martensite forms by a lattice shear reaction without diffusion of the carbon atoms. When a steel containing carbon solidi es. The result is a body-centered structure supersaturated in carbon.20 STEEL Vol. For most steels. Appli- . where the degree of tetragonality. 16) shows the ranges of compositions and temperatures in which the various stable or metastable phases. and carbon contents from 0 to 5%. However. and trans formed at temperatures in this range. in commercial steels. and cementite. The portion of the iron–iron carbide diagram of interest herein is that part exten ding from 0 to 2% carbon. Material given this treatment can have unsurpassed combinations of strength and toughness. If small specimens are prepared in which the austenite can be coo led to 250–5008C suf ciently rapidly to avoid the above microconstituents. and thus lattice strain. which is both strong and tough. the austenite transfor ms to a phase known as martensite. some austenite may remain at room tem perature and requires special consideration. the transformation is complete (de ned as Mf) before reaching room temperature. ie. in power stations. The crystal structure is body-centered tetragonal. iron carbide i s essentially always present instead of graphite. although not in cast irons. The range from 3 to 4. Finally. increases line arly with carbon. Bainite was rarely fou nd in plain carbon steels.

a or d and g (see Fig. The diagram shows that at < 7278C the constituents are a-ferrite and ce mentite. As the temperature rises furt her above A1. the austenite grad ually dissolves the excess cementite until at the Acm temperature. which now has the same average carbon content as the steel. on heating above A1. hence the material is called pearlite. the ferrite and cementite form in alternate laye rs of microscopic thickness. the a-ferrite may dissolve up to 0. Iron occurs in two allotropic forms. As the carbon conten t increases. the reverse changes occur. at this temperature. all ferrite and cementite transform to austenite of eutectoid composition. On slow cooling. The rst phase change on heating. The phase change on heating a eutectoid carbon steel occurs at 7278C.76% carbon. When a eutectoid steel is slowly c ooled from the austenite range. 00 STEEL 21 cation of the phase diagram to heat treatment can be illustrated by considering the changes occurring on heating and cooling steels of selected carbon contents.76% carbon ) is similar to that of hypoeutectoid steels. which becomes progressively richer in carbon.007% carbon. If the steel contains > 0. Up to 7278C. The only changes occurring on heating or cooling pure iron ar e the reversible changes at $9108C from bcc a-iron to fcc g-iron and from the fc c g-iron to bcc d-iron at $13908C. The excess ferrit e. 16). the diffrac tion effects from this mixture of ferrite and cementite give an appearance simil ar to that of a pearl. Just above A1. occurs at 7278C. The relative amounts depend on the carbon content. a nd on slow cooling the reverse change occurs.02% carbon. A3. Hypoeutectoid steels are t hose that contain less carbon than the eutectoid steels. these temperatures are 9108C for the a–g phase change and 13908C for the g–d phase change. Eutectoid steels are those that contain 0. becoming lower and lower in carbon content until all the proeutecto id ferrite is dissolved in the austenite at the upper critical temperature. t he austenite is substantially of eutectoid composition. The temperatur es at which phase changes occur are known as the critical temperatures.02% carbon.Vol.02% carbon. the solubility of carbon in the ferrite increases until. ie. the pearlite slowly changes to eutectoid austenite at a rate controlled by carbon diffusion. albeit slowly. remains unchanged.76% carbon. The boundaries in Figure 16 show how these temperatures are affect ed by composition. Ferrite precipitates. At 6008C. The behavi or on heating and cooling hypereutectoid steels (steels containing >0. 15). On heating just above this temperature. which is designated as A1. the amount of ferrite decreases and the amount of pearlite increase s. the austenite dissolves more and more of the surrounding proeutect oid ferrite. (The spacing is of the same order as the wavelengths of visible light). the eutectoid or lower critic al temperature. if the steel contains > 0. called proeutectoid ferrite. the constituents present at and < 7278C are usually ferrite and p earlite. On heating such a steel just above this temperature. th e ferrite contains $0. For pure iron. the highe st temperature at which austenite and cementite can coexist (see Fig. Thus. Under the microscope at low magni cation. the p roeutectoid cementite has been completely dissolved and aus- . 0. generally at the grain boundaries of the austenite. except that the excess constituent is cementite rather than ferrite.

bu t as the temperature is increased above the critical temperature. phosphorus. molybdenum. the size of the individual grains is small. A signi cant aspect of t he behavior of steels on heating is the grain growth that occurs when the austen ite. aluminum.1. The most important phase-diagram effects of the alloying element s are that the number of phases that may be in equilibrium is no longer limited to two as in the iron–carbon diagram. silicon. The crystal structures shown in Figure 15 exist as a regular arr ay over a distance of several thousand unit cells in a given direction to give a crystal commonly called a grain. Although there are changes in speci c heat in this vicinity. consists of polyhedral grains with curved boundaries where the grain boundary energy is balanced in three dimensions. especially if they are etched in a mil d reagent for accentuation. 00 tenite of the same carbon content as the steel is formed. The nal austenite grain size depends primarily on the maximum tempera ture to which the steel is heated although the time of heating can have a second ary effect. tungsten.22 STEEL Vol. Alloying elements either enlarge the auste nite eld or reduce it. The former include manganese. and titanium generally rais e it. formed on heating above A3 or Acm (see Fig. over which austenite is stable may be increased or reduc ed. and titanium. that the temperature and composition range. and that the eutectoid temperature and composition may change. Eventually. Similarly. nickel. the grain size increases. with respect to carbon. Some confusion occurred in early iron–carbon equilib rium diagrams. these run into a region w here the orientation of the cells differs by rotation in all three directions. Austenite. like any metal. 11 . silicon. are in the range of 5000–50000 nm. . this is the Curie temperature. (W). copper. All these elements seem to lower modestly the eutectoid carbon content. molybdenum. Typical grain sizes. whereas chromium. On slow cooling below A1. These are known as ferrite stabilizers. on cooling below Acm. niobium. We shall see that the effect of alloys on rates of austenite decomposition is usually more im portant than the equilibrium effects. Grain Size. this eutectoid austeni te changes to pearlite and the room temperature composition is therefore pearlit e and proeutectoid cementite. vanadium. T he region where the grains abut is a surface where no atoms are at their equilib rium spacing and is known as a grain boundary. The elements that decrease the extent of the austenite eld include chromium. the average distance betwee n boundaries. where ferromagnetic a becomes par amagnetic. The iron–carbon diagram may be signi cantly altered by alloying elements. and its pseudoquantitative application should be limited to plain carbon and lo w alloy steels. cementite precipitates and the carbon content of the austenite approa ches the eutectoid composition. a terminology no lo nger used. 16) is heated even higher. Manganese and nickel lower the eutectoid temperatu re. In older literature the Curie temperature was called A2. leading to changes in slope of cooli ng curves. tungsten. cobalt. which indicated a critical temperature at $7688C. carb on. Grain boundaries can usually be o bserved readily in an optical microscope. ie. and nitrogen and are referred to as austenite stabilizers. tin. however. As formed at a temperature just above A3 or Acm. The austenite. This is a second-order phase transformation as contrasted to the rst-o rder transformation. which is the one of interest and importance in heat treatme nt.

esp ecially to sheet and strip. Close to equilibrium. At high temperatures. recrystallization and g rain growth occur with increasing dif culty. number of grains per unit volume.2. The gene ral effects of austenite grain size on the properties of heat-treated steel are summarized in Table 1. For most specimens. ie. which do not dissolve easily in austenite. As long as these par ticles exist. Microscopic Grain Size Determination. growth in size of austenite grains is severely constrained. Grain size can b e estimated by several methods. or a gra in size number obtained by comparing the microstructure of the sample at a xed ma gni cation to a series of standard charts. Isothermal Transformation Diagr am. 16) temperature. The microscopic gra in size of steel is customarily determined from a polished plane section prepare d in such a way as to delineate the austenite grain boundaries. va nadium. that is with very slow cooling. Fur thermore. this transformation occurs at a lower temperature. austenite transforms to p earlite when cooled below the A1 (see Fig. the deformed structure recrystallize s. it is possible to obtain very ne grain sizes in austenite prior to its subsequent transformation. To separate the effects of transformation temperature from those of heat ow. If rolling occurs to temperatures too low to allow recrystalliz ation the grains may be deformed from near-spherical to pancake shaped. These are typically carbides (qv) or nitrides (qv) of aluminum. heat ow from the interior of the p iece to the surface controls the cooling rate of internal points. an austenitic slab is being reduced in cross-section typically by deformation through a series of rolls each of which imposes 10–40% d ecrease in thickness. and the propert ies are found to vary correspondingly. 11. and/or titanium. The faster the cooling rate. Information needed includes the st arting time. preselected temperature below the A1. Thus heat treatment involves a controlled supercooling of austenite. When austenite is co oled more rapidly. the amount transformed as a function of time. either deliberately or otherwise. A convenient . and the time for comp lete transformation. new small grains form and may coarsen even before reaching the next roll. When t he temperature is increased so that the particles go into solution. 00 STEEL 23 In practice. it is essential to understand the nature of the transformation of austenite at a given.Vol. niobium. By controlling the rolling schedule. In order to take full advantage of the wide range of structures and properties that this treatment permits. phases other than iron carbide ma y be present. a more detailed knowledg e of the transformation behavior of austenite and the properties of the resultin g aggregates is essential. number of grains per unit area. the lower the temperature at which transformation occurs. As the temperature drops upon passage through the mill. Tho se found at grain boundaries serve to prevent the boundaries from moving as easi ly as such boundaries would in the absence of these phases. Austenite. Phase Transformations. The grain size of the austenite has a marked in uence on transform ation behavior during subsequent cooling and on the size and distribution of the constituents of the nal microstructure. Results can be expressed as diameter of average grain in millimeters (reciprocal of the square root of the number of grains per mm2). the structure of the ferrite–carbide aggregate formed when the austenite transforms varies markedly with the transformation temperature. During much conventional processing. the grains c oarsen rapidly. Thus understan ding the effects of this issue becomes relevant.

This may be undesirable from a property standpoint. Other compositions and grain sizes have different TTT curves. the effect of heat transfer i s critical. along w ith representative microstructures and hardness as a surrogate for mechanical pr operties. these are well known and characterized.24 STEEL Vol. is harder and str onger than any of the other constituents but is much too brittle in this steel t o put in service without further treatment (tempering). merging at around 5508C. Martensite. Sc hematically. (4) This curve is valid only for eutectoid steel having a speci c austenite grain size. b ecoming thus harder and stronger. Although this leads to a complex set of equations. the knee of the TTT curve. put forward in 1930. super cially . On the same sp ecimens. eg. rapidly transfer the specimens to a liquid b ath at the desired temperature. A log scale is used for co nvenience. 00 way to accomplish this is to form austenite in specimens so thin (usually $1-mm thick) that heat ow is not an issue. as shown schematically by the indications of 50 and 90% trans formation of austenite. Figure 17 shows a typical curve for a eutectoid steel. The fraction that forms depends nonlinearly on the unde rcooling below Ms. The pearlite has a ner spacing as formation temperature decreases. ferrite or cementite begins to form at austen ite grain boundaries at temperatures below the A3 or Acm. usually acicular. revolutionized the understanding o f heat treatment. The effects of alloying elements can be very large (Fig. the microstructure and properties of the transformation products can be assessed. During the period from beginning to end of tra nsformation. (5) The effect of austenite grain size is real but relatively small. martensite begins to form more or less instantaneously. during which interval pea rlite forms. either to air or to a liquid such as water or oil. a time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagram. (2) Below 5508C to just > 2008C. There are several important points relating to these curves. These data can be summarized on a single graph of transformation temp erature versus time known as an isothermal transformation (IT) diagram or. it may be impossible to avoid the formatio n of ferrite and pearlite in parts of the specimen. For noneutectoid steels. a ferrite start time to the left of the pearli te start time. (1) The start of transformat ion occurs at increasingly short times down to $5508C. the start of transformat ion takes longer and longer as the transformation temperature falls and the prod uct of transformation is bainite. Rather. 18) and provide a practical tool to enable desired structures to be produced in large sections where heat ow is a factor and the overall structure may be nonuniform. respectively. The exp eriment is repeated at several other transformation temperatures. Because al most no steel undergoes isothermal transformation. colonies of pearlite form and grow relatively slowly until all the austenite is consumed. all transformations are shifted to lower tem peratures as a result of heat transfer. more usually. and follow the transformation with time. The hardness increases as the transformation t emperature decreases. Basically. (3) At the Ms temperature. Heat is lost from the surface. For this steel. A primary concern in some cases is that for certain steels and cooling rates. but thes e reactions do not go to completion. that would give. ie. Curves are collected in various refe rence books (32–34). This concept. Increasing the surface cooling rate. the precipitation is interrupted by formation of the more rapidly growing pearlite giving a two-phase structure. Mf is below room temperature so some unt ransformed austenite is present.

particularly tho se involving wear resistance. Tempered Ma rtensite. increasing carbon and alloy content as well as increasing grain si ze tend to lower . has drawbacks be cause of possible distortion or even cracking during the quench. Martensite. regardless of composition. the mechanical properties of tempered martensite. softer than bainites and martensites. Pearlite. formed near the nose of the isothermal diagram. 11. Tempered martens itic structures are. The main factors affectin g transformation rates of austenite are composition. This treatment causes the martensite to tran sform to ferrite interspersed with small particles of iron carbides. The hardness of marten site at a given carbon content varies only very slightly with the cooling rate o r with usual alloying elements. are less ductile than the lower temperature bainites and.Vol. a steel consisting of tempered martensite having an ultimate strength of 1035 MPa (150. Martensite is tempered by heating to a temperature ranging from 170 to 7008C for 30 min to several hours. this microstructure is mainly important as the s tarting material for tempered martensite structures. its hardness and toughness both increase markedly with decreasing transformat ion temperatures. although as a class pearlite tends to be soft and not very ductil e. bainite microstructures are general ly found to be both harder and tougher than pearlite. Transformation Rates. and Brinell hardness of $29 5–320. In a given steel. reduction of area of between 54 an d 64%. grain size.000–142. within Æ10%. although less hard than ma rtensite. Because of its high ductility at a given hardness.000 psi). far less ductile than tempered martensite. For example. and these ne pearlites. The solution is to change the position of the TTT curve to longer times along the x axis to all ow the same structures to form at slower cooling rates. for a given hardness. yield point of 860–980 MPa (125. This is usually achieved by alloying because increasing austenite grain size has more negatives than pos itives. Upper bainite.4. Pearlites. Figure 19 describes.000 psi) mig ht be expected to exhibit elongation of 16–20%. may be somewhat de cient in toughness as compared to ne pearlite of the same hardness (33). Lower bainite compares favorably with tempered martensite at the sam e hardness and can exceed it in toughness. Martensite is the hardest and most brittle microstructure obta inable in a given steel. Higher temp eratures and longer tempering periods cause the cementite particles to increase in size and the steel to become more ductile and lose strength. As the transformatio n temperature decreases within the pearlite range. and homogeneity . The hardness of martensite increases nonlinearly with i ncreasing carbon content up to the eutectoid composition. In general. Thus. on the other hand. a re both harder and more ductile than the coarse pearlites formed at higher tempe ratures. Bainite. the interlamellar spacing dec reases. characterized by very desirable toughness at al most any strength. 11. as a class. Although for some applications. Constituent Properties. 00 STEEL 25 attractive as a way of avoiding ferrite and pearlite formation. which have de nitely superior and easily controllable properties for most demanding applications. this is the structure th at is generally preferred. Bainite properties generally improve as the transformation temperature decreases.3. the hardness of martensite is desirable in spite o f the accompanying brittleness.

0008C/h. This cooling rate c orresponds to a slow cooling in the furnace. such as might be obtained on normalizing a large forging. A cooling rate of at least 3 0. These effects are re ected in the isothermal transformation curve for a given steel. The basic information depicted by an isothermal transformation diagram illustrates precisely the structure formed if the cooling is interrupte d and the reaction completed at a given temperature. At cooling rates of 1 . The nal microstructure after continuous cooling dep ends on the time spent at the various transformation temperature ranges through which a piece is cooled. The transformation behavior on continuous cooling thus represents an integration of these times by constructing a continuous-cooling tr ansformation diagram at constant rates similar to the isothermal transformation diagram (see Fig. internal stress. In practice. the ferrite. and therefore the properties of the steel.0008C/h is necessary to obtain the fully martensitic structure desired as a st arting point for tempered martensite. Figure 18 contains several superimposed cooling -rate curves. Co ntinuous Cooling. as in the case of annealing. At a higher cooling rate (22–838C/h). 00 transformation rates. distortion. and quen ching. corresponds to the cooling rate at the center of a 60-mm bar quenched in agitated oil. the nal structure con sists of an association of microstructures that were formed individually at succ essively lower temperatures as the piece cooled. 30. This displacement is a function of and increases in direct p roportion with the cooling rate. and can be predi cted with considerable con dence if these factors are known. . the residence time at a single temperature is general ly insuf cient for the reaction to go to completion. Thus. In these processes. and weldability are thus improved. bainite.26 STEEL Vol. and martensite elds are traversed and the nal microstructure contains all these constituents.167–30. Considering rst a relatively low cooling rate (<228C/h ). the microstructure is free of proeutectoid ferrite and consists l argely of bainite and a small amount of martensite. This diagram lies below and to the right of the correspon ding isothermal transformation diagram if plotted on the same coordinates. That is. The changes occurring during these cooling cycles illustrate the m anner in which diagrams of this type can be correlated with heat-treating proces ses and used to predict the resulting microstructure in a commonly used CrÀNiÀMo all oy steel (Type 4340). the nal microstructure. transformation on continuous cooling starts at a lower temperature and after a longer time than the intersection of the cooling curve and the isothermal dia gram would predict. the tendency to form t he various structures is still capable of being represented usefully if schemati cally on a modi ed TTT diagram. This rate. such as might be used in annealing.0008C/h. depends on the trans formation behavior of the austenite and the cooling conditions. it is generally desirable to use as low a carbon content as possible for achieving the desired mechanical properties becau se toughness. 18). normalizing. pearlite. The information is also use ful for interpreting behavior in the more usual case when the cooling proceeds d irectly without interruption. However. t he steel is cooled through the regions in which transformations to ferrite and p earlite occur for the constitution of the nal microstructure. Instead.

Hardenability Hardenability refers to the depth of hardening or to the size of a piece that ca n be hardened adequately under given cooling conditions. The maximum hardness depend s almost entirely on the carbon content. coolin g rates ordinarily are not constant but vary during the cooling cycle. This is known as an ideal quench. usually 50% martensite and 50% softer products. The relationships between the cooling rates of the ideal quench and those o f other cooling conditions are known.Vol. The H value fo r the ideal quench is in nity. which is quenched to the desired micr ostructure. Therefore. because if steel is to transform to bainite or marte nsite. ie. The quenching condition used in this method of expr ession is a hypothetical (and mathematically exact) one in which the surface of the piece is assumed to come instantly to the temperature of the quenching mediu m. the cooling rate of the steel always decreases as t he steel temperature approaches that of the cooling medium. This rat e. which form the basis for these relationships are called H values. In fact. DI. quoted cool ing rates are properly those that occur at a speci ed temperature. to a lesser degree. normally 7008C. For example. in the steel of Figure 19 the critical cooling rate for martensite is 30. which just permits transformation to martensite without earlier transformatio n at a higher temperature. an in nite heat-transfer coef cient at this surface.38C/s. is known as the critical cooling rate for martensite. whereas the hardenability (depth of har dening) is far more dependent on the alloy content and. The cooling severities (usually referred to as severity of quench). Thus. Especiall y when quenching in liquids. at the center in an ideal quench. on t he grain size of the austenite. or a corresponding h ardness value. The diameter of a round steel bar. In the end -quench or Jominy test. the hardenability values in terms of ideal diameter can be used to predict the size of round or other shape which ha ve the same cooling rate when cooled in actual quenches where cooling severities are known. It furnishes one method for expressing hardenability. 00 STEEL 27 12. a round bar. is heated t o the desired austenitizing temperature to control the austenite grain size and quenched in a xture by a stream of water impinging on only one end. Hardenability is most conveniently measured by a test in whic h a steel sample is subjected to a continuous range of cooling rates. is known as the ideal diameter. Steels in which IT diagrams indicate a long time interval before the start of transformation to pearlite are useful when large s ections are to be hardened. Hardness meas urements are made on ats that are ground along the length of the bar after quench ing.0008C/h or 8. 25-mm diameter and 100-mm long. and not to the maximum hardness that can be obtained in a given steel (36). Those for some commonly used cooling conditions are given in Table 2. the steel must be cooled through the high temperature transformation ranges at a rate rapid eno ugh for transformation not to occur even at the nose of the IT diagram. it must escape any transformation to pearlite. It is therefore customary to express hardenability in terms of depth of hardeni ng in a standardized quench. The results are expressed as a plot of hardness versus distance from . Although the critical cooling rate can be used to express hardenability. This condition implies no barrier to heat transfer at the steel–bath interface.

the ideal diameter v alue can be used to establish the size of a piece in which the desired microstru cture can be obtained under the quenching conditions of the heat treatment to be used. Quenching. The primary purpose of many quenching operations is to cool rapidly enough to suppress at least some. and may result in loss of carbon near the surface (decarburization). an d suf cient time must be allowed for uniform heating throughout. Unless special pr ecautions are taken. transformation at temperatures above the Ms temperature. There can be other advantages.37). The temperature should not be hig h enough to produce pronounced grain growth. undissolved carbides may be de liberately retained for extra wear resistance. By careful selection and processing. and the hardenability can be evaluated in terms of DI by noting the distance from the quenched end at whic h the hardness corresponding to the desired microstructure occurs and using this relationship to establish the corresponding cooling rate or DI value. a nd perhaps all. heating causes scaling or oxidation. it is often extravagant in alloy use to produce martensite throughout the pi ece. The hardenability of steel is such an important property that it has beco me common practice to purchase steels to speci ed hardenability limits. 13. Process annealing and stress-relieving are exceptions. Compositio n often thus becomes a secondary speci cation. steel is heated above the A3 point and th en cooled at a rate that results in the microstructure that gives the desired pr operties (34.2. In some cases. 1. For material where the stresses are applied in tension or compression. Controlled-atmosphere furnaces or salt baths can minimize these effects.8 m in/mm of diameter or thickness usually suf ces. For low alloy steels in a normally loaded furnace. 00 the quenched end of the bar. For mat erial to be used in bending or torsion. Thus. salt baths. where the maximum stress is at the surfa ce. transformation to martensite throughout the piece is generally advisable.1. It is important to heat long enough for complete solution. resulting in distortion or cracking. such as tool steels or high carbon steels. The relationships between the distance from the que nched end and cooling rates in terms of DI are known. The steel is rst heated above the temperature at which austenite becomes stable. 13. and radiant-heating furnaces provide very rapid heating. A ustenitization. Published heat ow tables or charts relate the ideal diameter value to cooling rates in que nches or cooling conditions where H values are known. which c ontrol the timing of volume changes during austenite transformation. Such steels are called H steels. The actual austenitizing temperature should normally be high eno ugh to dissolve the carbides completely in a practical time— often 30–60 min. Heat-Treating Processes In almost all heat-treating processes. . Certain types of continuous furnaces.28 STEEL Vol. 13. but preheating of the steel may be necessary to avoid distortion or cracking. compressive stresses can be retained in the surface and thereby contribute to improved fati gue life. and ta ke advantage of the hardening effects of any alloying elements present. Excessive heating rates may create high stresses.

In order to minimize cracking. and b rine. A quenching rate no faster than necessary should be employed to minimize these stresses. these are often an attractive (albeit more expensive) choice. Thus polymer–water mixtures have found application. Oil baths are commonly used for low temperature tempering. salt baths can be used over a bigger range at higher temperatures. in general. This phenomenon may be affected markedly by composition. This behavior is characteristic and. Measurements of stress relaxation on tempering indicate that. Recirculating-air furnaces can be used to obtain uniform heating. The operation consists of heating at temperatures below the lower critical tempe rature. T empering. The tempering of martensite results in a contraction. then decreases on tem pering between 200 and 3108C. for aircraft landing gear. 00 STEEL 29 The cooling rate required depends on the size of the piece and the hardenability of the steel. 20). oils. rst increases on tempering up to 2008C.3. because stress relief results from the localized plastic ow that occurs when t he steel is heated to a temperature where its yield strength is less than the in ternal stress. These mixtures can have a ran ge of heat abstraction rates and some of the problems with oil can be avoided. and if the heating is not uniform. tempering should follow quenching immediately. the artic le should be transferred immediately to the tempering furnace (Fig. and part icularly by alloy additions. A1. Quenching forms hard. In some more highly alloyed steels. The preferred quenching media historically are water. Some steels . but that temperatures of 4808C and above are required to reduce these stresses to adequately low values.Vol. Where this range is unavoidable because of strength requir ements. Similarly. Water a nd brine are often too stringent for satisfactory use. whereas oil can be a re ha zard. there is the possibility of precipitation of alloy carbides from the ferrite at $5008C an d an actual increase in hardness. Then. 13. Cool ing should be long enough to permit complete transformation to martensite. as measured by the notch impact test. Oils also deteriorate upon use and today can be a dif cult disposal problem. A gitation of the cooling medium accelerates cooling and improves uniformity. For steels needing high temperature strength. eg. eg. dang erously high stresses result. heating too rapidly may be dangerous be cause of the sharp temperature gradient set up between the surface and the inter ior. it improves ductility. often brittle martensite having high residual st resses. Tempering relieves these stresses and precipitates excess carbon as carb ides. temperatures of 230–310 8C should be avoided. tools and pressure vessels in re neries. The temperature gradients set up by quenching create high thermal and tran sformational stresses that may lead to cracking and distortion. and nally increases rapidly on tempering at 4258C a nd above. although at some expense of strength and hardness. The times and temperatures requ ired for stress relief depend on the high temperature yield strength of the stee l. residual stresses are signi cantly lowered by heating to temper atures as low as 1508C. The toughness of quenched steel. in order to minimize time-dependent cracking from quenching stresses. Any appreciable delay may promote cracking. additions of 1–2% silicon change the rate o f carbide formation and can move the brittle range to higher tempering temperatu res to allow acceptable toughness. in a p lain carbon steel.

alternatively. depending on the rolling and slow cooling. Austempering. or spheroidize carbides. particularly if these have been slowly cooled after rolling. 5. and kept at t his temperature until transformation is complete (Fig. The purpose of this treatment is to re ne th e hot-rolled structure (often quite inhomogeneous).or cold-working. Although an expense. The carbide size is s ubject to wide variations. After martempering. normalizing tends to establish a more uniform and ner carbide particle size th at facilitates subsequent heat treatment. considerably higher temperatures may be used. it may involve heating above the upper critical temperature (A3) with subsequent transf ormation to pearlite or. Lower bainite is generally a s strong as and somewhat more ductile than tempered martensite. depending on the nishing temp erature after hot-rolling. Here. the piece may be tempered to the desired strength. the piece i s held twice as long as the period indicated by the isothermal transformation di agram. In alloy steels. The article may then be quenched or air-cooled to room temperature after transformation is complete. directly to a spheroidized structure on cooling. For some alloy steels. usually in molten salt. and to soften the steel to improve its machinability or formability. Because the large temperature gradient characteristic of conventional quenching is abse nt. rec rystallize cold-worked material. this process prov ides more uniform quality in the nished product. and may even be tempered to lower hardness if desire d. A modi ed quenching procedure known as martempering minimizes the high st resses created by the transformation to martensite during the rapid cooling char acteristic of ordinary quenching (Fig. Rapid cooling after tempering is desirable in these cases. agai n. 00 lose toughness on slow cooling from $5408C and above.4. less commonly. Annealing. wh ich is an isothermal heat treatment that results in lower bainite. It may involve only a subcritical heating to relieve stresses. 13. it is ordinarily carrie d out by quenching in a molten salt bath just above the Ms temperature. Marte mpering. 22). offers an alt ernative heat treatment for obtaining optimum strength and ductility if the spec imens are suf ciently small. a phenomenon known as temp er brittleness. Annealing has two different purposes: to relieve stresses induced by hot. the stresses produced by the transformation are much lower and a greater fre edom from distortion and cracking is obtained. In this operation. Transfor mation to martensite does not begin until after the piece reaches the temperatur e of the salt bath and is then allowed to cool relatively slowly in air. Usually. In austempering the article is quenched to the desire d temperature in the lower bainite region. 21).30 STEEL Vol. steel is heated above its upper critica l temperature (A3) and cooled in air. 13. The usual practice is to normali ze at 50–808C above the upper critical temperature. however . Austempering. In practice. Normalizing. Heating may be carried out in an y type of furnace that permits uniform heating and good temperature control. the carbides in the as-rolled condition tend to be massive and are dif cult to dissolve on subsequent austenitization. and to obtain a carbide size and distribution that is more favorable for carbide solution on subsequent heat treatment than the earli er as-rolled structure. .

Process Annealing. Isothermal Annealing. 00 STEEL 31 The most favorable microstructure for machinability in low or medium carbon stee ls is coarse pearlite. rather time-consuming because it involves slow cooling over the entire t emperature range from the austenitizing temperature to a temperature well below that at which transformation is complete. usually in special ly designed furnaces. Pr ocess annealing is the term used for subcritical annealing of cold-worked materi als. Such an ope ration is known as subcritical annealing. or it may be a treatment similar to isothermal annea ling. except for the lower austenitizing temperatures. is cri tical. It is. Annealing to coa rse pearlite can be carried out isothermally by cooling to the proper temperatur e for transformation to coarse pearlite and holding until transformation is comp lete. This is commonly referred to as cycle annealing. transformation in the temperature range where coarse pearlite ordinarily woul d form proceeds to spheroidized rather than pearlitic microstructures. Spheroidi zation Annealing. The method may be slow. The pearlite in this case is much ner and harder. Both may be shortened within limits. Using some modi cations. Isothermal a nnealing can be conveniently adapted to continuous annealing. The sheets are enclosed in a large box that can be sealed to permi t the use of a controlled atmosphere to . It consists of austenitizing a t a relatively high temperature to obtain full carbide solution. the transformation may be carried out near the nose o f the IT curve. Thus. hea t treatment to form spheroidized microstructures can be carried out like heat tr eatment for pearlite.Vol. The most impor tant example of process annealing is the box annealing of cold-rolled low carbon sheet steel. called isothermal annealing and illustrated in Figure 24. Spheroidi zation annealing may thus involve a slow cooling similar to the full-annealing t reatment used for pearlite. slowly cooled. This simple heat treatment is reliable for most steels. may save considerable time over the full-annealing process described previously. Such steels are customarily annealed to de velop spheroidized microstructures by holding the as-rolled. where the transformation is completed rapidly and the operation further expedited. or n ormalized materials just below the lower critical temperature range. Full spheroidization may require long holding times at the subcritical temperature. followed by slo w cooling to give transformation exclusively in the high temperature end of the pearlite range. but it is simple and may be more convenient than annealing above the critical temperature. Coarse pearlite microstructures are too hard for optimum machi nability in the higher carbon steels. It customarily involves heating at a temperature high enough to cause recry stallization of the cold-worked material and to soften the steel. h owever. Ne ither the time from the austenitizing temperature to the transformation temperat ure. The customary heat treatment to develop this microstructu re is a full annealing. An austenitizing temperature not more than 558C above the lower critical t emperature is customarily used for this type of annealing. nor the one from the transformation temperature to room temperature. illustrated in Figure 23. the annealing procedures described to produce pearlite c an give spheroidized microstructures. If extreme softness of the coarsest pearlite is not necessary. If free carbide remains after austenitizin g. This method.

An intermedi ate treatment that adds both carbon and nitrogen to steel surfaces can be obtain ed by exposing the parts to a bath of molten cyanide at just above the critical temperature of the core for about one hour followed by direct quenching. and heating to $9258C for a period of time de pending on the depth desired.9–1. 13. We ar resistance. This method is called pack carburizing. whic h means that some soft retained austenite may be present. low carbon steel acquires a high carbon surface layer by heating in contact with carbonaceous materials. c ontinuously through a long furnace having a carefully designed temperature pro le. . under conditions whereby surface hardness is imparted without requiring any further treatment. T he nitrogen case-hardening process. termed nitriding.4% aluminum. The o peration usually takes $24 h. and resistance to cer tain types of corrosion are also imparted by nitriding. and to exercise control over the amounts of carbon and nitroge n remaining in solution in the ferrite. the latter of course also continue to improve. 13.6. makes this an attractive option when capital is available.7. The result is a highly wear-resistant exterior over a very tough interior. alternatively. sealing to exclude the atmosphere. The Mf of the high carbon case may be below room temperature. This mat erial is particularly suitable for gears. Nitriding. commonly ammonia gas. Further heat treatment s may be necessary to eliminate this or minimize its effects. but the savings in time over box annealing. the high carbon sk in forms martensite. Usually it is desirable to have a certain crystallographic texture in the sheet after annealing. after which the charge is cooled slowly within the box. Develo pments using a hydrogen atmosphere during box annealing for better heat transfer have largely restored the competitiveness against continuous annealing processe s. whereas the low carbon core remains comparatively soft. On quenching after carburizing. retention of hardness at high temperatures. preferably. etc. or.32 STEEL Vol. An alternative way to anneal the lo w carbon sheet and certain higher strength steels used in large tonnages for aut omobiles. camshafts. Annealing is usually carried out between 590 and 7158C. 00 prevent oxidation. which leads to la rge numbers of small precipitates of aluminum nitride [24304-00-5]. as well as the very small scatter in properties. Alternativ ely. In carburiz ing. the steel may be heated in contact with carburizing gases. appliances. in which case the process is called gas carburizing. The har dened area is about 0. heat-treated CrÀMo steel parts containing aluminum at $5008 C to the action of a nitrogenous medium. the steel may be heated in liquid baths of carburizing salts. in which case it is known as liquid carburizing. The hardness of nitrided steels arises primarily from the presence of 0. Carburizing.25-mm deep. today. The control requirements are thus severe . and containers is to pass the sheet. after cold rolling. The entire process takes several days. consists of subjecting mac hined and. Carburizing has histor ically been carried out by packing the steel in boxes with carbonaceous solids.

In identifying a particular steel. sheet. The gas content depends m ostly on melting. and 12xx (rephosphorized and resulfurized). These include castin gs. usually af ter ladle treatment. Consequ ently. . they are dif cult to produce by modern continuous casti ng process. wire and wire products. The other half are cold-rolle d to thin sheet or strip and used directly or with an annealing treatment such a s described above. Carbon steels are made by all modern steelmaking processes and. manganese. have the most diverse applications of any metallic engineering materials. sheet and strip. For example. Certain properties of plain carbon steels may be modi ed by res idual elements other than the carbon. giv ing a range of 0. and hyd rogen. and sulfur that are always present. and are used for almost all low carbon sheet products. deoxidizers. and their reaction products. 14. although increasingly the property combinations are enhanced by controlled cooling following the last stand of the hot mill for structural shapes. While desirabl e when ingots were common. These pro perties can be controlled by heat treatment as discussed. Sulfur in amounts as high as 0. wheels. Properties. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has published standard composition rang es for plain carbon steel. ladle treatments. or the furnace atmosphere.Vol. and strip. especially oxygen. silicon. These incidental elements are usually acquir ed from scrap. bars. today these are largely higher carbon grades where the oxygen in solution from t he melt is lower. may be rimmed. In this system. Material is ordered to property and per formance speci cations. phosphorus.003%. depending on t heir carbon content and intended purpose.35% max to the 12xx steels to improve machinabili ty. nitrogen. The properties of plain carbon steels are governed principally by carbon content and microstructure. the letters x are replaced by two digits representing average carbon content. an AISI 1040 st eel would have an average carbon content of 0. as well as gases.40%.12% max may be added to the 12xx steels to i ncrease stiffness. ca rbon steels are assigned to one of three series: 10xx (nonresulfurized). In addition. and railway materials such as rails. structural shapes. phosphorus up to 0.37–0. and by ladle metallurgy this can readily be re duced to 0. Each composition range is assigned an identifying num ber according to an accepted method of classi cation (Table 3). plates. and casting procedures. About half the plain c arbon steels are used in the hot-rolled form.33% max may be deliberately adde d to the 11xx and as high as 0. 11xx (r esulfurized). Normal practice makes an upper limit of 0. Modern low carbon stee ls are often of such low carbon that the lowest Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) designation. 00 STEEL 33 14. tubular products. 1005. Semikilled have the oxygen content controlled largely by Si and Mn.44% carbon.03%. deoxidizing. with a tolerance of Æ0. is not helpful. Rimmed steels having good surfaces are almost extinct. and axles . or fully ki lled (33).1. by far the largest volume of steel produced. forgings. Killed steels use Al to reduce oxygen in the steel. Carbon Steels Plain carbon steels.015% for sulfur and phosphorus easily attainable. semikilled.

00 the properties of plain carbon steels can depend heavily on the manufacturing te chniques. Many carbon steels a re used in the form of as-rolled nished sections. The constituents of the hypoeutectoid steels are ther efore ferrite and pearlite.3. Hot Working.4. or forged state. alth ough ferrite often precipitates as plates within individual austenite grains.2. such as Nb. Although the diagram is representative.1% C. and cooling conditions. y ¼ A þ BÁdÀ1=2 Thus where 25–50 mm was once conside red quite appropriate for a ferrite grain size.2% C. much is < 0.39). The average mechanical properties of as-rolled 2. cementite is similarly pr ecipitated.34 STEEL Vol. These smaller grain sizes can be produced directly from hot rolling by contr olled recrystallization of the austenite to a ne grain size. Although the pearlite does contribute somewhat to tensile stren gth. in as much as cooling through the critical range is slow. This diagram is an illustration of the effect of carbon content when microstructure and grain size are held approximately constant. most of the low carbon steels do not rely primarily on pearli te for strength. and Ti. particularl y if the casting is cooled in the mold. The rolling or hot working of these sections is ordinari ly carried out in the tempera- . The addition of small amoun ts of carbide and nitride formers. cementite and pear lite. 14. These levels are often < 0. and toughness simultaneously b y concentrating on reducing the ferrite grain size in a lower carbon material (3 8). es pecially if these are large. ferrite ordinar ily precipitates at the original austenite grain boundaries during cooling. rolled. The yield strength. As of today. assist ed by water cooling of the material out of the last rolling stand. a relatively recent but increasingly important de velopment. and heat treatment is usually necessary to reduce the grain size and thereby obtain suitable micros tructures and properties in cast steels. V. 5 mm has become not at all unusu al. weldability. The microstructure and properti es of these sections are determined largely by composition. Such large-grained mixtures of ferrite or cementite and coarse pearl ite have poor strength. Microstructure and Grain Size. 14. In hypereutectoid steels. helps to keep the grai n sizes small. which in turn leads to many more independently nucleated ferrite grains. the resulting reduction in ductility and toughness make it much more attrac tive to improve strength. ductility. and by precipitation in the ferrite at lower temperatures. the gr eat bulk of tonnage used is at low carbon levels. d. rolling procedures. 14. and ductility properties. and of the hypereutectoid steels. sy. Cast steel is generally coa rsegrained because austenite forms at high temperature and the pearlite is usual ly coarse. has been shown (39) to increase with the inverse squ are root of the ferrite grain size. Microstructure of Cast Steels. The carbon steels havi ng relatively low hardenability do not contain martensite or bainite in the cast . toughness. gives extra s trengthening. These materials.5-cm bars of carbon s teels as a function of carbon content are shown in Figure 25. are commonly known as microalloyed or high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels (38. In hypoeutectoid steels.

The option of annealing a hot. in the directions parallel and normal to the rolling direction. are used in the coldworked condition to give inexpensive strength. wi th effects that may be eliminated by annealing. with markedly improved ductility. sheet. 14. For examp le. the original microstructure an d properties may be substantially restored. which thus also cools slowly. but hot-rolled sheet is normally coiled fr om the mill directly at a predetermined temperature into a large torus weighing several tons. Section size has important ram i cations. A large I-beam cools slowly. However. cold rolling. The austenite grain size at the end of hot rolling. but never all. At the other extreme. anging. The moderate cold wo rk produced by the drawing to a nal size is helpful to obtaining good chip format ion during machining. 14. The ultimate microstructure. The effect of cold working on the tensile strength of pla in carbon steel is shown in Figure 26. These may be product s of the steelmaking process during deoxidation. and other variables. or other large plastic deformat ion modes necessitate careful combinations of advanced steelmaking.6. Cold Working. the forces required to cold draw a section prior to nal machining may be too high if the specimen is not given a full anneal above the A3. Although this can lead to some anisotropy of properties. it rarely is seriously deleterious to engineering applications. or occur as deliberate addition s of carbide and/or nitride formers as in HSLA. The yield strength also increases. particul arly wire. is sensitive to undissolved particles. hot rolling. with four principal effects: consid erable homogenization occurs during the heating for rolling. extent of cold working. genera lly more rapidly than tensile strength. and thus properties and performance. tending to eliminat e some. depends on how and at what temperature this au stenite transforms during the subsequent cooling. the exceptional ductility requiremen ts of a material to be shaped by drawing. followed by slow c ooling to produce a fairly coarse ferrite–pearlite structure. of the dendritic segregation present in the ingot. Rolling serves to reduce the length scales ove r which these inhomogeneities occur to a few tens of micrometers normal to the r olling direction. such as toughness and ductility. some products. strip. Although many wrought (rolled or forged) carbon steels are used without a nal heat treatment. and the nal austenitic grain size is determined by the temperature a t which the last passes are made (the nishing temperature). in the rolling directi on. and . Th e most pronounced effects of cold working are increased strength and hardness an d decreased ductility. and tubular products often includes cold working. 00 STEEL 35 ture range in which the steel is austenitic. recrystallization takes place dur ing rolling. t his may be employed to improve the microstructure and properties for critical ap plications if the cost can be justi ed. bar. Heat Treatment.Vol. so cold working is a cost-effective meth od of strengthening if ductility is not critical. and dendrites and inc lusions are reoriented. Upon reheating cold-worked ste el to the recrystallization temperature ($4508C) or above. The inhomogeneities in composition inherent in the solidi cation process are i n practice never totally removed. The manufacture of wire. the de ndritic structure is broken up during rolling. depending on composit ion.5.or cold-rol led structure depends on the type of further processing to be applied. during which the steel recrystal lizes several times.

introduced during the steelm aking process. titanium. where. . deformation can be quite inhomogeneous. which ma y have been introduced during deoxidation. the increased har dness and lower ductility imparted by these elements needs to be carefully watch ed. chromium. The content of hydrogen and other gases can. the effect reappears. Thus nitrogen can be particularly deleterious to the properties of sheet steel. however. which may be introduced with scrap. and the steelm aker. and tin. The growing use of HSLA steels has greatly reduced the quenching and tempering of carbon steels to provide noticeably stronger materials without the use of expensive alloys. sulfur. molybdenum. and copper. copper. To avoid this. N itrogen is not easily removed by vacuum treatment. and for applications in which duc tility is important. or even higher. the high nitrogen can be combined with nitride formers (V. chromium. 14. N ormalizing is still used to reduce variability in hot-rolled material if the eco nomics can be justi ed. vanadium. Tin. The bubbles leaving also serve to carry off some of the nitrogen. The effec t can be masked for a time by a light skin pass prior to leaving the rolling mil l. however.36 STEEL Vol. or zirconium. the ability to produce interstitial-free steels (42) low in carbon and nitrogen has been ac hieved. because the concentrations are ordinarily low. or nitrogen. steel normally ki lled with aluminum ties up nitrogen as AlN in addition to its other functions. This can lead to ugly surfac e markings totally unsuitable in automobile or appliance applications. appliances. nitrogen is more soluble and has a higher diffusivity. nickel. although only slightly. as in low carbon steels for deep drawing. Nb. manganese. the heat-treating characteristics may change. be redu ced by vacuum dagassing. the effect of tin in the quantities ordinarily present is n egligible. carbon steels may cont ain small amounts of hydrogen. is possible with a hydrogen content of more than $3 ppm. Residual Elements.7. unless car e is taken. The demands of consumers for aesthetic and functional requirements ar e passed through such product manufacturers as autos. is harmful in steels for deep drawing. and aluminum. can increase the hardenability. and/or Ti) to take it out of solution in t he ferrite and enable high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with yield strengths in the 500þ Mpa range. The increase in quality and reproducibility in these materials in the last two decades has been impressive. An embrittling effect in heavier sections. molybdenum. phosphorus. However. In addition to carbon. However. 00 annealing. and silicon that are always present. even in low amounts. A smaller atom than carbon. but as nitrogen diffuses over a period of several days at room temperature du ring shipment or storage. the mechanism of which is still debated. The tendency toward lower carbon steels has mi nimized the utilization of pearlite as a structural constituent. For most ap plications. Alloying elements such as nickel. oxygen. which may have bee n present in the scrap. During the 1990s. Steels made in the electric furna ce tend to have higher nitrogen and are thus not able to make the most dif cult ty pes of deep-drawing sheet as of this writing. Nitrogen can be a relatively harmful element in BOP steels unless special precautions are taken. whereby the carbon and oxygen left in solution after steelmaking react t o form carbon monoxide under a vacuum in the ladle degasser.

Some ve ry specialized steels have been developed to meet exceptionally harsh service re quirements. the enhance d electric properties of silicon steels. which may be present up to 0. and the improved hardenability and tempering charact eristics of AISI alloy steels. The other elements that may be introduced as deoxidizers. and nonstainless heat-resistant steels. other mechanisms began to be attractive to produce inexpensive s teels having good combinations of the properties essential for service needs.40–43).2. Even though the tonnage of these specialized steels may be small.1. 15.Vol.6 wt %. aluminum tends to promote graphitization and is therefore undesirable in steels used at high temperatures. the weldability is also improved . . and manganese (to 1. 00 STEEL 37 Aluminum is generally desirable as a grain re ner and tends to reduce the suscepti bility of carbon steel to aging associated following deformation. Copper and tin can create a rough surface condition during ho t rolling through a process called hot shortness. Alloy Steels For slightly < 10% of products. th e importance to modern technology may be huge if the task is only feasible with the speci c alloy (see HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS. toughn ess and ductility were improved simultaneously. 15. Processing improvements on relia ble composition control and tight control of the rolling schedules lead to very attractive and economical combinations of properties in the hot-rolled condition (38. or zirconium. Here the copper and tin form a liquid alloy that can penetrate grain boundaries and cause surface cracks. although 30% is a more common upper limit. alloy tool steels. As the understanding of the origin of proper ties developed. alloying elements are introduced to produce prop erties not available for carbon steels where the functional elements are usually only considered to be carbon. Alloy steels may contain up to $50% of alloying elements wh ich directly enhance properties. Because the carbon content is lower.6%). Functions o f Alloying Elements. or cold working (ductility problems).65%). TOOL MATERIALS). silicon (to 0. Exam ples are the increased corrosion resistance of high chromium steels. increasing the strength of steel involved producing dispersions of carbide s by quenching and tempering (accompanied by cost and joining problems). stainless steels (cast or wrought). 15. and in a few cases the corrosion resistance in ambient air has also been bette r. Until the 1 970s. is relatively rare compared to the ubiq uitous silicon and manganese. and be able to dispe rse small amounts of very ne alloy carbides or carbonitrides. vanadium. Copp er. High Strength Low Alloy Steels. are ordinarily present in such small amounts as to be ineffective. On e or more alloying elements may be critical to the resulting properties. and at much lower levels the improved s trength of the HSLA steels. The principal classes of alloy steels in decreasin g order of volume are HSLA (usually as hot-rolled). electrical steels (la rgely iron–silicon). increas ing the fraction of pearlite (resulting in ductility and toughness problems). In structural steels. In this way. Th e most important advance was to re ne the ferrite grain size. such as titanium. and need slightly larger amounts to le ad to HSLA steels. AISI alloy steels (usually q uenched and tempered).

whic h uses small amounts of copper and phosphorus to improve atmospheric corrosion r esistance. (4) Simple normalizing for some steels. Some other s teels that fall into related categories are the various longstanding proprietary weathering steels. eg . Other alloy effects in these steels are in the control of the shape o f sul de inclusions. and are a growing fraction of the market with the plan to make li ghter vehicles. an d titanium(II) sul de. many are proprietary. eg. eg. 00 Several types of processing that contribute to these desirable properties are as follows: (1) Controlled rolling of steels having small amounts of carbon and ni trogen containing V. . Manganese(II) sul de. Adequate toughness in these st eels requires controlled rolling (38). thus leading to a strengt h loss. (3) Suf ciently rapid cooling of low (<0. during forming some of the austenite transforms to martensite increasing both strength and uniform ext ension. e g. Nb. ie. These dual-phase steels are useful in parts needing good yield strength which are to be deformed before service. MnS. ie. CaS. as well as the dual-phase steels. and/or Zr in the austenite produces fully recrystal lized ne austenite grains. although the toughness is degraded.38 STEEL Vol. These elements also produce signi cant solid solution hardening. Subsequent cool ing leads to very ne ferrite grains. Phosph orus is also used for its strengthening effects alone. USS’s Cor-Ten A (dating from 1930 but still useful!). TiS. calcium sul de. is a common form in which sulfur is present. are suf ciently stronger so that during hot rolling thes e remain essentially spherical and give more nearly isotropic mechanical propert ies. Ti. This leads to poor through thickness ductility. but slowly enough that carbonitrides can precipitate in the ferrite duri ng coiling.5% manganese gives martensite islands in a ferrite matri x after rapid cooling. auto wheels. that grow th of carbonitride precipitates occurs during coiling. The pancake grain structure can lead to anis otropy of properties or in extreme cases to delamination. of car bon steels containing 1. (6) A more recent entry in this eld are the TRIP (the acronym for TRansformation Induced Plasticity) that aided steels which are low alloy but co ntain ferrite. this is soft and ductile at rolling temperatures and is thus in the for m of stringers. in the a þg range. not so slowly. however. bainite and austenite at room temperature.08%) carbon in steels having enough hardenability produces low carbon bainite. those containing vanadium. (2) Accelerated coolin g from the hot mill after controlled rolling in the austenite range produces equ iaxed ferrite while avoiding acicular ferrite. (5) Intercritical annealing. can give suf cient ferrite grain re nement for these s teels to be attractive. the ductilit y perpendicular to the rolling direction. Among them are various microalloyed ferrite–pearlite steels having limited pearlite amo unts and the low carbon bainites. There are several hundred types of steels that use these principles sepa rately or in combination. There is a developing market for these inclusion-shape-controlled steels. Other sul des. This is a product with a low initial yield strength but r apid work hardening and increased ductility. rolling to low temperatures in the austenite range or into the austenite–ferrite range produces deformed pancake grains. Some of these are generic.

and < 0. any residual i nterstitials are tied up as precipitates.Vol. and in large steel structur es (see TANKS AND PRESSURE VESSELS). hydrogen in relatively small amounts can lead to cracking. nickel. If the presence of hydrogen cannot be adequately lower ed by the ladle treatment. 1. Quenched and Tempered Low Carbon Constructional Alloy Steels. 0. tungsten. These represent by far the largest alloy steels product ion and are generally known as AISI alloy steels. combinations of low carbon and silicon. these steels are referr ed to as low carbon martensites to differentiate them from constructional alloy steels of higher carbon content. carbon and nitrogen in solution are reduce d. and weldability with joints showing full joint ef ci ency when welded with low hydrogen electrodes. Steels tha t fall within the AISI de nition have been standardized and classi ed jointly by AIS I and SAE (see Table 3). columbium (niobium).46). inclusion sha pe control. titanium. Steels that contain 4% or more of chromium are included by convention among the special types of alloy steels known as stainless steels (45. The America n Iron and Steel Institute de nes alloy steels as follows: ‘‘steel is considered to be alloy steel when the maximum of the range given for the content of alloying ele ments exceeds one or more of the following limits: manganese. chromium up to 3. 0. Many of the same principles apply as for other alloy steels (42). c obalt. Interstitial-Free Steels. mining and earth-moving equipment. but the harmful effects of strain aging and quench aging essentially disappe ar. In some ways. and semi n- . structural shapes. forgings. If these can be reduced < 50 ppm.5.99%. good toughness down to À458C. by adding small quantities of carbide and nitride stabilizers. AISI Alloy Steels. zi rconium. As a general class. By vacuum treatment in the ladle. but also as sheet products. which is so important in formability. boron. 60%.4. that develop hig h carbon martensite upon quenching. especially a s the strength increases. or any other alloying element added to obtain a desired alloying effect’’ ( 44). 15. 00 STEEL 39 Finally.60%.65%. 15. minimum yield strengths of 690 MPa (100. These IF steels are becoming increasin gly important both on their own and as a base for the hot dip galvanizing common ly used for increased corrosion resistance. copper. A class of q uenched and tempered low carbon constructional alloy steels has been very extensively used in a wide variety of applications such as pressure vessels. molybdenum. vanadium. interstitial-free (IF) steels are p rimarily carbon steels having deliberately low yield strength.25% copper can be helpful in minimizing loss of toughness. such as the AISI alloy steels. bars. or in which a de nite range or a de nite minimum quantity of any of the following elements is speci ed or required within the limits of the recogn ized eld of constructional alloy steels: aluminum. The low carbon martensites are characterized by a relatively high strength. They are also referred to as c onstructional alloy steels. It has long been known that the maximum ductility in steel sheet. depends on the carbon and nitrogen in solution in the ferrite.000 psi) .3. The effect of the alloying elements on AISI steels i s indirect because alloying elements control microstructure through their effect on hardenability. silicon. These elements permit the attainment of desirable microstruct ures and properties over a much wider range of sizes and sections than is possib le with carbon steels. not only does the ductility approach 50% and the yield strength decrea se. They are most commonly used in th e form of plates. 1 5.

often by secondary hardening during tempering $5008C. Further work led to the widely used versatile 18% chromium–8% nickel steels. to which alloying elements have been added to impart hardenability hi gher than that of plain carbon tool steels. the so-called 18–8. For steels containing appreciable quantities of nickel. 10–13%.6. hence the L grades (<0. 18%. It was suggested that this composition be used for cutlery. nickel. The austenitic iron–chromium–nickel alloys were developed in Germany $1910 in a search for materials for use in pyrometer tubes. however. which usually conta in elements such as tungsten. The higher chromium–iron alloys were developed in the United States from the early twe ntieth century on. when the effect of chromium on oxidation resistance at 10908C was rst noticed. wear-res istant carbides.24% carbon was reported. and molybdenum. The last are high speed tool steels that contain large amounts of carbide-forming element s. Stainless steels are more resistant to rusting and staining than plain carb on and low alloy steels (47–50). Accordingly. such as copper. 15. Germany. under some circumstances very localized and potentially damaging corrosion can occur. However. (2) grain boundary attack where carbides have formed at grain bound aries. Examples are (1) pitting corrosion. and the United States shared in the early development of stainles s steels. In the United Kingdom in 1912. This superior corrosion resistance results from t he presence of chromium. 20% c hromium seems to be the minimum amount necessary for oxidation resistance at 109 08C. during the search for steel that would resist fouling in gun barrels. The many composit ions would appear to make the role of individual elements dif cult to understand. These ranges fall $5%. a nd 25%.8 % chromium and 0. Alloy Tool Steels. an understandable pattern. or vanadium. hence Grades 316 and 317. by avoiding heat treatments. which is in four general ranges.40 STEEL Vol. re ecting the nature of the protective oxide lm formed. especially welding. these steels may be har dened in heavier sections or using less drastic quenches to minimize distortion. Compositions are proprietary. but also to increase secondary hardening thereby allowing operation at red heat.15% carbon) is similar to that of the rst corrosion-resistant steel. which can be deep enough to penetrate sheet and that can be mitigated by the addition of 2–3% molybdenum. The rst consists of alloy to ol steels. aluminum. Although other elements. the U nited Kingdom. These form hard. 0. the composition of AISI Type 420 steel (12–14% chro mium. also increase corrosion resistance. 00 ished products. Allo y tool steels are classi ed roughly into three groups.03% C). 15. which permit . sili con. in speci c ways. There is. a corrosion-resistant composition containing 12. The corrosion resistance is primar ily dependent on the chromium content. Oxidation resistance increased markedly as the chromium content was raised > 20%. which serve not only to furnish wear-resisting carbides. Several steel-producing companies manufacture such steels under various trade names. Stainless Ste els. The second group is that of intermediate alloy tool steels. In fact. these are usually minor relative to chromium in their usefulness.7. which can be prevented by low carbon contents. molybdenum. and the grades listed contain these amounts of chromium. Increasing the chromium content is valuable for resisting general (uniform) corrosion.

In sheet or strip form. Type 4 10 is used extensively in the petroleum industry for ballast trays and liners. and (3) stress corrosion cracking (SCC). with $0. and can give very high strengths. the austenite is stable and formable and increasingly nds both industrial and domestic uses. 431. A bcc phase. For the ferrite grades. whereby cracks. Adding several p ercent of nickel to an iron–chromium alloy can allow austenite to exist metastably or stably down to ambient temperature. such as Mo. Depending on composition. hence Grade s 321 and 347. The next step to comprehending the ma ny grades of stainless steel lies in understanding the crystal structure of the iron-rich matrix. Martensitic stainless steels include Types 403. 440C. 00 STEEL 41 carbide precipitation or by adding carbide formers such as Ti or Nb. Martensitic St ainless Steels. it is necessary to ha ve at least 12% chromium and only very small amounts of elements that stabilize austenite. usually transgranular. It is an air-hardening steel. brittleness from large grains is a drawback in thes e steels. and for blades and bucke ts in steam turbines. Nb. the Ms can be near or even above room temperature. which contains 11. 4 20. especially chlorides in contact with austenitic steels. and shafting where corrosion and wear resistance are needed. The most widely used is T ype 410. especially if the material is pl astically deformed. is used for cutlery. offer ing a wide range of properties by heat treatment. or sometimes a hexagonal close -packed E phase. 416. Type 301. 440B.Vol. and 502 (see Table 4).35% carbon and a resultant increased har dness. may also be in these steels. which encourage the bcc structure.50–13. The . can then form martensitically. 414. In bar form. form under the simultaneous action of stress. this grade may be drawn or formed. Composition changes do not give ef fective control cheaply and great care remains necessary to avoid SCC in process units operating at a few hundred degrees. eg. Austenitic steels are extremely va luable structural components in a wide variety of applications. The several types in the 300 series have other speci c alloys l argely to control the various forms of localized corrosion or to improve the cre ep strength. even in a 17% chromium steel. A number of proprietary types have not been listed . or. if the carbon is high eno ugh. Thus. from an applied loa d or more insidiously from residual stresses. I t is also used for parts of furnaces operating < 6058C. val ve seats. and Al. Type 420. it is used for valves. They nd considerable use in structures at high temperatures where the l oads are small and toughness is not critical. Fortunately. For these materials. Type 440 may be employed for surgical instruments. The standard AISI types with the Uni ed Numbering System (UNS) design ation are identi ed in Table 4. Some elements. 410. especially those requiring a durable c utting edge. and speci c environments. carbon extends this range so it is possible to have all austenite prior to quenching in a 12% chromium carbon steel. These are for speci c uses.50% chromium and <0. valve stems. 440A. Ti. 501. which justify their substantial cost. Using more n ickel. Because there are no phase transform ations to re ne the structure. it is important to be able to form 100% austenite rst. to ma ke the martensitic grades. In the annealed c ondition.15% carbon. the structure is bcc from room temperature to th e melting point. The austenite eld in iron exists over an increasingly small tem perature range as chromium is added and disappears at $12% chromium.

This grade does not have the good drawing characteristics of Type 430. with increasing carbon content in that order. chemical-. 302B. welded. 430. including kitchen equipment and utensils. 314.10% and the latter <0. B. Other martensitic gra des are Types 501 and 502. Furthermore. using proper techniques. . Accor dingly. 430F.12% carbon or less and 14–18% chromium.03% carbon max. 00 necessary hardness for different applications can be obtained by selecting grade A. 305. 316L. Its resistance to nitric and other oxidizing acids makes it suitable for chemical-processing equipment. and food-processing (qv) mac hinery. bubble towers. and 4 46 (see Table 4). 347. transpor tation equipment. 304. It may be deep-drawn or stretch formed. excellent ductility. These grades are also air-hardened. based on iron–chromium– nickel alloys. to which it is resistant. because of its austenitic structur e. 436. Aust enitic steels. B oth contain 4–6% chromium. and thus has application in combustion chamber for domestic heating furnaces. the corrosion resistance of Type 430 is superior to that of the martensitic grades.42 STEEL Vol. 303. The high (23–27%) chromium content of Type 446 imparts excellent heat resist ance. Ferritic steels are iron–chromium alloys not hard enable by heat treatment. dairy installations. Becaus e of its high chromium content. Types 501 and 502 have wide ap plication in the petroleum industry for hot lines. 321.(qv). It has excellent corrosion resistance and. It can be readil y welded. and. At one time widely used for automotive and architectural trim. although its high temperature strength is only slightly better than that o f carbon steel. it is also employed in equipment for the manufacture and ha ndling of nitric acid (qv). and pl ates. 304L. newer grades are 434. or 304L may be used. 317. but may be formed with care. This can be mitigated to some deg ree but not eliminated. and annealing baskets. The former has >0. as in one proprietary steel and Types 201 and 202 (see Table 4). Type 430 does not have hig h creep strength but is suitable for some types of service up to 8158C. formed. 302. Ferritic Stainless Steels. but carbide precipitation must be avoided in and near the weld by cool ing rapidly enough after welding. Where carbide precipitation presents problems. Grades commonly include Types 405. Austenitic Stainless Steels. Type 409. 308. 309. and 347. Type 430 may be drawn. Some varia nts of Type 446 are available for severe applications. burner sleeves. In alloys having 17% chromium or more. 310. which is readily available today. Type 446 is used in sheet or strip form up to 11508C. Types 321. an insidious em brittlement occurs in extended service $4758C. developed as a less expensive replacement for Type 430 in automotive application s such as trim and catalytic converters. 316. are not hardenable by heat tre atment and are predominantly austenitic. The most common ferri tic grade is Type 430.10% carbon. Type 446 is widely used for furnace parts such as muf es. The applications of Types 304 are wide and varied. 409. and 442. but do not have the corrosion resistance of the 12% chromium grades. The most widely used austenitic stainless steel is Type 304. and oil-. commonly known as 1 8–8. containing 0. paper. They include Types 301. The L refers to 0. or C. all or part of the nickel is replaced by manganese and nitrogen in p roper amounts. has become the principal alloy in this area. 439. In some austenitic stainl ess steels. valves.

8. 310. Heat-Resisting Steels. although Types 347 and 310 may show lower creep rates in certain ranges. its drawing properties are not as good as those of Type 302 or 304. and are used in welding applications and high temperature service under corrosive conditions. Accordingly. Where unusual conditions occur. The melting point of iron (1536 8C) is high but not high enough. modi cation of the chemical composition may adapt an existing steel grade to service conditions. and other industries. Numerous steels are available. hydrogenation vessels. For exam ple. are used in such concentrations that the use of corrosionres istant alloys is mandatory. Because of their high chromium and nickel content s. The addition of 2–4% molybdenum to the basic 18–8 composition produces Type s 316 and 317. nickel-based alloys strength ened by compounds such as Ni3Al have been used in single crystal form. Types 321 and 347 have additions of ti tanium and niobium. . sulfurous.Vol. but may still be drawn and formed. Types 309 and 310 can be welded readily and have increasing use in the manufacture of indu strial furnace equipment (see HIGH TIMEPRATURE ALLOYS). acetic. entirely new alloy combinations must be developed to meet service requirements. These are also used in some surgical implants (see B IOMATERIALS. tar stills. if ductility problems can be controlled. The temperatures needed for high performance turbines are s o high that iron base alloys are not contenders. respectively. such as titanium aluminide. 00 STEEL 43 The low nickel content of Type 301 causes it to harden faster than Type 304 on a ccount of reduced austenite stability. these steels resist scaling at temperatures up to 1090 and 11508C and consequ ently are used for furnace parts and heat exchangers. AND BIOMEDICAL DEVICES). and can be used to withstand severe corrosive conditions in the paper. paper. however. because of its l ower carbon content. The next generation seems likely to be based on intermetallic compounds. PROSTHETICS. In some cases. and chemical industries where strong sulfates. gas turbines. and reducing acids such as sulfuric. chemical. For applications requiri ng better machinability. The term high temperature se rvice covers many types of operations in many industries. chlorid es. and hydrochloric acids. Type 303 containing sulfur or selenium may be used. The austenitic stainl ess steels most resistant to oxidation are Types 309. For several years. Steels are constantly under development to meet thes e requirements (52). cracki ng stills. requiring metals of great high temperature strength for both power units and structures. Conventional high temp erature equipment includes steam (qv) boilers and turbines. and phosphates. and ttings for diesel and other internal-combustion engines. Type 304L may be used as an alte rnative for Types 321 and 347 in welding (qv) and stress-relieving applications < 4268C. heat-treating furnaces. Types 316 and 317 have the hi ghest creep-rupture strengths of any commercial stainless steels. TiAl. They are somewhat harder a nd not as ductile as the 18–8 types. These grades are employ ed in the textile. and 314 where the hig her Si contributes signi cantly. but it can be cold-rolled to very high strength. although Type 301 can be dra wn successfully. 15. which have improved corrosion resistance. the aircraft and missile industries have encountered design problems of inc reased complexity. Type 301. The austenitic stainless steels are w idely used for high temperature services. High Temperature Service. is not as prone as Type 304 to give carbide precipitation p roblems in welding.

The metal is expected to behave essentially in an elastic manner. At high temperature. For many steels. A structure designed according to the principles employed for room temperature se rvice continues to deform with time after load application. Low alloy steels containing small amounts of chromium and molybdenum have higher creep strengths than carbon steel and are employed where materials of somewhat higher strength are needed. Their oxidation resistanc e is considered adequate up to $8158C. and/or toughness. Early efforts in this area cam e from making stainless steels of very low carbon.000–290. its price allows it to be widely used in such applications up to 5408C.500 psi). Mi scellaneous High Strength Steels. by using an unstable austenit e (Ms above room temperature) so a body-centered phase can exist in large amount s after cooling. duc tility. the amount of chromium required to impart oxidation resistance inc reases rapidly. or 27% chromium. T he design of load-bearing structures for service at room temperature is generall y based on the yield strength or for some applications on the tensile strength. One of the earliest materia ls for ultrahigh strength was piano wire. In spite of the fact that plain carbon steel has l ower resistance to creep than high temperature alloy steels.44 STEEL Vol. When the load is removed. For service between 815 and 10908C. steel s containing 25% chromium and 20% nickel. where rapid oxidation comme nces and a chromium-bearing steel must be employed.000 psi) by melting and adding enough silicon so that the tempering temperature can be raised to give adequate ductility. After dissolving the precipitable elements. the material can be cooled without quenching to am bient temperature and subsequently aged $5008C to form the hardening compound in . and only the simplest design c onsiderations have been mentioned herein (see HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS). Al.9. it is possible to achiev e such strength (see HIGH PRESSURE TECHNOLOGY) (53). Nb. eg. Mo. the structure retur ns to its original dimensions. A different way of reaching high strengths is to use alternat ive precipitates to cementite and alloy carbides. for instance.000–246. for aircraft landing gear. any form of carbon as a contributor to strength needs great care. whereas 10–14% chromium steels may be employed up to $700–7608C. Above $5408C.40% carbon alloy steel to give a usable yield in the range of 1800–2000 MPa (261. The 2% chromium steels containing molybdenum are useful up to $6 208C. even though the desi gn data may have been based on tension tests at the temperature of interest. Strengths above 1400– 1700 MPa (203. where weight is critical and high cos ts are acceptable. heavily cold-drawn ne pearlite where th e strength can be > 3500 MPa (507. Thi s deformation with time is called creep: the design stresses at which it can be important are relatively low. The behavio r of steels at high temperature is quite complex. in austenite at $10008C. It is possible to quench and temp er a 0. is the structu re undergoes an elastic deformation immediately upon load application and no fur ther deformation occurs with time. the austenitic 18–8 steels are commonly used. 00 A number of steels suitable for high temperature service are given in Table 5. This process has been used . For specialized uses however. 15.500 ps i) are not often used or required in steels because of dif culties in joining. are used. the behavior is different. and Cu. Above this te mperature.

to medium-size intermittent-duty transformers.00% but more recently 6% Si) are used in power transformers and hig h ef ciency motors. molybdenum. which at one time was . are used in the highest ef ciency distribution and power transformers and in large tu rbine generators.75–5. alt hough this can be reduced when necessary to optimize other properties in these p recipitation hardening (PH) steels. An important item in this array of materials is the class known as maraging steels. most countries have an active steel industry. and still more recently a series of 12% nickel steels containing chromium and m olybdenum came on the market.5–5% silicon are produced in sheet form f or the laminated magnetic cores of electrical equipment and are referred to as e lectrical sheets (54). and high silicon steels. Silicon Steel Electrical Sheets. Similarly. reactors.000–200. 000–300.000 psi) can be developed by adj usting its composition. As a result. the raw material for many industries. High silicon steels (histo rically 3. and transformers.5% aluminum and titanium. 15. Late r an 18% nickel steel containing cobalt. The grain-oriented steels.5% Si) are used i n motors and generators of average to high ef ciency and in small.10. high electrical resis tance.Vol. containing $3. Selected silicon steels are characterized by relatively high permeability. The rst iron–nickel martensitic alloys c ontained $0. 16. Intermediate silicon steels (2. The nonorien ted steels are subdivided into low.25% silicon.5–3. and low hysteresis loss when used in magnetic circuits. and in communications equipment. Steels containing 0. By adjusting the content of cobalt. generators. strong. molybdenum.5–2. and small in termittent-duty transformers.000 psi) after the aging treatment. Economic Aspects The production of steel is of great importance in most countries because modern civilization depends heavily on steel. yield strengths of 12% nick el steel in the range of 1035–1380 MPa (150. 20 or 25% nickel. relays. used mainly in rotors and stators of motors and gener ators. First patented in the United Kingdom 1900.5% silicon. Steels containing $1% silicon are used for reactors. intermediate. They are processed in a proprietary way and have directional p roperties related to a preferred orientation of the large crystals. 00 STEEL 45 the bcc phase. Yield strengths up to 1590 MPa (230. and tough when subjected to an aging treatment at $4808C.550 psi) can be obtained. and motors. these silicon steels permitted the development of more powerful electrical equipment and have furthered the rapid growth of the electr ical power industry. The rs t contain $0. Carbonfree iron–nickel martensite with certain alloying e lements is relatively soft and ductile and becomes hard.01% carbon. an d titanium. the 18% nickel steel can attain yield strengths of 1380–2070 MPa (200. and titanium was developed. and 1. This group of high nickel martensitic st eels contain so little carbon that they are often referred to as carbon-free iro n–nickel martensites (54).5–1.

How long this will continue is speculative. is shown in Table 6. imports reached 26% of consumption. and cash ow is an important consideration in a capital intensive operati on. Japan.46 STEEL Vol. Since almost all countries had the capacity to produce more steel than they c onsumed. but on the whole the ste el industry has not lost a principal market since beverage cans were lost to alu minum in the 1970s. has sent prices much higher. United States. which along with currency variations led to a grea t deal of political in ghting. overcapacity was $25% and pric es became at at best. 16. mergers in Europe make individual countries inapprop riate. is playing an increasingly important role as demands for longer life become an i ssue (Fig. bankruptcies and mer gers worldwide. The amount melted in electric furnaces in 2003 i s at least 50% and is still increasing. World growth in the latter part of th e twentieth century was small although the last few years have seen a 15þ% increas e (almost entirely from China).3. largely continuously cast. 16. China and South Korea had grown enormously in capacity. however.000 t/ year. The redistribution of individual producers has b een very signi cant as dif cult economic times led to closures. China continues to expand hugely with a reported target of 300þ MM tons/year. China.and co ld-rolled. The leading producers in 1979 were the U SSR. Germany. Prices. even doubling in some cases. etc. 00 heavily subsidized but as of this writing is becoming somewhat more privatized. Under these conditions. The United States can export a few million tons per year at a pro t. and Japan have at best s lightly increased capacity. 27) (56). Coated material. On a basis depreciated for in ation they mostly dropped and a huge restructuring of the industry took place. At one point in the mid-1980s. The production amounts of var ious products in the United States are shown in Table 7. 16. Around 1980.1. United States production is now $100. Production. by 1995. The United States. Much tonnage of carbon steel was available in the mid-1990s at $0. Products. the United States in its own market is very often the low cost producer following massive cost reduction in the 1980s. The challenge from competitive materials intensi ed. over 90% of which is continuously cast. modest price increases began to st ick. not very different from the 1979 price and of much better qualit y. no tably scrap.15–$0. dominates at $60% of production. The world trade in steel was frequently a source of hard currency where the Unit ed States was the main contributor.000. and the USSR (now CIS) has dropped signi cantly. World production of raw steel. barely. both hot. there was a great deal of concern with ‘‘unfair’’ trade (selling price less than pro duction price). Sheet. Plants closed worldwide and capa city slowly came into better alignment with demand by $1990. As noted earlier a tightness of basic materials. Trade is much more at market prices that re ec t the real cost of production. Through the 1970s the world price of steel continu ed to increase with in ation.30/#. mostly galvanized.2. and. imports were averaging 20% and included some semi nished . tariffs. As of the last few years. By 2000. Quality and custome r service improved dramatically and. Dominant customers remain the automotive and construction i ndustries. Countries such as India an d those in the Paci c rim and Latin America have become increasingly important ste el producers as they build infrastructure.

and many moving objects. J. Health Hazards. 22. Associatio n of Iron and Steel Engineers. Pa... state. the potential for accidents is always present. pp. but many do not. Shaping and Treating of Steel. increasingly stringent environmental regulations have been imposed by loca l. 765–832.. 552–625. 17. ‘‘Steel’’ in EC T (online). Networking be tween companies in the safety area. although in the United States th e rate in the steel industry compares favorably with heavy industry as a whole. Accidents do occur.. 12. Vol. An 11th ed.Vol. Carroll. Accidents. Some other nations have largely equivalent regulations..S. Even though c onstant vigilance and training are essential. 18.) in 2003 by the Association for Iron and Steel Technology AI STAIME (a merger of the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers and the Iron and . In an industry that has massive equipment. eg. Since the early 1 980s.. air c onditioning of control stations. was published in CD form (6 vols. noise. etc. by R. Pittsburgh. Vol. J. but have been sharply reduced by industrywide efforts. Vol. 00 STEEL 47 slabs nished in the United States because of insuf cient domestic capacity for cast slabs to make sheet. Safety is taken seriously and is the direct responsibility o f the plant superintendent. which can give them a comp etitive advantage. There have been many arguments as to the cost-effective nature of some of these. Republic Steel Corp.. 2000. There are many sources of industrial hygiene (qv) and occu pational health hazards. and soundproof enclosures. by H.2. and federal government in the United States (57). eg. which makes a further contribution to overal l safety. United States Steel C orp. 17. United States Steel Corp. in ECT 3rd ed. 21. posting date: December 4. Others are long-term. ear protection.. the hazards are contained effectiv ely when sensors monitoring potential dangers are employed along with good work practices and engineering controls such as radiation shields. United States Steel Corp. 1985. masks. is excellent in the United States. Health and Safety Factors The hazards and environmental problems associated with steelmaking are many and varied. CITED PUBLICATIONS 1. 10th ed. radiant heat. BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘‘Steel’’ in ECT 1st ed. pp. is routine and rigorously enforced. eye shields. muf ers. U. by R. The use of protective clothing. in EC T 2nd ed... The situation remains uid. h igh temperature operations. King. pp. by W. Vol. the acid fumes from pickling baths or (less and less as ovens are shut down) the possible leakage of organic vapors and certain tiny solid particles from coke ovens. pp. and exposure to local concentrations of noxious gases such as carbon monoxide near blast furn aces. ventilation. Carnegie Mellon University. McGannon. E. 793–843. Making. Steel Corp. King. in EC T 4th ed. Harry Paxton. 17.1. Some are direct. 715–805.

Warrendale. K. Fundamentals of Steelm aking Metallurgy. Chapt. 1995. M. 414–427. Ref. Sellars and G. Pa. Flat Rol ling. Macmillan. Conference Proceedi ngs. Crane. Iron and Steel Society. pp. R. 1964. Canadian Institute of Mining. Near Net Shape Casting in Minimills. Metals Society. Que bec. D. C. Technical data from the Proceedings of various Iron and Steel Society Electric Furnace Conferences to 2 003. Ref. Ontario. eds. 19. Montreal. www . Lee (to Air Liquide). 20. J. Savard and R. Pa. G. 1990.450. A. Iron and Steel Society. Fruehan. U. 17. 1989. AIME.K. Campbell and co-workers Proceedings of the 4th European cont inuous Casting Conference (2002) IOM Communications. R. F. Fruehan. 1. 1. Vol.aistech. 718 (1968). Pa. 8. Warrendale. New York.. Grange. 21. Boom. 299. Fr. 1985. ‘‘Ultra-Re ning for Special ty Steels. 6. R. pp.. Institute for Iron and Ste el R. 13. 16. Warrendale. Syracuse University Press. McMaster University.J.. 1993. London.K.. ed. J. 00 2. Basic Open-Hearth Steelmaking. J. ISS Continuous Casting Series. A History of Metallurgy. Warrendale. Iron and Steel Society. Iron & Steel Society. 55. Steel Society of AIME).718 (Ju ly 18. B. U.C. Montreal. New York. 18. . Pa. 3r d ed. 24. 12. A.. Mechanical Working of Metals. 30. Metallurgy an d Petroleum. BOF Steelmaking. and Scales in Steel Plants. 1966). Warrendale. Deo and R. Enhancement of EAF Performance by Injection Technology. Warrendale... Metals Society.. 1979. 11. 14. Technical data from the proceedings of various Iron & Steel Society Annual Steelmaking Conferences. Iro n and Steel Society. Canada. London. 1.. Including Speci cations for Steel Scrap. Link. 5. (a) P. 1992. 1975. 10. 1994. 26. A. Development in Ladle Steelmaking and Continuou s Casting. Davies. Iron Steel Eng. R. Handbook.48 STEEL Vol.. W. Syracuse. Hamilton. Canada. 36 (19 85).’’ Proceedings from the 11th Iron and Steel Society Process Technology Con ference. 1964. 3. 7. Iron & Steel Society. Metals Society. 15. Vacuum Degassing. Ontario. 29 (July 1978). 23. 25. Tylecote. 1988. Tech. Forschu ng 47. J. 1993. Vol. 1962. Some may be published in hard copy. 29. 27. N. Quebec. Warrendale . F. Pa. Brotzmann. McMaster University. New York. Fundamentals of Deformation Processing. 9. Iro n and Steel Society. N. Warrendale. Iron & Steel Society.. Conference Proceedin gs. 1. Proceedings from the 13th ISS Process Technology Conference. 1990. Pehlke and co-workers. R. 28. p. Proceedings from the Iron and Steel Society Vacuum Metallurgy Conference. Pa. 4. 1995.. 2. K. H ot Rolling of Metals.. Pneumatic Steelmaking. Fruehan. 1. Marcel Dekker. Hamilton. U. 1976. 1983–1995.. Washington. 1983. Canada. Metallurgy and Petroleum. 1979. 22. D. 1993. London. Pa.. Vols. Iron Steelmaker 12(5). Pa. Sludges. to 2003. L. Pat.. 882–890. Roberts.. Canadian Institute of Mining. 1–7.. Ladle Metallurgy Principles and Practices. L. G. Warrendale. Derge. Kotraba. eds. Prentice Hall. For information. J. Canada. Hot Working and Forming Processes. Pretreatment and Reclamation of Dusts. W. Pa. 1980.

Microalloying’75. Petch. 199 2. Handbook of Stainless Steels. Pa. W.K. ASM International. Re f. Ref. New York. ASM International M aterials Park. 950–1006. 1977 p.Vol. D. 46. Ohio. 1993. HSLA St eels. N. publishes probably the most complete current technical materials . Fabrication and Properties. U. 1978. M. 1961. 48.. TMS-AIME. Warrendale. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Kirkaldy.. 53. 34. Bernstein. 1980. 1972. 42.. Mass. Ohio. American Iron and Steel Institute. TMS-AIME. (45). p. Addison Wesley. 40. 56.. 37. 43. 793–800. Ohio. F. S. 10th ed. 843.. 35. W. Wa rrendale. 41.. 32. Atkins. E. 140–239. G.. Doane and J. R. Leslie. Wa shington. 38. ASTM. 1991. Prog. Warrendale.. Fundamentals of Dual-Phase Steels. 57. 55.. Canad a. ASM International. Proceedings from the ISS Gilbert R. Inc. Materials Park. A. Ref. International Symposium on Microstructure and Properties of Microal loyed and Other Modern HSLA Steels. 51. Iron & Steel Society. Metals Park. Paxton. 1983 . Iron & Steel Society. 47. Union Carbide.. 39. Peckner and I. (45). B.. Inc. 1981. 1990 pp. 1–6. 52. Technical data from proceedings of various ISS Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Annual Conferences. 00 STEEL 49 31. British Steel Corp. Pa. D. Pickering. 44. D. 1979. Reading. Warrendale. 54. McGraw-H ill Book Co. C. V.. 391–398. Proceedings from International Galvatech Conference. 33. ASM International. Pa. Montreal. C. 9. 49. 45. 1992. Atlas of Continuous Cooling Transformations for Engineering Stee ls. Ohio. GENERAL REFERENCES The former Iron and Steel Society (ISS-AIME)—now AIST-AIME as noted above—based in W arrendale. pp. Bain and H. D. Ohio. Ref. Pa. Philadelphia. Warrendale. 5. Kot and B. 1.C. 1977. J. 1995. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. Alloying Elements in Steel. Vols. Speich Symposium.. Shef eld. pp. ASM International. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. Pa. (45).. Iron & Steel Socie ty. 1988 p. Pa. pp. Bram tt. Har denability Concepts with Applications to Steel. Metal Phys. Quebec. B. pp.. Materials P ark. Materials Park. Iron and Steel Society. (45). Pa. Pa. Steel Products Manual: Strip Steel. 1981. 1978. Ref. 1978. The Metall urgical Evolution of Stainless Steels. Proceedings from 12th ISS Process Technology Conference. Cullity. Vol. Materials Park. 841–949. M. Alloying.. IF Steel Sheet. Warrendale. ASM International. Metals Handbook. 225. L. Canadian Institute of Mining. Processing. 36. 45. 50. Technology and Applications. Krauss. 1 (1954). The Physical Metallurgy of Stee ls. Ohio. Principles of the Heat Treatment of Steel. Metallurgy and Petroleum.

For a general discussion of the scie nti c basis of steel and (2) The E.aistech. Turkdogan Symposium. 1994.50 STEEL Vol. and Petroleum are listed at this source. Metallurgy. two useful volumes published by ISS are (1) The John Elliott Symposium. Much is available on micro lm through ISS or directly from the University of Michigan. Th e ISS Transactions were published annually. HARRY PAXTON Carnegie Mellon University . 00 on the steel industry. 1990. All references from ISS-AIME and Canadian I nstitute of Mining. A listing can be obtained directly from their publication s of ce or at http:// www. T.

Schematic arrangement of a furnace in a vacuum chamber equipped with cha rging and mold locks for vacuum induction melting (1): (a) front cross section. 00 STEEL 51 Fig. Fig. and (b) section A during pouring. .Vol. Eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) electric furnace. 2. Courtesy of Mannesmann. 1.

Sketch of a basic-oxygen steelmaking furnace.52 STEEL Vol. 3. where an oxygen lance is i nserted through the mouth of the furnace (1). Fig. 00 Fig. Schematic representation of the principle of design and operation of a c onsumbleelectrode furnace for melting steels in a vacuum (1). . 4.

00 STEEL 53 Fig. (ÁÁÁÁÁ) to C. (ÀÀÀ) to P. the values for sulfur are onehundredth those indicated.—) to S. (—–—) to Mn. and (—. where (—) corre sponds to Si. 5.Vol. Progress of re ning in the basic-oxygen steelmaking process. . Liquid blast-furnace iron (hot metal) being charged into a 200-metric to n Q-BOP furnace in preparation for making a heat of steel. 6. The values for phospho th those indicated on the ordinate. Fig. The time elapsed is $20 min in most cases.

Steel ladle: (a) vertical section through the trunnions. 7. 00 Fig. . and (b) side vi ew. Fig.54 STEEL Vol. Tuyere for bottom-blown basic-oxygen process (13. 8.14).

9. 00 STEEL 55 Fig. .Vol. Schematic diagram of the RH degasser.

Fig. D a curved mold with straightening. The tundish is an increasingly important buffer between the ladle and the mold. circles represent rolls.56 STEEL Vol. 10. B a ve rtical mold with bending. C a vertical mold with progressive bending. Development of casting machines where S is the end of the supported len gth and C the cutoff zone. 11. 00 Fig. Schematic representation of the process of cooling of steel (m ) during continuous casting. and E a curved mold with progressive straightening (1) . . A is a vertical mold.

12. The solidifying steel blooms move do wnward and then toward the camera. The liquid steel is poured i nto molds (not shown) at top of photograph. In the foreground. the blooms are cut to the proper length. Continuous casting of square steel blooms. 00 STEEL 57 Fig.Vol. .

13. 14. (b) curve m old and submerged entry nozzle. Schematic of the Castrip twin-roll sheet caster at the Crawfordsville. Courtesy of the Iron & Steel Society. (a) The bottom-pressure casting method as applied to slabs. 00 Fig. . Fig. IN plant of Nucor Steel (25a). and (c) portion of Arvedi caster for in-line str ip production (ISP).58 STEEL Vol.

15. Iron–iron carbide phase diagram (1).or d-iron in bcc form. Fig.Vol. 16. Each white sphere re presents an atom of (a) a. 00 STEEL 59 Fig. See text. Crystalline structure of allotropic forms of iron. . and (b) g-iron in fcc form (1) .

C is 0.29%.60 STEEL Vol. 17. Ae1 is A1 temperature at equilibrium. Brinell hardness number. . 0. 00 Fig. Rc. Photomicrographs originally Â2500. Rockwell hardness scale C. BHN.89%. Isothermal transformation (IT) diagram for a plain carbon eutectoid ste el (1). Mn. grain s ize is ASTM 4–6. austenitized at 8858C.

18. Ae1 is lower critical temperature at equilibrium. with superimposed cooling curves illustrating the manner in which transformation behavior during continuous cooling governs nal microstructure (1). Continuous-cooling transformation diagram for a Type 4340 alloy steel. 00 STEEL 61 Fig. Ae3 is critic al temperature at equilibrium. .Vol.

To convert MPa to psi.50% carbon. 0. . 19. Fully heat-treated miscellaneous analyses.30–0. Properties of tempered martensite (1).62 STEEL Vol. multiply by 145. low alloy steels. 00 Fig.

The prod uct is tempered martensite. 00 STEEL 63 Fig. Fig. 21. The product is tempered marten site. Transformation diagram for quenching and tempering martensite. 20.Vol. Transformation diagram for martempering. .

23. Transformation diagram for full annealing. Transformation diagram for austempering. The product is ferrite and pearlite. Fig.64 STEEL Vol. The product is bainite. 00 Fig. 22. .

Vol. 00 STEEL 65 Fig. 24. Transformation diagram for isothermal annealing. The product is ferrite and pearlite.

66 STEEL Vol. 00 Fig. 25. Variations in average mechanical properties of as-rolled 2.5-cm bars of plain carbon steels, as a function of carbon content (1).

Vol. 00 STEEL 67 Fig. 26. Increase of tensile strength of plain carbon steel with increased cold work ing, where ( ) represents 0.05–0.30 wt % carbon; (& ) 0.30–0.60 wt %; and ( ) 0. 60– 1.00 wt %.

where (À À represents barsÀ À) r einforcing. 27. (À XÀ tinplate. 00 Fig.68 STEEL Vol. (À &À sheet-hot-rolled. and (À 4À À À) À À) À À) À À) sheet . (À ÃÀ plate. (À ÅÀ hot-rolled and cold. (À NÀ sheet-coldÀ À) À structural shapes. United States shipments of steel mill products.nished bars.

Vol. Trends in Heat-Treated Products Property hardenability toughness distor tion quench cracking internal stress machinability rough nish ne nish Coarse-graine d austenite Quenched and tempered products increasing decreasing more more highe r Annealed or normalized products better inferior STEEL 69 Fine-grained austenite decreasing increasing less less lower inferior better . 00 Table 1.

30 0. H Values Designating Severity of Quench for Commonly Used Cooling Condi tionsa Quenching medium Degree of medium agitation none mild moderate good stron g violent a Oil 0.2 5.50–0.70 STEEL Vol.5 1. .50 0.0 Brine 2 2.35 0.0 H Values are proportional to the heat-extracting capacity of the medium.1 1.35–0.0–2.0–1.3 1.40 0.4–1.0 1.80 0.80–1.30–0.40–0.25–0. 00 Table 2.2–1.6–2.1 Water 0.0 4.9–1.

50% Cr–0.55% Ni–0.20% Mo 3.Vol. The list is simpli ed to show typ ical compositions.50% Cr 1.50% Ni–1.80% Ni–0.75% Mn 3.05% Ni–0.25% Mo 0.00% Ni 1. For ranges.80% Cr–0.20% Cr–0.25 Ni–1.00% Si 3.25% Mo 0.45% Cr–0.25% Ni–0.25% Mo Series designationb 47xx 48xx 50xx 51xx 5xxxx 61xx 86xx 87xx 92xx 93xx 98xx Types 1. Standard Numerical AISI–SAEa Series designationb 10xx 11xx 12xx 13xx 23xx 25xx 31xx 33xx 40xx 41xx 43xx 46xx a STEEL 71 Types nonresulfurized carbon steel grades resulfurized carbon steel grades repho sphorized and resulfurized carbon steel grades 1.12% Mo 1.5% nickel and 0.20% Mo 1.25% Mo 0. a nickel ste el containing $3. 2xxx a nickel st eel.85% Mn–2. In the case of alloy steels. 95% Cr–0.80% Ni–0.65% Cr 3.25% Mo 1. Usually.15% V 0.55% Cr 0. . and 3xxx a nickel–chromium steel.55% Ni–0.45% Cr 0.50% Ni–0. 00 Table 3.65% Cr–0. the second gure generally indicates the approximate percentage of the principal alloying elemen t.20% Mo 0.00% Ni–0. Thus.25% Mo The AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) speci cations are essentially the same.80% Cr–0. b The rst gure indicates the c lass to which the steel belongs.95% Cr–0. see original tables.50% Ni 5.05% Cr 1.00% C–1. the last two or three gures (represented in the table by x) indicate the average carbon content in points or hundredths of 1 wt %.30% carbon would be designated as 2330. 1xxx indicates a carbon steel.

0 18.045 0.20 0. 0.0 8.045 0.00 1.03 0.045 0.25 0.75–2.03 0.Table 4.0–20.40 N 0.00 2.00 1.0–3.0–22.5–5.08 Mn 5.08 0 .0 Mo 2.0–4.0 10.00 2.0–14.00 2.0–14.00 2.0–26.03 0.03 0.03 0.0 18.0 19.16 N 72 2.0–10.0 Ni 3.045 0.00 1.00 2.0 18.0 1.0 17.0–3.0 8.0–1.0–19.10–0.15c Se 0.045 S 0.0 10.0 10.0 16.0–15.06 0.00 8.0 0 16.0–19. 0 17.0–18.5 Mo 2.08 0.00 1.0 16.0 8.15 0.75 6 0–10.0 18.0 8.20 0.0 1.03 0.0–14.0–6.0 P 0.00 1.0 12.00 2.0–10.08 0.0 Mo.12–0.0 18.03 0.2 0 0.0–10.0–12.045 0.00 2.0 16.00 2.00 2.5 7.00 2.20 0.08 0.6 Mod 0.00 Si 1.16 .15 0.00 2.03 0.5–7.00 2.00 2.03 0.00 1.00 2.0–4.03 0.0 16.0–21.16 N 3.0 17.045 0.00 2.0–19.00 1.04–0.0 16.0–20.5–18.25 N 0.0–19.045 0.00 2.0 10.045 0.00 1.0–14.0 24.0–20.045 0.08 0.0–3.03 0.0 Mo 1.03 0.0–12.25 0.0–3.32–0.045 0.03 0.00 1.10 0.03 0.08 0.12 0.0 19.0–18.0–3.0 18.00 2.5 8.15 0.03 0.00 1.0–19.0–12.03 0.045 0.00 1.0–22.03 0.0 11.0 17.5 1 .0–20.0 17.00 1.5 4.08 0.03 0.15 0.0–15.0–10.15 0.0 0 17.00 1.0 19.0 Mo 3.15 0.0 Mo .0–10.045 0.0–18.0–19.03 0.0 17.00 2.0–18.00 8.045 0.00 1.10–0.045 0.0–3. 0.03 0.0 24.00 Cr Austenitic 16.0 22.0 23.0–19.00 1.045 0.0–26.0–20.0 11.00 1.0 8.00 1.00 1.00 1.03 0.045 0.045 0.5 2.0–15.00 2.045 0.0–18.0 17.25 N 0.0–24.03 0. wt %b Type 201 202 205 301 302 302B 303 303Se 304 304H 304L 304LN 302Cu 304N 305 308 309 309S 3 10 310S 314 316 316F 316H 316L 316LN 316N 317 317L 321 UNS designation S20100 S2 0200 S20500 S30100 S30200 S30215 S30300 S30323 S30400 S30409 S30403 S30453 S3043 0 S30451 S30500 S30800 S30900 S30908 S31000 S31008 S31400 S31600 S31620 S31609 S 31603 S31653 S31651 S31700 S31703 S32100 C 0.03 Other 0.00 2.15 0.045 0.08 0.00 2.00 1.045 0.0–10. Compositions of Standard Stainless Steelsa Composition.5–3.0–18.045 0.0 16.03 0.0 19.06 0.03 0. .0–10.03 0.10 0.0–19.03 0.00 2.15c 0.0 14.03 0.5 8.00 2.00 2.0 10.0–20.0–14.08 0.5–10.0–18.0 1.03 0.25 0.00 2.0–26.08 0.045 0.00 1.0 12.0 9.0–22.03 0.0 Cu 0.16 N 2.00 1.06 0.0–12.00 2.10–0.0–15.10–0.50 1.03 0.50 1.00 1.0–15.0 Mo.06 0.0–24.03 0.10c 0.04–0.0 Mo 2.00 1.00 2.0 22.045 0.

045 0.00 1.00 Duplex (ferritic–austenitic) 0.04 0.0–13.00 1.00 17.0–14.00 1.045 0.00 1.5 1.5–13.00 1.50 Mo.00 1.6 Mo 0.04 0.00 1.0–17.60–0.00 1.15 min 0.03 0.15 0.75–1. .0 16.20–0.25 Mo.00 1.03 1.0–19.06 0.0 16.25–2.06 0.0 Nb 0.25 W.03 0.00–2.04 0.25 Mo.00 2.00 12.0–20.0 34.0–19.5 1.04 0.00 12.045 0.03 0.0 1.75 1.00 2.045 0.5 0.75 Mo .0 16.03 5 Â %C Tic 10 Â %C Nbc –1.00 1.20 0.08 0.2 Co.03 0.10 0.0 17.10 0. 0. 00 1.045 0.04–0.04 0.20 2.0 15.00 0.12 0.08 0.75–1.50 1.15 0.00 1.0–18.0–19. 0 .0–12.5–19.20 0.0–23.0–13.03 0.0 16. –1.00 Martensitic 0.025 N.0–18.0 Nb.25 N 0.025 0.00 15.15 0.15 0.50–5.08 0.10 Ta 0.0 17.0–18.75–1.00 1.03 0.00 1.75 23.2 Co.50 11.15 0.10 Ta 0.08 0.0 9.03 0.0 2.07 0.0 17.15 Al.15 Se 0.12 0 .03 0.04–0.0 1.0 17.03 0.04 0.04 0.30 Al –0 75 Ti 0.0–17.50 1.0 9.04 0.0–18.0 9.6 Mo 0.15 0.8 () 0.25 1.06 0.0 17.0–13.00 2.00 1.00 73 329 403 410 414 416 416Se 420 420F 422 431 440A S32900 S40300 S41000 S41400 S41600 S41623 S42000 S42020 S42200 S43100 S44002 0.00 1.04 0.04 0.06 0.00 1.04 0.00 1.06 0.00 11.00 1.0–19. 0.0–37.5–14.75–1.321H 330 347 347H 348 348H 384 405 409 429 430 430F 430FSe 434 436 439 442 444 4 46 S32109 N08330 S34700 S34709 S34800 S34809 S38400 S40500 S40900 S42900 S43000 S43 020 S43023 S43400 S43600 S43035 S44200 S44400 S44600 0.0 18.0 0.15–0.00 1.0 17.00 1.04–0.70 Nb 0.25–2.00 Mo 0.10 0.0 16.08 0.25 1.12 0.0 Ferritic 11.0 16.00 1.0–19.25 Mo 0.03 0. 0.03 0.6 Mo 0.0 1.25 1.5–13.04 0.06 0.50 0.03 0.00 1.5–1.12 0.03 0.00 11 .75 11.03 0.00 1.0–14.0–14.00 1.03 0.0 4 0.5 1.0 17.0 9.5–13.03 0.5 10 5 14.75– 1.5 0 9.03 0.00 2.10–0.15 0.15 0.0–13.0 17.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 12.04 0.12 0.08 0. Nb. –0.04 0.04 0.0–19.3 V 0.0–18.50 0. 0.04 0.25 0.00 1.0–19.0–14.0–16.00 1. –0.12 0.045 0. –1.20 0.00 1.75–2.15 Se 0.00 1.5–13.03 0.03 0.0 1.045 0.15 min 0.00 1.04 0.25 1.00 1.00 1.0–18.0 1.03 0.00 2.00 12.0–28.06 0.25 1.0 1.00 1.03 0.10 Ti 1.03 0.045 0.

07 0.15–0.5 Mo.0–18. 0.03 0.01 N 2.5 15.00 1.07 0.5–7.04 0.20 0. c Value is minimum.0 6.00 1.05 0.5 1.Table 4.75 Mo 0.04 0.09 Mn 1.5–5.03 0.03 0.0–15.0–2.20 1. d Optional.00 1.95 0.35 Al.5–4.90–1.75 Mo 2.25–13.0 3.008 0.0 Cu .0–18.01 0.45 Nb 3.04 0. ðContinuedÞ Composition.04 S 0.0–5.0–1 8.0 Ni P 0.10 12.5–17.00 Cr 16.00 Si 1.5 16. 0. 0.45 Nb 0.00 0. 74 .04 Other 0.75–0. wt % Type 440B 440C PH 13-8 Mo 15-5 PH 17-4 PH 177 PH a b UNS designation S44003 S44004 S13800 S15500 S17400 S17700 C 0.00 1.25 7. Courtesy of ASM International.00 14.15–0.00 1.00 1.95–1.03 0.75 Ref.04 0.5 3.0–5.5 Cu. 0. Single values are maximum values unless otherwise indicated.0 16. 51.4 Al Precipitation-hardening 0.75–1.5–8.

5% Mo 1% Cr–0.5% Mo.Vol. with Nb added 5% Cr–0.5% Mo 0. with Ti added 9% Cr–1% Mo a b STEEL 75 Stainless steels 18% Cr–8% Ni 18% Cr–8% Ni with Moa 18% Cr–8% Ni with Tia 18% Cr–8% Ni w ith Nba 25% Cr–12% Nia 25% Cr–20% Nia 12% Crb 17% Crb 27% Crb a AISI type 304 316 321 347 309 310 410 430 446 Austenitic.5% Mo.5% Mo–1.5% Mo–1. 5% Cr–0. .5% Mo 2. Ferritic. Alloy Composition of High Temperature Steels Ferritic steels 0.5% Si Cr–0.5% Si 5% Cr–0.5% Mo 2% Cr–0. 00 Table 5.25% Cr–1% Mo 3% Cr–1% Mo 3% Cr–0.

779 26.870 20.635 1979 3.700 2.900 2.540 4.315 10.500 748.776 9.803 44.802 22.000 153. World Raw-Steel Production.900 4.032 3.707 12.800 19.351 16.949 91.800 1.587 9.115 105.300a 10.000 124.286 73.378 19. .500 16.047 5.128 31.712 11.521 3.600 5. 1000 Metric Tons Country Argentina Australi a Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China CIS and the former USSR Czechoslo vakia France Germany Hungary India Italy Japan North Korea South Korea Luxembour g Mexico Netherlands Poland Romania South Africa Spain Sweden United Kingdom Uni ted States Yugoslavia others Total a b 1969 1.100 14.105 15. 00 Table 6.100 730.500 8.926 12.600 5 3.76 STEEL Vol.300 27.000 112.100 24.500 21.700 83.000 8 .000 73.322 26.690 7.200 4.515 9.900 6.841 1.500 13.487 16.467 4.000 5.700 101.100 13.544 6.166 2.740 110.032 6.261 11.038 574.896 128.400 11.100 6.399 220.000 7.251 5.600 12.100 41.800 10. c Both FRG and GDR.140 Russia and Ukraine.670 15.900 12.000 5.989 31.300 1995 3.700 8.500 23.000 32.100 7.500 5. 456c 3.800c 3.900 13.200 8.625 5.700 22.000 3.900b 18.100 59.557 16.151 2.000 11.510 46.129 5.600 36.360 1.887 11.087 945. Includes Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.900 17.355 2003 5.100 4.400 93.832 4.220 9. 982 5.000 373 5.510 50.500 12.000 15.428 82.925 1.306 2.000 110.237 6.033 7.600 25.

438 4.554 314 2.236 14.257 79 1.186 1.910 7.205 11.523 815 90 19.352 80 2.966 4.402 230 8.773 237 .286 118 833 4.104 4.213 291 43 94 57 523 4.991 12.473 1.334 1.621 61 1. Net Shipments of U.124 2.438 72 1.051 135 51 6 37 1.608 3.982 22 2.275 1.387 384 5.927 4.900 955 215 455 29 2.036 1.355 4.756 45 1.757 655 STEEL 77 1994 192 2.S. 1000 Metric Tonsa Steel products ingots and steel castings blooms.077 4.319 4.958 288 2.316 779 38 23 160 69 226 147 7.031 939 34 176 23 715 9.176 777 65 11.791 976 1.802 18. sheet bars skelp wire rods str uctural shapes (heavy) steel piling plates rails standard (>30 kg/ m) all other joint bars tie plates track spikes wheels (rolled and forged) axles bars hot-rol led (includes light shapes) reinforcing cold nishing tool steel pipe and tubing s tandard oil country goods line mechanical pressure structural stainless wire dra wn nails and staples barbed and twisted woven wire fence bale ties and bailing w ire black plate tin plate tin-free steel all other tin mill products sheets hotrolled cold-rolled sheets and strip galvanized all other metallic coated 1960 30 7 1.249 1.203 4.413 2.898 654 128 7.518 857 91 14.263 157 64 111 83 457 3. 330 984 48 15 186 77 144 175 6.437 1. 949 1.138 7.334 1.086 2.143 272 89 109 1 08 553 5.211 1.317 1.270 4.Vol.009 1. slabs.328 1 1. 00 Table 7.779 887 55 10.175 12.410 314 7.562 6.893 1.082 1. billets.811 13.040 37 150 17 579 2.277 1.764 449 4 120b 2000 140 1.525 5.274 2.562 606 42 24 113 41 221 101 6.249 13.440 692 246 1970 833 4. Steel Products.049 449 7.359 500 1980 404 1.996 396 7.

544 1970 663 1. tie plates. . alloy. and stainless steels.209 1. and axles.623 All grades.358 1980 545 607 844 75.78 STEEL Vol. ðContinuedÞ Steel products electrical strip hot-rolled cold-rolled Total st eel products a b 1960 515 1.045 82. Including joint bars. wheels (rolled and forged). 00 Table 7.203 64. track spikes.786 1994 398 646 887 86.343 109. including carbon.283 2000 528 864 2.173 1.