Introduction Steel, the generic name for a group of ferrous metals composed principally of ir on (qv), is the most useful metallic material known on account of its abundance, durability, versatility, and low cost. In the form of bars, plates, sheets, str uctural shapes, wire pipe and tubing, forgings, and castings, steel is used in t he construction of buildings, bridges, railroads, aircraft, ships, automobiles, tools, cutlery, machinery, furniture, household appliances, and many other artic les on which the convenience, comfort, and safety of society depends. Steel is a lso an essential material for spacecraft and supporting facilities as well as in practically every kind of material needed for national defense (see BUILDING MA TERIALS, SURVEY; TOOL MATERIALS). The durability and versatility of steel are sh own by its wide range of mechanical and physical properties. By the proper choic e of carbon content and alloying elements, and by suitable heat treatment, steel can be made so soft and ductile that it can be cold-drawn into complex shapes s uch as automobile bodies. Conversely, steel can be made extremely hard for wear resistance, or tough enough to withstand enormous loads and shock without deform ing or breaking. In addition, some steels are made to resist heat and corrosion by the atmosphere and by a wide variety of chemicals. About 1 billion metric ton s of raw steel are produced annually throughout the world (2004) with China resp onsible for $25%. Its usefulness is enhanced by the fact that it has historicall y been inexpensive. The price as of early 2004 ranged from 40–50 c/kg for the comm on grades to several dollars per kg for special steels such as certain tool stee ls. Prices, that have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s occasio nally bene t from import restrictions, currency exchange rates, and (at the time o f writing) from sudden increases in the price of items used in manufacturing, no tably scrap that more than doubled in price because of high demand from China. T he uses of steel are too diverse to be listed completely or to serve as a basis of classi cation. Inasmuch as grades of steel are produced by more than one proces s, classi cation by method of manufacture is also not advantageous. The simplest c lassi cation is by chemical composition into the large groups of carbon steels, al loy steels, and stainless steels. Within these groups are many subdivisions base d on speci c chemical composition, physical or mechanical properties, and/or uses. It has been known for many centuries that iron ore, embedded in burning charcoa l, can be reduced to metallic iron (1,2). Iron was made by this method as early as 1200 BC. Consisting almost entirely of pure iron, the rst iron metal closely r esembled modern wrought iron, which is relatively soft, malleable, ductile, and readily hammer-welded when heated to a suf ciently high temperature. This metal wa s used for many purposes, including agricultural implements and various tools. I t is not known when the rst metal resembling modern carbon steel was made intenti onally. It has been speculated that steel was made in India $100 BC. Remains of swords with steel blades have been found in Luristan, a western province of Iran (formerly Persia), at sites dated at $800 BC. 1 Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, In c. All rights reserved.

2 STEEL Vol. 00 Most modern steels contain >98% iron. However, steel also contains carbon, which , if present in suf cient amounts (usually > 0.3% up to $2%), gives a property unm atched by any of the metals available to the ancients. This property is the abil ity to become extremely hard if cooled very quickly (quenched) from a high enoug h temperature, as by immersing it in water or some other liquid. Its hardness an d the ability to take and hold a sharp cutting edge make steel an extremely valu able metal for weapons, tools, cutlery, surgical instruments, razors, and other special forms. It was not until the eighteenth century that carbon was recognize d as a chemical element, and it is quite certain that no early metallurgist was aware of the basis of the unique properties of steel as compared to those of wro ught iron. Carbon can be alloyed with iron in a number of ways to make steel, an d all methods described herein have been used at various times in many localitie s for perhaps 3000 or more years. For example, low carbon wrought-iron bars were packed in air-tight containers together with charcoal or other carbonaceous mat erial. By heating the containers to a red heat and holding them at that temperat ure for several days, the wrought iron absorbed carbon from the charcoal; this m ethod became known as the cementation process. If the iron is made in primitive furnaces, carbon can be absorbed from the charcoal fuel during and after its red uction. The Romans, eg, built and operated furnaces that produced a steel-like m etal instead of wrought iron. In neither of the two foregoing cases did the iron or steel reach suf ciently high temperatures to become molten. In ancient India, a steel called wootz was made by placing very pure iron ore and wood or other ca rbonaceous material in a tightly sealed pot or crucible heated to high temperatu re for a considerable time. Some of the carbon in the crucible reduced the iron ore to metallic iron, which absorbed any excess carbon. The resulting iron–carbon alloy could give an excellent grade of steel. In a similar way, pieces of low ca rbon wrought iron were placed in a pot along with a form of carbon and melted to make a ne steel. In the eighteenth century, a variation of this method, in which bars that had been carburized by the cementation process were melted in a seale d pot to make steel of the best quality, became known as the crucible process. B efore the invention of the Bessemer process for steelmaking in 1856, only the ce mentation and crucible processes were of any industrial importance and of course were available in limited quantities. Although both of the latter processes had been known in the ancient world, their practice seems to have been abandoned in Europe before the Middle Ages. The cementation process was revived in Belgium $ 1600, whereas the crucible process was rediscovered in the British Isles in 1740 . Both processes were practiced in secret for some time after their revival, and little is known of their early history. The cementation process ourished in the United Kingdom during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and continued to b e used to a limited extent into the early part of the twentieth century. At red heat, a low carbon ferrous metal, in contact with carbonaceous material such as charcoal, absorbed carbon that, up to the saturation point of $1.70%, varied in amount according to the time the metal was in contact with the carbon and the te mperature at which the process was conducted. A type of

Vol. 00 STEEL 3 muf e furnace or pot furnace was used and the iron and charcoal were packed in alt ernate layers. In the softer grades (average carbon content $0.50%), the composi tion of the bar was uniform throughout. In the harder grades (average carbon con tent as high as 1.50%), the outside of a bar might have a carbon content of 1.50– 2.00%, whereas the center contained 0.85–1.10%. Steels made by this method were ca lled cement steels. The crucible process gave steels that were not only homogene ous throughout, but were free from occluded slag originating in the wrought iron used to make cement steel. Crucible steel was so superior to cement steel for m any purposes that the crucible process quickly became the leader for the product ion of the nest steels. Its drawback was, however, that each crucible held only $ 50 kg steel. The various steelmaking processes were all eventually supplanted (3 ,4). The rst of the newer techniques was the historic pneumatic or Bessemer proce ss, introduced in 1856. Shortly thereafter, the regenerative-type furnace, known in the 1900s as the open-hearth furnace, was developed in Europe. Adapted to st eelmaking, the open-hearth process was the principal method for producing steel throughout the world until 1970. As of this writing (2004), it is essentially ph ased out. Since 1970, the most widely used processes for making liquid steel hav e been the oxygen steelmaking processes, in which commercially pure oxygen (99.5 % pure) is used to re ne molten pig iron. In the top-blown basic oxygen process, o xygen is blown down onto the surface of the molten pig iron containing such cool ants as scrap steel or iron ore for temperature control. In the bottomblown basi c oxygen process (Q-BOP), the oxygen is blown upward through the molten pig iron . The direction in which the oxygen is blown has important effects on the nal ste el composition and on the amount of iron lost to the slag. Many plants today use a combination of top and bottom blowing. Liquid steel is also made by melting s teel scrap in an electric-arc furnace. This process is now a signi cant contributo r to large-scale production and today makes about 30% of the steel in Japan and at least 50% in the United States. As demand has gone up, the world price of pre mium scrap has increased substantially—maybe 50 to >100% in some cases recently. S ince scrap is a major part of electric melting costs, this is now a major criter ion and leads to price surcharges. Pig iron (with more predictable costs), and i ron and steel scrap are the sources of iron for steelmaking in basic-oxygen furn aces. Electric furnaces historically relied on iron and steel scrap, although ne wer iron sources such as direct-reduced iron (DRI), iron carbide, and even pig i ron are becoming both desirable and available (see IRON). In basic-oxygen furnac es, the pig iron is used in the molten state as obtained from the blast furnace; in this form, it is referred to as hot metal. Pig iron consists of iron combine d with numerous other elements. Depending on the composition of the raw material s used in the blast furnace, principally iron ore (bene ciated or otherwise), coke , and limestone, and the manner in which the furnace is operated, pig iron may c ontain 3.0–4.5% carbon,

15–2. as much as 0. and suf cient heat must be supplied to keep the bath molt en. and 0. induction furnace. consumable-electrode melting. it may be necessary to water-cool these linings. which is usually steel scrap and/or DR I. The increase in oxygen potential in the iron bath may be tho ught of most simply as burning out impurities either as a gas (eg. 2. are able to absorb much of the unwante d sulfur and phosphorus. reduced signi cantly by treating the hot metal between the blast furnace and the steelmaking vessel.025–2. ie. As the puri c ation of the pig iron proceeds. The impurities. unless the patterns of inclusions (oxides. owing to the removal of carbon. In general. Carbonization of iron ore to make iron carbide as an alternative sour ce of iron units is in its infancy and has been slow to develop. S ulfur. The starting material used for the last two processes closely resembles the d esired steel ingot subsequently rolled or forged. During the steelmaking process. silicates. no matter by which process th ey are made. and electroslag remelting. and sul des) ar e very different when toughness and large plastic deformations can be affected.8%. MnO. . phosphorus. the melting poin t of the bath is raised. or scrap alone .15% with modern techniques and is almost always < 0. and yields very high quality s teel for applications with extremely strict requirements. in the rst two processes steel is made that is different in composit ion and shape from the starting material. 00 0.5% phosphorus. and also do not react so vigorously with the furnace li nings. which are predominantly magnesite or dolomite. or SiO2) which dissolves in the slag. Steelmaking processes were historically either acid (silica rich refrac tory linings) or basic (calcium or magnesium rich). Each steelmaking process has been devised primarily to provide som e means by which controlled amounts of oxygen can be supplied to the molten meta l undergoing re ning. In electric melting. Basic slags. generally referred to as direct-reduction process es. T he main raw material for all these processes is solid steel. often dras tically. incl uding the majority of the sulfur. to make DRI without rst reducing the ore in the blast furnace to make pig iron that has to be puri ed in a second step. many but not all solutes are reduced. CO) or an oxi de (eg.5% or more manganese. More exactly. rich in lime. Methods exist to make impure iron directly from ore. P2O5. Oxid ation is employed to convert a molten bath of pig iron and scrap. it is an ionic liquid–metallic liquid equilibration where the distribution coef cient depends on compositions of slag and metal and also on temperature. into steel.2% sulfur. Electric Furnace Processes The principal electric furnace steelmaking processes are the electric-arc furnac e. steels having similar chemical compositions and thermal treatmen t have similar mechanical and physical properties. As implied by the t erm ‘‘steelmaking’’. exist largely as ions in the slag. Acid processes have virtuall y disappeared. sili con can be as low as 0. are employed where natural gas is readily available for the reduction (see a lso IRON). and silicon can be and today usually are. These processes. when the power loading is high.4 STEEL Vol.

was placed in operation in 1899. . in an electric-arc furn ace (EAF). which was. 1). but has increased in both quality and quantity of products to compete wit h mills using the blast furnace/oxygen steelmaking route (5. in Chicago. The rst direct-arc furnace in the Unit ed States was a single-phase twoelectrode rectangular furnace of 4-t capacity at the Halcomb Steel Company (Syracuse.Vol. In 1909. at that time. It was the rst round (instead of rectangular) furnace and operated on 25-cy cle power at 2200 V. other iron units.and indirect-arc principles in 1878. The carbon arc was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy i n 1800. was historic ally the most common for steel production. Early processes used thre e-phase ac. and stainless) and to operate b elow full capacity without major operating problems. operated.6). the ava ilability of electric power was limited and very expensive. Furthermore. 00 STEEL 5 2. The biggest change in steel making in the last quarter of the twentieth century is the fraction of steel mad e by remelting scrap or. Pennsylvania. competition is expected to remain erce. The electric-arc furnace is by far the most popular e lectric steelmaking furnace. At that early date. carbon electrodes of the quality to carry suf cient current for steel melting had not bee n developed (see FURNACES. increasingly. which made its rst heat in 1906. alloy. This change was originally to serve a relatively nondemanding local m arket. a plethora of new plants has been built or is being planned as of today. Scrap is charged into th e furnace. Oxy-fuel burne rs are also used to accelerate scrap heating and reduce electricity consumption. A fairly common practice is to use eccentric bottom tapping (Fig. a 15-t three-phase furnace was installed in the South Works of the Illinois Steel Company. utilizing three-phase ac power. and patented furnaces operating on both direct. Electric-arc furnaces offer the advantages of low construct ion costs. patented by Heroult in France. the ability to produce steels o ver a wide range of compositions (carbon. but it had no practical application in steelmaking until Sir William Sie mens of open-hearth fame constructed. but increasingly the movement is to a single dc electrode with a con ducting hearth. The high power densities and intense temperatures necessitate bo th water cooling and improved basic refractory linings. mark et share is at least 40–50%. Illi nois. and because they can serv e local markets. With many million metric tons of new capacity having advanced features now installed.1. which usually contains some of the last heat as a liquid heel to impr ove melting ef ciency. which do not differ in any signi cant way from basic-oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. Electric-Arc Furnace. which minimizes vortexing. ELECTRIC). This type of furnace. As of 2004. the largest electric steelmaking furnace in the w orld. A similar but smaller furnace was installed 2 years later at the Firth-Sterling Steel Company in McKeesport. The rst successful direct-arc electric furn ace. The patent covered single. Because the cost of entry into the market is attracti ve for electric melting relative to integrated plants.or multiphase furnaces with the arcs placed in series through th e metal bath. Various techniques are applied to ensure adequate separation of melt and slag t o permit effective ladle treatment. New York). exibility in the use of raw materials. Oxygen is blown to speed the reactions.

By using some prehea t from waste gases. an advance from 450 to 500 kWh/t needed in the 1980s. The best plants are $0. 2. whereas electric furnaces are easily <1 h/t. the high frequency i nduction furnace is not used extensively. electrogalvanized steel. much of the re ning was done in the furnace. The ‘‘quality gap’’ continues to decrease. 00 Historically. Induction Furnace. Today the furnace is usually strictly a melting unit of 50–200 t .5 h/t.3. The materials are continuously cast with various degrees of sophistication. including a second slag made after the rst meltdown and re ning by oxygen blowing. The degree to which electric melting can replace more conventio nal methods is of great interest and depends in large part on the availability o f suf ciently pure scrap or other iron units at an attractive price. The best labor practices in integrated mills can now be <3 man. Vacuum and Atmosphere Melting. and alloying additions to be made without delaying the next heat. especially for stainless steel. The induction furnace was rst patente d in Italy in 1877 as a low frequency furnace. Other low frequency furnaces have been operated suc cessfully. except possibly small amou nts of ferroalloys as nal deoxidizers. and operated in Sweden. and no chemical reactions occur where gaseous products agita te the molten bath. deep drawing she et. includi ng slabs down to 50 mm in thickness. and more recently for vacuum steelmaking processes. The latter can be >2000 kWh/t for the chemical reaction a lone. Little if any re ning is attempted in ordinary induction melting. The energy needed to melt steel is much less than that required to reduce iron oxid e to a molten product. i nstalled. Direct casting to sheet is in the advanced prototype stage. 2. Pro- . the melting procedure is essentially a dead-melt process. high quality alloys su ch as tool steels. Some improvem ents in quality are also needed to make the highest value products. Advances in electric furnace technology are being aggressively countered by developments and cost control in traditional steelmaking. Thus electric melting has taken the segment s of the market wherever the product is ‘‘good enough’’ and by continual improvements it is nibbling away at other segments. temperatur e control. the solid constituents of the charge mel t smoothly and mix with each other. The high frequency coreles s induction furnace is used in the production of complex. ie. It is used also for remelting scrap from ne steels produced in arc furnaces. for melting chrome–nickel alloys and high manganese scrap. At labor costs of $18–$28/h. As of this writing (2004).h/t for sheet. Thus it had relatively low productivity. and some high quality bars are still larg ely in the integrated sector. The rst installation in the United States was m ade in 1914 by the American Iron and Steel Company in Lebanon. this represents a real nancial advantage. Pennsylvania.6 STEEL Vol. which allows re ning. For ordinary melting. actual electrical usages in best practice can be <395 kWh/t. The charge is selected to produce the composition desired in the nished steel with a minimum of further additions. To melt steel from room temperature takes <400 kWh/t. how ever.2. It was rst commercially applied. Final treatment takes place in a ladle furnace. it was not successful. Most commonly. A coreless high frequency induction furnace is enclosed in a container or tank tha t can be either evacuated or lled with a gaseous atmosphere of any desired compos ition or pressure. tinplate.

the residual pores close by diffusion to appr oach 100% density quite closely. and a conventional air-melted i ngot serves as a consumable electrode. power is turned on and an arc is struck between the electrode and a starting block that is placed in the mold before operation begin s. An ingenious method to avoid or redu ce segregation of alloying elements involves preparing small spheres of material by the atomization of a liquid stream through a nozzle to produce a powder.and a microscale. Thi s powder can be compacted. ox ygen.4. ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels. This re ning process produces special-q uality alloy and stainless steels by casting or forging the steel into an electr ode that is remelted and cast into an ingot in a vacuum (Fig. it is generally mo re useful in applications that include re ning. and rotor steels. 2. Melted metal is deposited in a shallow pool of molten metal on the top surface of the ingot b eing built up in the mold. Highly alloyed materials made by the processes described are particular ly susceptible to segregation of alloying elements during solidi cation both on a macro. Although vacuum melting h as often been employed as a remelting operation for very pure materials or for m aking electrodes for the vacuum consumable-electrode furnace.8).5% pure oxygen gas is mixed with hot metal. often hot and triaxially by gas pressure. In the United States. 2). causing th e oxidation of the excess carbon and silicon in the hot metal and thereby produc ing steel. Remelting of electroslag has the same general purpose as consumable-electrode melting. improves its cleanliness. Electroslag Remelting. and to some degree nitrogen) from the steel. to form a m aterial where. No vacuum is employed. Heat from the arc progressively melts the end of the electrode. Oxygen Steelmaking Processes In oxygen steelmaking. 2. 3). 00 STEEL 7 vision is made for additions to the melt. pro duces an ingot that exhibits practically no center porosity or segregation. After the furnace has been evacuated. and improves hot workability and the mechanical properties of the steel at both room and high temperatures. heat-resistant alloys. The remelting operation removes gases (hydrogen. 99.5.Vol. Consumable-Electrode Melting. and for tilting the furnace to pour it s contents into an ingot mold also enclosed in the tank or container without dis turbing the vacuum or atmosphere in the tank (Fig.6. 2. this process is called the basic-oxygen . A second remelting can further improve quality—of course a t extra cost. as well as carbon when alloys of very low carbon content are being produced (7. Rate of descent of the electrode is automatically con trolled to maintain the arc. Melting takes plac e under a layer of slag that removes unwanted impurities. Much plastic working may be necessary to minimize this susceptibility before service applications. These special steels include bearing steels. Oxygen and hydrogen are removed fr om the molten metal in vacuum melting. 3. A consumable-electrode furnace consists of a tank that encloses the electrode and a water-cooled copper mold. Nitrogen is more dif cult to remove comp letely. on further heating. Powder Tec hniques. Grain structure and or ientation are governed by controlled cooling during solidi cation.

even before the carbon reduction is complete. the heat balance between exothermic oxidation of elements. or tin are usually considered undesirable.9. When the furnace is tilted toward the charging oor. Top-Blown Basic Oxygen Process. The crane then moves away from the furnace and a nother crane carries a transfer ladle of molten pig iron to the furnace and pour s the molten pig iron on top of the scrap. 3. A je t of gaseous oxygen is blown at high velocity onto the surface of a bath of molt en pig iron and scrap at the bottom of the furnace by a vertical water-cooled re tractable lance inserted through the mouth of the vessel (Fig. Si.1. the residual alloy content is usually suf ciently low. the operating temperatures are higher. Residual alloying elements suc h as copper. The numerica l factors are well understood and are routinely contained in computer programs u sed by operators. The top-blown basic oxygen process i s conducted in a cylindrical furnace somewhat similar to a Bessemer converter. are critical issues. largely displacing open he arths. Scrap can form up to 30% of the charge unless it is preheat ed. when up to 45% may be used. commercial installation began operation in 1 955. which melts at temperatur es well below low carbon steel. No external heat source is requi red. such as C. it is lined with refractory 600–1200mm thick (11). nickel. Ef ciency of sulfur el imination is as good as or better than that in the basic open-hearth process bec ause the bath action is more vigorous. T his furnace has a dished bottom without holes and a truncated cone-shaped top se ction in which the mouth of the vessel is located. and the cooling provided by scrap or sometimes other endothermic coolants. Because the basic-oxygen process uses a re nin g agent containing practically no nitrogen. such as iron ore. 4). The furnace shell is made of steel plates $50-mm thick. and Mn. 00 process (BOP) (4.S. Because of the generally high consumption of hot metal in the basic-oxygen process. Blowing with newly cheap oxygen was investigated in Germany and Switzerland some years before the rst commercial steelmaking plants to use this method began operation in Austria in the early 1950s.8 STEEL Vol. High slag uidity and good slag–metal contact promote transfer of phosphorus from the metal i nto the slag. The process spread rapidly throughout the world. an d the fuel does not contain sulfur. d epending on the quality of the purchased scrap. Oxygen residues depend on the carbon content. If the balance is such . The manganese residue of the blown me tal before ladle additions is generally higher than in an open-hearth process an d is closely related to the amount of manganese in the furnace charge. The rst U. In all types of steelmaking that employ pig iron. solid scrap is dumped by an overhead crane into the m outh of the furnace. Their main sourc e is purchased scrap.10). the product has a low nitrogen conte nt. The furnace i s mounted in a trunnion ring and can be tilted backward or forward for charging and tapping. which is on a pl atform above ground level. This operation was designed to employ pig iron produced from local ores that were high in manganese and low in phospho rus.

Most proposed solutions attem pt to recycle the iron units into the system. the lance is lowered into it to the desired height above the bath. short reblow or scrap addition was carried out.15%. thereby contributing to productivity. Carbon monoxide generated by the reaction of iron oxide and carbon is evolved. and mill scale (iron oxides). The chemical reactions and results are the same in both cases. the lance is with drawn and the furnace is tilted to a horizontal position. are ad ded through a chute built into the side of a water-cooled hood positioned over t he mouth of the furnace. refractory consumption is increa sed signi cantly. giving rise to a violent circulation that accelerates re ning. This hood collects the gases and the dense reddish brow n fume emitted by the furnace during blowing. Mixing oxygen with the molten pig iron gives a foamy emulsion of oxygen. and if the reaction was not per fect. oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide and carbon d ioxide. The general reaction. which are largely closed b y environmental constraints but used to be valuable facilities to recycle dusts of various types. whereby silico n is oxidized to silica and transferred to the slag. carbon monoxide. and the ow of oxygen is started. and conducts them to a cleaning sy stem where the solids are removed from the ef uent gas before it is discharged to the atmosphere. the oxygen immediately forms iron oxide. slag. eg. which produce a slag of the proper basicity and uidity. uorspar. Without access to sintering machines.000 heats). Fig. are added in controlled amounts f rom an overhead storage system shortly before or after the oxygen jet is started . easy disposal is a problem (12). Only a trace of silicon remains in the steel at the end of the re ning period. The intimate mixing of oxygen with the molten pig iron permits this rapid re ning. The progr ess of the reaction is plotted in Figure 5. Oxidation of silicon is important mainly because of its thermal effect s. can be processed in 30 min or less. and molten metal that occupies a volume about ve times that of t he slag and molten metal. These materials. Historically.Vol. 00 STEEL 9 that the temperature after blowing is too high. After the oxygen blowing is completed. The mechanism of carbon elimination is similar to those of the earli er openhearth processes. rather than aiming to ma ke a variety of . temperat ure and composition were measured at this point. 6 the furnace is immediately returned to th e upright position.8% to as low as 0. In general. The amount of silicon in pig iron varies from $0. applies to the basic-oxygen process. Today suf cient s ensors (qv) and models are available so that the number of reblows is virtually zero. Slag-forming uxes. After charging. Lower si licon values lead to lower slag volumes but take more energy in the blast furnac e. chie y bur nt lime. ie. part of which disperses rapidly through the bath. a further. Some of t he sensible heat of combustion of this carbon monoxide can be captured enabling more scrap to be melted for a given bath composition. but developments using a nitrogen lance to splash slag ove r the walls have reduced this by increasing lining life by a factor of $10 (from 2000 to 20. The oxidizing reactions take place so rapidly that a 300-metric-ton heat. Striking the surface of the liquid bath. and produce less heat during steelmaking. The furnace must be big enough to accommodate this foa my mixture. Refractory lining life is an import ant maintenance cost.

the slags in the bott om-blown processes contain significantly less iron oxide. the oxygen serves as a carrier gas to transport the powdered lime pn eumatically into the furnace. The bottom-blown basicoxygen process. the bottom and the barrel. The furnace is charged with steel scrap and hot metal. the method of adding lime to the furnace is different. the sudden ejection of appreciable amounts of slag and metal from the furnace.03%. If special precautions are not taken. Bottom-Blown Basic-Oxygen Pro cess. The furnace is tilted toward its taphole side and the steel is tapped in to a waiting ladle with the slag held back by various schemes. the furnace is inverted by tilting toward its opposite side and the remaining slag is dumped into a slag pot. causing a $2% increase in yield. In the bottom-blown pro cesses. Thus. The chemistry of the bottom-blown proc esses is similar to that of the topblown process. a source of serious yield loss. The furnace is then turned to char ging position and is ready for the next heat. p ermitting increased oxygen-blowing ow rate and thus a decrease in blowing time. called oxygen bottom metallurgy (OBM ) in Europe (Maxhultte) ¨ and Quelle basic-oxygen process (Q-BOP) (quelle is ‘‘fountai n’’ or ‘‘gusher’’ in German) in the United States and Japan. F urthermore. is also conducted in a furnace similar to a Bessemer converter. a generic low carbon steel is made and modi ed in the ladle. Su rrounding the oxygen jet with a cylindrical stream of a hydrocarbon such as meth ane imparts the required cooling by endothermic decomposition of the hydrocarbon .01% without excessive oxidation of iron into the slag. th e carbon is usually 0. pebble-sized lime is used with pieces 2. Both the bottom and barrel consist of an outer steel shell that is $50-mm thick and lined with refractory that is 600–1200-mm thick. 7). The furnace comprises two parts. Manganese is desirable in the nishe d steel and almost always has to be added after the steel is tapped from the fur nace into a ladle. nely powdered lime is added to the oxygen before it is blown into the fur nace. and oxygen is blown into this mixture to produce steel of the desired composition. In the top-blown process. 00 compositions during blowing. Because bottom blowing is generally closer to thermodynam ic equilibrium.10 STEEL Vol. a smaller amount of manganese can be added to bottom-bl own steel during . The powdered lime dissolves rapidly in the slag. the nal carbon can be as low as 0. Considerable heat is generated when the oxygen gas oxidizes the carbon. and iron in the m olten pig iron. silicon. No commercial refractory has been found that withstands such temperatures without cooling. Bot h the OBM and the Q-BOP processes are operated in about the same way as the topblown process. Thus. After the steel h as been tapped. In top-blown vessels. in the amount of liquid steel produced from a given charge o f hot metal and scrap. that is.5–7. ie.5 cm in diameter. 3. Oxygen is blown into the furnace throug h the center pipes and natural gas or some other hydrocarbon is blown into the f urnace through the annular space between the two pipes (13–15). The bottom-blown oxygen process is critically dependent on this technique.2. the temperature of the ref ractory immediately adjacent to the oxygen inlet increases when the oxygen is bl own upward through the furnace bottom. as in a Bessemer converter. Decrease in the iron oxide content of the slag also c auses an increase in the amount of manganese remaining in the liquid steel at th e end of the oxygenation stage (oxygen blow). The bottom conta ins 6–24 tuyeres or double pipes (Fig. However. slopping is avoided. However .

and Bottom-Blown Basic-Oxygen Processes. in cluding iron ore.3. The introduction of al mostcomplete continuous casting has limited the discards from ingots that histor ically made up a large part of home scrap. 00 STEEL 11 tapping. drawing. the hulk . copper. Determination of Chemical Composition The chemical composition of a given steel may be speci ed by some customers within rather narrow limits for each element (other than residual elements). The bottom injection of nitrogen or argon causes more intimate mixing of slag and metal. while oxygen is top-b lown into the furnace through a lance. Purchased scrap comes in two basic ca tegories. However. the other source is iron from blast furnaces. has been greatly reduced. and hence most of the advantages of the Q-BOP bottom-blowing process are obtained in furnaces designed for top b lowing. nitrogen or argon is injected through a number o f porous refractory plugs installed in the furnace bottom. polymers. a mixture of steels. acc urate composition control has become much simpler. railroad equipment. and forging count on resale of what is often a premium product (if identity has been maintained) as part of their routine costs . Scrap is o f great practical value. The amount of home scrap. By b lowing fully and then using the ladle to add alloys and control temperature. unless suf cient uorspar or other slag uidizer is added to t he charge. 4. and limestone. either molten as it comes from the furnace (hot metal) or in solid pig form. Top. the various trimmings tha t accumulate during production. but also to contribute positively to the goal of total recycling. 5. machining. A whole indust ry has grown up to recycle the many millions of scrapped automobiles. etc. ie. so the ch emical composition of the steel during re ning is followed closely. it is no longer necessary to obtain nearly instantaneous analysis during a blow. Robots are now used to carry out analysis in some shops. Scrap as Raw Material Scrap consists of the by-products of steel fabrication and worn-out. Every ton of scrap consumed in steelmaking is estimated not only to displace and conserve for future use 3.Vol. 3. Industries that have a steady supply of discards from such operations as stamping. However. automobiles. the low iron oxide content o f the slag increases the slag viscosity. and buildings.18). broken. which results in decreased costs.5–4 t of natural resources. and liquid steel is entrapped in the sl ag (also a yield loss). The Linz-Donawitz-Kawasaki gas (LD–KG) process is similar to the LBE proce ss but the nitrogen or argon is injected through tuyeres in the furnace bottom r ather than through porous refractory plugs (15). or discarded articles containing iron or steel (17. several combinations of top and bottom blowing were developed. During the 1970s. coal. It is a principal source of the iron for steelmaking. In the lance bubb ling equilibrium (LBE) process. Less economically desirable material comes from salvaging the values in produc ts such as ships. Following removal of some discrete components such as batteries.

A standard problem in purchased scrap is the accuracy of analysis of composition. which translate to charge density. cal ls for export limits have been made. and antim ony vaporize and may require adequate capture mechanisms. Fo r the most demanding brands of sheet steel. For instance.1.12 STEEL Vol. Chemica l Composition. The United States alone exports some 10. and iron ore treated by reducin g gases to give direct-reduced iron. electric melting becom es marginal without surcharges). Elements such as lead in free mach ining steels. the amount of scrap in a BOF can app roach 45% rather than 30% if cold scrap is used. involving the markets to be served and the prices expected. As a result. including that for foundry operatio ns. Nevertheless. Another issue arises in scrap quality. prices reached $300/ton as noted above) At such prices. zinc. and a usab le scrap becomes available. The shredded polymers give rise to a product known a s uff. For home scrap.000 t/year—with recent shortages. . this may not be much of an problem. Scrap ca n have many compositions and sizes. which. scr ap of all types is expected to remain important because the energy of melting is so much lower than that for reduction from ore. are becoming of less concern as al ternative elements replace lead. is not recyclable and must be land lled. modest quantities are charged to blast furnaces when this is economical. Several million metric tons per year of the latter are on the world market. there is increasing demand for sources of iron units other than scrap that is free of impurities. the products are given further separation. certain impurities affect the produc t and thus are made in integrated shops. The choice of metallic charge is a complex issu e. which is $10 Â 106t/year. Scrap is a worldwide commodity. 5. 00 passes through a shredder. as of this writing.000. The dif c ulty of estimating the alloy content. which is still its early use. and the smaller amount used in BOF melting help s to cushion the price to some degree. is a continuing worry. which can harm furnace linings. and its e conomic value is based in part on these. but samplin g (qv) dif culties and analytical costs can be troublesome in other cases. The total circulation of scrap in the Unite d States is in the range of 70– 90 Â 106 t/year. Examples are iron carbide. whether this is to be used to reduce the a mount of additional additives necessary in the ladle or to avoid possible troubl es from copper or tin. The ability to tap an array of iron units to provide exibili ty in all parts of the business cycle is a topic of great interest in keeping co sts of raw steel down in the international arena. Volatile elements such as lead. there is a long-standing interest in purifying scrap to allow hi gher economic value but these efforts have only been effective sporadically. Finally. During the latter 1980s and early 1990s . (In spring 2004 . Elements such as alumi num can add to the heat of oxidation in the furnace and allow higher amounts of scrap. the price spiked as high as $190/t for the best-quality scrap. Preheating of scrap using the s ensible heat of the previous melt is being practiced increasingly and can be sig ni cant in the thermal balance. This is being combined with ef forts to reduce the time for a given process by even a few seconds.

phosphorus. Originally. chromium. as well as in almost pure form. cobalt. carbon. Later. being added after the oxygen content of the bath has been reduced. the production of alloys for steelmak ing was carried out in electric-reduction and other types of furnaces. tantalum. Addition Agents In steelmaking.Vol. control of grain size. Some sla g is allowed to oat on the surface of the steel in the ladle to form a protective blanket. copper. Mn. 8). and tungsten. such as Al. A ladle consists of a steel shell. These include relatively pure metals such as alu minum. a nd corrosion properties. For example. Included in the ferroalloy class are alloys of iron with aluminum. calcium. because of their high iron content. copper. nitrogen. Addition agents are predominantly introduced in the ladle. physical. boron . manganese. calcium. the chemical eleme nt to be incorporated into the steel was added to the bath in the form of an all oy that consisted mainly of iron but was rich in the desired element. is tapped in to ladles. manganese. whether basic-oxygen or electric. molybdenum. or nickel may be added with the cha rge or during the working of the heat and are fully recovered. molybdenum. selen ium. silicon. nitrogen. A valve makes it possible to enlarge or close the opening to control the ow of steel through the nozzle. various elements are added to the molten metal to effect deoxida tion. V. the term addition agent is preferred when describing the materials added to molten steel for alte ring its composition or properties. and other speci c results. titanium. lined with refra ctory brick. and nickel. The advent of lad le metallurgy has led to the easily oxidized elements. and sulfur in various form s. The economical manufacture of alloy steels requires consideration of the relati ve af nity of the alloying elements for oxygen as compared with the af nity of iron for oxygen. improvement of the mechanical. tungsten. Most ladles hold all the steel produced in one furnace heat. became known as ferroalloys and were most ly produced in iron blast furnaces. Ti . but on ly to a minor extent. Excess slag is prevented from entering the ladle by controlling its ex it from the furnace taphole. 7. Some rare-earth alloys are also used for special purposes. and alloys consisting principally of combinations of two or more of the foreg oing elements. Such alloy s. niobium. For this reason. each containing a central . A marked increase in yield has resulted. easily reducible oxides o f molybdenum. 00 STEEL 13 6. and a num ber of these alloys contain very little iron. ferroalloys are a special class of addition agents. and zirconium. having an offcenter opening in its bottom equipped with a nozzle (F ig. and Zr. nickel. Some of the se chemical elements are available in addition agents that are not ferroalloys. thermal. Ladle Metallurgy The nished steel from any furnace. B. Cr. Simple stopper-rod valves have been replaced by more elaborate slide gate systems involving spring-loaded refractory disks. vanadium.

When t he proper oxygen–sulfur balance is present in liquid steel. At rst. ie. In the argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. or new combinatio ns of old processes.1. 7. Better ow control and positive shutoff ar e achieved—both are important in practice. as does. Thermodynamically. continue to be developed (19. The objectives often incl ude one or more of the following on a given heat: more ef cient methods for alloy additions and control of nal chemistry. Sulfur in solution can be removed as sul de by injecting CaS i or Mg [the Thyssen Niederrhein (TN) process] or 90% CaO–10% CaF2 (Kimitsu inject ion (KIP) process).14 STEEL Vol. especially if the steelmaking slag. In early ladle furnaces. Argon Treatment. 7. Vacuum Processes. Expensive ferroalloys can be added through the area where the slag is displaced by rising bubbles of argon without signi cant oxidation los s. 00 hole and sliding relative to the other. the treatment of liqu id steel in the ladle. . such as ferroalloys. there was no cover on the ladle. Although the expense can be justi ed for steel s with the most dif cult property requirements. sul de and ox ide shape control. Electric arc s or induction coils are normally used to raise the temperature of the liquid me tal (ladle arc furnace). for many purposes less elaborate t reatments are adequate. When the ladle is tted with a tight cap. desulfurization and dephosphorization. other processes become attr active. inclusion otation. More complete control over ladl e treatment is achieved by the ability to seal a vessel well enough so that a go od vacuum can exist over the steel. can be substantially separated from the melt befo re further treatment. especially for hydrogen reduction and g eneration of carbon monoxide to make interstitial-free (IF) steels. calcium additions can give hard. argon wa s used to provide better mixing of additives. better alternatives are available. and vacuum degassing. spherical inclusions which do not deform during rolling. addition of ferroalloys into the plume of argon bubbling up through the steel through a synthetic slag (with little or no FeO) is also effective (capped argon bubbling (CAB) process). Thus Ca additions can lead to better properties in the direction normal to the rolling direction by avoiding needle shaped inclusions. as does increasing the bas icity. but as of the 1990s almost all ladles have covers to prevent atmospheric oxidation. argon or argon–oxygen mixtures are blown in through bottom tuyeres to lower the carbon content of the bath by makin g escape of carbon monoxide in the argon bubbles easier. CaF2 increases sul de capacity of slags. which contains considerable iron oxi de and hinders sulfur removal.2. MnS.03% max. With a capped ladle . CaF2 also increases uidity. Although this process w orks on carbon steel. Many possible con gurations exist (21). improved temperature and composition homo genization. The predominant use of AOD is in making stainless steels more weldable by lowering the carbon content t o 0. increasing Al2O3 and reducing SiO2. Argon co uld be added through a porous plug in the bottom of the ladle or through a lance inserted in the bath. to even out t emperature gradients and to oat out inclusions such as oxides and sul des. eg.20). is a eld in which several new processes. calcium is more effective than magnesium in reducing S. These are the composition adjustment by capped argon stirring (CAS) and seale d argon bubbling (SAB) processes. Ladle metallurgy.

heavy plate. In other systems. Today very little steel is cast as ingots. Sulfur and oxygen are re duced even without a vacuum. Water has been a valuable modeling agent.08 to 0.10%) can be tre ated. where on entering the vacuum cha mber the molten steel fragmented into large numbers of droplets. time.03%. Oxygen and nitrogen are also held at levels near 20 ppm. all steel for hot working was c ast into ingots. At one time. All special processes involve extra capital and operating costs. For certain special property requirements. the start carbon. T he simpler vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD) process used originally for stain less steels can be used for carbon steel by placing the ladle in an evacuated ta nk. high speci c . Ox ygen and carbon dissolved in the steel react to form CO.1. In the Ruhrstahl-Heraeu s oxygen blowing (RH-OB) process. Reductio n of carbon from 0. at which po int the steel can be economically killed with aluminum.13 kPa (1 mm Hg)]. such as slabs and billets. The carbon can be reduced to 0. Because of increasing quality demands. Fer roalloy additions can be made in situ. Casting 8.01%. 00 STEEL 15 Some early processes involved stream degassing. The higher carbon conten ts at entry improve the yield of iron in the BOF vessel. extra energy to ma intain temperature can be supplied by an arc. By bubbling argon into one leg. which escapes. with oxygen blown into the degasser. Thus considerable effort has been spent on the uid dynamics necessary to ensu re this. led to continuous attempts to solve th e problem by many investigators using a variety of machine designs. thus further improving yield. eg. For int erstitial-free steels.03% and oxygen from 400 to 50 ppm occurs. A very high quality sheet steel is produced with exceptional deep-drawing properties. The possibility of castin g molten steel continuously into useful shapes equivalent to conventional semi nis hed shapes. and blowing oxygen through a lance. chemical heating by injecting Al a nd O2. some form of ladle treatmen t has become routine in steelmaking. a pressure difference is created circulating steel though the vacuum chamber and back into the vessel. Continuous Casting. even higher carbon contents (0. bottom pour ing of the ingot through a refractory riser is common. Another process was the Dortmund-Hoerder (DH) pro cess.Vol. where an evacuated vessel can be lowered into the ladle for 10–20 cycles and thus the steel is exposed to an adequately low vacuum [0. and a realistic analysis of markets an d procedures. which may be 0. Because of t he high melting point. or by induction stirring with or without vacuum. is reduced to no mo re than 20 ppm. 9). which has two hollow legs as compared to only one in the DH. thus offering a large surface for loss of gases such as hydrogen. A princ ipal purpose of ladle metallurgy is to produce a well-stirred and homogeneous ba th. A more complicated system is found in the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process (Fig. introducing argon into the bottom of the ladle. and thus eliminating the ingot and primar y-mill stages of rolled-steel production. hydrogen is reduced if a vacuum is present. except for limited q uantities where the typical 250-mm cast slab thickness is inadequate for the nal product. 8. This was not very effective i n inclusion or carbon removal.

The obvious rewards available to successful castin g provided a strong driving force. inclu ding nancial ones. on the other hand. continuouscast ing quickly proved practical.16 STEEL Vol. Some mills today have the ability t o reduce the width up to 30 cm by a high-powered press. For example. Thus the casters had to work without fail and new levels of operating con dence were achieved. For nonferrous metals. However. However. A number of other designs of continuous-casting machines are being used in the production of semi nished sections. ba rs and light structural sections are made from billets. For various reasons. molds that move up and dow n for a predetermined distance at controlled rates during casting have practical ly eliminated the sticking problem. 00 heat. The decision was made by Nippon Steel to eliminate any ingot casting at t heir then-new sheet works in Oita. a great sur ge in capacity was nearly complete in Japan. the whole section solidi es. Electric melters cast bille ts continuously from about 1975 onward. a constraint that limits yield. Around 1970. Early machines built in the 1930s and 1940s w ere not practical. Im provements in the steel supplied were critical (22–24). once the exclusive province of integrated mills. and to permit second gene ration improvements such as molds having widths that could be varied during oper ation and sensors that could measure necessary variables of interest to long str ings of casts. which included such novel ideas as following the caster with a rolling mill to change the otherwise xed cr oss-section. and casters had been an integral co ncept. but progress was made in the 1960s. some of whic h are illustrated in Figure 11. Although the continuous casting of steel appears deceptively simple in principle. Any tendency for the casting to adhere to the mold wall may cause the skin to r upture—the dreaded but increasingly rare ‘‘breakout’’. ie. the rate of heat abstraction from the c asting is low enough that molten steel persists within the interior of the secti on for some distance below the bottom of the mold. culminating in dramatic change by operation of a thin-slab caster at one of Nucor’s plants. When molten steel comes into contact with a water-cooled mold. making width and composition chances along the way. The thickness of the skin inc reases because the action of the water sprays as the casting moves downward and. This opened up another avenue of attack for them on sheet markets. and low thermal conductivity of steel. eventually. a thin soli d skin forms on the wall (Fig. Consortia of steel companies and equipment builders arose to provide reliable casters. success did not come easily in the case of ferrous metals. followed by many other electric melte rs. The mass of the solidifying section is s upported as it descends by driven pinch rolls that control the speed of descent. The continuous-cast section issuing from the withdrawal or supporting rolls may be disposed of in several ways. Casting was done crudely at rst but the s ophistication increased rapidly. rounds or round-corn ered squares having . Slowly it became possible to reach truly continuous operation wit h runs of a week or more. the United States was slower than Japan and Europe to install continuous slab casters for the production of sheet. because of the physical characteris tics of steel. 10). and because thermal contraction causes the skin to separate from the mold wall shortly after solidi cation. many dif culties are inherent to the pro cess.

Today. and cause cracking during processing. the l atter a buffer between the ladle and the mold. The most important development in the 1980s was the thin-slab ($50 mm) ca ster. pressure casting (Fig. ie. At one time. In general. 12). Excessive segregation during solidi cation can create problems of low ductility in regions of high carbo n and alloy content. already in early com mercial stages at the Crawfordsville plant of Nucor Steel. with slower cooling rates. There has been some measure of success but limited general application. 00 STEEL 17 sizes in the range of 100–250 mm. and holding up to 70 t of liquid steel. Consequently. thereby saving much of their sensible heat . segregati on increases with increasing thickness. The primary objective . 13a) (25). 14. great care is taken in later efforts not only to prevent chemical contami nation but to understand and control the uid ow in the mold and the tundish. This logical extensio n of thin slabs to cast carbon or stainless steel directly to sheet in the 1-mm range is a possibility long recognized but dif cult to realize—the concept was in a patent by Sir Henry Bessemer >150 years ago. Exam ples are horizontal casting.Vol. rounds were cast in a rotating mold but the hop ed-for better quality can be obtained more easily using a stationary mold and mo re care with the liquid feed (Fig. It gives a hi gher yield than ingot casting and avoids the cost of rolling ingots into slabs b ecause the slabs are produced directly from liquid steel.c).060% aluminum and has excellent deep-dra wing characteristics. 9. which has the potential of reducing the number of hot rolling stands from eight or nine down to perhaps ve or less (Figs. and wheel-belt ca sting. 13b.025–0. It contains 0. In fact . the surface is good enough so that cooling to room temperature for defect remo val is often not necessary if certain criteria are met. Whereas earlier developments merely involved care in shiel ding the liquid stream from the atmosphere which could produce undesirable inclu sions. Plastic Working of Steel Plastic working of a metal such as steel is the permanent deformation accomplish ed by applying mechanical forces to a metal surface. Many other casting schemes have been tri ed. and often having several (typically up to six) s trands in parallel. and slabs can be and are charged while still hot for rolling. A vast array of sensors provides data to the operators so that accidents such as breakouts from thin spots in the solidifying shell ve ry rarely occur and the internal and surface quality are extremely good. essentially all el ectric shops making at rolled products use thin-slab casters as they await the su ccessful demonstration of directsheet carbon steel casting. (25a). there is usually l ess variation in steel composition from one heat to the next in continuous-cast steel than there is from the top to the bottom in a single ingot. The aim is to avoid mixing of metal and slag and also to give time and op portunity for any inclusions that do form in the mold to oat to the top and be ab sorbed in a special slag. Continuou s-cast slabs are only $20– 25-cm thick and exhibit much less segregation than slab s rolled from ingots that are 3–5 times as thick. Continuous-cas t aluminum-killed steel is similar in composition and properties to ingot-cast a luminum-killed steel. A schematic of a twin-roll sheet ca ster is in Fig. Continuous casting is almost universal.

Trying to get reductions which are too large per pass can le ad to loads high enough to break rolls. bright surface. wire. but the yield str ength of the steel is increased signi cantly. the steel is heated to 1090–13108C. and rolling the rst two of which are called forging. the shap e changes are made in several stages for reasons of mechanics. The principal hot-working techniques are hammering. better machinability. ie. the nature. cold drawing. distribution. the basic strength of the steel is essentially unchanged. hot dee p-drawing. and production of thinner material than can be accomplished economically by hot wor king (see METAL TREATMENT). and tubes. In cold working.18 STEEL Vol. steel is no t heated before working. althoug h increasingly it also involves the improvement of certain physical and mechanic al properties of the metal (mechanical treatment). good dimensional control. During this process the austenite crystals (grains) no rmally present may recrystallize several times (see below) and the recrystalliza tion can have a significant effect on nal properties (26–31). if steel i s to be formed into some intricate shape. although recrystallizat ion does not occur. Prop erties can be closely controlled and changed by heat treatment. The physical and mechanical pr operties of steel depend on its microstructure. Cold working is gener ally applied to bars. 00 is usually the production of a speci c shape or size (mechanical shaping). the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a single roll pass is 10–40% because the ability of the rolls to drag the piece through depends on geometric factors and the coef cient of friction. It reduces the cross-sectio nal area of the piece being worked on by cold rolling. or cold ext rusion. hot spinning. Other less common methods include rotary swaging. it can be made very soft and ductile b y heat treatment. depending on the grade and the work to be accomplished. extrusion. and hot-rolled material is becomi ng a less-expensive competitor for some material traditionally cold-rolled and a nnealed. strip. Cold working imparts improved mechanical properties. Although at high temperatures the mate rial is not very strong when compared to its room temperature strength. Prior to hot working. pressing. the force required to cause deformation is relatively i nsensitive to the application rate and temperature variations. These desirable properties must be balanced in each case against a loss of ductility. 10. The force required to deform the metal is very sensitive to the rate of application and t he temperature of working. Similar limitations on reduction per pass apply. The thickness of available hot-rolled material is has been decreasing steadily towards 1 mm. on the other hand. an d amounts of its metallographic constituents . Metallography and Heat Treatment The great advantage of steel as an engineering material is its versatility. alternative heat treatments can also impart high strength with good ductility and toughness. For example. Thus to reduce a 250-mm slab to a 2-mm hot band takes $10 separate reductions. These two objectives can ofte n be readily attained simultaneously. on the other hand. roll forging. and die forging. after deformation. Thus. Plastic deformation of steel can be accomp lished by hot working or cold working. however. sheet.

etc). the carbon comes out of solution in a range of microstructures that have v ery speci c properties (32–35). 16). Eutect oid steels are not common. Above (hyper-) or below (hypo-) eu tectoid. th ese proeutectoid components form at grain boundaries. Cementite is very hard and brittle. nickel.8 wt% for nitrogen. t he great bulk of sheet steel that accounts for $60% of commercial production has <0. It exhibits about two-thirds the induction of p ure iron in a strong magnetic eld. and molybdenum. There ar e two allotropic forms of iron: ferrite and austenite. The atomic arrangement in the two allotropic forms of iron is shown in Figure 15. which may contain considerable amounts of nick el. they may also form on certain well-de ned planes in the aus tenite crystals. it scratches gla ss and feldspar. The amount of proeutectoid constituents offers a . The limiting temperatures and compositions for austenite are given by t he phase diagram (Fig. silicon. the term for iron carbide in steel. These elements also serve other purposes. As the hardest constituent of plain carbon steel. The corresponding Brinell hardnesses (BHN). as opposed to a few hundredths of a percent fo r ferrite. a nd thus consists of 6. chromium. and traces of n itrogen. to a certain extent. and in some inexpensive tool steels. is th e form in which most of the carbon appears in steels. which correspond approxi mately to tensile strengths. a primary precipitation of cementite or ferrite occurs until the austen ite reaches the eutectoid composition when it transforms as before. the e utectoid composition. transformation of the austenite occurs above $5508C to the series of parallel p lates of a plus cementite known as pearlite. Iron–nitrogen alloys are essentially not com mercial. although most plain carbon ste els also contain manganese. By controlling the cooling rate from the austenite r ange. The spaces between atoms (interstices) are larger in the face-centered cubi c g (fcc) austenite than in ferrite and can accommodate more small interstitial atoms such as carbon and nitrogen.76% carbon. The spacing of these plates depends on the temperature of transformation. phosphorus. 7278C (the eutectoid temperature). sulfur. On reasonably slow cooling from above 7278C. however. from 1000 to 2000 nm at $7008C and <100 n m at 5508C. but has a much lower Curie temperature. although small volumes are used as rails. Thus when these materials are heated to temperatures where austenite is stable. 00 STEEL 19 as distinct from its chemical composition. A nonalloyed carbon steel having 0. oxygen. It has the formula Fe3C. hydrogen. but not quartz. At lower temperatures of p recipitation. consists of austenite above its lowest stable temperature. Ferrite in both its low o r a (up to 9108C) and high or d. This is true even of medium alloy steels. respectively. are about BHN 170 and BHN 400. Thes e elements may modify. In fact.Vol. Normally. the carbon readily dissolves. but by and large the in uence of iron carbide always predominates. and other chemical elements such as aluminum and copper. (13908C to mp 15368C) is body-centered cubic (b cc). silicon.67 wt% carbon and the balance iron. This effect is critical in the heat treatment of steels where ferrite and austenite may also contain different amounts of alloying elements (manganes e. The amount and distribution of iron a nd iron carbide determine most of the properties. Thus the solubility in austenite is 2 wt% for carbon and 2.1%. Cementite. Most c ommercial steels contain at most a few tenths of a percent of carbon. the main effects of iron and iron ca rbide. high streng th wire.

11. Martensite begins to form at a well-de ned temperature known as Ms and continues to form as the temperature continues to drop. the carbon in the steel typically solidi es as iron carbide. Material given this treatment can have unsurpassed combinations of strength and toughness. 00 rough guide to the composition of the steel. and cementite. in power stations. Bainite was rarely fou nd in plain carbon steels. The result is a body-centered structure supersaturated in carbon. and thus lattice strain. Finally. a bcc a-phase supersaturated with carbon and containing small cementite par ticles (bainite). However. This diagram c overs the temperature range from 6008C to the melting point of iron. 16) shows the ranges of compositions and temperatures in which the various stable or metastable phases. in commercial steels. iron carbide i s essentially always present instead of graphite. occurs. ferrite. where the degree of tetragonality. In steels and cast irons. When a steel containing carbon solidi es. such as aust enite. eg.20 STEEL Vol. The range from 3 to 4. Martensite forms by a lattice shear reaction without diffusion of the carbon atoms. although not in cast irons. it is normally too brittle fo r service until some of the carbon is precipitated by a second heating between 2 00 and 7008C. and is the underpinning of much of the i ndustrial world.5% carbon covers most of the cas t irons. which is both strong and tough. only gra phite is present because iron carbide is metastable with respect to iron and gra phite. For most steels. Although th e iron carbide in a steel can change to graphite and iron when the steel is held at elevated temperatures for several days or weeks. This guide is more accurate at slow cooling rates. are present in slow-cooled steels. ie. This phase contains all of the carbon in the austenite. some austenite may remain at room tem perature and requires special consideration. The portion of the iron–iron carbide diagram of interest herein is that part exten ding from 0 to 2% carbon. Appli- . iron carbide in steel under normal conditions is quite stable for many years. bu t not deformed either hot or cold (and not discussed further here). and trans formed at temperatures in this range. the formation of a completely different ph ase. a fascinating set of materials used as-cast. If small specimens are prepared in which the austenite can be coo led to 250–5008C suf ciently rapidly to avoid the above microconstituents. ie. The crystal structure is body-centered tetragonal. but it can be obtained in commercial practice by judi cious alloying and is increasing in importance. bu t in high carbon and certain alloy steels. a cube extended in one direc tion. tempering. sometimes heat-treated. Iron–Iron Carbide Phase Diagram The iron–iron carbide phase diagram (see Fig. carbon can be present either as iron carbide (cementite) or as graphite. increases line arly with carbon. and usually has a plate or need le-like morphology. the transformation is complete (de ned as Mf) before reaching room temperature. Because of its lattice strain. Under equilibrium conditions. and carbon contents from 0 to 5%. if all of the above set s of phases can be suppressed by suf ciently rapid cooling. the austenite transfor ms to a phase known as martensite. even.

Up to 7278C. which now has the same average carbon content as the steel. The phase change on heating a eutectoid carbon steel occurs at 7278C. 15).02% carbon. becoming lower and lower in carbon content until all the proeutecto id ferrite is dissolved in the austenite at the upper critical temperature. The behavi or on heating and cooling hypereutectoid steels (steels containing >0. The temperatur es at which phase changes occur are known as the critical temperatures. 16). For pure iron. The diagram shows that at < 7278C the constituents are a-ferrite and ce mentite. albeit slowly. these temperatures are 9108C for the a–g phase change and 13908C for the g–d phase change. the highe st temperature at which austenite and cementite can coexist (see Fig. When a eutectoid steel is slowly c ooled from the austenite range. 00 STEEL 21 cation of the phase diagram to heat treatment can be illustrated by considering the changes occurring on heating and cooling steels of selected carbon contents. As the temperature rises furt her above A1. The excess ferrit e.Vol. the austenite dissolves more and more of the surrounding proeutect oid ferrite. the p roeutectoid cementite has been completely dissolved and aus- . A3. the a-ferrite may dissolve up to 0. Just above A1. The rst phase change on heating.76% carbon ) is similar to that of hypoeutectoid steels. generally at the grain boundaries of the austenite. The relative amounts depend on the carbon content. all ferrite and cementite transform to austenite of eutectoid composition.02% carbon. ie. On slow cooling. Ferrite precipitates. (The spacing is of the same order as the wavelengths of visible light). 0. the ferrite and cementite form in alternate laye rs of microscopic thickness.76% carbon. The boundaries in Figure 16 show how these temperatures are affect ed by composition. the austenite grad ually dissolves the excess cementite until at the Acm temperature. called proeutectoid ferrite. the constituents present at and < 7278C are usually ferrite and p earlite. occurs at 7278C.007% carbon. If the steel contains > 0. on heating above A1. The only changes occurring on heating or cooling pure iron ar e the reversible changes at $9108C from bcc a-iron to fcc g-iron and from the fc c g-iron to bcc d-iron at $13908C. the amount of ferrite decreases and the amount of pearlite increase s. the pearlite slowly changes to eutectoid austenite at a rate controlled by carbon diffusion. th e ferrite contains $0. the reverse changes occur. the eutectoid or lower critic al temperature. a or d and g (see Fig. Under the microscope at low magni cation. a nd on slow cooling the reverse change occurs. which is designated as A1. As the carbon conten t increases. which becomes progressively richer in carbon. On heating just above this temperature. except that the excess constituent is cementite rather than ferrite. Thus.76% carbon.02% carbon. hence the material is called pearlite. Hypoeutectoid steels are t hose that contain less carbon than the eutectoid steels. at this temperature. At 6008C. On heating such a steel just above this temperature. if the steel contains > 0. the diffrac tion effects from this mixture of ferrite and cementite give an appearance simil ar to that of a pearl. Iron occurs in two allotropic forms. t he austenite is substantially of eutectoid composition. remains unchanged. Eutectoid steels are those that contain 0. the solubility of carbon in the ferrite increases until.

11 . which indicated a critical temperature at $7688C. silicon. niobium. copper. cobalt. with respect to carbon. tungsten. Grain Size. 16) is heated even higher. especially if they are etched in a mil d reagent for accentuation. Grain boundaries can usually be o bserved readily in an optical microscope. a terminology no lo nger used. The former include manganese. The elements that decrease the extent of the austenite eld include chromium. 00 tenite of the same carbon content as the steel is formed. molybdenum. molybdenum. formed on heating above A3 or Acm (see Fig. consists of polyhedral grains with curved boundaries where the grain boundary energy is balanced in three dimensions. . Similarly. The most important phase-diagram effects of the alloying element s are that the number of phases that may be in equilibrium is no longer limited to two as in the iron–carbon diagram. Manganese and nickel lower the eutectoid temperatu re. We shall see that the effect of alloys on rates of austenite decomposition is usually more im portant than the equilibrium effects. the grain size increases. These are known as ferrite stabilizers.22 STEEL Vol. the size of the individual grains is small. tin. Eventually. A signi cant aspect of t he behavior of steels on heating is the grain growth that occurs when the austen ite. this eutectoid austeni te changes to pearlite and the room temperature composition is therefore pearlit e and proeutectoid cementite. like any metal. T he region where the grains abut is a surface where no atoms are at their equilib rium spacing and is known as a grain boundary. these run into a region w here the orientation of the cells differs by rotation in all three directions. On slow cooling below A1. (W). bu t as the temperature is increased above the critical temperature. Austenite. As formed at a temperature just above A3 or Acm. This is a second-order phase transformation as contrasted to the rst-o rder transformation. where ferromagnetic a becomes par amagnetic. Although there are changes in speci c heat in this vicinity. Some confusion occurred in early iron–carbon equilib rium diagrams. nickel. and that the eutectoid temperature and composition may change. Alloying elements either enlarge the auste nite eld or reduce it. Typical grain sizes. which is the one of interest and importance in heat treatme nt. and nitrogen and are referred to as austenite stabilizers. this is the Curie temperature. and titanium. over which austenite is stable may be increased or reduc ed. leading to changes in slope of cooli ng curves. In older literature the Curie temperature was called A2. however. The iron–carbon diagram may be signi cantly altered by alloying elements. carb on. cementite precipitates and the carbon content of the austenite approa ches the eutectoid composition. The nal austenite grain size depends primarily on the maximum tempera ture to which the steel is heated although the time of heating can have a second ary effect. the average distance betwee n boundaries.1. All these elements seem to lower modestly the eutectoid carbon content. The austenite. phosphorus. and titanium generally rais e it. vanadium. that the temperature and composition range. tungsten. on cooling below Acm. The crystal structures shown in Figure 15 exist as a regular arr ay over a distance of several thousand unit cells in a given direction to give a crystal commonly called a grain. ie. are in the range of 5000–50000 nm. and its pseudoquantitative application should be limited to plain carbon and lo w alloy steels. aluminum. whereas chromium. silicon.

The gene ral effects of austenite grain size on the properties of heat-treated steel are summarized in Table 1. austenite transforms to p earlite when cooled below the A1 (see Fig.2. heat ow from the interior of the p iece to the surface controls the cooling rate of internal points. the structure of the ferrite–carbide aggregate formed when the austenite transforms varies markedly with the transformation temperature. Thus heat treatment involves a controlled supercooling of austenite. By controlling the rolling schedule. it is essential to understand the nature of the transformation of austenite at a given. The grain size of the austenite has a marked in uence on transform ation behavior during subsequent cooling and on the size and distribution of the constituents of the nal microstructure. an austenitic slab is being reduced in cross-section typically by deformation through a series of rolls each of which imposes 10–40% d ecrease in thickness. that is with very slow cooling. At high temperatures. either deliberately or otherwise. Phase Transformations. Thus understan ding the effects of this issue becomes relevant. number of grains per unit volume. In order to take full advantage of the wide range of structures and properties that this treatment permits. Tho se found at grain boundaries serve to prevent the boundaries from moving as easi ly as such boundaries would in the absence of these phases. 00 STEEL 23 In practice. Austenite. esp ecially to sheet and strip. it is possible to obtain very ne grain sizes in austenite prior to its subsequent transformation. preselected temperature below the A1. During much conventional processing. recrystallization and g rain growth occur with increasing dif culty. va nadium. Information needed includes the st arting time. the deformed structure recrystallize s. the grains c oarsen rapidly. new small grains form and may coarsen even before reaching the next roll. Fur thermore. Grain size can b e estimated by several methods. The microscopic gra in size of steel is customarily determined from a polished plane section prepare d in such a way as to delineate the austenite grain boundaries. If rolling occurs to temperatures too low to allow recrystalliz ation the grains may be deformed from near-spherical to pancake shaped. Results can be expressed as diameter of average grain in millimeters (reciprocal of the square root of the number of grains per mm2). niobium. and the propert ies are found to vary correspondingly. and the time for comp lete transformation. and/or titanium. 16) temperature. or a gra in size number obtained by comparing the microstructure of the sample at a xed ma gni cation to a series of standard charts. phases other than iron carbide ma y be present. Close to equilibrium. a more detailed knowledg e of the transformation behavior of austenite and the properties of the resultin g aggregates is essential. These are typically carbides (qv) or nitrides (qv) of aluminum. To separate the effects of transformation temperature from those of heat ow. Isothermal Transformation Diagr am. The faster the cooling rate. growth in size of austenite grains is severely constrained. 11. the amount transformed as a function of time. Microscopic Grain Size Determination. As the temperature drops upon passage through the mill.Vol. When t he temperature is increased so that the particles go into solution. When austenite is co oled more rapidly. this transformation occurs at a lower temperature. the lower the temperature at which transformation occurs. number of grains per unit area. which do not dissolve easily in austenite. ie. A convenient . For most specimens. As long as these par ticles exist.

it may be impossible to avoid the formatio n of ferrite and pearlite in parts of the specimen. For this steel. There are several important points relating to these curves. (2) Below 5508C to just > 2008C. either to air or to a liquid such as water or oil. Mf is below room temperature so some unt ransformed austenite is present. Because al most no steel undergoes isothermal transformation. A primary concern in some cases is that for certain steels and cooling rates. Although this leads to a complex set of equations. the effect of heat transfer i s critical. The fraction that forms depends nonlinearly on the unde rcooling below Ms. 18) and provide a practical tool to enable desired structures to be produced in large sections where heat ow is a factor and the overall structure may be nonuniform. the knee of the TTT curve. all transformations are shifted to lower tem peratures as a result of heat transfer. these are well known and characterized. Basically. b ecoming thus harder and stronger. is harder and str onger than any of the other constituents but is much too brittle in this steel t o put in service without further treatment (tempering). and follow the transformation with time. usually acicular. This concept.24 STEEL Vol. rapidly transfer the specimens to a liquid b ath at the desired temperature. The pearlite has a ner spacing as formation temperature decreases. martensite begins to form more or less instantaneously. colonies of pearlite form and grow relatively slowly until all the austenite is consumed. ferrite or cementite begins to form at austen ite grain boundaries at temperatures below the A3 or Acm. as shown schematically by the indications of 50 and 90% trans formation of austenite. the microstructure and properties of the transformation products can be assessed. the precipitation is interrupted by formation of the more rapidly growing pearlite giving a two-phase structure. During the period from beginning to end of tra nsformation. Rather. Sc hematically. put forward in 1930. These data can be summarized on a single graph of transformation temp erature versus time known as an isothermal transformation (IT) diagram or. Increasing the surface cooling rate. On the same sp ecimens. ie. Heat is lost from the surface. respectively. The effects of alloying elements can be very large (Fig. the start of transformat ion takes longer and longer as the transformation temperature falls and the prod uct of transformation is bainite. revolutionized the understanding o f heat treatment. a time–temperature–transformation (TTT) diagram. 00 way to accomplish this is to form austenite in specimens so thin (usually $1-mm thick) that heat ow is not an issue. but thes e reactions do not go to completion. eg. (3) At the Ms temperature. Curves are collected in various refe rence books (32–34). super cially . The hardness increases as the transformation t emperature decreases. during which interval pea rlite forms. Other compositions and grain sizes have different TTT curves. that would give. (4) This curve is valid only for eutectoid steel having a speci c austenite grain size. a ferrite start time to the left of the pearli te start time. more usually. For noneutectoid steels. along w ith representative microstructures and hardness as a surrogate for mechanical pr operties. Figure 17 shows a typical curve for a eutectoid steel. A log scale is used for co nvenience. merging at around 5508C. (1) The start of transformat ion occurs at increasingly short times down to $5508C. This may be undesirable from a property standpoint. Martensite. (5) The effect of austenite grain size is real but relatively small. The exp eriment is repeated at several other transformation temperatures.

may be somewhat de cient in toughness as compared to ne pearlite of the same hardness (33). Although for some applications. This is usually achieved by alloying because increasing austenite grain size has more negatives than pos itives. 11. This treatment causes the martensite to tran sform to ferrite interspersed with small particles of iron carbides. are less ductile than the lower temperature bainites and. bainite microstructures are general ly found to be both harder and tougher than pearlite. yield point of 860–980 MPa (125. reduction of area of between 54 an d 64%. The hardness of martensite increases nonlinearly with i ncreasing carbon content up to the eutectoid composition.000–142. Martensite is tempered by heating to a temperature ranging from 170 to 7008C for 30 min to several hours. within Æ10%. particularly tho se involving wear resistance. Thus. formed near the nose of the isothermal diagram. 00 STEEL 25 attractive as a way of avoiding ferrite and pearlite formation. Bainite properties generally improve as the transformation temperature decreases. increasing carbon and alloy content as well as increasing grain si ze tend to lower . has drawbacks be cause of possible distortion or even cracking during the quench. although as a class pearlite tends to be soft and not very ductil e. As the transformatio n temperature decreases within the pearlite range. grain size. which have de nitely superior and easily controllable properties for most demanding applications. Lower bainite compares favorably with tempered martensite at the sam e hardness and can exceed it in toughness. In a given steel.000 psi) mig ht be expected to exhibit elongation of 16–20%.000 psi). 11. for a given hardness. softer than bainites and martensites. although less hard than ma rtensite. In general. characterized by very desirable toughness at al most any strength. The solution is to change the position of the TTT curve to longer times along the x axis to all ow the same structures to form at slower cooling rates. the hardness of martensite is desirable in spite o f the accompanying brittleness. Figure 19 describes. and homogeneity . Upper bainite. Transformation Rates. For example. this is the structure th at is generally preferred. on the other hand. The main factors affectin g transformation rates of austenite are composition. Tempered martens itic structures are. The hardness of marten site at a given carbon content varies only very slightly with the cooling rate o r with usual alloying elements. a re both harder and more ductile than the coarse pearlites formed at higher tempe ratures. and Brinell hardness of $29 5–320. the interlamellar spacing dec reases. Pearlite.4. and these ne pearlites. Martensite is the hardest and most brittle microstructure obta inable in a given steel.Vol. Higher temp eratures and longer tempering periods cause the cementite particles to increase in size and the steel to become more ductile and lose strength. Tempered Ma rtensite.3. a steel consisting of tempered martensite having an ultimate strength of 1035 MPa (150. as a class. Because of its high ductility at a given hardness. Martensite. its hardness and toughness both increase markedly with decreasing transformat ion temperatures. this microstructure is mainly important as the s tarting material for tempered martensite structures. Pearlites. the mechanical properties of tempered martensite. far less ductile than tempered martensite. regardless of composition. Constituent Properties. Bainite.

Considering rst a relatively low cooling rate (<228C/h ). bainite. Co ntinuous Cooling. 18). t he steel is cooled through the regions in which transformations to ferrite and p earlite occur for the constitution of the nal microstructure. This rate. and martensite elds are traversed and the nal microstructure contains all these constituents. it is generally desirable to use as low a carbon content as possible for achieving the desired mechanical properties becau se toughness. transformation on continuous cooling starts at a lower temperature and after a longer time than the intersection of the cooling curve and the isothermal dia gram would predict. In practice. internal stress.0008C/h. At a higher cooling rate (22–838C/h). pearlite. and weldability are thus improved. This diagram lies below and to the right of the correspon ding isothermal transformation diagram if plotted on the same coordinates. The information is also use ful for interpreting behavior in the more usual case when the cooling proceeds d irectly without interruption. In these processes. 30. A cooling rate of at least 3 0. normalizing. and quen ching. At cooling rates of 1 . The transformation behavior on continuous cooling thus represents an integration of these times by constructing a continuous-cooling tr ansformation diagram at constant rates similar to the isothermal transformation diagram (see Fig. the microstructure is free of proeutectoid ferrite and consists l argely of bainite and a small amount of martensite. such as might be obtained on normalizing a large forging. These effects are re ected in the isothermal transformation curve for a given steel. and can be predi cted with considerable con dence if these factors are known. the nal microstructure. the tendency to form t he various structures is still capable of being represented usefully if schemati cally on a modi ed TTT diagram. Instead. depends on the trans formation behavior of the austenite and the cooling conditions. and therefore the properties of the steel.0008C/h is necessary to obtain the fully martensitic structure desired as a st arting point for tempered martensite. the nal structure con sists of an association of microstructures that were formed individually at succ essively lower temperatures as the piece cooled. However. distortion. the residence time at a single temperature is general ly insuf cient for the reaction to go to completion. That is.0008C/h. as in the case of annealing. the ferrite. This displacement is a function of and increases in direct p roportion with the cooling rate. 00 transformation rates. The basic information depicted by an isothermal transformation diagram illustrates precisely the structure formed if the cooling is interrupte d and the reaction completed at a given temperature. corresponds to the cooling rate at the center of a 60-mm bar quenched in agitated oil. The nal microstructure after continuous cooling dep ends on the time spent at the various transformation temperature ranges through which a piece is cooled.167–30. Figure 18 contains several superimposed cooling -rate curves. This cooling rate c orresponds to a slow cooling in the furnace. . The changes occurring during these cooling cycles illustrate the m anner in which diagrams of this type can be correlated with heat-treating proces ses and used to predict the resulting microstructure in a commonly used CrÀNiÀMo all oy steel (Type 4340). such as might be used in annealing. Thus.26 STEEL Vol.

Therefore. quoted cool ing rates are properly those that occur at a speci ed temperature. normally 7008C. Thus. is known as the critical cooling rate for martensite. at the center in an ideal quench. coolin g rates ordinarily are not constant but vary during the cooling cycle. because if steel is to transform to bainite or marte nsite. It is therefore customary to express hardenability in terms of depth of hardeni ng in a standardized quench. in the steel of Figure 19 the critical cooling rate for martensite is 30. to a lesser degree. The relationships between the cooling rates of the ideal quench and those o f other cooling conditions are known. This rat e. 25-mm diameter and 100-mm long. Steels in which IT diagrams indicate a long time interval before the start of transformation to pearlite are useful when large s ections are to be hardened.Vol. and not to the maximum hardness that can be obtained in a given steel (36). whereas the hardenability (depth of har dening) is far more dependent on the alloy content and. the steel must be cooled through the high temperature transformation ranges at a rate rapid eno ugh for transformation not to occur even at the nose of the IT diagram.38C/s. This condition implies no barrier to heat transfer at the steel–bath interface. which just permits transformation to martensite without earlier transformatio n at a higher temperature. This is known as an ideal quench. The H value fo r the ideal quench is in nity. The maximum hardness depend s almost entirely on the carbon content. DI. In fact. the hardenability values in terms of ideal diameter can be used to predict the size of round or other shape which ha ve the same cooling rate when cooled in actual quenches where cooling severities are known. the cooling rate of the steel always decreases as t he steel temperature approaches that of the cooling medium. In the end -quench or Jominy test. which form the basis for these relationships are called H values. 00 STEEL 27 12. an in nite heat-transfer coef cient at this surface. The cooling severities (usually referred to as severity of quench). ie. It furnishes one method for expressing hardenability. For example. it must escape any transformation to pearlite.0008C/h or 8. Those for some commonly used cooling conditions are given in Table 2. The diameter of a round steel bar. or a corresponding h ardness value. which is quenched to the desired micr ostructure. The quenching condition used in this method of expr ession is a hypothetical (and mathematically exact) one in which the surface of the piece is assumed to come instantly to the temperature of the quenching mediu m. Hardenability Hardenability refers to the depth of hardening or to the size of a piece that ca n be hardened adequately under given cooling conditions. Especiall y when quenching in liquids. a round bar. Although the critical cooling rate can be used to express hardenability. Hardenability is most conveniently measured by a test in whic h a steel sample is subjected to a continuous range of cooling rates. is heated t o the desired austenitizing temperature to control the austenite grain size and quenched in a xture by a stream of water impinging on only one end. Hardness meas urements are made on ats that are ground along the length of the bar after quench ing. on t he grain size of the austenite. The results are expressed as a plot of hardness versus distance from . usually 50% martensite and 50% softer products. is known as the ideal diameter.

In some cases. Such steels are called H steels. For material where the stresses are applied in tension or compression. There can be other advantages. and radiant-heating furnaces provide very rapid heating. heating causes scaling or oxidation. For low alloy steels in a normally loaded furnace. Quenching. which c ontrol the timing of volume changes during austenite transformation. The hardenability of steel is such an important property that it has beco me common practice to purchase steels to speci ed hardenability limits. transformation to martensite throughout the piece is generally advisable. .37).8 m in/mm of diameter or thickness usually suf ces. and may result in loss of carbon near the surface (decarburization). but preheating of the steel may be necessary to avoid distortion or cracking. The primary purpose of many quenching operations is to cool rapidly enough to suppress at least some. The steel is rst heated above the temperature at which austenite becomes stable. Thus.2. salt baths. 1. Compositio n often thus becomes a secondary speci cation.28 STEEL Vol. 13. The temperature should not be hig h enough to produce pronounced grain growth. a nd perhaps all. Excessive heating rates may create high stresses. By careful selection and processing. The actual austenitizing temperature should normally be high eno ugh to dissolve the carbides completely in a practical time— often 30–60 min. Process annealing and stress-relieving are exceptions.1. A ustenitization. and ta ke advantage of the hardening effects of any alloying elements present. 13. Controlled-atmosphere furnaces or salt baths can minimize these effects. 00 the quenched end of the bar. steel is heated above the A3 point and th en cooled at a rate that results in the microstructure that gives the desired pr operties (34. Unless special pr ecautions are taken. 13. and the hardenability can be evaluated in terms of DI by noting the distance from the quenched end at whic h the hardness corresponding to the desired microstructure occurs and using this relationship to establish the corresponding cooling rate or DI value. compressive stresses can be retained in the surface and thereby contribute to improved fati gue life. an d suf cient time must be allowed for uniform heating throughout. Published heat ow tables or charts relate the ideal diameter value to cooling rates in que nches or cooling conditions where H values are known. Heat-Treating Processes In almost all heat-treating processes. undissolved carbides may be de liberately retained for extra wear resistance. the ideal diameter v alue can be used to establish the size of a piece in which the desired microstru cture can be obtained under the quenching conditions of the heat treatment to be used. it is often extravagant in alloy use to produce martensite throughout the pi ece. where the maximum stress is at the surfa ce. such as tool steels or high carbon steels. transformation at temperatures above the Ms temperature. The relationships between the distance from the que nched end and cooling rates in terms of DI are known. Certain types of continuous furnaces. resulting in distortion or cracking. It is important to heat long enough for complete solution. For mat erial to be used in bending or torsion.

The preferred quenching media historically are water. The times and temperatures requ ired for stress relief depend on the high temperature yield strength of the stee l.3. for aircraft landing gear. Oil baths are commonly used for low temperature tempering. the artic le should be transferred immediately to the tempering furnace (Fig. Where this range is unavoidable because of strength requir ements. tempering should follow quenching immediately. rst increases on tempering up to 2008C. these are often an attractive (albeit more expensive) choice. This phenomenon may be affected markedly by composition. Some steels . temperatures of 230–310 8C should be avoided. but that temperatures of 4808C and above are required to reduce these stresses to adequately low values. then decreases on tem pering between 200 and 3108C. Any appreciable delay may promote cracking. there is the possibility of precipitation of alloy carbides from the ferrite at $5008C an d an actual increase in hardness. 20). Recirculating-air furnaces can be used to obtain uniform heating. Thus polymer–water mixtures have found application. although at some expense of strength and hardness. often brittle martensite having high residual st resses. A1. in a p lain carbon steel. it improves ductility. salt baths can be used over a bigger range at higher temperatures. eg. tools and pressure vessels in re neries. and if the heating is not uniform. Quenching forms hard. Then. eg. Cool ing should be long enough to permit complete transformation to martensite. 13. Oils also deteriorate upon use and today can be a dif cult disposal problem.Vol. A gitation of the cooling medium accelerates cooling and improves uniformity. A quenching rate no faster than necessary should be employed to minimize these stresses. T empering. in order to minimize time-dependent cracking from quenching stresses. dang erously high stresses result. These mixtures can have a ran ge of heat abstraction rates and some of the problems with oil can be avoided. because stress relief results from the localized plastic ow that occurs when t he steel is heated to a temperature where its yield strength is less than the in ternal stress. Tempering relieves these stresses and precipitates excess carbon as carb ides. and b rine. In order to minimize cracking. 00 STEEL 29 The cooling rate required depends on the size of the piece and the hardenability of the steel. In some more highly alloyed steels. The toughness of quenched steel. in general. and part icularly by alloy additions. oils. The operation consists of heating at temperatures below the lower critical tempe rature. whereas oil can be a re ha zard. This behavior is characteristic and. heating too rapidly may be dangerous be cause of the sharp temperature gradient set up between the surface and the inter ior. The tempering of martensite results in a contraction. Water a nd brine are often too stringent for satisfactory use. The temperature gradients set up by quenching create high thermal and tran sformational stresses that may lead to cracking and distortion. For steels needing high temperature strength. and nally increases rapidly on tempering at 4258C a nd above. Similarly. as measured by the notch impact test. additions of 1–2% silicon change the rate o f carbide formation and can move the brittle range to higher tempering temperatu res to allow acceptable toughness. Measurements of stress relaxation on tempering indicate that. residual stresses are signi cantly lowered by heating to temper atures as low as 1508C.

and may even be tempered to lower hardness if desire d. 13. 22). usually in molten salt. The carbide size is s ubject to wide variations. Heating may be carried out in an y type of furnace that permits uniform heating and good temperature control. normalizing tends to establish a more uniform and ner carbide particle size th at facilitates subsequent heat treatment. Transfor mation to martensite does not begin until after the piece reaches the temperatur e of the salt bath and is then allowed to cool relatively slowly in air. Annealing. 5.4. 00 lose toughness on slow cooling from $5408C and above. Because the large temperature gradient characteristic of conventional quenching is abse nt. For some alloy steels. Usually. 13. Austempering. rec rystallize cold-worked material. Although an expense. Rapid cooling after tempering is desirable in these cases. it is ordinarily carrie d out by quenching in a molten salt bath just above the Ms temperature. Annealing has two different purposes: to relieve stresses induced by hot. agai n.30 STEEL Vol. the piece may be tempered to the desired strength. Marte mpering. wh ich is an isothermal heat treatment that results in lower bainite.or cold-working. alternatively. the stresses produced by the transformation are much lower and a greater fre edom from distortion and cracking is obtained. The article may then be quenched or air-cooled to room temperature after transformation is complete. less commonly. however . considerably higher temperatures may be used. The purpose of this treatment is to re ne th e hot-rolled structure (often quite inhomogeneous). and to obtain a carbide size and distribution that is more favorable for carbide solution on subsequent heat treatment than the earli er as-rolled structure. Here. depending on the rolling and slow cooling. 21). Normalizing. a phenomenon known as temp er brittleness. or spheroidize carbides. and to soften the steel to improve its machinability or formability. After martempering. Austempering. steel is heated above its upper critica l temperature (A3) and cooled in air. it may involve heating above the upper critical temperature (A3) with subsequent transf ormation to pearlite or. offers an alt ernative heat treatment for obtaining optimum strength and ductility if the spec imens are suf ciently small. . the piece i s held twice as long as the period indicated by the isothermal transformation di agram. the carbides in the as-rolled condition tend to be massive and are dif cult to dissolve on subsequent austenitization. Lower bainite is generally a s strong as and somewhat more ductile than tempered martensite. and kept at t his temperature until transformation is complete (Fig. In austempering the article is quenched to the desire d temperature in the lower bainite region. In this operation. A modi ed quenching procedure known as martempering minimizes the high st resses created by the transformation to martensite during the rapid cooling char acteristic of ordinary quenching (Fig. In alloy steels. this process prov ides more uniform quality in the nished product. directly to a spheroidized structure on cooling. In practice. depending on the nishing temp erature after hot-rolling. The usual practice is to normali ze at 50–808C above the upper critical temperature. particularly if these have been slowly cooled after rolling. It may involve only a subcritical heating to relieve stresses.

The customary heat treatment to develop this microstructu re is a full annealing. illustrated in Figure 23. Thus. Full spheroidization may require long holding times at the subcritical temperature. The most impor tant example of process annealing is the box annealing of cold-rolled low carbon sheet steel. Using some modi cations. called isothermal annealing and illustrated in Figure 24. Such an ope ration is known as subcritical annealing. except for the lower austenitizing temperatures. It is. h owever. It consists of austenitizing a t a relatively high temperature to obtain full carbide solution. hea t treatment to form spheroidized microstructures can be carried out like heat tr eatment for pearlite. transformation in the temperature range where coarse pearlite ordinarily woul d form proceeds to spheroidized rather than pearlitic microstructures. the transformation may be carried out near the nose o f the IT curve. Such steels are customarily annealed to de velop spheroidized microstructures by holding the as-rolled.Vol. or it may be a treatment similar to isothermal annea ling. The method may be slow. the annealing procedures described to produce pearlite c an give spheroidized microstructures. Spheroidi zation Annealing. If extreme softness of the coarsest pearlite is not necessary. If free carbide remains after austenitizin g. but it is simple and may be more convenient than annealing above the critical temperature. Spheroidi zation annealing may thus involve a slow cooling similar to the full-annealing t reatment used for pearlite. An austenitizing temperature not more than 558C above the lower critical t emperature is customarily used for this type of annealing. may save considerable time over the full-annealing process described previously. The sheets are enclosed in a large box that can be sealed to permi t the use of a controlled atmosphere to . Coarse pearlite microstructures are too hard for optimum machi nability in the higher carbon steels. Both may be shortened within limits. This simple heat treatment is reliable for most steels. nor the one from the transformation temperature to room temperature. The pearlite in this case is much ner and harder. usually in special ly designed furnaces. Pr ocess annealing is the term used for subcritical annealing of cold-worked materi als. This is commonly referred to as cycle annealing. or n ormalized materials just below the lower critical temperature range. rather time-consuming because it involves slow cooling over the entire t emperature range from the austenitizing temperature to a temperature well below that at which transformation is complete. slowly cooled. where the transformation is completed rapidly and the operation further expedited. followed by slo w cooling to give transformation exclusively in the high temperature end of the pearlite range. 00 STEEL 31 The most favorable microstructure for machinability in low or medium carbon stee ls is coarse pearlite. Isothermal a nnealing can be conveniently adapted to continuous annealing. Ne ither the time from the austenitizing temperature to the transformation temperat ure. This method. It customarily involves heating at a temperature high enough to cause recry stallization of the cold-worked material and to soften the steel. Isothermal Annealing. Process Annealing. Annealing to coa rse pearlite can be carried out isothermally by cooling to the proper temperatur e for transformation to coarse pearlite and holding until transformation is comp lete. is cri tical.

In carburiz ing. appliances.25-mm deep.6. or. in which case the process is called gas carburizing. This mat erial is particularly suitable for gears. The hardness of nitrided steels arises primarily from the presence of 0.32 STEEL Vol. after which the charge is cooled slowly within the box. Usually it is desirable to have a certain crystallographic texture in the sheet after annealing. which leads to la rge numbers of small precipitates of aluminum nitride [24304-00-5]. as well as the very small scatter in properties. retention of hardness at high temperatures. 13. Develo pments using a hydrogen atmosphere during box annealing for better heat transfer have largely restored the competitiveness against continuous annealing processe s. and containers is to pass the sheet. Carburizing. On quenching after carburizing. The har dened area is about 0. and heating to $9258C for a period of time de pending on the depth desired. alternatively. We ar resistance. Nitriding. and resistance to cer tain types of corrosion are also imparted by nitriding. Carburizing has histor ically been carried out by packing the steel in boxes with carbonaceous solids. 13. under conditions whereby surface hardness is imparted without requiring any further treatment. but the savings in time over box annealing. The o peration usually takes $24 h. Alternativ ely. 00 prevent oxidation. sealing to exclude the atmosphere. The control requirements are thus severe . An intermedi ate treatment that adds both carbon and nitrogen to steel surfaces can be obtain ed by exposing the parts to a bath of molten cyanide at just above the critical temperature of the core for about one hour followed by direct quenching. heat-treated CrÀMo steel parts containing aluminum at $5008 C to the action of a nitrogenous medium. Annealing is usually carried out between 590 and 7158C. This method is called pack carburizing. commonly ammonia gas. . The entire process takes several days. c ontinuously through a long furnace having a carefully designed temperature pro le.7. whereas the low carbon core remains comparatively soft.9–1. the high carbon sk in forms martensite. low carbon steel acquires a high carbon surface layer by heating in contact with carbonaceous materials. consists of subjecting mac hined and. T he nitrogen case-hardening process. the steel may be heated in liquid baths of carburizing salts. An alternative way to anneal the lo w carbon sheet and certain higher strength steels used in large tonnages for aut omobiles. etc. in which case it is known as liquid carburizing. termed nitriding. Further heat treatment s may be necessary to eliminate this or minimize its effects. the latter of course also continue to improve. whic h means that some soft retained austenite may be present. camshafts. makes this an attractive option when capital is available. preferably. The result is a highly wear-resistant exterior over a very tough interior.4% aluminum. and to exercise control over the amounts of carbon and nitroge n remaining in solution in the ferrite. the steel may be heated in contact with carburizing gases. after cold rolling. today. The Mf of the high carbon case may be below room temperature.

today these are largely higher carbon grades where the oxygen in solution from t he melt is lower. silicon. Sulfur in amounts as high as 0. structural shapes. 14. and casting procedures. deoxidizing. depending on t heir carbon content and intended purpose. tubular products. . ladle treatments. semikilled. Rimmed steels having good surfaces are almost extinct. ca rbon steels are assigned to one of three series: 10xx (nonresulfurized).33% max may be deliberately adde d to the 11xx and as high as 0. may be rimmed. Each composition range is assigned an identifying num ber according to an accepted method of classi cation (Table 3). Material is ordered to property and per formance speci cations. by far the largest volume of steel produced.37–0. The gas content depends m ostly on melting.12% max may be added to the 12xx steels to i ncrease stiffness. Consequ ently. or the furnace atmosphere. Killed steels use Al to reduce oxygen in the steel. usually af ter ladle treatment. The other half are cold-rolle d to thin sheet or strip and used directly or with an annealing treatment such a s described above. wheels. although increasingly the property combinations are enhanced by controlled cooling following the last stand of the hot mill for structural shapes. forgings.015% for sulfur and phosphorus easily attainable. as well as gases. and their reaction products. Modern low carbon stee ls are often of such low carbon that the lowest Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) designation. 11xx (r esulfurized). and sulfur that are always present. have the most diverse applications of any metallic engineering materials. These incidental elements are usually acquir ed from scrap. phosphorus up to 0. Carbon Steels Plain carbon steels. the letters x are replaced by two digits representing average carbon content.03%. About half the plain c arbon steels are used in the hot-rolled form. 1005. is not helpful. In this system.Vol. plates.40%. For example. they are dif cult to produce by modern continuous casti ng process. nitrogen. and railway materials such as rails. or fully ki lled (33). Normal practice makes an upper limit of 0. Semikilled have the oxygen content controlled largely by Si and Mn. These pro perties can be controlled by heat treatment as discussed. an AISI 1040 st eel would have an average carbon content of 0. and are used for almost all low carbon sheet products. While desirabl e when ingots were common. phosphorus. Carbon steels are made by all modern steelmaking processes and. Properties. sheet. deoxidizers. and axles . with a tolerance of Æ0. These include castin gs.1. 00 STEEL 33 14. and strip. especially oxygen. In identifying a particular steel. giv ing a range of 0. Certain properties of plain carbon steels may be modi ed by res idual elements other than the carbon. and by ladle metallurgy this can readily be re duced to 0.44% carbon. and hyd rogen. In addition. manganese.35% max to the 12xx steels to improve machinabili ty. wire and wire products. sheet and strip. bars. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has published standard composition rang es for plain carbon steel.003%. and 12xx (rephosphorized and resulfurized). The properties of plain carbon steels are governed principally by carbon content and microstructure.

Although the pearlite does contribute somewhat to tensile stren gth. gives extra s trengthening. The microstructure and properti es of these sections are determined largely by composition. 00 the properties of plain carbon steels can depend heavily on the manufacturing te chniques. weldability. 14. much is < 0. 14. or forged state. are commonly known as microalloyed or high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels (38. The carbon steels havi ng relatively low hardenability do not contain martensite or bainite in the cast . cementite and pear lite. These smaller grain sizes can be produced directly from hot rolling by contr olled recrystallization of the austenite to a ne grain size. and by precipitation in the ferrite at lower temperatures. d. the resulting reduction in ductility and toughness make it much more attrac tive to improve strength. These materials. a relatively recent but increasingly important de velopment. ferrite ordinar ily precipitates at the original austenite grain boundaries during cooling. and heat treatment is usually necessary to reduce the grain size and thereby obtain suitable micros tructures and properties in cast steels. most of the low carbon steels do not rely primarily on pearli te for strength. and ductility properties. The yield strength.4. helps to keep the grai n sizes small. 5 mm has become not at all unusu al. in as much as cooling through the critical range is slow. This diagram is an illustration of the effect of carbon content when microstructure and grain size are held approximately constant. Hot Working.1% C. In hypoeutectoid steels.5-cm bars of carbon s teels as a function of carbon content are shown in Figure 25. Cast steel is generally coa rsegrained because austenite forms at high temperature and the pearlite is usual ly coarse.39). and of the hypereutectoid steels. alth ough ferrite often precipitates as plates within individual austenite grains. sy. The addition of small amoun ts of carbide and nitride formers. These levels are often < 0. V. the gr eat bulk of tonnage used is at low carbon levels. and cooling conditions. y ¼ A þ BÁdÀ1=2 Thus where 25–50 mm was once conside red quite appropriate for a ferrite grain size. and toughness simultaneously b y concentrating on reducing the ferrite grain size in a lower carbon material (3 8).3. Such large-grained mixtures of ferrite or cementite and coarse pearl ite have poor strength. cementite is similarly pr ecipitated.2. rolled. The average mechanical properties of as-rolled 2. which in turn leads to many more independently nucleated ferrite grains. Many carbon steels a re used in the form of as-rolled nished sections. The rolling or hot working of these sections is ordinari ly carried out in the tempera- . such as Nb. particularl y if the casting is cooled in the mold. Microstructure and Grain Size. Although the diagram is representative.2% C. ductility. has been shown (39) to increase with the inverse squ are root of the ferrite grain size.34 STEEL Vol. and Ti. The constituents of the hypoeutectoid steels are ther efore ferrite and pearlite. rolling procedures. As of today. toughness. In hypereutectoid steels. assist ed by water cooling of the material out of the last rolling stand. 14. Microstructure of Cast Steels. es pecially if these are large.

Cold Working. some products. genera lly more rapidly than tensile strength. and . or occur as deliberate addition s of carbide and/or nitride formers as in HSLA. The effect of cold working on the tensile strength of pla in carbon steel is shown in Figure 26. during which the steel recrystal lizes several times. and other variables. and dendrites and inc lusions are reoriented. depends on how and at what temperature this au stenite transforms during the subsequent cooling. The ultimate microstructure. particul arly wire.5.or cold-rol led structure depends on the type of further processing to be applied. A large I-beam cools slowly. tending to eliminat e some. bar. and the nal austenitic grain size is determined by the temperature a t which the last passes are made (the nishing temperature). anging. The option of annealing a hot. it rarely is seriously deleterious to engineering applications. cold rolling. The moderate cold wo rk produced by the drawing to a nal size is helpful to obtaining good chip format ion during machining. Heat Treatment. with four principal effects: consid erable homogenization occurs during the heating for rolling. in the directions parallel and normal to the rolling direction.6. These may be product s of the steelmaking process during deoxidation. 00 STEEL 35 ture range in which the steel is austenitic. The yield strength also increases. the original microstructure an d properties may be substantially restored. hot rolling. but never all. of the dendritic segregation present in the ingot. or other large plastic deformat ion modes necessitate careful combinations of advanced steelmaking. recrystallization takes place dur ing rolling. Although many wrought (rolled or forged) carbon steels are used without a nal heat treatment. Upon reheating cold-worked ste el to the recrystallization temperature ($4508C) or above.Vol. and tubular products often includes cold working. which thus also cools slowly. extent of cold working. The austenite grain size at the end of hot rolling. For examp le. The manufacture of wire. in the rolling directi on. Th e most pronounced effects of cold working are increased strength and hardness an d decreased ductility. so cold working is a cost-effective meth od of strengthening if ductility is not critical. At the other extreme. wi th effects that may be eliminated by annealing. 14. depending on composit ion. Rolling serves to reduce the length scales ove r which these inhomogeneities occur to a few tens of micrometers normal to the r olling direction. strip. t his may be employed to improve the microstructure and properties for critical ap plications if the cost can be justi ed. the de ndritic structure is broken up during rolling. the exceptional ductility requiremen ts of a material to be shaped by drawing. sheet. and thus properties and performance. The inhomogeneities in composition inherent in the solidi cation process are i n practice never totally removed. 14. are used in the coldworked condition to give inexpensive strength. followed by slow c ooling to produce a fairly coarse ferrite–pearlite structure. but hot-rolled sheet is normally coiled fr om the mill directly at a predetermined temperature into a large torus weighing several tons. However. such as toughness and ductility. is sensitive to undissolved particles. with markedly improved ductility. Section size has important ram i cations. Although this can lead to some anisotropy of properties. the forces required to cold draw a section prior to nal machining may be too high if the specimen is not given a full anneal above the A3.

The effec t can be masked for a time by a light skin pass prior to leaving the rolling mil l. chromium. Alloying elements such as nickel.7. and copper. The growing use of HSLA steels has greatly reduced the quenching and tempering of carbon steels to provide noticeably stronger materials without the use of expensive alloys. which ma y have been introduced during deoxidation. and aluminum. 00 annealing. or even higher. oxygen. To avoid this. Tin. carbon steels may cont ain small amounts of hydrogen. but as nitrogen diffuses over a period of several days at room temperature du ring shipment or storage. the high nitrogen can be combined with nitride formers (V. Steels made in the electric furna ce tend to have higher nitrogen and are thus not able to make the most dif cult ty pes of deep-drawing sheet as of this writing.36 STEEL Vol. the increased har dness and lower ductility imparted by these elements needs to be carefully watch ed. is possible with a hydrogen content of more than $3 ppm. however. unless car e is taken. the effect of tin in the quantities ordinarily present is n egligible. molybdenum. however. Nitrogen can be a relatively harmful element in BOP steels unless special precautions are taken. which may have bee n present in the scrap. N ormalizing is still used to reduce variability in hot-rolled material if the eco nomics can be justi ed. can increase the hardenability. titanium. However. phosphorus. manganese. vanadium. and silicon that are always present. where. However. is harmful in steels for deep drawing. or zirconium. because the concentrations are ordinarily low. The bubbles leaving also serve to carry off some of the nitrogen. Nb. The content of hydrogen and other gases can. molybdenum. or nitrogen. chromium. nitrogen is more soluble and has a higher diffusivity. This can lead to ugly surfac e markings totally unsuitable in automobile or appliance applications. sulfur. even in low amounts. the effect reappears. The tendency toward lower carbon steels has mi nimized the utilization of pearlite as a structural constituent. the mechanism of which is still debated. be redu ced by vacuum dagassing. . which may be introduced with scrap. A smaller atom than carbon. The increase in quality and reproducibility in these materials in the last two decades has been impressive. appliances. introduced during the steelm aking process. N itrogen is not easily removed by vacuum treatment. In addition to carbon. nickel. the heat-treating characteristics may change. For most ap plications. and for applications in which duc tility is important. although only slightly. whereby the carbon and oxygen left in solution after steelmaking react t o form carbon monoxide under a vacuum in the ladle degasser. 14. and/or Ti) to take it out of solution in t he ferrite and enable high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with yield strengths in the 500þ Mpa range. and tin. copper. An embrittling effect in heavier sections. as in low carbon steels for deep drawing. The demands of consumers for aesthetic and functional requirements ar e passed through such product manufacturers as autos. deformation can be quite inhomogeneous. Residual Elements. Thus nitrogen can be particularly deleterious to the properties of sheet steel. the ability to produce interstitial-free steels (42) low in carbon and nitrogen has been ac hieved. steel normally ki lled with aluminum ties up nitrogen as AlN in addition to its other functions. and the steelm aker. During the 1990s.

Here the copper and tin form a liquid alloy that can penetrate grain boundaries and cause surface cracks. are ordinarily present in such small amounts as to be ineffective. the enhance d electric properties of silicon steels. . The other elements that may be introduced as deoxidizers. increas ing the fraction of pearlite (resulting in ductility and toughness problems). alloy tool steels.6 wt %. and need slightly larger amounts to le ad to HSLA steels. such as titanium. The principal classes of alloy steels in decreasin g order of volume are HSLA (usually as hot-rolled). TOOL MATERIALS). Exam ples are the increased corrosion resistance of high chromium steels. Functions o f Alloying Elements. aluminum tends to promote graphitization and is therefore undesirable in steels used at high temperatures. Alloy Steels For slightly < 10% of products. As the understanding of the origin of proper ties developed. stainless steels (cast or wrought). Processing improvements on relia ble composition control and tight control of the rolling schedules lead to very attractive and economical combinations of properties in the hot-rolled condition (38. vanadium. 15. or zirconium. and in a few cases the corrosion resistance in ambient air has also been bette r. the weldability is also improved . and nonstainless heat-resistant steels. High Strength Low Alloy Steels.Vol. and at much lower levels the improved s trength of the HSLA steels. alloying elements are introduced to produce prop erties not available for carbon steels where the functional elements are usually only considered to be carbon. electrical steels (la rgely iron–silicon). toughn ess and ductility were improved simultaneously. Even though the tonnage of these specialized steels may be small. On e or more alloying elements may be critical to the resulting properties. 15. increasing the strength of steel involved producing dispersions of carbide s by quenching and tempering (accompanied by cost and joining problems).2.6%). Because the carbon content is lower. or cold working (ductility problems). In this way. Copp er. Until the 1 970s. In structural steels. Copper and tin can create a rough surface condition during ho t rolling through a process called hot shortness. and the improved hardenability and tempering charact eristics of AISI alloy steels. and be able to dispe rse small amounts of very ne alloy carbides or carbonitrides. is relatively rare compared to the ubiq uitous silicon and manganese. Some ve ry specialized steels have been developed to meet exceptionally harsh service re quirements.40–43). 00 STEEL 37 Aluminum is generally desirable as a grain re ner and tends to reduce the suscepti bility of carbon steel to aging associated following deformation. which may be present up to 0. and manganese (to 1. although 30% is a more common upper limit. Alloy steels may contain up to $50% of alloying elements wh ich directly enhance properties. silicon (to 0. AISI alloy steels (usually q uenched and tempered).65%). Th e most important advance was to re ne the ferrite grain size. th e importance to modern technology may be huge if the task is only feasible with the speci c alloy (see HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS.1. 15. other mechanisms began to be attractive to produce inexpensive s teels having good combinations of the properties essential for service needs.

during forming some of the austenite transforms to martensite increasing both strength and uniform ext ension. (3) Suf ciently rapid cooling of low (<0. is a common form in which sulfur is present. This leads to poor through thickness ductility. that grow th of carbonitride precipitates occurs during coiling. not so slowly. although the toughness is degraded. . MnS. Nb. Ti. are suf ciently stronger so that during hot rolling thes e remain essentially spherical and give more nearly isotropic mechanical propert ies.5% manganese gives martensite islands in a ferrite matri x after rapid cooling. bainite and austenite at room temperature. Adequate toughness in these st eels requires controlled rolling (38). (4) Simple normalizing for some steels. Other alloy effects in these steels are in the control of the shape o f sul de inclusions. Phosph orus is also used for its strengthening effects alone. USS’s Cor-Ten A (dating from 1930 but still useful!). and are a growing fraction of the market with the plan to make li ghter vehicles. of car bon steels containing 1. (5) Intercritical annealing. eg. TiS. whic h uses small amounts of copper and phosphorus to improve atmospheric corrosion r esistance. those containing vanadium. 00 Several types of processing that contribute to these desirable properties are as follows: (1) Controlled rolling of steels having small amounts of carbon and ni trogen containing V. CaS. eg . There are several hundred types of steels that use these principles sepa rately or in combination. ie.38 STEEL Vol. These dual-phase steels are useful in parts needing good yield strength which are to be deformed before service. an d titanium(II) sul de. ie. Subsequent cool ing leads to very ne ferrite grains. in the a þg range. There is a developing market for these inclusion-shape-controlled steels. auto wheels. This is a product with a low initial yield strength but r apid work hardening and increased ductility. this is soft and ductile at rolling temperatures and is thus in the for m of stringers. many are proprietary. rolling to low temperatures in the austenite range or into the austenite–ferrite range produces deformed pancake grains. These elements also produce signi cant solid solution hardening. thus leading to a strengt h loss. however. (2) Accelerated coolin g from the hot mill after controlled rolling in the austenite range produces equ iaxed ferrite while avoiding acicular ferrite. Some of these are generic. Manganese(II) sul de. as well as the dual-phase steels. the ductilit y perpendicular to the rolling direction. Some other s teels that fall into related categories are the various longstanding proprietary weathering steels. calcium sul de.08%) carbon in steels having enough hardenability produces low carbon bainite. The pancake grain structure can lead to anis otropy of properties or in extreme cases to delamination. (6) A more recent entry in this eld are the TRIP (the acronym for TRansformation Induced Plasticity) that aided steels which are low alloy but co ntain ferrite. Among them are various microalloyed ferrite–pearlite steels having limited pearlite amo unts and the low carbon bainites. can give suf cient ferrite grain re nement for these s teels to be attractive. but slowly enough that carbonitrides can precipitate in the ferrite duri ng coiling. and/or Zr in the austenite produces fully recrystal lized ne austenite grains. e g. Other sul des. eg.

00 STEEL 39 Finally. c obalt. silicon. 0. and weldability with joints showing full joint ef ci ency when welded with low hydrogen electrodes. 15. 60%.25% copper can be helpful in minimizing loss of toughness. hydrogen in relatively small amounts can lead to cracking. The effect of the alloying elements on AISI steels i s indirect because alloying elements control microstructure through their effect on hardenability. copper. bars. A class of q uenched and tempered low carbon constructional alloy steels has been very extensively used in a wide variety of applications such as pressure vessels. Steels that contain 4% or more of chromium are included by convention among the special types of alloy steels known as stainless steels (45. that develop hig h carbon martensite upon quenching.65%.60%. These elements permit the attainment of desirable microstruct ures and properties over a much wider range of sizes and sections than is possib le with carbon steels. columbium (niobium). They are also referred to as c onstructional alloy steels. In some ways. Quenched and Tempered Low Carbon Constructional Alloy Steels. tungsten. and semi n- . which is so important in formability. 0. If the presence of hydrogen cannot be adequately lower ed by the ladle treatment. It has long been known that the maximum ductility in steel sheet. but also as sheet products. and in large steel structur es (see TANKS AND PRESSURE VESSELS). by adding small quantities of carbide and nitride stabilizers. They are most commonly used in th e form of plates. minimum yield strengths of 690 MPa (100. chromium up to 3. If these can be reduced < 50 ppm. combinations of low carbon and silicon. carbon and nitrogen in solution are reduce d. boron. 1 5. 1. The low carbon martensites are characterized by a relatively high strength. but the harmful effects of strain aging and quench aging essentially disappe ar.000 psi) . nickel. inclusion sha pe control. especially a s the strength increases. titanium. or in which a de nite range or a de nite minimum quantity of any of the following elements is speci ed or required within the limits of the recogn ized eld of constructional alloy steels: aluminum. Steels tha t fall within the AISI de nition have been standardized and classi ed jointly by AIS I and SAE (see Table 3). any residual i nterstitials are tied up as precipitates. and < 0. such as the AISI alloy steels. molybdenum. By vacuum treatment in the ladle. interstitial-free (IF) steels are p rimarily carbon steels having deliberately low yield strength. these steels are referr ed to as low carbon martensites to differentiate them from constructional alloy steels of higher carbon content.Vol. not only does the ductility approach 50% and the yield strength decrea se.3.99%. zi rconium. Many of the same principles apply as for other alloy steels (42). These represent by far the largest alloy steels product ion and are generally known as AISI alloy steels. vanadium. AISI Alloy Steels. 15. depends on the carbon and nitrogen in solution in the ferrite.5. As a general class. The America n Iron and Steel Institute de nes alloy steels as follows: ‘‘steel is considered to be alloy steel when the maximum of the range given for the content of alloying ele ments exceeds one or more of the following limits: manganese.4. These IF steels are becoming increasin gly important both on their own and as a base for the hot dip galvanizing common ly used for increased corrosion resistance.46). mining and earth-moving equipment. or any other alloying element added to obtain a desired alloying effect’’ ( 44). good toughness down to À458C. Interstitial-Free Steels. forgings. structural shapes.

Examples are (1) pitting corrosion. The last are high speed tool steels that contain large amounts of carbide-forming element s. Germany. to which alloying elements have been added to impart hardenability hi gher than that of plain carbon tool steels. and the United States shared in the early development of stainles s steels. Stainless steels are more resistant to rusting and staining than plain carb on and low alloy steels (47–50). The higher chromium–iron alloys were developed in the United States from the early twe ntieth century on. hence Grades 316 and 317. these steels may be har dened in heavier sections or using less drastic quenches to minimize distortion. or vanadium. molybdenum. nickel. wear-res istant carbides. an understandable pattern. under some circumstances very localized and potentially damaging corrosion can occur. which can be deep enough to penetrate sheet and that can be mitigated by the addition of 2–3% molybdenum. 15. 00 ished products. Increasing the chromium content is valuable for resisting general (uniform) corrosion. the U nited Kingdom. Further work led to the widely used versatile 18% chromium–8% nickel steels. but also to increase secondary hardening thereby allowing operation at red heat. which is in four general ranges. However. 20% c hromium seems to be the minimum amount necessary for oxidation resistance at 109 08C. The corrosion resistance is primar ily dependent on the chromium content. when the effect of chromium on oxidation resistance at 10908C was rst noticed. (2) grain boundary attack where carbides have formed at grain bound aries. which can be prevented by low carbon contents. It was suggested that this composition be used for cutlery. however. The second group is that of intermediate alloy tool steels. and molybdenum.7.40 STEEL Vol.6. In fact. There is. such as copper. Alloy Tool Steels. these are usually minor relative to chromium in their usefulness. Although other elements. the so-called 18–8.8 % chromium and 0. especially welding. Compositions are proprietary. Several steel-producing companies manufacture such steels under various trade names. The austenitic iron–chromium–nickel alloys were developed in Germany $1910 in a search for materials for use in pyrometer tubes. which permit . Accordingly. For steels containing appreciable quantities of nickel. Stainless Ste els. which serve not only to furnish wear-resisting carbides. 0. The many composit ions would appear to make the role of individual elements dif cult to understand. Allo y tool steels are classi ed roughly into three groups.24% carbon was reported. in speci c ways. 18%. 15. aluminum. These ranges fall $5%. re ecting the nature of the protective oxide lm formed. hence the L grades (<0. These form hard. This superior corrosion resistance results from t he presence of chromium. also increase corrosion resistance. The rst consists of alloy to ol steels. a nd 25%. a corrosion-resistant composition containing 12. the composition of AISI Type 420 steel (12–14% chro mium. which usually conta in elements such as tungsten. Oxidation resistance increased markedly as the chromium content was raised > 20%. and the grades listed contain these amounts of chromium. often by secondary hardening during tempering $5008C. during the search for steel that would resist fouling in gun barrels. In the United Kingdom in 1912. by avoiding heat treatments.03% C).15% carbon) is similar to that of the rst corrosion-resistant steel. sili con. 10–13%.

brittleness from large grains is a drawback in thes e steels. whereby cracks. the Ms can be near or even above room temperature. and for blades and bucke ts in steam turbines. A bcc phase. val ve seats. and speci c environments. especially those requiring a durable c utting edge. and Al. 4 20. form under the simultaneous action of stress. A number of proprietary types have not been listed . the austenite is stable and formable and increasingly nds both industrial and domestic uses. especially chlorides in contact with austenitic steels. from an applied loa d or more insidiously from residual stresses. hence Grade s 321 and 347. or. 440C. I t is also used for parts of furnaces operating < 6058C. Adding several p ercent of nickel to an iron–chromium alloy can allow austenite to exist metastably or stably down to ambient temperature. Martensitic stainless steels include Types 403. Using more n ickel. Nb. In the annealed c ondition. the structure is bcc from room temperature to th e melting point. 501. Type 420. usually transgranular. eg. it is important to be able to form 100% austenite rst. this grade may be drawn or formed. even in a 17% chromium steel. it is necessary to ha ve at least 12% chromium and only very small amounts of elements that stabilize austenite. 440A. The next step to comprehending the ma ny grades of stainless steel lies in understanding the crystal structure of the iron-rich matrix. Austenitic steels are extremely va luable structural components in a wide variety of applications. and (3) stress corrosion cracking (SCC). 416. if the carbon is high eno ugh.50% chromium and <0. Because there are no phase transform ations to re ne the structure. Type 301. Type 4 10 is used extensively in the petroleum industry for ballast trays and liners. For these materials. or sometimes a hexagonal close -packed E phase. The several types in the 300 series have other speci c alloys l argely to control the various forms of localized corrosion or to improve the cre ep strength. is used for cutlery. which contains 11. carbon extends this range so it is possible to have all austenite prior to quenching in a 12% chromium carbon steel. 414. and 502 (see Table 4). The austenite eld in iron exists over an increasingly small tem perature range as chromium is added and disappears at $12% chromium. which encourage the bcc structure. and can give very high strengths. can then form martensitically. They nd considerable use in structures at high temperatures where the l oads are small and toughness is not critical. Type 440 may be employed for surgical instruments. it is used for valves. Ti. 440B. Depending on composition. It is an air-hardening steel. The standard AISI types with the Uni ed Numbering System (UNS) design ation are identi ed in Table 4. such as Mo. In bar form. may also be in these steels. The . These are for speci c uses. Thus. 431. with $0. Composition changes do not give ef fective control cheaply and great care remains necessary to avoid SCC in process units operating at a few hundred degrees. 410. offer ing a wide range of properties by heat treatment.15% carbon. which justify their substantial cost. The most widely used is T ype 410.50–13. and shafting where corrosion and wear resistance are needed. In sheet or strip form. Some elements. to ma ke the martensitic grades. Fortunately. For the ferrite grades.Vol. 00 STEEL 41 carbide precipitation or by adding carbide formers such as Ti or Nb. valve stems.35% carbon and a resultant increased har dness. Martensitic St ainless Steels. especially if the material is pl astically deformed.

to which it is resistant. . B.03% carbon max. and 4 46 (see Table 4). 305. These grades are also air-hardened. It can be readil y welded.10% carbon. commonly known as 1 8–8. but carbide precipitation must be avoided in and near the weld by cool ing rapidly enough after welding. Type 446 is used in sheet or strip form up to 11508C. Grades commonly include Types 405. 309. 430F. Types 321. and thus has application in combustion chamber for domestic heating furnaces. 304L. Austenitic Stainless Steels. 304. Furthermore. In some austenitic stainl ess steels. 439.42 STEEL Vol. it is also employed in equipment for the manufacture and ha ndling of nitric acid (qv). using proper techniques. The former has >0. although its high temperature strength is only slightly better than that o f carbon steel. but may be formed with care. 317. 302B. B oth contain 4–6% chromium. In alloys having 17% chromium or more. Types 501 and 502 have wide ap plication in the petroleum industry for hot lines. dairy installations.(qv).12% carbon or less and 14–18% chromium. bubble towers. It may be deep-drawn or stretch formed. The most widely used austenitic stainless steel is Type 304. and 347. Type 446 is widely used for furnace parts such as muf es. paper. Type 430 does not have hig h creep strength but is suitable for some types of service up to 8158C. 00 necessary hardness for different applications can be obtained by selecting grade A. as in one proprietary steel and Types 201 and 202 (see Table 4). because of its austenitic structur e. 314. This can be mitigated to some deg ree but not eliminated. 303. At one time widely used for automotive and architectural trim. They include Types 301. has become the principal alloy in this area. Some varia nts of Type 446 are available for severe applications. Becaus e of its high chromium content. Type 409. It has excellent corrosion resistance and. Where carbide precipitation presents problems. containing 0. 308. the corrosion resistance of Type 430 is superior to that of the martensitic grades. Its resistance to nitric and other oxidizing acids makes it suitable for chemical-processing equipment. The high (23–27%) chromium content of Type 446 imparts excellent heat resist ance. Accor dingly. 430. or 304L may be used. excellent ductility. including kitchen equipment and utensils. transpor tation equipment. with increasing carbon content in that order. 436. 316L.10% and the latter <0. all or part of the nickel is replaced by manganese and nitrogen in p roper amounts. Ferritic steels are iron–chromium alloys not hard enable by heat treatment. and 442. 316. 310. and annealing baskets. This grade does not have the good drawing characteristics of Type 430. Aust enitic steels. or C. burner sleeves. Other martensitic gra des are Types 501 and 502. The most common ferri tic grade is Type 430. which is readily available today. Ferritic Stainless Steels. developed as a less expensive replacement for Type 430 in automotive application s such as trim and catalytic converters. chemical-. 347. formed. and oil-. welded. but do not have the corrosion resistance of the 12% chromium grades. The L refers to 0. based on iron–chromium– nickel alloys. and pl ates. and food-processing (qv) mac hinery. and. are not hardenable by heat tre atment and are predominantly austenitic. newer grades are 434. The applications of Types 304 are wide and varied. an insidious em brittlement occurs in extended service $4758C. valves. 321. Type 430 may be drawn. 302. 409.

Vol. sulfurous. The addition of 2–4% molybdenum to the basic 18–8 composition produces Type s 316 and 317. Conventional high temp erature equipment includes steam (qv) boilers and turbines. because of its l ower carbon content. AND BIOMEDICAL DEVICES). Steels are constantly under development to meet thes e requirements (52). For exam ple. and can be used to withstand severe corrosive conditions in the paper. 15. The term high temperature se rvice covers many types of operations in many industries. however. and 314 where the hig her Si contributes signi cantly. PROSTHETICS. hydrogenation vessels. The austenitic stainless steels are w idely used for high temperature services. For several years. Where unusual conditions occur. 310. modi cation of the chemical composition may adapt an existing steel grade to service conditions. requiring metals of great high temperature strength for both power units and structures. and hydrochloric acids. entirely new alloy combinations must be developed to meet service requirements. Types 321 and 347 have additions of ti tanium and niobium. Type 304L may be used as an alte rnative for Types 321 and 347 in welding (qv) and stress-relieving applications < 4268C. its drawing properties are not as good as those of Type 302 or 304. nickel-based alloys strength ened by compounds such as Ni3Al have been used in single crystal form. TiAl. gas turbines. The next generation seems likely to be based on intermetallic compounds. Heat-Resisting Steels. and other industries. but it can be cold-rolled to very high strength. these steels resist scaling at temperatures up to 1090 and 11508C and consequ ently are used for furnace parts and heat exchangers. They are somewhat harder a nd not as ductile as the 18–8 types. although Type 301 can be dra wn successfully. The melting point of iron (1536 8C) is high but not high enough. High Temperature Service. and chemical industries where strong sulfates. but may still be drawn and formed. and are used in welding applications and high temperature service under corrosive conditions. These are also used in some surgical implants (see B IOMATERIALS. the aircraft and missile industries have encountered design problems of inc reased complexity. 00 STEEL 43 The low nickel content of Type 301 causes it to harden faster than Type 304 on a ccount of reduced austenite stability. The temperatures needed for high performance turbines are s o high that iron base alloys are not contenders. Type 301. Types 316 and 317 have the hi ghest creep-rupture strengths of any commercial stainless steels. In some cases. are used in such concentrations that the use of corrosionres istant alloys is mandatory. 8. The austenitic stainl ess steels most resistant to oxidation are Types 309. respectively. such as titanium aluminide. heat-treating furnaces. is not as prone as Type 304 to give carbide precipitation p roblems in welding. Type 303 containing sulfur or selenium may be used. paper. although Types 347 and 310 may show lower creep rates in certain ranges. chemical. if ductility problems can be controlled. Types 309 and 310 can be welded readily and have increasing use in the manufacture of indu strial furnace equipment (see HIGH TIMEPRATURE ALLOYS). cracki ng stills. For applications requiri ng better machinability. chlorid es. and ttings for diesel and other internal-combustion engines. These grades are employ ed in the textile. and phosphates. Because of their high chromium and nickel content s. Accordingly. acetic. which have improved corrosion resistance. Numerous steels are available. tar stills. and reducing acids such as sulfuric. .

heavily cold-drawn ne pearlite where th e strength can be > 3500 MPa (507. For many steels.500 psi). and/or toughness. duc tility. and only the simplest design c onsiderations have been mentioned herein (see HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS). When the load is removed.40% carbon alloy steel to give a usable yield in the range of 1800–2000 MPa (261.000–246. or 27% chromium. The metal is expected to behave essentially in an elastic manner. The behavio r of steels at high temperature is quite complex. and Cu.44 STEEL Vol. Nb. the material can be cooled without quenching to am bient temperature and subsequently aged $5008C to form the hardening compound in . by using an unstable austenit e (Ms above room temperature) so a body-centered phase can exist in large amount s after cooling. where rapid oxidation comme nces and a chromium-bearing steel must be employed. steel s containing 25% chromium and 20% nickel. This process has been used . The 2% chromium steels containing molybdenum are useful up to $6 208C. In spite of the fact that plain carbon steel has l ower resistance to creep than high temperature alloy steels. One of the earliest materia ls for ultrahigh strength was piano wire. A different way of reaching high strengths is to use alternat ive precipitates to cementite and alloy carbides. 15. any form of carbon as a contributor to strength needs great care. for instance. Al. even though the desi gn data may have been based on tension tests at the temperature of interest. Above this te mperature. in austenite at $10008C.9. A structure designed according to the principles employed for room temperature se rvice continues to deform with time after load application. Low alloy steels containing small amounts of chromium and molybdenum have higher creep strengths than carbon steel and are employed where materials of somewhat higher strength are needed. eg. For specialized uses however. the behavior is different. the austenitic 18–8 steels are commonly used.000–290. After dissolving the precipitable elements. where weight is critical and high cos ts are acceptable. 00 A number of steels suitable for high temperature service are given in Table 5. Above $5408C.500 ps i) are not often used or required in steels because of dif culties in joining. the amount of chromium required to impart oxidation resistance inc reases rapidly. the structure retur ns to its original dimensions. Mi scellaneous High Strength Steels. Mo. Strengths above 1400– 1700 MPa (203. Their oxidation resistanc e is considered adequate up to $8158C. For service between 815 and 10908C. is the structu re undergoes an elastic deformation immediately upon load application and no fur ther deformation occurs with time. it is possible to achiev e such strength (see HIGH PRESSURE TECHNOLOGY) (53).000 psi) by melting and adding enough silicon so that the tempering temperature can be raised to give adequate ductility. whereas 10–14% chromium steels may be employed up to $700–7608C. are used. At high temperature. Early efforts in this area cam e from making stainless steels of very low carbon. It is possible to quench and temp er a 0. for aircraft landing gear. its price allows it to be widely used in such applications up to 5408C. T he design of load-bearing structures for service at room temperature is generall y based on the yield strength or for some applications on the tensile strength. Thi s deformation with time is called creep: the design stresses at which it can be important are relatively low.

yield strengths of 12% nick el steel in the range of 1035–1380 MPa (150. The rst iron–nickel martensitic alloys c ontained $0. Steels containing $1% silicon are used for reactors. reactors. used mainly in rotors and stators of motors and gener ators.000 psi) after the aging treatment. Yield strengths up to 1590 MPa (230. most countries have an active steel industry. molybdenum. As a result. 20 or 25% nickel. The grain-oriented steels. relays. 15. Intermediate silicon steels (2. and tough when subjected to an aging treatment at $4808C. 000–300. and still more recently a series of 12% nickel steels containing chromium and m olybdenum came on the market.5–3. these silicon steels permitted the development of more powerful electrical equipment and have furthered the rapid growth of the electr ical power industry. strong. The rs t contain $0. An important item in this array of materials is the class known as maraging steels. Economic Aspects The production of steel is of great importance in most countries because modern civilization depends heavily on steel. They are processed in a proprietary way and have directional p roperties related to a preferred orientation of the large crystals.5% silicon. The nonorien ted steels are subdivided into low. and low hysteresis loss when used in magnetic circuits. containing $3.5% Si) are used i n motors and generators of average to high ef ciency and in small.550 psi) can be obtained. Steels containing 0. molybdenum.Vol. Silicon Steel Electrical Sheets.00% but more recently 6% Si) are used in power transformers and hig h ef ciency motors. High silicon steels (histo rically 3. alt hough this can be reduced when necessary to optimize other properties in these p recipitation hardening (PH) steels. and transformers. and in communications equipment. Similarly. the 18% nickel steel can attain yield strengths of 1380–2070 MPa (200. intermediate.5–1. 16. and titanium was medium-size intermittent-duty transformers. and motors. Selected silicon steels are characterized by relatively high permeability. an d titanium. which at one time was . are used in the highest ef ciency distribution and power transformers and in large tu rbine generators. By adjusting the content of cobalt. and 1. and high silicon steels.10. high electrical resis tance.5% aluminum and titanium. 00 STEEL 45 the bcc phase.000 psi) can be developed by adj usting its composition. Late r an 18% nickel steel containing cobalt. generators. First patented in the United Kingdom 1900.25% silicon.01% carbon.75–5.5–2.5–5% silicon are produced in sheet form f or the laminated magnetic cores of electrical equipment and are referred to as e lectrical sheets (54).000–200. Carbonfree iron–nickel martensite with certain alloying e lements is relatively soft and ductile and becomes hard. the raw material for many industries. This group of high nickel martensitic st eels contain so little carbon that they are often referred to as carbon-free iro n–nickel martensites (54). and small in termittent-duty transformers.

Much tonnage of carbon steel was available in the mid-1990s at $0. Since almost all countries had the capacity to produce more steel than they c onsumed. As noted earlier a tightness of basic materials. As of the last few years. imports reached 26% of consumption. Around 1980. mostly galvanized. is playing an increasingly important role as demands for longer life become an i ssue (Fig. The redistribution of individual producers has b een very signi cant as dif cult economic times led to closures. even doubling in some cases. 27) (56). overcapacity was $25% and pric es became at at best. and cash ow is an important consideration in a capital intensive operati on. Coated material. Through the 1970s the world price of steel continu ed to increase with in ation. and the USSR (now CIS) has dropped signi cantly.000 t/ year. The United States. has sent prices much higher. but on the whole the ste el industry has not lost a principal market since beverage cans were lost to alu minum in the 1970s. Germany. Production. How long this will continue is speculative. modest price increases began to st ick. Under these conditions.and co ld-rolled. the United States in its own market is very often the low cost producer following massive cost reduction in the 1980s. By 2000. not very different from the 1979 price and of much better qualit y. China continues to expand hugely with a reported target of 300þ MM tons/year. and Japan have at best s lightly increased capacity. both hot. by 1995. Sheet. bankruptcies and mer gers worldwide. Prices. United States production is now $100. The United States can export a few million tons per year at a pro t. dominates at $60% of production. The production amounts of var ious products in the United States are shown in Table 7. imports were averaging 20% and included some semi nished . 16. Trade is much more at market prices that re ec t the real cost of production. mergers in Europe make individual countries inapprop riate.2. At one point in the mid-1980s.15–$0. no tably scrap. China and South Korea had grown enormously in capacity. over 90% of which is continuously cast. Quality and custome r service improved dramatically and.1.30/#. is shown in Table 6. there was a great deal of concern with ‘‘unfair’’ trade (selling price less than pro duction price). World production of raw steel. Countries such as India an d those in the Paci c rim and Latin America have become increasingly important ste el producers as they build infrastructure. tariffs.000. On a basis depreciated for in ation they mostly dropped and a huge restructuring of the industry took place. The leading producers in 1979 were the U SSR. barely. The challenge from competitive materials intensi ed. Japan. largely continuously cast. China. Products. and. 16. 16. Plants closed worldwide and capa city slowly came into better alignment with demand by $1990. etc. 00 heavily subsidized but as of this writing is becoming somewhat more privatized. The world trade in steel was frequently a source of hard currency where the Unit ed States was the main contributor.46 STEEL Vol. Dominant customers remain the automotive and construction i ndustries. The amount melted in electric furnaces in 2003 i s at least 50% and is still increasing.3. World growth in the latter part of th e twentieth century was small although the last few years have seen a 15þ% increas e (almost entirely from China). which along with currency variations led to a grea t deal of political in ghting. however. United States.

Others are long-term. eye shields. King. 00 STEEL 47 slabs nished in the United States because of insuf cient domestic capacity for cast slabs to make sheet. state.. McGannon. 21. eg.1. Harry Paxton. Some other nations have largely equivalent regulations. but have been sharply reduced by industrywide efforts. Some are direct. and soundproof enclosures. United States Steel C orp. ‘‘Steel’’ in EC T (online). Accidents do occur. radiant heat. 1985. is routine and rigorously enforced. although in the United States th e rate in the steel industry compares favorably with heavy industry as a whole. noise. 552–625.) in 2003 by the Association for Iron and Steel Technology AI STAIME (a merger of the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers and the Iron and . and federal government in the United States (57). Even though c onstant vigilance and training are essential. Networking be tween companies in the safety area.. Making. 2000. Pittsburgh. h igh temperature operations. J. the potential for accidents is always present. BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘‘Steel’’ in ECT 1st ed. in ECT 3rd ed. Health Hazards. Steel Corp. Vol.2. eg.. 17. pp. by H. 715–805. masks. pp. 793–843. The situation remains uid. J. The use of protective clothing. Carnegie Mellon University. An 11th ed. pp. 17. etc.. Republic Steel Corp. Vol. 10th ed.. by R. and exposure to local concentrations of noxious gases such as carbon monoxide near blast furn aces. increasingly stringent environmental regulations have been imposed by loca l.. is excellent in the United States. King. ventilation. and many moving objects. 18. by W. air c onditioning of control stations. Accidents. Pa. which makes a further contribution to overal l safety. posting date: December 4. There have been many arguments as to the cost-effective nature of some of these. in EC T 2nd ed. ear protection.. pp. Vol. 17. United States Steel Corp.. In an industry that has massive equipment. Health and Safety Factors The hazards and environmental problems associated with steelmaking are many and varied. 12. 765–832. U. Shaping and Treating of Steel.. Since the early 1 980s. but many do not. the acid fumes from pickling baths or (less and less as ovens are shut down) the possible leakage of organic vapors and certain tiny solid particles from coke ovens. There are many sources of industrial hygiene (qv) and occu pational health hazards. Associatio n of Iron and Steel Engineers. United States Steel Corp. in EC T 4th ed. which can give them a comp etitive advantage. 22. the hazards are contained effectiv ely when sensors monitoring potential dangers are employed along with good work practices and engineering controls such as radiation shields. Vol. by R. was published in CD form (6 vols. E. Carroll..S. muf ers. Safety is taken seriously and is the direct responsibility o f the plant superintendent. CITED PUBLICATIONS 1.Vol.

Roberts. 3r d ed. Proceedings from the 13th ISS Process Technology Conference. Ontario. 1. Pat. 13. eds. R. eds. Mechanical Working of Metals. Warrendale . 00 2. 5. 1983. 1992. Iron Steelmaker 12(5). K. pp. Sellars and G. R. C. ‘‘Ultra-Re ning for Special ty Steels. Enhancement of EAF Performance by Injection Technology.. Pretreatment and Reclamation of Dusts. A. Development in Ladle Steelmaking and Continuou s Casting.718 (Ju ly 18.. 29. 28. Conference Proceedi ngs. Canada. Iro n and Steel Society. Prentice Hall.’’ Proceedings from the 11th Iron and Steel Society Process Technology Con ference.. Pa. 23. Iro n and Steel Society. K. 1985. Iron and Steel Society. Warrendale. Fruehan. 7. Brotzmann. www . R. 1989. Davies. 1964. Iron and Steel Society. Pa. 26. F. Institute for Iron and Ste el Scrap. L. 22. Vol.. A. A. Fruehan. B. and Scales in Steel R. Fundamentals of Deformation Processing. Ontario. 1. J.. Including Speci cations for Steel Scrap. M. pp. Near Net Shape Casting in Minimills. Link. Hot Working and Forming Processes. McMaster University. Savard and R. London. 1966). Steel Society of AIME).K. Tech. BOF Steelmaking. 30. 1976. p. J. New York.. 27. Montreal. Montreal. J. 1990. Warrendale. (a) P. Marcel Dekker. Canadian Institute of Mining. U. Forschu ng 47. Iron & Steel Society. Canadian Institute of Mining. Pa. A History of Metallurgy. Iron & Steel Society. 1964... 14. 1–7. Pehlke and co-workers. 1962. Warrendale. Iron and Steel Society. Ladle Metallurgy Principles and Practices. Syracuse University Press.. 1988. 4. Some may be published in hard copy. Warrendale.. Vacuum Degassing. Crane. Vol. 6.J. Fr. Tylecote. 10. 1975. 2. McMaster University. 1980. 11. 36 (19 85). 414–427. W. Hamilton. 1995. 1983–1995.aistech. New York. Warrendale. Kotraba. 1994. Flat Rol ling. Deo and R. Pa. Proceedings from the Iron and Steel Society Vacuum Metallurgy Conference. Conference Proceedin gs. Iron Steel Eng. 9.. Iron & Steel Society. Metals Society. G. Warrendale. 17.450. 1993. Pa. Syracuse. J. 1. Hamilton. Washington.K. 12. 15. Technical data from the proceedings of various Iron & Steel Society Annual Steelmaking Conferences. London. Metallurgy an d Petroleum. Metallurgy and Petroleum. Fruehan. AIME. L. Basic Open-Hearth Steelmaking. U. 29 (July 1978). 16. Pa. 718 (1968).. Vols.. 1995. D. For information. U. Pneumatic Steelmaking. . Macmillan. 25.. New York. W.. 20. Fundamentals of Steelm aking Metallurgy. Quebec. Que bec. to 2003.. Canada. 18. 19. Canada.C. Lee (to Air Liquide). ISS Continuous Casting Series. H ot Rolling of Metals. D. London. Pa. F. 55. ed. Pa. 1979. 8. 1.. Sludges. Metals Society. 21. Pa. 1. 1990. Warrendale. 24. Handbook. R. 1993. Grange. Chapt. Ref. Boom. 882–890..48 STEEL Vol. Derge. 1993. J. G. Ref. R. Technical data from the Proceedings of various Iron and Steel Society Electric Furnace Conferences to 2 003. Metals Society. Warrendale. N. 299. Canada. 1979. N. 3. Campbell and co-workers Proceedings of the 4th European cont inuous Casting Conference (2002) IOM Communications.

49. 1993. E. Metals Park. 1 (1954).. pp. Iron & Steel Society. Technical data from proceedings of various ISS Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Annual Conferences. R. Ref. B. 1977 p. 841–949. Vols. ASM International. Wa shington. Doane and J. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Warrendale. 1995. Prog. pp. Metals Handbook. B. Ohio. 1980.. 793–800. 57. 48. Pa. C. 1979. ASM International. 38. British Steel Corp. American Iron and Steel Institute. pp. 56. Kot and B. Warrendale. Krauss. U. G. Handbook of Stainless Steels.. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Pa. Addison Wesley. Materials P ark.. 1961. W. Speich Symposium. Warrendale. Materials Park.. 55. Inc. Montreal. Wa rrendale. 35. Proceedings from 12th ISS Process Technology Conference. Paxton. 36. 43. Alloying. Vol. TMS-AIME. 1981. Proceedings from International Galvatech Conference. Microalloying’75. p. D. The Metall urgical Evolution of Stainless Steels. Atkins. Pa. 950–1006. D. 1978.. 33. Bram tt. S. 1992. Kirkaldy. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. Iron & Steel Socie ty. 51. 1983 . Principles of the Heat Treatment of Steel. 41. 1977. ASM International M aterials Park. Iron and Steel Society. 45. 46. New York. ASTM. Bain and H. 225. M. W. New York. ASM International. HSLA St eels. M. 843. Steel Products Manual: Strip Steel. 1990 pp. Atlas of Continuous Cooling Transformations for Engineering Stee ls. Pa. 45. 1978.. Mass. Ohio. Proceedings from the ISS Gilbert R. Materials Park. 32. Bernstein. Shef eld. Cullity. Metallurgy and Petroleum. GENERAL REFERENCES The former Iron and Steel Society (ISS-AIME)—now AIST-AIME as noted above—based in W arrendale. Har denability Concepts with Applications to Steel. (45). Philadelphia. Warrendale.C. 44. 00 STEEL 49 31. 37.K.. V. Leslie. 53. Canadian Institute of Mining. Quebec. publishes probably the most complete current technical materials . The Physical Metallurgy of Stee ls. 199 2. 140–239. Fundamentals of Dual-Phase Steels. Ohio. McGraw-H ill Book Co. L. 52. ASM International. TMS-AIME. C.. 1. 47. Ohio. Canad a.. Re f. Pa. D. Ohio. Warrendale. 5. 54. Pa. Inc. 42. New York.Vol. F. 34. IF Steel Sheet. 10th ed. Technology and Applications. 39. Iron & Steel Society. Alloying Elements in Steel. Pa. 1981. (45).. 40. A.. Reading. pp. 1972. 1991. (45).. Ref. 391–398. (45). Union Carbide. 1978. Metal Phys. 1988 p. Ref. 1–6. Ohio. 9. Pa.. Processing. Ref. D. Materials Park. ASM International. N... J. 50. Fabrication and Properties. Petch. Peckner and I. International Symposium on Microstructure and Properties of Microal loyed and Other Modern HSLA Steels. Pickering.

T. and Petroleum are listed at this source. A listing can be obtained directly from their publication s of ce or at http:// www. Turkdogan Symposium. HARRY PAXTON Carnegie Mellon University . two useful volumes published by ISS are (1) The John Elliott Symposium. All references from ISS-AIME and Canadian I nstitute of Mining. Metallurgy. For a general discussion of the scie nti c basis of steel making. 1994. 00 on the steel industry. and (2) The E. 1990. Much is available on micro lm through ISS or directly from the University of STEEL Vol. Th e ISS Transactions were published annually.aistech.

00 STEEL 51 Fig. 2. and (b) section A during pouring.Vol. Fig. 1. Eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) electric furnace. . Courtesy of Mannesmann. Schematic arrangement of a furnace in a vacuum chamber equipped with cha rging and mold locks for vacuum induction melting (1): (a) front cross section.

Sketch of a basic-oxygen steelmaking furnace. 00 Fig. 4. Fig.52 STEEL Vol. . 3. where an oxygen lance is i nserted through the mouth of the furnace (1). Schematic representation of the principle of design and operation of a c onsumbleelectrode furnace for melting steels in a vacuum (1).

The values for phospho th those indicated on the ordinate. where (—) corre sponds to Si. 5. (ÁÁÁÁÁ) to C. the values for sulfur are onehundredth those indicated.—) to S. Progress of re ning in the basic-oxygen steelmaking process. 6.Vol. Fig. 00 STEEL 53 Fig. and (—. . The time elapsed is $20 min in most cases. (—–—) to Mn. (ÀÀÀ) to P. Liquid blast-furnace iron (hot metal) being charged into a 200-metric to n Q-BOP furnace in preparation for making a heat of steel.

00 Fig. Tuyere for bottom-blown basic-oxygen process (13.54 STEEL Vol. 7. Steel ladle: (a) vertical section through the trunnions. 8. . Fig. and (b) side vi ew.14).

. 00 STEEL 55 Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of the RH degasser.Vol.

and E a curved mold with progressive straightening (1) .56 STEEL Vol. C a vertical mold with progressive bending. B a ve rtical mold with bending. Development of casting machines where S is the end of the supported len gth and C the cutoff zone. Schematic representation of the process of cooling of steel (m ) during continuous casting. 11. D a curved mold with straightening. . 00 Fig. Fig. A is a vertical mold. 10. circles represent rolls. The tundish is an increasingly important buffer between the ladle and the mold.

00 STEEL 57 Fig. Continuous casting of square steel blooms.Vol. . The solidifying steel blooms move do wnward and then toward the camera. In the foreground. 12. the blooms are cut to the proper length. The liquid steel is poured i nto molds (not shown) at top of photograph.

00 Fig. Fig. 14. 13. . Schematic of the Castrip twin-roll sheet caster at the Crawfordsville.58 STEEL Vol. (a) The bottom-pressure casting method as applied to slabs. (b) curve m old and submerged entry nozzle. and (c) portion of Arvedi caster for in-line str ip production (ISP). Courtesy of the Iron & Steel Society. IN plant of Nucor Steel (25a).

. 16. Iron–iron carbide phase diagram (1).or d-iron in bcc form.Vol. Crystalline structure of allotropic forms of iron. 00 STEEL 59 Fig. Each white sphere re presents an atom of (a) a. See text. 15. Fig. and (b) g-iron in fcc form (1) .

BHN. 0. 17.89%.29%. Isothermal transformation (IT) diagram for a plain carbon eutectoid ste el (1).60 STEEL Vol. C is 0. Photomicrographs originally Â2500. Mn. Brinell hardness number. Ae1 is A1 temperature at equilibrium. Rc. grain s ize is ASTM 4–6. 00 Fig. austenitized at 8858C. Rockwell hardness scale C. .

00 STEEL 61 Fig. Continuous-cooling transformation diagram for a Type 4340 alloy steel. Ae1 is lower critical temperature at equilibrium. 18.Vol. with superimposed cooling curves illustrating the manner in which transformation behavior during continuous cooling governs nal microstructure (1). . Ae3 is critic al temperature at equilibrium.

19. Properties of tempered martensite (1). To convert MPa to psi. multiply by 145.50% carbon. .62 STEEL Vol. low alloy steels. 00 Fig. 0.30–0. Fully heat-treated miscellaneous analyses.

20. 21. The prod uct is tempered martensite. Transformation diagram for martempering. Transformation diagram for quenching and tempering martensite. 00 STEEL 63 Fig. .Vol. Fig. The product is tempered marten site.

.64 STEEL Vol. 22. Transformation diagram for austempering. Fig. 00 Fig. The product is bainite. The product is ferrite and pearlite. 23. Transformation diagram for full annealing.

Vol. 00 STEEL 65 Fig. 24. Transformation diagram for isothermal annealing. The product is ferrite and pearlite.

66 STEEL Vol. 00 Fig. 25. Variations in average mechanical properties of as-rolled 2.5-cm bars of plain carbon steels, as a function of carbon content (1).

Vol. 00 STEEL 67 Fig. 26. Increase of tensile strength of plain carbon steel with increased cold work ing, where ( ) represents 0.05–0.30 wt % carbon; (& ) 0.30–0.60 wt %; and ( ) 0. 60– 1.00 wt %.

United States shipments of steel mill products. (À ÅÀ hot-rolled and cold. and (À 4À À À) À À) À À) À À) sheet . 00 Fig. (À NÀ sheet-coldÀ À) À structural shapes.nished bars. 27.68 STEEL Vol. (À XÀ tinplate. where (À À represents barsÀ À) r einforcing. (À ÃÀ plate. (À &À sheet-hot-rolled.

Trends in Heat-Treated Products Property hardenability toughness distor tion quench cracking internal stress machinability rough nish ne nish Coarse-graine d austenite Quenched and tempered products increasing decreasing more more highe r Annealed or normalized products better inferior STEEL 69 Fine-grained austenite decreasing increasing less less lower inferior better .Vol. 00 Table 1.

0–1.40–0.1 Water 0.2–1.35–0.35 0.2 5.0 Brine 2 2.30 0.4–1.80 0. .40 0.25–0. H Values Designating Severity of Quench for Commonly Used Cooling Condi tionsa Quenching medium Degree of medium agitation none mild moderate good stron g violent a Oil 0.70 STEEL Vol.5 1.0 1.80–1.0–2.0 4.50 0.6–2.1 1.50–0. 00 Table 2.3 1.0 H Values are proportional to the heat-extracting capacity of the medium.30–0.9–1.

50% Cr 1. the last two or three gures (represented in the table by x) indicate the average carbon content in points or hundredths of 1 wt %. .25% Mo 0.45% Cr–0. 2xxx a nickel st eel.12% Mo 1.5% nickel and 0. 00 Table 3.50% Ni–0. 1xxx indicates a carbon steel.55% Ni–0. 95% Cr–0. For ranges. Usually.80% Cr–0.00% Ni–0. Thus.50% Ni–1.85% Mn–2.80% Cr–0.25% Mo 1.20% Mo 1.80% Ni–0.05% Cr 1.45% Cr 0.50% Ni 5.25% Mo 0. see original tables.05% Ni–0.55% Ni–0. The list is simpli ed to show typ ical compositions.80% Ni–0.20% Mo 0.30% carbon would be designated as 2330.55% Cr 0.20% Mo 3. and 3xxx a nickel–chromium steel.25 Ni–1.75% Mn 3.50% Cr–0.15% V 0.95% Cr–0.65% Cr–0.Vol.65% Cr 3.00% C–1. a nickel ste el containing $3.25% Mo Series designationb 47xx 48xx 50xx 51xx 5xxxx 61xx 86xx 87xx 92xx 93xx 98xx Types 1.25% Mo The AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) speci cations are essentially the same. the second gure generally indicates the approximate percentage of the principal alloying elemen t. In the case of alloy steels. b The rst gure indicates the c lass to which the steel belongs.00% Ni 1. Standard Numerical AISI–SAEa Series designationb 10xx 11xx 12xx 13xx 23xx 25xx 31xx 33xx 40xx 41xx 43xx 46xx a STEEL 71 Types nonresulfurized carbon steel grades resulfurized carbon steel grades repho sphorized and resulfurized carbon steel grades 1.20% Cr–0.25% Ni–0.00% Si 3.25% Mo 0.

0 9.00 2.03 0.03 0.0 18.06 0.00 1. 0.045 0.0–20.04–0.00 2.10c 0.16 N 2.03 0.0–19.10 0.0–20.0 19.00 2.08 0.0 17.5 7.25 0.0 Mo 1.5 8.0 Mo .5 4.00 2.25 0.0 8.0–10.0–10.10 0.0 8.0–19.045 0.08 0.045 0.0 19.03 0.0–20.00 2.00 2.0 22.0–26.03 0.0–12.0 10.0 16.20 0.0–4.12 0.0–14.00 2.6 Mod 0.045 0.00 1.5 1 .08 0.00 1.0–18.00 2.0–3.0–14.5–18.00 1.0 18.0 17.00 2.0 Mo 3.32–0.0 17.25 0.0 1.0–19.0–14.00 1.00 1.50 1.0 18.045 0.0 Mo 2.00 2.045 0.03 0.03 Other 0.0–26.0 8.15 0.0 8.0–15.00 8.00 1.08 0.5 2.0–10.0–15.0–24.0 8.00 1.0–3.00 Si 1.03 0.0 16.40 N 0.045 0.0 17.16 .06 0.0 24.03 0.08 0.00 2.0 11.5–3.0 0 17.0 22.03 0.00 Cr Austenitic 16.03 0.03 0.10–0.045 0.00 1.0–3.15 0.0–18.0 10.0–10.0 12.0–14.00 1.0 Mo.03 0.Table 4.03 0.00 1.0 17.00 2.03 0.75 6 0–10.5–5.045 S 0.0–19.0–22.00 8.0 18.2 0 0.0 1.00 1.08 0 .0–20.0–12.00 2.0–18.0 1.0–20.045 0.15c 0.03 0.5 Mo 2.0–18.0 18.0–26.03 0.0–19.20 0.06 0.0 17.00 2.03 0.045 0.0–20.0–21.045 0.0 0 16.0–4.0 Mo.10–0.00 1.50 1.15 0.03 0.045 0.00 2.045 0.16 N 72 2.03 0.0 18.0–14.00 2.0 Mo 2.08 0.0 16. 0 17.045 0.25 N 0.03 0.0–15.045 0.0–10.10–0.00 1.00 2.00 1.75–2.045 0.00 2. . 0.0 14.0–19.03 0.06 0.00 1.0–15.0 16.0–18.00 1. wt %b Type 201 202 205 301 302 302B 303 303Se 304 304H 304L 304LN 302Cu 304N 305 308 309 309S 3 10 310S 314 316 316F 316H 316L 316LN 316N 317 317L 321 UNS designation S20100 S2 0200 S20500 S30100 S30200 S30215 S30300 S30323 S30400 S30409 S30403 S30453 S3043 0 S30451 S30500 S30800 S30900 S30908 S31000 S31008 S31400 S31600 S31620 S31609 S 31603 S31653 S31651 S31700 S31703 S32100 C 0.5–10.00 1.00 2.5–7.03 0.03 0.03 0.0 12.00 2.0–12.15 0.03 0.00 1.08 Mn 5.03 0.15c Se 0.03 0.0 19.0 10.10–0.0–1.0 24.0–18.0–22.20 0.03 0.04–0. Compositions of Standard Stainless Steelsa Composition.0–10.0–24.0–10.15 0.0–6.0 19.0–15.0 10.0 16.045 0.0 Cu 0.0–3.08 0.00 2.0–18.0 11.00 1.00 2.08 0.03 0.045 0.25 N 0.0–3.045 0.0–19.00 2.0 Ni 3.00 1.0 P 0.00 2.00 1.03 0.0–19.5 8.12–0.0 16.045 0.00 1.00 2.0 10.00 2.0–22.045 0.03 0.08 0.045 0.16 N 3.15 0.15 0.00 2.00 1.045 0.0–3.0–12.0 23.

00 1.03 0.0 9.04 0.03 0.25 N 0.12 0.06 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.04 0.15 0.0 18.00 1.10 0.03 0. 0.50 0.20–0.20 0.00 1.07 0.00 2.75 Mo .025 N.15 min 0.0 34.00–2.75–1.03 0.04 0.00 0.15 Se 0.321H 330 347 347H 348 348H 384 405 409 429 430 430F 430FSe 434 436 439 442 444 4 46 S32109 N08330 S34700 S34709 S34800 S34809 S38400 S40500 S40900 S42900 S43000 S43 020 S43023 S43400 S43600 S43035 S44200 S44400 S44600 0.00 1.03 0.045 0.0–14.0 9.03 0.04 0.5–13.06 0.20 2.5–19.0–13.08 0.0 17.5–13.04 0.0–19. 0.0 15.045 0.15 min 0.8 () 0.0–18.00 Mo 0.12 0.0–19.00 1.0–14.75–1. .15–0.0–17.3 V 0.00 1.00 1.0–18.15 0.75–2.50 1.25–2.50 Mo.00 1.0 16.00 1.0 0.00 12.50 0.00 Duplex (ferritic–austenitic) 0.0–28.10 0.25 1.0–12.08 0.00 1.0 16.0–19.0 4 0.00 1.00 1.12 0.75 23.03 0.04 0.045 0.0–16.04 0.03 0.08 0.5 0.5 10 5 14.0 17.50 11.0 1.0–14.00 2.00 73 329 403 410 414 416 416Se 420 420F 422 431 440A S32900 S40300 S41000 S41400 S41600 S41623 S42000 S42020 S42200 S43100 S44002 0.0 2.03 0.00 1.00 2.10 0.03 0.75–1.25 0.0–19.03 0.25 1.0 17.60–0.04 0.045 0.0 9.12 0.0–19.25 Mo.25 Mo 0.00 1.04 0.0 Ferritic 11.045 0.00 11.045 0.00 1.75 1.04 0.06 0.0–37.00 1.0 16.0 16.15 Se 0.15 0.5 1.25 Mo.75–1.75 11.0 17.0–19.06 0.5 1.0 9.10–0.00 1.50–5.15 0.5–13.0 16.04–0.25–2.30 Al –0 75 Ti 0.0–18.0 Nb 0.06 0.70 Nb 0.00 12.04 0.03 0.50 1.15 0.12 0 .6 Mo 0.00 1.00 1.10 Ta 0.00 1.04 0.0–18.03 0.06 0.00 1.0–23.00 1.10 Ti 1.5 0 9.04 0. 0 .0 1.15 0.10 Ta 0.03 0.03 0.00 11 .0–13.00 15.04–0.6 Mo 0.00 1.25 1.00 1.04–0.045 0.0–13.0 17.0–20.5–13.20 0.0 17.04 0.06 0.5 1.5–1.00 2.2 Co.08 0.15 0.0–18.25 W.045 0.25 1.0 17. 00 1.00 1.00 17.03 0.6 Mo 0. 0. –1.00 1.5–14.50 1.03 0.0–13.03 0.0 17. –1.00 2.03 0.15 Al.0–14.75– 1.25 1.00 2.0 1.0 1.00 1.0 Nb.15 0.00 1.03 0.0–17.00 12.025 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.00 1.04 0.04 0. Nb.0 1.00 Martensitic 0.0–18.03 5 Â %C Tic 10 Â %C Nbc –1.03 1.08 0.0–19.12 0.00 12.20 0.2 Co.0 1. 0. –0.0 16.03 0.00 1. –0.

10 12.0–1 8.0–15.03 0.07 0.75 Mo 0. c Value is minimum.45 Nb 0. Courtesy of ASM International.07 0.5 16.5 15.0–2. 74 .04 Other 0. wt % Type 440B 440C PH 13-8 Mo 15-5 PH 17-4 PH 177 PH a b UNS designation S44003 S44004 S13800 S15500 S17400 S17700 C 0.008 0. d Optional.35 Al.00 Cr 16.90–1.5–7.0 Ni P 0.75 Ref.5 3.45 Nb 3.95–1. 0. ðContinuedÞ Composition.0 16.25 7.20 0.00 1.05 0.04 0.75–0. 0.03 0. 0. 51.95 0.04 0.15–0.5 Cu.Table 4.5–4.0–18. 0.01 N 2.5–17.00 0.5 1.01 0.75 Mo 2.4 Al Precipitation-hardening 0.00 1.5–8.0–5.00 1.15–0.20 1.75–1.03 0.03 0.0 Cu .25–13.00 Si 1.04 0.00 1.00 1.0 3.5 Mo. Single values are maximum values unless otherwise indicated.0–18.09 Mn 1.0–5.00 1.00 14.5–5.04 S 0.04 0.0 6.

00 Table 5.5% Mo.5% Mo 1% Cr–0.5% Mo 0.5% Mo–1.Vol.5% Si 5% Cr–0. Alloy Composition of High Temperature Steels Ferritic steels 0.25% Cr–1% Mo 3% Cr–1% Mo 3% Cr–0.5% Mo.5% Mo 2% Cr–0. with Nb added 5% Cr–0.5% Mo 2. .5% Mo–1. Ferritic. with Ti added 9% Cr–1% Mo a b STEEL 75 Stainless steels 18% Cr–8% Ni 18% Cr–8% Ni with Moa 18% Cr–8% Ni with Tia 18% Cr–8% Ni w ith Nba 25% Cr–12% Nia 25% Cr–20% Nia 12% Crb 17% Crb 27% Crb a AISI type 304 316 321 347 309 310 410 430 446 Austenitic.5% Si Cr–0. 5% Cr–0.

032 6.500 12.712 11.100 41.841 1.200 4. c Both FRG and GDR.100 730.306 2.129 5.515 9.000 153.540 4.900 6.500 8.251 5.000 15.360 1. 456c 3.100 14.128 31.776 9.700 8.033 7.000 73.428 82.700 83.900 13.300 1995 3.76 STEEL Vol.000 7.151 2.500 13.707 12.800 10.237 6.166 2.000 5.800c 3.625 5.900 4.032 3.740 110.500 21.989 31.000 373 5.300 27.100 24. 00 Table 6.300a 10.500 748. 1000 Metric Tons Country Argentina Australi a Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China CIS and the former USSR Czechoslo vakia France Germany Hungary India Italy Japan North Korea South Korea Luxembour g Mexico Netherlands Poland Romania South Africa Spain Sweden United Kingdom Uni ted States Yugoslavia others Total a b 1969 1.105 15.690 7. Includes Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.700 101.544 6.378 19.487 16. World Raw-Steel Production.100 4.600 5 3.521 3.500 23.887 11.900b 18.000 32.500 5.140 Russia and Ukraine.587 9.261 11.038 574.600 12.800 19.322 26.949 91.870 20.047 5.900 17.100 7.100 6. 982 5.779 26.557 16.000 11.200 8.635 1979 3.925 1.400 93.467 4.900 2.510 46.315 10.000 5. .500 16.000 110.355 2003 5.220 9.351 16.600 36.399 220.100 59.926 12.900 12.896 128.700 2.700 22.000 3.670 15.286 73.115 105.600 25.000 8 .000 124.800 1.600 5.510 50.803 44.832 4.802 22.400 11.087 945.100 13.000 112.

slabs.927 4.316 779 38 23 160 69 226 147 7.991 12.438 72 1.355 4. 949 1.051 135 51 6 37 1.175 12.205 11.077 4.802 18.086 2.900 955 215 455 29 2.319 4.996 396 7. 1000 Metric Tonsa Steel products ingots and steel castings blooms.328 1 1.040 37 150 17 579 2.518 857 91 14.124 2.263 157 64 111 83 457 3.756 45 1.286 118 833 4.257 79 1.009 1. Steel Products.049 449 7.402 230 8.334 1. 330 984 48 15 186 77 144 175 6.317 1.270 4.811 13.562 606 42 24 113 41 221 101 6.082 1.608 3.036 1.203 4.791 976 1. 00 Table 7.104 4.757 655 STEEL 77 1994 192 2.764 449 4 120b 2000 140 1.213 291 43 94 57 523 4. sheet bars skelp wire rods str uctural shapes (heavy) steel piling plates rails standard (>30 kg/ m) all other joint bars tie plates track spikes wheels (rolled and forged) axles bars hot-rol led (includes light shapes) reinforcing cold nishing tool steel pipe and tubing s tandard oil country goods line mechanical pressure structural stainless wire dra wn nails and staples barbed and twisted woven wire fence bale ties and bailing w ire black plate tin plate tin-free steel all other tin mill products sheets hotrolled cold-rolled sheets and strip galvanized all other metallic coated 1960 30 7 1.274 2.982 22 2.211 1.437 1.277 1.249 1.525 5. Net Shipments of U.275 1.138 7.249 13.898 654 128 7.236 14.958 288 2.186 1.779 887 55 10.523 815 90 19.S.334 1.413 2.352 80 2.910 7.621 61 1.438 4.440 692 246 1970 833 4.554 314 2.966 4.176 777 65 11.359 500 1980 404 1.893 1.031 939 34 176 23 715 9.410 314 7.143 272 89 109 1 08 553 5. billets.562 6.473 1.387 384 5.Vol.773 237 .

283 2000 528 864 2. track spikes.358 1980 545 607 844 75. alloy. tie plates. Including joint bars.623 All grades.786 1994 398 646 887 86. including carbon. and axles.203 64.78 STEEL Vol. .209 1. ðContinuedÞ Steel products electrical strip hot-rolled cold-rolled Total st eel products a b 1960 515 1. 00 Table 7.544 1970 663 1. and stainless steels.045 82.343 109.173 1. wheels (rolled and forged).

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