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CONTOUR ATTACHMENT FOR LATHE

SYNOPSIS
A concave attachment is a versatile one to cut concave-convex profiles. A set of rotating plates have T-slots for the T-bolts that hold the boring bar. These plates are rotated by a train of gears. The bar is held roughly yet free enough to rotate. When the tool is built, the boring bar is first clamped with both pivots at lead centre. So, the tool describes a zero radius when the crank is turned. At this time, one set up pin hole is drilled in each of the rotating plates, as indicated so that the pin touches the boring bar. Then to set the tool, for a desired radius, it is merely necessary to place a piece of flat stock the same thickness as the desired radius between the bar and the set up pins while securing the bar in position. At this point, data the flat stock and set up pin can be removed.

INTRODUCTION
The concave attachment is fixed to the carriage of the lathe. The compound rest that is locked solid with its base is removed and the attachment is fixed on the cross lied of the carriage with its axis parallel to the lathe bed. The work is secured rigidly in a chuck. By the concave-convex movement of the boring bar, the material is being removed. This attachment is used to produce contour profiles and round balls.

NEED FOR ATTACHMENT

In recent years, new fabrication techniques have been developed to satisfy the technological demands. Moreover, emphasis is stressed on attachments. Attachments are used in various fields and machines depending upon the needs to be fulfilled and mode of operation. An attachment eliminates the purchasing of a new unit which serves the same purpose. For example, a lathe occupies a place opposite to that of a milling machine, the ten machines mainly used to produce cylindrical and plain surfaces respectively. By implementing an attachment to a unit, the capacity of the unit can be increased which is very economical.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The worm wheel is rotated with the help of a worm shaft. Rotating plates with Tslots that hold the boring are screwed to the worm wheel. The worm wheel in turn is screwed to its base with a simple gear train. The rotary motion is imported to the blank through two spur gears and an intermediate gear namely “Idler Gear”. The idler gear serves to keep the rotation of rotating plates in the same direction. The worm shaft is rotated in clockwise direction, the boring bar machines a contour profile in the clockwise direction and vice versa. Thus a concave-convex profile is machined by boring bar by simultaneous engagement of the two plates.

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS

Base Plate:

It is circular in shape. the base plate is so designed to seat. The worm shaft is provided with a handle for easy rotation. A set up in hold is drilled in the rotating plate to set the tool for desired radius. The base plate’s axis is parallel to the lathe bed. so that the direction of the rotation of the worm wheel and the rotating plate is the same. Rotating Plate: The rotating plate is a primary part of the unit. The height of the worm shaft from base plate is the height of the worm from the base when the . Worm and Worm Wheel: The worm wheel is screwed between the spur gear and rotating plate with its axial to the lathe bed.The base plate is in ‘I’ shape with drilled holes to suit the gear stems. It has ‘T’ slot along its diameter for the ‘T’ bolts that hold the boring bar. It is screwed with the help of Allen screws to the worm wheel. The compound reset that is locked solid with its base of the crosslide of the carriage is removed and in its place.

Idler Gear: The idler gear is screwed to the base plate by press fitting the idler gear and its stem to the hold provided in the base plate. The rotary motion between 2 spur gears is directed through the idler gear. The connecting blank connects the setting blank and the base plate. the worm shaft rotates the proportionate worm wheel. The setting blank is screwed to the connecting blank by the help of Allen screws. These blanks are so designed that the .handle is rotated. Seating Connecting Blanks: This forms the base of the unit. Spur Gear: The spur gear is screwed between the worm wheel and the base plate. A seating is provided on the worm wheel to seat the rotating plate. The blanks are circular in shape. A step down bush is used to fit the worm wheel and the spur gear songly yet free enough to rotate.

the worm wheel rotates in the clockwise direction and vice versa. When the boring bar is bolted to only one of the ‘I’ slots in the rotating plate and when the crank is turned.component reset is removed and the blanks are bolted to cross slide of the carriage. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENTS Base Plate: . The boring bar moves over a certain radius when the crank is turned or rotated. Idler gears are used to rotate the rotating plates in the same direction. The whole unit resets on these blanks. The tool that cuts the radial is screwed to the boring bar. the boring bar described a concave-convex profile. When the boring bar is bolted to the T-slots provided in the rotating plates and when the worm is rotated. Boring Bar: The boring bar is held songly in the T-slots provided in the rotating plates by the T-bolts. This movement of the bar is used to produce spherical balls also. WORKING OF THE UNIT When the worm shaft is rotated in a clockwise direction. the material is removed at a certain radius depending on the extension of the boring bar.

so that the direction of the rotation of the worm wheel and the rotating plate is the same. Worm and Worm Wheel: The worm wheel is screwed between the spur gear and rotating plate with its axial to the lathe bed. The height . The worm shaft is provided with a handle for easy rotation. A set up in hold is drilled in the rotating plate to set the tool for desired radius. Rotating Plate: The rotating plate is a primary part of the unit. The compound reset that is locked solid with its base of the crosslide of the carriage is removed and in its place. the base plate is so designed to seat. It is circular in shape.The base plate is in ‘I’ shape with drilled holes to suit the gear stems. It is screwed with the help of Allen screws to the worm wheel. The base plate’s axis is parallel to the lathe bed. It has ‘T’ slot along its diameter for the ‘T’ bolts that hold the boring bar.

the worm shaft rotates the proportionate worm wheel. The blanks are circular in shape. A step down bush is used to fit the worm wheel and the spur gear songly yet free enough to rotate. Spur Gear: The spur gear is screwed between the worm wheel and the base plate. The rotary motion between 2 spur gears is directed through the idler gear. The connecting . A seating is provided on the worm wheel to seat the rotating plate.of the worm shaft from base plate is the height of the worm from the base when the handle is rotated. Seating Connecting Blanks: This forms the base of the unit. Idler Gear: The idler gear is screwed to the base plate by press fitting the idler gear and its stem to the hold provided in the base plate. The setting blank is screwed to the connecting blank by the help of Allen screws.

The whole unit resets on these blanks. APPLICATIONS • Concave and convex profiles of desired radius can be easily turned. • Less maintenance is essential • The unit gives long life with proper alignment of gears. Boring Bar: The boring bar is held songly in the T-slots provided in the rotating plates by the T-bolts. These blanks are so designed that the component reset is removed and the blanks are bolted to cross slide of the carriage. ADVANTAGES • The unit is compact in size. The tool that cuts the radial is screwed to the boring bar. .blank connects the setting blank and the base plate. The boring bar moves over a certain radius when the crank is turned or rotated. • Jobs can be easily handled in this unit.

DESIGN OF SPUR GEAR SPEEDS IN GEAR BOX: Measured Specifications: N1/N2 Where.• Round balls can be produced. N1 N2 D2 D1 = = = = Motor speed in RPM---40 RPM Output speed Diameter of the roller gear wheel = 88 mm Diameter of the motor gear wheel = 35 mm ∴ N2 = = (D1/D2) x N1 (35 / 88) x40 = 16 rpm = D2/D1 SPUR GEAR: .

When choosing a mating spur gear. APPLICATIONS: • • Light duty applications Timing . This design allows for the driving pinion to rotate internal to the gear. allows for clean operation. are the most economical gears in the power transmission industry. always remember that the difference in the number of teeth between the internal gear and pinion should not be less than 15 or 12. Intended for light duty applications.The spur gears. which are designed to transmit motion and power between parallel shafts. these gears are available only in brass. the teeth are cut into the inside diameter while the outside diameter is kept smooth. APPLICATION: • • • • • Material handling Feed drives Machine tools Conveyors Marine hoists INTERNAL SPUR GEAR: The internal gears are spur gears turned "inside out." In other words. which. in turn.

They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts but the shafts rotate in the same direction with this arrangement.• • • Positioning Rollers Indexing EXTERNAL SPUR GEAR: Perhaps the most often used and simplest gear system. They tend to be noisy at high speed as the two gear surfaces come into contact at once. They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts and the shafts rotate in opposite directions. So. Internal spur gears: The internal spur gear works similarly to the external spur gears except that the pinion is inside the spur gear. Also. BASIC SHAFT DESIGN FORMULA The drive shaft with multiple pulleys experience two kinds of stresses. the value of maximum bending stress is much more than the shear stress. the design of the shaft will be based on the maximum bending stress and will be driven by the following formula: . the shear stress is generated at the inner most fiber. external spur gears are cylindrical gears with straight teeth parallel to the axis. bending stress and shear stress. The maximum bending stress generated at the outer most fiber of the shaft. And on the other hand.

Design Procedure • • • • Draw the bending moment diagram to find out the maximum bending moment (M) on the shaft. Shaft Design Problem Refer the above picture. Calculate the area moment of inertia (I) for the shaft. r is the radius of the shaft.67 N/mm2. M is maximum bending moment on the shaft.Maximum bending stress Tb = (M * r) / I……………….1 Where.Eqn. I is area moment of inertia of the shaft.1. Replace the maximum bending stress (Tb) with the given allowable stress for the shaft material. where a steel shaft is supported by two bearings and a pulley is placed in between the bearings. the maximum bending moment (M) is calculated as 66666. Input data: Maximum allowable shear stress for the shaft material= 40 N/mm2 Solution: • From the bending moment diagram. Weight of the pulley is 1000 N. Calculate the radius of the shaft. You have to design the shaft. Area moment of inertia (I)of the circular shaft is: • .

4 { ( 25 + 2) / 18} x 25.785*r^4) r= 12.I = pi * r^4 *0.85 or 13 mm..67 *r)/ (0.4 38.1 mm .25 = 0.Eqn. the minimum radius of the shaft should be 12.85 mm • So.28 mm Outer Diameter (OD) = = = { ( N+2 ) / DP } x 25.1 we can write: 40 = (66666. DESIGN OF IDLER GEAR: Pressure Angle No. of Teeth (N) Diameteral Pitch (DP) = = = 14 ½° 25 18 PCD = = = ( N / DP ) x 25.4 35. 1.4 ( 25 / 18 ) x 25.2 • From Eqn1.785*r^4……………….

159 0.157 / DP ) x 25.7874015 PCD + Working Depth OD – Working Depth OD – ( Pitch x 0.4 ( 2.4 ( 1.4 1.628” = 15.633 mm DESIGN OF WORM SHAFT: Outer Diameter Modulo = = 20 mm 2 OD OD ∴PCD = = = = = = 20 mm = 0.157 / 18 ) x 25.044 mm Dedendum = = = ( 1.7874015 – 0.Depth of Cut (or) Tool depth = = = ( 2.95 mm .157 / 18 ) x 25.636 ) 0.157 /DP ) x 25.4 3.

TO FIND ANGLE AND LEAD: { Lead / ( PCD x T) } Lead Lead Angle Where.250 x 1 0.250 / 1. of Start 0.9741818 ) Angle = = 0. of thread = = = ( NB : The angle of the form tool is 30° ) Inch / pitch 1 / 0.H = = = pitch x No.628 x II ) } To milling machine held is tilted at an angle of 7¼° R.250 { 0.9741818 7° R.25 4 .H To find No.628 x II = 1. ( 0.250 / ( 0.

DESIGN OF WORM WHEEL: Bore Diameter No.5 module) 92 + ( 1.4 mm 42 No. of teeth Pitch circle diameter = = = = = = 25.50 mm .50 + 44 55. of teeth x module ( No.5 x 2 ) 95 mm ( ½ x PCD of worm ) + ( ½ x PCD of worm ) Tip diameter = = = Centre Distance = = = = ( ½ x 23 ) + ( ½ x 88 ) 11. of teeth + 2 ) x 2 ( 42 +2 ) x 2 88 Throat diameter = = = PCD + 2 module 88 + ( 2 x 2 ) 92 mm Throat diameter + (1.

ASSEMBLY A train of simple gears is press fitted to the base plate by bushes. These gears are hence held singly. Yet free enough to rotate. This worm shaft in engagement rotates the worm wheel. A worm shaft is fitted to the base plate with the help ‘L’ clams. Setting end connecting blanks are provided to the bottom of the base plate to fasten entire unit to the crosslide of the carriage. A worm wheel is screwed to one of the spur gear a circular blank is screwed with the help of Allen screws. The rotating plates have T-slots for T-bolts that secure the boring bar. 4.S. Step down bushes: For songly holding and to enable free rotation of the train of gears the step down bushes are machines to suit the design values M. Rotating circular plates are screwed to the worm wheel and the circular plates are Allen screws. material of 35 x 601 is turned on a . Seating is also provided on the worm wheel and the circular blank to hold the rotating plates.

lathe as per the drawing specification.25c on this recessed portion rests the primarily spur gear. Directly opposite of the boss a recess is cut an undercutting rod is used to recess 35. . the hand feed eliminates the need for materials like EWS to be used as the gears.I. Hence C. A press fit is obtained on the town portion of the bush by choosing a shaft hole combination of H7 P6. Idle Gear Bush: Similar to the other bush the same tolerance range is observed on 30 x 351 M.1. of roughly 90.50 x 15f is turned on a chuck.S. 5. 6. A press fit of P6 tolerance is closely maintained to enable the location of the idle gear. To enable the seating of the rotating plate on the gear a boss of 45 x 3mm is turned on the face of the gear. Worm Gear: As it is already said. rods and the bush is turned lather.

50 OD the lead.250” and 90. For these design values the worm gear is cut on a milling machine using to form relived cutter. four tapes are done on the outer face of the worm wheel blank to grip the rotating slot firmly (by means of Allen screw) 7. The marking of the step down bushes with the worm gear is checked beforehand. . The seating of the other rotating plate is carried out similar to that of the previous blank.37mm and 50 T the DP is calculated. Here too C. Spur Gear: a) Primary secondary spur gear: The gears are cut similar to that of the worm. depths of cut are calculated. Prior to cutting the gear a boss 1 x 44 is turned and a 1” bore is done to a close tolerance of H7.For a pitch of 0. Once the seating is aer. For a 35mm shaft combination a bore of slightly less in size is made on the worm wheel blank to obtain a press fit. The gears are cut on a milling machine using form relived cutter. For an OD of 73.I. is preferred to minimize the material cost.

The contact of a spur gear pair involved maximum sliding action and minimum roll between engaging teeth. Rotating Plates: C. “Grease” is . It has screws provided at the side of the slots to tighten on loosen the tool that is placed in the slot. being most effectively early and late in a typical ‘contact’ and less efficient as pitch line is approached. Such combinations aid film formation in a favorable environment.8. It has a T slot to suit the T bolt.I. Bearing bar: The boring bar is fabricated in mild steel.0 10. A necessary characteristic of a gear lubricant is its resistance to thermal degradation and chemical change.02 mm is turned on a lathe to suit the boss of the making parts. Maintenance and Lubrication: Lubrication is an important performance factor in power transmission because of its influence on operating efficiency. For holding the boring tool T slot of 3/8” is done on a slotting machine using a key way slotter. of 1 x 44. 9. The T slot is machined in a slotting machine with the help of a T slot cutter.

Maintenance aids to good precision.used as the chief lubricant since it’s a nonconductor of heat thus achieving temperature limitations. While machining. Proper handling is necessary to avoid the teeth damage in the gears. On any account there should not be any novelty in gear blanks 4. The axis of the unit should be always paralleled to lathe bed. . longer life and higher efficiency. 5. following precautions should be followed: The 1. 3. proper dead centre should be maintained. 2. Periodic lubrication is necessary to avoid film formation.

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