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SCALABLE AND COST-EFFECTIVE INTERCONNECTION OF DATACENTER SERVERS USING DUAL SERVER PORTS

By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of Computer Science & Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING APRIL 2012

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report titled “Scalable and Cost-Effective Interconnection of Data-Center Servers Using Dual Server Ports” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

Signature of the Guide the H.O.D Name

Signature of Name

CHAPTER 01

ABSTRACT:
The goal of data-center networking is to interconnect a large number of server machines with low equipment cost while providing high network capacity and high bisection width. It is well understood that the current practice where servers are connected by a tree hierarchy of network switches cannot meet these requirements. In this paper, we explore a new server-interconnection structure. We observe that the commodity server machines used in today’s data centers usually come with two built-in Ethernet ports, one for network connection and the other left for backup purposes. We believe that if both ports are actively used in network connections, we can build a scalable, cost-effective interconnection structure without either the expensive higher-level large switches or any additional hardware on servers. We have proven that FiConn is highly scalable to encompass hundreds of thousands of servers with low diameter and high bisection width. We have developed a low-overhead traffic-aware routing mechanism to improve effective link utilization based on dynamic traffic state. We have also proposed how to incrementally deploy FiConn.

PROJECT PURPOSE:
In this paper, we explore a new server-interconnection structure. We observe that the commodity server machines used in today’s data centers usually come with two built-in Ethernet ports, one for network connection and the other left for backup purposes.

PROJECT SCOPE:
The goal of data-center networking is to interconnect a large number of server machines with low equipment cost while providing high network capacity and high bisection width. It is well understood that the current practice where servers are connected by a tree hierarchy of network switches cannot meet these requirements. In this project, we explore a new server-interconnection structure. We observe that the commodity server machines used in today’s data centers usually come with two built-in Ethernet ports, one for network connection and the other left for backup purposes.

PRODUCT FEATURES:
We have also proposed how to incrementally deploy FiConn. FiConn a novel serverinterconnection network structure that utilizes the dual-port configuration existing in most commodity data-center server machines it is a highly scalable structure because the total number of servers it can support is not limited by the number of server ports or switch ports. It is cost-effective because it requires less number of switches and links than other recently proposed structures for data centers.

INTRODUCTION:
DATA-CENTER networking designs both the network structure and associated protocols to interconnect thousands of or even hundreds of thousands of servers at a data center, with low equipment cost, high and balanced network capacity, and robustness to link/sever faults. Its operation is essential to offering both numerous online applications, e.g., search, gaming, Web mail, and infrastructure services. It is well understood that treebase solution in current practice cannot meet the requirements. In this paper, First, it costs less to build a data-center network. We do not need high-end, expensive switches, which are widely used today. Standard, off shelf servers with two ports (one for operation in network connection, the other for backup) are also readily available. Second, the wiring becomes relatively easy since only two server ports are used for interconnection. We do not need to add additional hardware or wires on a server except the two NIC ports. Third, it may spawn more academic research into data centers. New problems and solutions in data-center networking, systems, and applications can be found, implemented, and assessed through an easy-to-build test bed at a university or institution. Today, data-center infrastructure may only be afforded by a few cash rich companies such as Microsoft, Google, and Yahoo. Neither current practice nor recent proposals can solve our problem. The tree-based solution requires expensive, high-end switches at the top level of the tree in order to alleviate the bandwidth bottleneck. The scaling of the Fat-Tree solution is limited to the number of ports at a switch, and it also needs more switches. The fundamental problem is that, we need to design a new network structure that works for servers with node degree of only 2 in order to scale. We propose FiConn, a scalable solution that works with servers with two ports only and low-cost commodity switches. FiConn defines a recursive network structure in levels. A high-level FiConn is constructed by many lowlevel FiConns. When constructing a higher-level FiConn, the lower-level FiConns use half of their available backup ports for interconnections and form a mesh. This way, the number of servers in FiConn, , grows double-exponentially with FiConn levels.

with low equipment cost. resulting topologies may only support 50% of the aggregate bandwidth available at the edge of the network. while still incurring tremendous cost. Non-uniform bandwidth among data center nodes complicates application design and limits overall system performance. Similar to how clusters of commodity computers have largely replaced more specialized SMPs and MPPs. high and balanced network capacity. LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING SYSTEM: Ethernet switches to support the full aggregate bandwidth of clusters consisting of tens of thousands of elements. Unfortunately. we argue that appropriately architected and interconnected commodity switches may deliver more performance at less cost than available. EXISTING SYSTEM: Existing network architecture typically consists of a tree of routing and switching elements with progressively more specialized and expensive equipment moving up the network hierarchy. even when deploying the highest-end IP switches/routers.CHAPTER 02 SYSTEM ANALYSIS: PROBLEM DEFINITION: Data-Center networking designs both the network structure and associated protocols to interconnect thousands of or even hundreds of thousands of servers at a data center. . and robustness to link/sever faults.

First. . FiConn uses traffic-aware routing that exploits the available link capacities based on traffic dynamics and balances the usage of different links to improve the overall network throughput. but holds high scalability with constant number of server ports and switch ports. we explore a new server-interconnection structure. We have developed a low-overhead traffic-aware routing mechanism to improve effective link utilization based on dynamic traffic state. ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM: We compare FiConn with other recently proposed data-center networking structures in detail.  We believe that if both ports are actively used in network connections. we can build a scalable. cost-effective interconnection structure without either the expensive higher-level large switches or any additional hardware on servers. It is cost-effective because it requires less number of switches and links than other recently proposed structures for data centers. disclosing that FiConn is advantageous over all other in terms of deploying cost. one for network connection and the other left for backup purposes. We observe that the commodity server machines used in today’s data centers usually come with two built-in Ethernet ports.  We have proven that FiConn is highly scalable to encompass hundreds of thousands of servers with low diameter and high bisection width. we make three main contributions in FiConn. FiConn a novel server-interconnection network structure that utilizes the dual-port configuration existing in most commodity data-center server machines it is a highly scalable structure because the total number of servers it can support is not limited by the number of server ports or switch ports. FiConn offers a novel network structure that is highly scalable with off-the-shelf servers of node degree 2 and low-end commodity switches while having low diameter and high bisection width.PROPOSED SYSTEM:  In this paper.  We have also proposed how to incrementally deploy FiConn.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS FOR EXISTING AND PROPOSED SYSTEM: .

Only the customized products had to be purchased. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. The expenditures must be justified. For feasibility analysis. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are ♦ ♦ ♦ ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY SOCIAL FEASIBILITY ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization.FEASIBILITY STUDY: The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. . some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential.

His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently.TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility. . The developed system must have a modest requirement. as he is the final user of the system. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. instead must accept it as a necessity. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system. that is. which is welcomed. the technical requirements of the system. The user must not feel threatened by the system. SOCIAL FEASIBILITY The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client.

4 GHz. 1. 40 GB.HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: • • • • • • System Hard Disk Monitor Mouse Ram : : : : : Pentium IV 2.44 Mb. Floppy Drive : SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: • • • Operating system Coding Language Tools : Windows XP.6 : Eclipse 3. 512 Mb. : JDK 1.3 . Logitech. 15 VGA Colour.

NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Describe user-visible aspects of the system that are not directly related with the functional behavior of the system.e.FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Functional requirements specify which output file should be produced from the given file they describe the relationship between the input and output of the system. how precise are the systems numerical answers.) PSEUDO REQUIREMENTS: The client that restricts the implementation of the system imposes these requirements. for each functional requirement a detailed description of all data inputs and their source and the range of valid inputs must be specified. . Typical pseudo requirements are the implementation language and the platform on which the system is to be implemented. Non-Functional requirements include quantitative constraints.) or accuracy ((.e. such as response time (i. how fast the system reacts to user commands. These have usually no direct effect on the users view of the system.

Today. expensive switches. low-cost network infrastructure for data centers. off shelf servers with two ports (one for operation in network connection. it costs less to build a data-center network. ten next steps are to determine which operating system and language can be used for developing the tool. Standard. Second. multiport commodity switches? First. and applications can be found. using only the commodity servers with two ports and low-end. New problems and solutions in data-center networking.LITERATURE SURVEY: Literature survey is the most important step in software development process. and Yahoo. economy n company strength. and assessed through an easy-to-build test bed at a university or institution. the wiring becomes relatively easy since only two server ports are used for interconnection. Google. We do not need to add additional hardware or wires on a server except the two NIC ports. We do not need high-end. it may spawn more academic research into data centers. data-center infrastructure may only be afforded by a few cash rich companies such as Microsoft. In this paper. Once these things r satisfied. . This support can be obtained from senior programmers. the other for backup) are also readily available. Before developing the tool it is necessary to determine the time factor. Before building the system the above consideration r taken into account for developing the proposed system. from book or from websites. which are widely used today. Third. systems. we study a simple technical problem: Can we build a scalable. implemented. Once the programmers start building the tool the programmers need lot of external support.

A client also shares any of its resources. and assessed through an easy-to-build test bed at a university or institution. A server machine is a high-performance host that is running one or more server programs which share its resources with clients. it may spawn more academic research into data centers. the other for backup) are also readily available. We do not need to add additional hardware or wires on a server except the two NIC ports. We do not need high-end. which are widely used today. Today. it costs less to build a data-center network. data-center infrastructure may only be afforded by a few cash rich companies such as Microsoft. and Yahoo.  Second. Google. Standard. implemented. called clients. the wiring becomes relatively easy since only two server ports are used for interconnection. DATA CENTER:  First. New problems and solutions in data-center networking. expensive switches. and applications can be found.MODULES DESCRIPTION: NETWORKING MODULE: Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. off shelf servers with two ports (one for operation in network connection. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. . systems.  Third. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware.

and two recent proposals of Fat-Tree. and high-end highspeed switches have to be used. the current practice of the tree-based structure. Second. FiConn does not have this limitation and extends to a very large number of servers. TREE: In current practice. FAT-TREE: FiConn differs from Fat-Tree in several aspects. but only one lowest level in FiConn. Using redundant switches does not fundamentally solve the problem. the number of used switches is much smaller in FiConn. rather than on switches as in Fat-Tree.INTERCONNECTION STRUCTURE: Interconnection structures proposed for data centers. . given the three layers of switches. but incurs even higher cost. there are three levels of switches in Fat-Tree. Consider the total number of servers as and -port switches being used the number of servers Fat-Tree supports is restricted by the number of switch ports. a high-level switch shows as a single-point failure spot for its sub tree branch. First. Moreover. FiConn puts the interconnection intelligence on servers. It is well known that this kind of tree structure has many limitations. Hence. with commodity switches at the first level and increasingly larger and more expensive switches at the higher levels. The top-level switches are the bandwidth bottleneck. servers are connected by a tree hierarchy of network switches.

TAR achieves an aggregate throughput of 99. . TRAFFIC-OBLIVIOUS ROUTING (TOR): We find that the aggregate throughput of TOR is only 1 Gb/s. resulting from the bottleneck level-2 link that connects the two selected FiConn s. a pair of servers cannot leverage the two ports on each to improve their end-to-end throughput in TOR.5 Gb/s. To overcome these limitations. TOR cannot further utilize the available link capacities according to dynamic traffic states to improve the networking throughput. However. by exploiting the links beyond the two FiConn ’s and the bottleneck level-2 link. it has two limitations. Second. we design TAR in FiConn. However. First. TRAFFIC-AWARE ROUTING (TAR): TOR balances the use of different levels of FiConn links and serves as the basis for FiConn routing. which shows a tremendous improvement over TOR.DEPLOYMENT OF FiCONN: We design a two basic routing algorithm in FiConn that leverages the level-based characteristic of FiConn.

These components are the system process. DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail.  DFD is also known as bubble chart. It is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and the transformations that are applied as data moves from input to output. an external entity that interacts with the system and the information flows in the system. It is a simple graphical formalism that can be used to represent a system in terms of the input data to the system. It is used to model the system components. A DFD may be used to represent a system at any level of abstraction. . the data used by the process.  DFD shows how the information moves through the system and how it is modified by a series of transformations.CHAPTER 03 SYSTEM DESIGN: Data Flow Diagram / Use Case Diagram / Flow Diagram:  The DFD is also called as bubble chart. and the output data is generated by the system  The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important modeling tools. various processing carried out on these data.

4. which may be people or organizations or other entities. Each external entity must be involved with at least one data flow. PROCESS: People. Each data store must be involved with at least one data flow. DATA SOURCE: Here the data referenced by a process is stored and retrieved. The physical component is not identified. MODELING RULES: There are several common modeling rules when creating DFDs: 1. DATA FLOW: Data moves in a specific direction from an origin to a destination. The data flow is a “packet” of data. All processes should modify the incoming data. producing new forms of outgoing data. 2. A data flow must be attached to at least one process. SDLC: SPIRAL MODEL: .NOTATION: SOURCE OR DESTINATION OF DATA: External sources or destinations. procedures or devices that produce data. All processes must have at least one data flow in and one data flow out. 3.

PROJECT ARCHITECTURE: .

UML DIAGRAMS: USE CASE DIAGRAM: .

CLASS DIAGRAM: .

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: .

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DATAFLOW DIAGRAM: .

CHAPTER 04 PROCESS SPECIFICATION: INPUT DESIGN: The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data in to a usable form for processing can be achieved by .

When the data is entered it will check for its validity.inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The data entry screen is designed in such a way that all the data manipulates can be performed. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required. ➢ OBJECTIVES: 1. It is achieved by creating user-friendly screens for the data entry to handle large volume of data. controlling the errors. 3. ➢ Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur. The input is designed in such a way so that it provides security and ease of use with retaining the privacy. It also provides record viewing facilities. Input Design considered the following things: ➢ What data should be given as input? ➢ How the data should be arranged or coded? ➢ The dialog to guide the operating personnel in providing input. avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple. The goal of designing input is to make data entry easier and to be free from errors.Input Design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the input into a computer-based system. 2. avoiding delay. Appropriate messages are provided as when needed so that the user will not be in maize of instant. Data can be entered with the help of screens. Thus the objective of input design is to create an input layout that is easy to follow OUTPUT DESIGN: . This design is important to avoid errors in the data input process and show the correct direction to the management for getting correct information from the computerized system.

Designing computer output should proceed in an organized. an infected peer replies affirmatively to all the queries that it receives with the malware being substituted .  Trigger an action. In this scenario. or warnings. well thought out manner. In any system results of processing are communicated to the users and to other system through outputs.Create document.Select methods for presenting information. TECHNIQUES AND ALGORITHM USED: P2P network is initiated with a search request for it. as in Gnutella networks. the query is discarded.  Confirm an action. This paper assumes that the search mechanism employed is flooding. A peer receiving the query first responds affirmatively if in possession of the file and then checks the TTL of the query.  Signal important events. 3. or other formats that contain information produced by the system. as noted earlier. When analysis design computer output. which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the information clearly. problems. The output form of an information system should accomplish one or more of the following objectives. If this value is greater than zero. Efficient and intelligent output design improves the system’s relationship to help user decision-making. a peer searching for a file forwards a query to all its neighbors. 1. In output design it is determined how the information is to be displaced for immediate need and also the hard copy output. In our scenario. it suffices to distinguish any file in the network as being either malware or otherwise. This is because. they should Identify the specific output that is needed to meet the requirements. report. current status or projections of the  Future. 2.  Convey information about past activities. It is the most important and direct source information to the user. the right output must be developed while ensuring that each output element is designed so that people will find the system can use easily and effectively. opportunities. it forwards the query outwards to its neighbors. else.A quality output is one.

for the file being searched for. it is imperative to determine the average rate at which queries reach a node. Thus to model malware spread. which in turn depends on the search neighborhood. .

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The Java Programming Language The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords:            Simple Architecture neutral Object oriented Portable Distributed High performance Interpreted Multithreaded Robust Dynamic Secure With most programming languages. first you translate a program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes —the platform- . With the compiler. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is both compiled and interpreted.CHAPTER 05 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: JAVA TECHNOLOGY: Java technology is both a programming language and a platform. you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer.

You can compile your program into byte codes on any platform that has a Java compiler. We’ve already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000. Every Java interpreter. Java byte codes help make “write once. run anywhere” possible. or on an iMac. Compilation happens just once. is an implementation of the Java VM. The Java Platform A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). whether it’s a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets. a Solaris workstation. The interpreter parses and runs each Java byte code instruction on the computer. the same program written in the Java programming language can run on Windows 2000. interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The byte codes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. Linux. That means that as long as a computer has a Java VM. . The following figure illustrates how this works.independent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform.

the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. well-tuned interpreters. you’re probably already familiar with applets. If you’ve surfed the Web. The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities. However. the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code.Solaris. As a platform-independent environment. the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces. It’s the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms. Native code is code that after you compile it. However. The next section. The general-purpose. What Can Java Technology Do? The most common types of programs written in the Java programming language are applets and applications. An applet is a program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it’s a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. and justin-time byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability. The following figure depicts a program that’s running on the Java platform. and MacOS. such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. these libraries are known as packages. the Java programming language is not just for writing cute. high-level Java programming language is also a . As the figure shows. smart compilers. entertaining applets for the Web. The Java platform has two components: • • The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) You’ve already been introduced to the Java VM. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. What Can Java Technology Do? Highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide.

range of relational databases. Using the generous API. and so on. system properties. Examples of servers are Web servers. servers. threads. animation. and print servers. and more. though. input and output. and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side. worldwide. Java Servlets are a popular choice for building interactive web applications. Remote Method Invocation (RMI). The Java platform also has APIs for 2D and 3D graphics. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). Servlets are similar to applets in that they are runtime extensions of applications. . How does the API support all these kinds of programs? It does so with packages of software components that provides a wide range of functionality. and certificates. proxy servers. public Software components: Known as JavaBeansTM. collaboration. strings. The following figure depicts what is included in the Java 2 SDK. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features: • • • • The essentials: Objects. telephony. architectures. access control. Protocol) sockets. servlets run within Java Web servers. numbers.powerful software platform. Another specialized program is a servlet. • • • • Security: Both low level and high level. can plug into existing component Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Java Database Connectivity (JDBCTM): Provides uniform access to a wide and private key management. Networking: URLs. speech. configuring or tailoring the server. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language. A special kind of application known as a server serves and supports clients on a network. data Applets: The set of conventions used by applets. date and time. replacing the use of CGI scripts. Instead of working in browsers. mail servers. accessibility. you can write many types of programs. An application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform. including electronic signatures. UDP (User Data gram Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users structures.

white papers.How Will Java Technology Change My Life? We can’t promise you fame. and so on) suggest that a program written in the Java programming language can be four times smaller than the same program in C++. • Avoid platform dependencies with 100% Pure Java: You can keep your program portable by avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages. The 100% Pure JavaTM Product Certification Program has a repository of historical process manuals. easily extendible API let you reuse other people’s tested code and introduce fewer bugs. its JavaBeans component architecture. brochures. • Write better code: The Java programming language encourages good coding practices. We believe that Java technology will help you do the following: • Get started quickly: Although the Java programming language is a powerful object-oriented language. • Develop programs more quickly: Your development time may be as much as twice as fast versus writing the same program in C++. it’s easy to learn. Still. especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++. and its garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. and similar materials online. • Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts. method counts. or even a job if you learn the Java programming language. Why? You write fewer lines of code and it is a simpler programming language than C++. . it is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. and its wide-ranging. Its object orientation. fortune.

they run consistently on any Java platform. There is a 16-bit and a 32-bit version of this program and each maintains a separate list of ODBC data sources. they are installed when you setup a separate database application. whereas the Accounts Payable data source could refer to an Access database. The physical database referred to by a data source can reside anywhere on the LAN. which is as it should be. run anywhere: Because 100% Pure Java programs are compiled into Distribute software more easily: You can upgrade applets easily from a central machine-independent byte codes. programmers had to use proprietary languages for each database they wanted to connect to. The ODBC system files are not installed on your system by Windows 95. ODBC has made the choice of the database system almost irrelevant from a coding perspective. Each door will lead you to a particular database. From a programming perspective. server. the data source named Sales Figures might be a SQL Server database.EXE. the beauty of ODBC is that the application can be written to use the same set of function calls to interface with any data source. such as SQL Server Client or Visual Basic 4. It is also possible to administer your ODBC data sources through a stand-alone program called ODBCADM. Application developers have much more important things to worry about than the syntax that is needed to port their program from one database to another when business needs suddenly change. ODBC Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard programming interface for application developers and database systems providers. Think of an ODBC data source as a door with a name on it. Rather. Before ODBC became a de facto standard for Windows programs to interface with database systems. you can specify the particular database that is associated with a data source that an ODBC application program is written to use. Applets take advantage of the feature of allowing new classes to be loaded “on the fly.” without recompiling the entire program. it uses a file called ODBCINST. When the ODBC icon is installed in Control Panel. Now.0.DLL.• • Write once. regardless . For example. Through the ODBC Administrator in Control Panel.

Microsoft has always claimed that the critical factor in performance is the quality of the driver software that is used. And anyway. Sun Microsystems developed Java Database Connectivity. which means you finish sooner. the ODBC API even handles many of the network issues for the application programmer. or drivers. As you discovered earlier in this chapter. computers get faster every year. If a database vendor wishes to have JDBC support. he or she must provide the driver for each platform that the database and Java run on. We only mention these two as an example. Sun based JDBC’s framework on ODBC. There are ODBC drivers available for several dozen popular database systems. The operating system uses the Registry information written by ODBC Administrator to determine which lowlevel ODBC drivers are needed to talk to the data source (such as the interface to Oracle or SQL Server). The availability of good ODBC drivers has improved a great deal recently. Even Excel spreadsheets and plain text files can be turned into data sources. This consistent interface is achieved through the use of “plug-in” database connectivity modules. Meanwhile. JDBC In an effort to set an independent database standard API for Java. The only disadvantage of ODBC is that it isn’t as efficient as talking directly to the native database interface. Maybe not. . The advantages of this scheme are so numerous that you are probably thinking there must be some catch. this is true.of the database vendor. To gain a wider acceptance of JDBC. the criticism about performance is somewhat analogous to those who said that compilers would never match the speed of pure assembly language. In our humble opinion. or JDBC. The source code of the application doesn’t change whether it talks to Oracle or SQL Server. ODBC has widespread support on a variety of platforms. but the compiler (or ODBC) gives you the opportunity to write cleaner programs. The loading of the ODBC drivers is transparent to the ODBC application program. ODBC has had many detractors make the charge that it is too slow. In a client/server environment. Basing JDBC on ODBC will allow vendors to bring JDBC drivers to market much faster than developing a completely new connectivity solution. JDBC offers a generic SQL database access mechanism that provides a consistent interface to a variety of RDBMSs.

This interface would translate JDBC calls to ODBC and vice versa. This goal allows JDBC to use existing ODBC level drivers by the use of a software interface.JDBC was announced in March of 1996. It was released for a 90 day public review that ended June 8. The remainder of this section will cover enough information about JDBC for you to know what it is about and how to use it effectively. 1996. That would fill an entire book. have finalized the JDBC class library into a solid framework for building database applications in Java. . In an effort to support a wide variety of vendors. These goals. SQL Conformance SQL syntax varies as you move from database vendor to database vendor. Conversely. This allows the connectivity module to handle non-standard functionality in a manner that is suitable for its users. JDBC must be implemental on top of common database interfaces The JDBC SQL API must “sit” on top of other common SQL level APIs. because of its many goals. the final JDBC v1. Although not the lowest database interface level possible. JDBC Goals Few software packages are designed without goals in mind. drove the development of the API. it is at a high enough level for application programmers to use it confidently. JDBC will allow any query statement to be passed through it to the underlying database driver. Because of user input.0 specification was released soon after. This is by no means a complete overview of JDBC. 3. The goals that were set for JDBC are important. it is at a low enough level for higher-level tools and APIs to be created. Attaining this goal allows for future tool vendors to “generate” JDBC code and to hide many of JDBC’s complexities from the end user. They will give you some insight as to why certain classes and functionalities behave the way they do. SQL Level API The designers felt that their main goal was to define a SQL interface for Java. in conjunction with early reviewer feedback. The eight design goals for JDBC are as follows: 1. 2. JDBC is one that.

Use strong. allowing for only one method of completing a task per mechanism. the usual SQL calls used by the programmer are simple SELECT’s. Keep it simple This goal probably appears in all software design goal listings. 7. the designers feel that they should not stray from the current design of the core Java system. . more complex SQL statements should also be possible. Finally we decided to proceed the implementation using Java Networking. JDBC is no exception.4. Provide a Java interface that is consistent with the rest of the Java system Because of Java’s acceptance in the user community thus far. DELETE’s and UPDATE’s. Sun felt that the design of JDBC should be very simple. And for dynamically updating the cache table we go for MS Access database. less error appear at runtime. Allowing duplicate functionality only serves to confuse the users of the API. INSERT’s. 6. these queries should be simple to perform with JDBC. also. static typing wherever possible Strong typing allows for more error checking to be done at compile time. Keep the common cases simple Because more often than not. 5. However.

JAVA HA TWO THINGS: A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND A PLATFORM. COMPILATION IS EXECUTED. . JAVA FOLLOWING IS A HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE THAT IS ALL OF THE SIMPLE OBJECT-ORIENTED DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE-NEUTRAL PORTABLE HIGH-PERFORMANCE INTERPRETED ROBUST SECURE MULTITHREADED DYNAMIC JAVA IS ALSO UNUSUAL IN THAT EACH JAVA PROGRAM IS BOTH COMPILED AND A INTERPRETED. WITH A COMPILE YOU TRANSLATE JAVA PROGRAM INTO AN INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE CALLED JAVA BYTE CODES THE PLATFORM-INDEPENDENT CODE INSTRUCTION IS PASSED AND RUN ON THE COMPUTER. HAPPENS JUST ONCE. INTERPRETATION OCCURS EACH TIME THE PROGRAM THE FIGURE ILLUSTRATES HOW THIS WORKS.

RUN ANYWHERE” POSSIBLE. THE JAVA VM CAN ALSO BE IMPLEMENTED IN JAVA BYTE CODES HELP MAKE “WRITE ONCE. . AND MACINTOSH. JAVA VM.Java Program My Program Interpreter Compilers YOU JAVA CAN THINK OF JAVA BYTE CODES AS THE MACHINE CODE INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INTERPRETER. JAVA PROGRAM CAN RUN FOR EXAMPLE. WHETHER IT’S A JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE (JAVA VM). IS AN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HARDWARE. JAVA PROGRAM INTO BYTE CODES ON MY PLATFORM THAT HAS A JAVA THE BYTE CODES CAN THEN BE RUN ANY IMPLEMENTATION OF THE JAVA VM. THE SAME WINDOWS NT. EVERY JAVA DEVELOPMENT TOOL OR A WEB BROWSER THAT CAN RUN JAVA APPLETS. YOU CAN COMPILE YOUR COMPILER. SOLARIS.

It considers each datagram independently of the others. . Any association between datagram must be supplied by the higher layers. The IP layer supplies a checksum that includes its own header. It is also responsible for breaking up large datagram into smaller ones for transmission and reassembling them at the other end.Networking TCP/IP stack The TCP/IP stack is shorter than the OSI one: TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol. IP datagram’s The IP layer provides a connectionless and unreliable delivery system. The IP layer handles routing through an Internet. The header includes the source and destination addresses.

Network address Class A uses 8 bits for the network address with 24 bits left over for other addressing. Host address 8 bits are finally used for host addresses within our subnet. Subnet address Internally. Total address . allowing 1024 different hosts. It provides a virtual circuit that two processes can use to communicate. What it adds to IP is a checksum for the contents of the datagram and port numbers. you must be able to find it.UDP UDP is also connectionless and unreliable. Class B uses 16 bit network addressing. Building 11 is currently on one sub network and uses 10-bit addressing. Internet addresses In order to use a service. The network ID falls into various classes according to the size of the network address. the UNIX network is divided into sub networks. This encodes a network ID and more addressing. Class C uses 24 bit network addressing and class D uses all 32. This places a limit of 256 machines that can be on the subnet. The Internet uses an address scheme for machines so that they can be located. The address is a 32 bit integer which gives the IP address. TCP TCP supplies logic to give a reliable connection-oriented protocol above IP. These are used to give a client/server model see later.

Sockets A socket is a data structure maintained by the system to handle network connections.h> int socket(int family. These are similar to two ends of a pipe .but the actual pipe does not yet exist. protocol will be zero. int type. This is not location transparency! Certain of these ports are "well known". and type will depend on whether TCP or UDP is used. In fact. you send it to the port for that service of the host that it is running on.h> #include <sys/socket. #include <sys/types. under Windows. It returns an integer that is like a file descriptor. Here "family" will be AF_INET for IP communications.The 32 bit address is usually written as 4 integers separated by dots. . A socket is created using the call socket. Port addresses A service exists on a host. To send a message to a server. This is a 16 bit number. this handle can be used with Read File and Write File functions. int protocol). and is identified by its port. Two processes wishing to communicate over a network create a socket each.

documenting some more. The tasks in this project include: Sourcing freely redistributable vector outlines for the countries of the world. 1. which permits use in proprietary applications. supporting a wide range of chart types. and targets both server-side and client-side applications. free software. Support for many output types. testing some more. states/provinces in particular countries (USA in particular. Testing.to display a separate control that shows a small version of ALL the time series data. A flexible design that is easy to extend. EPS and SVG). Map Visualizations Charts showing values that relate to geographical areas. documenting. (b) income per capita for each country in Europe. including Swing components. a rendered. (c) life expectancy in each country of the world. Time Series Chart Interactivity Implement a new (to JFreeChart) feature for interactive time series charts --. JFreeChart is "open source" or. JFreeChart's extensive feature set includes: A consistent and well-documented API. Some examples include: (a) population density in each state of the United States. It is distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL). but also other areas).JFree Chart JFreeChart is a free 100% Java chart library that makes it easy for developers to display professional quality charts in their applications. 2. image files (including PNG and JPEG). Creating an appropriate dataset interface (plus default implementation). more specifically. and vector graphics file formats (including PDF. . and integrating this with the existing XYPlot class in JFreeChart. with a sliding "view" rectangle that allows you to select the subset of the time series data to display in the main chart.

Dashboards There is currently a lot of interest in dashboard displays.3. and lines/time series) that can be delivered easily via both Java Web Start and an applet. pies. thermometers. . Create a flexible dashboard mechanism that supports a subset of JFreeChart chart types (dials. bars. Property Editors The property editor mechanism in JFreeChart only handles a small subset of the properties that can be set for charts. 4. Extend (or reimplement) this mechanism to provide greater end-user control over the appearance of the charts.

FULL PROJECT CODING. DATABASE WITH VIDEO TUTORIAL: HOW TO INSTALL DOCUMENT: SEE VIDEO FILE .

White Box Testing White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings. structure or language of the module being tested.CHAPTER 06 TYPE OF TESTING: BLOCK & WHITE BOX TESTING: Black Box Testing Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level. Black box tests. structure and language of the software. Test strategy and approach Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail. such as specification or requirements document. . as most other kinds of tests. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated. such as specification or requirements document. UNIT TESTING: Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle. It is purpose.you cannot “see” into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works. must be written from a definitive source document. Test objectives • All field entries must work properly. or at least its purpose. although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. as a black box .

Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications. e.• • Pages must be activated from the identified link. assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. messages and responses must not be delayed. . Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully.g. Features to be tested • • Verify that the entries are of the correct format No duplicate entries should be allowed All links should take the user to the correct page. sub assemblies. INTEGRATION TESTING: Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. components in a software system or – one step up – software applications at the company level – interact without error. SYSTEM TESTING: The purpose of testing is to discover errors. It provides a way to check the functionality of components. The entry screen. There are various types of test. No defects encountered.

: identified classes of application outputs must be exercised. predefined processes. Before functional testing is complete. system documentation. Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements. key functions. : identified functions must be exercised. : identified classes of invalid input must be rejected. and user manuals. data fields. 1.FUNCTIONAL TESTING: Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements. Functional testing is centered on the following items: Valid Input Invalid Input Functions Output : identified classes of valid input must be accepted. systematic coverage pertaining to identify Business process flows. Systems/Procedures : interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked. Design View 2. Datasheet View Design View . and successive processes must be considered for testing. additional tests are identified and the effective value of current tests is determined. In addition. or special test cases. TEST CASE TABLE: TABLE: A database is a collection of data about a specific topic. VIEWS OF TABLE: We can work with a table in two types.

such as deleting or updating. we get latest information in the dynaset.Each time we run query. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited). . edit or analyses the data itself we work in tables datasheet view mode. Datasheet View To add. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it.To build or modify the structure of a table we work in the table design view. QUERY: A query is a question that has to be asked the data. We can specify what kind of data will be hold.

FiConn uses traffic-aware routing that exploits the available link capacities based on traffic dynamics and balances the usage of different links to improve the overall network throughput. a novel server-interconnection network structure that utilizes the dual-port configuration existing in most commodity data-center server machines. but holds high scalability with constant number of server ports and switch ports. LIMITATIONS & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS : We compare FiConn with other recently proposed data-center networking structures in detail. It is cost-effective because it requires less number of switches and links than other recently proposed structures for data centers. we make three main contributions in FiConn. It is a highly scalable structure because the total number of servers it can support is not limited by the number of server ports or switch ports. First. disclosing that FiConn is advantageous over all other in terms of deploying cost. FiConn offers a novel network structure that is highly scalable with off-the-shelf servers of node degree 2 and low-end commodity switches while having low diameter and high bisection width. .CHAPTER 07 CONCLUSION: We propose FiConn. We have designed traffic-aware routing in FiConn to make better utilization of the link capacities according to traffic states. We also have proposed solutions to increase the bisection width in incomplete FiConns during incremental deployment.

Y. Bashkow. H. 4. Comput.” in Proc. 63–74. 684–689. Al-Fares. [7] W. 2007. M. [2] M. Loukissas. Shi. “Generalized hypercube and hyperbus structures for a computer network. 59–72. ISCA.REFERENCE & BIBLIOGRAPHY: Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books.Wu.” in Proc. Bhuyan and D. 90–98. 2001. pp. pp. pp. Li. and S. “Route packets. H. 1982. ACM EuroSys. Agrawal. [5] H. Aug. pp. “BCube: A high performance. Lu. Budiu. Isard. Apr. “A scalable. Sullivan and T. Aug. Y. R. 63–74. Tian. Jun. 1977.” in Proc. Guo. C-33.” in Proc. Vahdat. Lu. 75–86. Zhang. Dally and B. ACM SIGCOMM.. 323–333. I. [4] C. 2008. 1984. we have them in Our Department. D. ACM SIGCOMM.Mar. 105–117. pp. [6] L. [1] M. fully distributed parallel machine. “A general class of processor interconnection strategies. [8] L. C. L. pp. 2009. no.” in Proc. 2008. Y. ISCA. and Y. Lu. Agrawal.. pp. Zhang. DAC. and A. Guo. X. Aug. not wires: On-chip interconnection networks. Zhang. “DCell: A scalable and faulttolerant network structure for data centers.Wu. Yu et al. Apr. K. pp. “A large scale. and S. G. Towles. ACM SIGCOMM.” IEEE Trans. . vol.” in Proc. A. commodity data center network architecture. server-centric network architecture for modular data centers. Bhuyan and D. [3] C.” in Proc. Shi. Tan. homogeneous. “Dryad: Distributed data-parallel programs from sequential building blocks.

Java Complete Reference 4. by James F.sun. SITES REFERRED: http://java. 5.com/ . by Behrouz A Forouzan.com http://www. by Abraham Silberschatz. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. Data Communications and Networking. Professional Java Network Programming 2. 6. Operating System Concepts. Kurose.REFERENCES MADE FROM: 1.networkcomputing.sourcefordgde.com http://www.