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VISITATIONS

OF

ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS
IN

47

HEN.

III. (1262), 3

&

4

EDW.

I.

(1275-6),

&

7

EDW.

I.

(1279),

TRANSLATED FROM

The original records in the National Library of France ; to which from the same source are added, in part, those of
27

EDW.

I.

(1298),

13 RIG.

II.

(1390),

6

HEN.

IV.

(1405),

WITH
rbinHiwe in respect of

%

$ebe-, anb

bit-galls of

%

rbr.

BY

SIB

G.

F.

DUCKETT,
J

BART.,

" SCIENCE AND ART " OFFICIER DE L'INSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE IN FRANCE GREAT GOLD MEDALLIST OF IN AUSTRIA AND GERMANY; FKLLOW OF THE BOCItTY OF ANTIQUARIES; AND CORRESPONDING " DE NORMANDIE." MKMHK.lt OF THE SOCIE'Ts' DBS AJJTIQUAIRES

of

tlje

ib(jtg

of Cluni.

[Gules,

two keys in saltire, the wards upwards, or ; surmounted by a sword in pale ppr., blade arg., hilt and pommel or.]

llontion

:

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNBR, &
M.DCCC.XC.

CO.

TO

THE HONOURED MEMORY
OF AN

ACCOMPLISHED WOMAN OF GREAT LITERARY ATTAINMENT,

MY DEEPLY REGRETTED FRIEND, AND KINSWOMAN,

Jttarta f^alltlraB,
WIFE
OF-

W. H. HALLIDAY,

'OF

GLENTHORNE, DEVON,

AND

DAUGHTER OF

SIR

THOMAS HARVIE FARQUHAR,

BART.,

THESE FOLLOWING PAGES
ARE INSCRIBED.

VISITATIONS

OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

PERHAPS of
visitation
ecclesiastics

all

of

monastic records, those dealing with the subordinate monasteries by delegated

from the parent-house, are among the most and characteristic of the cloister period, but interesting it would have increased our knowledge of such personal inspections, had there been handed down to us some code of rules by which they were conducted. Nevertheless, their purport and object may be readily underThere exists, no doubt, stood, and are generally defined. an outline of instructions, or Memoranda for the guidance
of certain abbatial visitors, sent into England in 1457, two hundred years later than the first visitation now to

but these so-called visitors were rather ; emissaries or commissioners from Gluni to look after the property of the Order in this country, and recover whatever they might be able, at that perilous period for alien

be recorded

priories.

Still,

as formulce

for

Memoranda
extent,
in

in

question

will

visitatorial duties, the supply, to some further

what is Eipparently wanting.* The Order of Cluni possessed 35 subordinate houses

England, irrespective of three other affiliations in Scotland, and of the former the first established was the The Vicar-General of the Order Priory of Barnstaple.f we find in almost every instance to have been the Prior of St. Pancras of Lewes, and notwithstanding there were two Cluniac abbeys in this country (those of Paisley and Bermondsey), and that this monastery was only reckoned its second affiliation in point of rank, it may be still looked upon as the chief establishment of the Order. Of the several ecclesiastical provinces of the Order,
t Pignot,

* " Records "

and Charters of Cluui," ii., 83-85. Ordre de Cluni," iii., 419.

6

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUKIAC FOUNDATIONS.

England and Scotland formed one,* and its affiliations were those of: Bablew (Som.) Barnstaple (Dev.) Bermondsey (Surr.); Monk-Bretton (York); Bromholme Careswell (Dev.) Castle Acre (Norf.) ; Clifford (Norf.) (Heref.) Daventry (N'hants) Derby Dudley (Wore.) Hitcham (or Heacham)f (Norf.); Holme (Dor.); Horksley Horton (Kent) Kershall (Lane.) ; Lenton (Essex)
; ;
; ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

MeltonMalpas (Monm.) Montacute (Som.); Mendham J (Suff.); Mowbray (Leic.) Normacsberch (Suff.) Northampton Northampton (nunnery); Pontefract (York) Preen (Salop); Prittlewell St. Stanesgate (Essex) (Essex) ; Sleusham (Norf.)
(Notts)
;
; ; ;
; ;

Lewes (Sussex)

;

;

;

(Corn.); Thetford (Norf.); Tykeford (Bucks); Wangford (Suff.); Wenlock (Salop). The Cistercian, of all other Orders, had, however, greater charms for this country, and took deeper root therein, the number of its foundations being in excess of those of Cluni by one half or more. But, if the Cistercian Order was the most popular, it must be borne in mind, that the reformed Benedictine congregation of Cluni was its great prototype, and that the foundation of this

Syriac

'

branch of monasticism, preceded it by nearly 200 years. Like all monastic institutions, after the time of its fifth abbot in 1122, Peter the Venerable, the glory of the Order having culminated in him, the inevitable fate
||

attending

its

progress was ultimate decay, for as wealth
it

increased, and with

the

power

of the

community, so

abuses crept in. The grand and original aim of the Order the conversion of barbarism to Christianity gradually sank into disrepute, and as time went on, this religious institution, which had done so much to civilize and enlighten mankind, became in the end, before the lapse of a few
* The ten territorial divisions or provinces of the Order of Cluni comprised Lyon 2, France 3, Provence, Tarentaise, Dauphine, Vienne 4, Poitou, and Saintonge ; 5, Auvergne 6, Gascogne; 7, Germany, Lorraine, and Bourgogne; " Bibliotheca Cluniacensis," pp. 8, Italy; 9, Spain; 10, England and Scotland. 1706, 1751. A cell to Castle- Acre. f t Subordinate to Lewes; founded t. Rufus by W. de Warenne. Or St. Caricus ; a cell to Montacute. When at the height of its glory, Cluni may be said to have covered the whole face of Christian Europe with its affiliated foundations, and stood at the head of all monastic institutions, even after the rise of other Orders. Its spiritual dominion reached at that time from the British Isles and the West of Europe, to Constantinople and the Holy Land.
:

1,

;

;

;

;

||

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

7

centuries, a mere benefice in commendam, reserved for ecclesiastics and dignitaries, with the honorary title of " abbe" in favour at Court. The subject of the visitation of religious houses is one of considerable interest, but for the most part the records

dealing with this particular portion of monastic annals, is It was one from which imperfect and unsatisfactory. the monasteries of the past strained every nerve to be relieved, (we allude more particularly to the oversight and control of the diocesan), for of their own abbatial superintendence they could scarcely hope to be independent, though these last visitations were sought to be evaded, as will be seen subsequently,* and without naming every Order which succeeded in throwing off the episcopal the first, we believe, which jurisdiction, that of Cluni was obtained the privilege of exemption from it. It was Pope Gregory VII., who had himself been a monk of Cluni, who extended to the Order this special immunity. The Prsemonstratensian Order was another, which afterwards obtained a like independence, and the Chronicles of some English houses of other Orders, are found to have got
rid also of episcopal superintendence.

Although exempted by Papal authority from the said supervision of the diocesan, the records make it clear that as far as the Order of Cluni was concerned, its houses were in all cases still subject to a certain amount of control and interference on the part of the bishops (though to what extent is not
very clear or intelligible). We find that the priors are always said to acknowledge the episcopal jurisdiction of their diocesans, e.g., " Ordinarius, cut facit fy fecit prior obedientiam." They submitted to his authority, apparently, on certain spiritual matters, saving, of course,
the privileges granted to their Order by the Holy See. But as regards the Cluniac, and other exempted Orders, inasmuch as it was on the one hand a boon and a triumph
to enjoy such independence from episcopal visitatorial oversight, so, perhaps, on the other, nothing contributed more to the decay of all religious Orders, or tended to their ultimate extinction, than such exemption, for

many

* See pp. 15 and 19, where the Visitors complain of not having had access to Lewes Priory ; and the Visitation-report of Monk-Bretton, postea.

8

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

abuses and irregularities were overlooked (and even countenanced) by themselves, which would have been more harshly dealt with by the diocesan. The records of such visitations (whether abbatial or episcopal)* are a valuable illustration of monastic life and manners, and from such periodical inspections an insight is obtained into the habits of cloistered communities, and the general working of monachism, not It is usually found in other documentary evidence. in the absence of any code of rules on the probable, subject, that both were carried out in the same way, though in some partially recorded episcopal visitations of other Orders, which have been handed down, there is an amount of trifling inquiry very little to the point, and Those about to be given, bear of very little moment. on them the stamp of evident honesty and truthfulness. Visitations (as regards the Cluniac Order and by inference in respect of all monastic Orders) were undertaken by the parent-house for the purpose of promoting

uniformity in discipline throughout all its dependent foundations, for correcting abuses, for the reformation of morals, and the maintenance of sound doctrine (in conformity with Catholic views) ; being undertaken either at fixed or uncertain periods, according to the exigency of the moment. They had also another aim in view the maintenance of the Convent's rights against encroachments on its estates by feudal lords, which too often involved the Convent in litigation, besides the temporal concerns and everything relating to its income, disbursements and pecuniary liabilities, the prevention of waste and dilapidation, and general watchfulness over its property,

and to these may be added the colonization of new foundations. Many of these objects were subsequently " General attained by the Chapters" of the Order, for " Visitations " had an earlier As the business origin. of the parent-house increased, and its subordinate affiliations became founded, the abbot could no longer find the
* Partial visitations of the Praemonstratensian house of Dureford, and of the " nunnery of Easeborne are given in the Sussex Archaeological Collections" (Vols. The record of a viii. and xi.), both from the Episcopal Register of Chichester. Norfolk visitation by Dr. Jessop was lately published by the Camden Society.

VISITATIONS OP ENGLISH CLTJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

9

visit

the one, or personally to requisite time to superintend the other; hence arose the necessity of further oversight and control, and with this the General Chapter. The visitors selected from among their own Order, were

nominated for the duty by the Chapter General,* held every year at Cluni. Two were selected for each ecclesiastical Province, of which there were several, that of England and Scotland combined, forming one of them.f Throughout the different examples of the earliest
Cluniac visitations now given, the financial condition of the foundation appears a primary question, and the
* General-Chapters seem to have originated as a means of centralization, in respect of matters beyond the power of one head of a monastic institution to As the control, such as the oversight by a personal visitation of its affiliation. members of any religious Order increased, and with it the business of the abbot, latter became quite inadequate for the multituthe personal supervision of this dinous duties of his office. The general chapter (which may be taken as an extension of the provincial chapter) became, therefore, after the abbot, the Order's highest authority. Composed of all the heads or superiors of subject abbeys and in the month of September (taking the priories, it was convened once every year statutes of the Order of Cluni as an example), under the presidency of the abbot The precedence was given to all mitred abbots, at of the chief or parent-house. the head of whom came the abbot of Moissac. After these came the grand-prior, and the cl austral-prior, and then in rotation, the following priors in order of precedence, viz., the prior of la Charite, Lewes, Saint Martin-des-Champs, etc. Each head of a subordinate house rendered an account of his convent, temporarily and Decrees which were to become obligatory throughout the Order were spiritually. thereby promulgated; or modifications under certain contingencies. The general business of Chapters was very diversified, comprising law-suits in respect of a priory's estates, new foundations, instructions to missionary monks, recommendations for priests taking temporary duties, celebration of anniversaries of deceased persons, and questions as to prescribed ritual. Nothing, in short, of any spiritual or temporal nature can be specified, of which the Chapter did not take cognizance. Attendance at General Chapters was compulsory on the part of all dependent abbots and priors, under pain of deposition or removal. The priors, however, of Spain, Lombardy, Italy, Germany, and England, were privileged, and not subject to attend more than once in three years, although an entry is extant which would make it appear that in some cases this time was extended to even seven years. In the sixteenth century, the following was the order of precedence among the heads of the Cluniac affiliations, under the presidency of the abbot of Cluni. The abbots of Moissac, Figeac, Mozac, Balme, Monstierneuf, Saint Benoit (on the Po), Thiers, Beaulien, Paisley (in Scotland), Payerne, Arles-sur-Tech, Cornpredon, the grand-prior of Cluni, the claustral-prior of Cluni, the priors of la Charite-sur-Loire, Saint Pan eras (of Lewes), Saint Martin-des-Champs, Souvigny, Sauxillange, Marcigny, Gigny, Charlieu, Pont-Saint-Esprit, Sainte Marie de Najera (in Spain), Paray, Nantua, with 55 other priors and doyens. " Ordre de Cluni," ii., 320.] \Cf. Yepez. iv., 322; Pignot, Every year two of the Order were selected to make the abbatial visitation of any province within the Order's jurisdiction, and it is supposed (according to Pignot, " Ordre de Cluni," ii., 320, 322) that the division of its ecclesiastical surveillance into Provinces, was due to the first creation of the Chapter-General. f See ante; foot-note, p. 6.

2

10

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

different reports of the visitors afford evidence of a very unfavourable character in this respect. There is an absence of detail in all, as to some domestic concerns of the convent, which we believe to have been narrowly looked into, and where such is wanting, it is fair to assume that silence was deemed more prudent than

publicity.

The progress through the country of the visitors being carried out along tracks, paths, or bridle-roads, for roads (properly so-called) did not then exist, the time occupied
in following their route,
less protracted or
all

know

from one priory to another, was slow than might be supposed, for we the distance a moderately good horse will traverse

day across a broken country. But this speed is more than attained in one case, in which the visitors (1279) are said to have travelled from the North of England into Norfolk, as quickly as could be accomplished on horse-back at the present time. Nevertheless, one is still surprised how in those days of insecurity, such locomotion could have been so rapidly effected. The Cluniac visitations of 1262, 1275-6, and 1279 are, we believe, as early as any to be found relating to this country, whilst those of 1298, 1390, and 1405, though embodied under one head from visitations of those dates, bring the subject down to within a short time of the dissolution of all alien priories in
in a
this

country. foregoing, though falling short of completeness, may possibly be sufficient to afford some idea of the general object and scope of abbatial visitations. Of these we give a, literal translation, in respect of purport and sense, but one as free and unrestrained as is compatible with the original.*

The

* Lest there should be some, who may be disposed to carp at the free translation adopted by us (for we know that there are a few, who arrogate to themselves a sort of divine right to sit in judgment on all matters literary, historical, or controversial), we may observe that between the strictly literal and free translation of medieval Latin, there is this to remark the former, usually in vogue, is not only very uncomfortable reading, even when correct, but much more so when defective in its rendering, or, as we have often seen, interlarded with the grossest blunders. If the latter style, therefore, gives the literal meaning of a passage, though not the ipsissima verba, we hold it to be a preferable mode of

conveying the sense.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLtJNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

11

Report made in 1262 (47 Hen. III.) by the Priors John and Henry, Visitors of the Abbey of Cluni on the condition
9

of Lewes, Thetford, English Wenlock, Northampton, Pontefract, Montacute, and Bermondsey, under the authority of Yves de Poyson, 25th Abbot of Cluni.

of the

subordinate-houses

In the year of Our Lord 1262, We the Brothers, John and Henry, Priors respectively of Gassicourt and Bermondsey, proceeded to carry out our English VisitaWe intion, commencing with the priory of Lewes.
quired,
first

as

to

the regular

fulfilment

of

all

the

Convent's statutes
strictly observed.
all

and

rule,

and whether they were

Having ascertained the apparent truth, accustomed form and ceremony, it resulted clearly, that all devotional offices were becomingly performed, that (independent of matters which pertain to spiritualities), all monastic obligations and duties, such
with
as the observance of silence at enjoined times ; almsgiving; hospitality; and the administrative daily business of

the monastery, pertaining to the necessary requirements of the whole community (including those in the infirmary), were, according to the concurrent testimony of all evidence adduced, conducted to the upholding of the In respect of its instatutes regulating such things. there is more owing to the house, than the debtedness, house itself may be said to owe.
in London, we instituted searching into the condition of Lenton priory,* through inquiry two of that establishment, Brother Alfred, its subcellarer^ and Eichard, the almoner % of the house. By the showing of these it was manifest, that the state of the Convent was all that could be desired in respect of spiritualities, and that Divine offices were conducted becomingly and according to church-ritual ; the religious community consisting of twenty-two monks, and two Having further inquired of them, as to lay-brethren. the convent's financial condition, it was evident that the

Next, being

* Lenton Priory in Notts, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was directly subject to Cluni. Its cells were Kershall, in Lane., and Koche. t The cellarer procured provisions for the convent, t The almoner had the supervision of the daily distribution of alms.

12

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

house was loaded with debt, to the extent of a thousand pounds of the English currency. At the same place (London), we made inquiry through Brother Henry, sub-prior of Thetford,* and Thomas, the convent's chamberlain,t as to the true state and condition of that house. By their evidence it appeared, that all Divine offices were conducted and celebrated as heretofore, and all other spiritualities were becomingly and suitably observed.

The Prior himself, howwas impeded from coming in person, being kept ever, at home by bodily infirmity, the truth of this being
certified to

convent's

us in writing. We inquired then as to the liabilities, of the said Sub-Prior and Chamberand as to all other matters relating to the adminislain, tration of its goods and property. Being furnished with a written statement of the accounts in respect of the former by the Prior, it was shown by such statement and their evidence, that the pecuniary obligation of the house amounted to six hundred and ten marks. The number of the brethren are twenty-two. instituted inquiry, also, being still there, as to the Priory of Montacute, j through Brother Walter, almoner of the convent; Brother Jeffery, Prior of Holme, and Brother Jeffrey of Northampton, the procurator (or authorized agent) of that monastery. By them it was shown and satisfactorily proved, that all Divine offices at Montacute were celebrated with the usual becoming solemnity, and that other matters relating to spiritualicarried out. ties were suitably Being then asked as to the indebtedness of the convent, they answered

We

that

it

ligious

owed three hundred marks sterling. The recommunity of this house consists of twenty-five

brethren.
Edw.
* Thetford Priory (Norf.) was founded by Roger Bigot in 1103. In the time of See Vitellius. F. IV., for extracts reIII. it petitioned to be made denizen. lating to Thetford ; also Dods. MS., Vol. 102, f. 67-72 (Bibl. Bodl.). f The chamberlain was a monastic official, whose duties and office were not always the same. He appears in some cases to have procured the necessary In other clothing and sandals for the monks also collected the rents and taxes. cases, he represented the abbot in the visitations of its provinces (Du Cange). J Montacute (Som.) was founded by William, E. of Morton, t. Hen. I. He took part with Robert Curthose, against Hen. I. Its cells were Careswell (Dev.), Holme
;

(L>or.), St.

Syriac (Corn.), and Malpas (Mon.).

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

13

State of the Cells subject to la Charite.

In due course we came to Northampton,* and made there our Visitation according to the usual manner. ascertained on inquiry, that the house had a debt of two hundred seventy-two and a half marks ; that all Divine and solemn offices were becomingly celebrated and performed ; that all necessaries for the use of the community were sufficiently provided for ; and all other obligations were rightly carried out. The number of the brethren here amount to thirty-four. On our return to London, the Prior of Wenlock having been cited to attend, and personally appear before us ; Brother Walter the chamberlain, and Brother Philip the land-steward (or bailiff), t of Wenlock priory, having been sent to us on behalf of the convent, these severally made their report to us of that house ;{ its condition, both as to spiritualities and temporalities, being as follows The Divine offices are there conducted with all possible
:

We

solemnity and propriety ; silence is observed ; and all such things as pertain to correction, and the sub-prior's duties The in respect thereof, firmly and strictly observed. brotherhood number thirty-four ; and its pecuniary liabilities amount to sixteen hundred marks, with an additional sum of twenty-six and a half marks ; of these eighty marks, and another sum of twelve and a half marks, are owing with interest to different merchants. In due course, we made our Visitation of the abbey's and having ascertained the exact cell of Bermondsey, truth as to the observance of the convent's statutes and rule, the result of such inquiry showed, that all devotional
offices

and

rites

were most properly and becomingly per-

* St. Andrew of Northampton. f Grenetarius or granatarius in the text ; monastic official who had the oversight of the grain and farm-produce farm-bailiff ; land-steward. Wenlock was a cell to the house of la Charite in France. During the wars between England and France it suffered the fate of all alien priories. An extent of its possessions was taken in 1380, when in the King's hands. Its own immediate cells were St. James of Dudley, and St. Helen. It was refounded in 1080, by Koger de Montgomeri. Paisley was founded in 1184, and colonized by monks
; :

from Wenlock. Bermondsey, in Surrey, below London Bridge; founded Child, and was made an abbey t. Ric. II.

in

1082 by Alwin

14

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLU.NIAC FOUNDATIONS.

formed

that silence, the correction of what is amiss or required reform rigidly obeyed, and that almsgiving and hospitality are there carried out according to established custom. The indebtedness of the house amounts to two hundred and sixty-six marks. There are thirty-two
;

the state and condition of Pontefract* priory, through Brother Thomas the sacrist,f and William the hostelar j of the same, and to
all its

monks and one lay-brother. We then made inquiry respecting

due and required conventual observances. From

these

we

ascertained,

that

all

such

matters

as

are

accustomed to be observed

performed. We made out that the pecuniary obligations incurred by the monastery, reach the sum of a thousand marks ; and that the number of the brethren amount to
sixteen.
\_0n a roll of parchment, length 2 If inches, width 6|
inches.

in the cloister, are there duly

CCLXII, and
;

Endorsement VISITATIONES ANGLIE, ANNO the same also at below, FACTUM EST " Nouv. bottom of instrument. acq. latin," 2280, No. 8 Bibliotheque Nationale.]
;

Report in 1275 and 1276 (3 and 4 Edw. ./.) ly the Gluniac Visitors of English subordinate houses, delegated for the duty ly Yves de Chassant, 26th Abbot of Gluni.
Visitation made in England, in the year of Our Lord 1275-6, by the Brothers, John, Prior of Wenlock, and Arnulph (equerry; constable) to the Lord abbot of
Cluni.

Horton (Monks -Horton).

On Thursday

next before

* Pontefract was subject to the house of St. Marie de-la-Charite in France, and was founded by Robert de Lacy temp. Eufus. It was dedicated to St. John the Evangelist. See notes out of a chartulary of Saint John of Pontefract, Dods. MS.,
Vol. 116, f 52 (Bibl. Bodl.).
.

f The sacrist had charge of the church-vessels, treasure, books, ornaments, and vestments. He had to account for the oblations made at the high and other altars, superintended burials, provided wax for the altar-lights, as well as bread and wine
for the Eucharist.

J The hostelar, or official in charge of the hostelry, was entrusted with the care of the guests and pilgrims. Monks-Horton, near Hythe, in Kent, was founded t. Hen. II. by Eobert de Vere. It was a cell to Lewes, and made denizen t. Edw. III.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

15

Lucy the Virgin (13th Dec.) we made our Visitation of Horton, one of the cells to Lewes. "We found twelve brethren, but two of the prescribed number were wanting, and our intention was, had we been able to have had access to Lewes, to have made up the right number of resident monks. "We ascertained that the Mass of the Blessed Virgin was not properly celebrated, if at all, and we strictly enjoined that this office should be daily celebrated with all due solemnity in the Chapel
the Feast of St.
of the said Virgin. "We discovered, also, that at the celebration of High Mass, the convent dispensed entirely with the functions of the deacon ; and inasmuch as this Church is one of [conventualis],* we further enjoined that in future at this celebration the Gospel should be read by one ot the brotherhood, delegated to officiate as deacon. It came to our knowledge, that at the hour of dinner (or chief meal) there was no Reader in the re" Reader-at-table " to officiate at that titne;f fectory, no a remissness which we strictly enjoined to be corrected

and remedied.
Again, we found that the conventual-seal was in custody of two only of the brethren, and to them we added another of the fraternity, in conformity with the
statutes.

We

understood, likewise, that
of their

two only
fessions,

it was the custom that number were appointed to hear connamely, the Prior and Sub- Prior, owing to the
;

above-named numerical deficiency of resident canons
we, therefore, appointed a third.

One of the fraternity, we heard, had sold a certain fur habit or garment for forty pence ; we ordered that such a practice should not be repeated.
* The word " conventualis " in the text, is explained by Du Cange thus: Conventualis ecclesia a priory of canons-regular ; whilst conventualis locus signifies a monastery, in which the number of the religious community is sufficient to carry out the rule and statutes of the Order without hindrance. Perhaps the last sense is more conformable to the Cluniac Order, although we have used the word "canons." f Lector mensae.

16

VISITATIONS OP ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

In like manner we ascertained, that the community made no use of sandals (or leggings)* on certain regulated occasions, which we ordered to be remedied.

We gave the Prior himself, also, strict injunctions that he should never on any account take upon himself to ride without such leggings, and the use of a crupper
[postella] for his saddle.

gave further orders, both to the Prior and the convent, that they should on no account eat meat [cages'] in the presence, or in the houses of secular
persons \_coram secular es\. In other respects the convent
order.
is

We

in sufficiently

good

The

liabilities

of the house

amount

to eighty and a

half marks.

Bermondsey.
that
is

On

the day of St.

Thomas

the Martyr,

made
The

to say, 5 days after the Nativity (Dec. 29th), we our Visitation of the cell of Bermondsey, where said house
it
is

there are 20 monks.

1,000 marks of addition to this,
successors
;

silver,

debt to the extent of In pays an annuity of 100 to one of the
in

burdened

owing

to different creditors.

King's chaplains in perpetuity,

one of

its

viz., to himself and his irrespective also of 5 estates, alienated by Towic priors, the names of them being
:

Habingeburi (Halh'ngbury, Herts) ; Wideford (Widford, Essex; Herts); Richemunt (Richmond, Surr.); Benenio (? Bennington, Herts). The visitors on the part of the prior of la Charite, had already made their visitation of this house before we came, and amended whatever was amiss. Northampton (St. Andrew of). On Tuesday next after the Epiphany of Our Lord (Jan. 6th), we entered on our Visitation at Northampton. There are 30 brethren in this convent, but the aforesaid visitors delegated by the Prior of la Charite, had already made their visitation of it before we came, and had corrected everything that was to be amended.
;

(TodwtcJc ?

York)

* Sotulares corrigiati

;

and a sort of leggings or boot used

apparently sandals (Spelman, Gloss.) in riding, etc. (Du Cange).

j

also buskins

;

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUN1AO FOUNDATIONS.

17
to

The pecuniary marks sterling.

obligations of this house

amount

700

Montacute. Visitation made at Montacute on Sunday after the Feast of the Blessed Martyr, St. Vincent, next in the year aforesaid (Jan. 22nd). The number of the brethren amount to 20. found that the altar-lights were not lighted, and we gave strict instructions that this should be remedied. further found that on prescribed occasions, the community dispensed with the use of sandals (or leggings) that one and \_sotularibus corrigiatis], and, moreover, in the habit of journeying and riding about all were the country, eating and drinking indifferently in the houses of laymen and secular persons. In the infirmary the prescribed statute in regard to the reading of the lessons (the lection), was not performed during the hour of dinner, and we gave strict injunctions that all these also enjoined the Prior things should be corrected. he was on no account to attempt to ride out on that horseback without a crupper \j)ostella\ to his saddle, or leggings ; neither were the brethren ever to abstain from using the same leggings when required. The indebtedness of the house is 190 marks, in addition to 100 marks elsewhere owing; not including the necessary outlay for the repairs of the buildings, which are in bad condition, and, in fact, almost in ruin. gave the strictest injunctions that no person, on any

We

We

We

We

account whatsoever, was to remain in the priory after the hour of compline, without manifest and proper reason. On Friday next before the Purification of the Farley. Blessed Virgin (Feb. 2nd) we visited Farley, one of the cells of Lewes. Here we found 18 monks and 2 lay who appeared to conduct themselves sufficiently brethren, well. On this occasion, as before at Montacute, we gave our positive orders on the subject of the constant use of the
crupper, the leggings, the non-eating of meat before seculars, the reading of the church-lessons in the infirmary, and against remaining in the convent after [hours] compline [completorium]*
*

duties

the religious service which completes or closes the Completoriura daily the last nocturnal office ; compline. ;
;

3

18

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

This house has no debt whatever. Wenlock. Visitation made at Wenlock on Wednesday next before the Feast of St. Vincent the Martyr (Jan.

22nd) in the same year (sic). The religious community to 40 monks, and 3 lay-brethren, who conduct themselves with sufficient regularity. The visitors of the Prior of la Charite* had already visited this house before our arrival, and had corrected whatever was found amiss.

amount

regards the use of the saddle-crupper and other matters, we gave the same orders here as at Farley. The Prior found the house upon his entering on office, burdened to the extent of 1,750 marks; at the present moment the debt amounts to 1,500 marks, but bears no
interest.

As

Lenton. On Friday next before the Festival of St. Peter's Chair (Feb. 22nd) we entered on our Visitation of Lenton, where there are 27 monks, and 4 lay-brethren. The pecuniary obligation of this cell amounts to 180 marks, but without bearing any interest. On the subject of the use of the crupper, the laced leggings, the eating of meat before seculars, the reading of the lessons in the infirmary, and against remaining in the convent after hours at night, we issued the same injunctions as at Montacute. It came to our knowledge, that the lay brethren were distinguishing themselves by using a red (or russet) habit ; our orders were that in future the distinguishing colour should be darker, and more approaching to black. Whatever else required amending,

we

rectified.

Thetford.

On Wednesday

next

after

the

Sunday

distant convent, together with another brother, named Henry, whom we also removed elsewhere (or rusticated), for serious and disgraceful injuries to one of the convent
servants.

Eemmiscere (2nd Sunday in Lent), we visited the cell of Thetford, where the number of brethren amount to 24. These all live with sufficient regularity, with the exception This monk we found guilty of one, Ealph, the cellarer. of incontinency, and living disreputably, whom we expelled and ordered to be removed to do penance at a

Here, again, as on former occasions, we gave

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUKIAC FOUNDATIONS.

19

our orders respecting the use of the saddle-crupper, the riding boots or leggings, the eating of meat, reading in the infirmary, and against remaining in the convent after the hour of compline \completorium\. The pecuniary liabilities of this house amount to 804 marks. Moreover, there is a debt under the Chapter's seal of 400 marks in respect of the convent's patron, the Earl-Marshal. "We issued injunction for the amendment
of

any other irregularity. On Saturday next after the above-named Castle-Acre. Reminiscere (2nd Sunday in Lent), we underSunday

took our Visitation of Castle- Acre, a cell to Lewes. The community here number 32, and their mode of life is We issued conducted with propriety and regularity. the same orders here as at Montacute. The debt of this house amounts to 504 sterling. Bromholme. On the Yigil of St. Gregory the Pope (March 12th) we made our Visitation of Bromholme. The number of the brethren here amount to 16, who We gave the same live sufficiently well and regularly. orders here as before. The debt of this cell amounts to 120 sterling. We corrected here whatever there was to be corrected. On Wednesday next before the Feast of Prittlewell. St. Benedict (March 21st) we continued our visitation to Prittlewell, another cell to Lewes. There are 15 monks here. We corrected whatever was amiss, and gave similar orders in other respects, as we had already

done at Farley.

The

Why

100 sterling. obligations of the house amount to we were not able to continue our Visitation to the

subordinate houses of Pontefract and Lewes, the bearer of these presents will be able to explain verbally. In testimony of the truth and correctness of all the foregoing, the aforesaid visitors have hereunto affixed
their seals.

[On a

roll of parchment, 26 J long, and 5f inches wide ; with the following endorsements VISITATIO FACTA IN V INCIPIENTB, ANGLIA, ANNO " Nouv. and FACTUM EST.

M CO LXX

below, 2280, No. 9

acq.

latin,"

;

B.N.]

20

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.
Visitation of English Cluniac

made

Houses in 1279 (7 Edw. I.), order of Yves de Chassant, Abbot of Cluni, by the by Prior of Mont-Didier in France, and the English Prior of Lenton.
Cells to the" Abbey of la Charite.

your brethren have diminished ? To this the Prior answered that the Convent was overwhelmed with debt ; and on that account, owing to orders of the Diocesan, and the wish of the Abbot, some of the monks had been withdrawn. We then asked, what the debt of the house originally amounted to, and to this the Prior made answer, stating We then asked what the debt was it to be 1,700 marks. at the present time, and his answer was 2,300 marks. Thus he had increased the debt by 700 (sic) marks.
:

Visitation of England made in the year of Our Lord 1279, by the Priors of Mont-Didier in France,* and of Lenton in Notts. On the Vigil of the Feast of St. Margaret (July 20th) we arrived at Bermondsey, in which cell, as a rule, there ought to be 32 brethren, but at this time there were not addressed the Prior and Convent more than 18. " How is it that the much in these words number of "

We

:

" Whereas the number of Upon this we said to him monks were fewer during the last four years, of which you

until this time, you ought to have diminished your debt, and not to have increased it; besides, you admit yourself. Seigneur Prior, and your whole Convent admits, as well as the official receivers and collectors of your property, that you have received every year from these last 100 marks and upwards, and that this was done with a view of diminishing the debt ; a thing never before heard of. Thus, together with the 700 marks aforesaid of the original debt, you have received upwards of 400

have been Prior

marks, and, in fact, almost 100 marks in addition, as all here present now testify. Then, again, some time after
* Priory of Mont-Didier, in the diocese of ordinate to Cluni.

Amiens (Somme, France)

;

sub-

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

21

appointed, Seigneur Prior Henry had temporary charge of the Convent, and he was an inmate of You appear since it for a year and a half, more or less. that time to have sold a property called Ompton to hold in fee, (? Hampton), which the purchaser was " and for this you received upwards of 500 marks. From a certain Adam de Stratou, this same Prior (John) received 700 marks, to be distributed over seven years, for a wood which the former bought, called Chavor, and in this transaction there was something altogether underhand or not straightforward. He received, also, 600 marks for the sale of other woods. Moreover, he disposed of certain rents for 8, issuing out of meadows In addition to this, four other held in fee at 200 marks.

you were

first

have been demised, namely, Chor (Chart ?), Almeborim (P Almondbury, York), Wydefort (Widford, Essex), Walbant (? Waltham), which the aforesaid Prior Henry consigned to Adam de Straton to satisfy the
estates

greater part of the debt which he (the aforesaid John) had contracted, but which, in fact, he ought himself In addition to these estates, there to have liquidated.

property called Richmond, worth six Furthermore, he (hundred) marks, also disposed of. to have purchased a property, called Bearmont appears (? Beaumont, Essex), which he afterwards sold for 500 marks. The brethren live correctly, and in accordance with the rule of the Order, and their sacred and devotional

was

another

becomingly performed ; a matter, in fact, which to have mentioned before. The necessaries for the subsistence of the fraternity, in grain and stock, were sufficient until the time of next harvest.
offices are

we ought

The Prior, after assuming the temporalities, in succession to his predecessor in office, Gilbert, appears to haveadministered the Convent's affairs and its property badly enough, taking over the house at that time with a debt of from 300 to 400 marks ; but subsequent to the time of Prior Henry, things went from bad to worse; he augmented the pecuniary obligations of the Convent by 2,300 marks, and this on his own showing and admission. The state

22

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLtJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

"Whatever the said of this house is simply deplorable. Prior John may say, or promise, there are four properties or manors entirely made over to this same Adam de
Straton, and he is only under obligation to reduce the Convent's debt by 1,500 marks. On Tuesday after the Feast of St. John the Evangelist (July 10th), we arrived at Northampton,* a cell subordinate to la Charite", and instituted inquiry into There are at this time the accustomed numits state. Sometimes there ber of resident monks, namely, 25. The Prior renders all are more, and sometimes fewer.

due obedience to his Diocesan, acknowledging his jurisdiction, and this has been the case for the last sixty years. The brotherhood live according to rule, and all sacred and devotional services are duly and properly celebrated. The Convent has a sufficiency of grain and stock for the use
of the

community, up to the time of the next harvest, or longer. The Prior took over the house from the of Wenlock (namely, the Prior John, of whom we Prior have spoken), ostensibly with a debt of 272 marks, but after the said John had resigned the priorate, he discovered the Convent's liabilities to be, in fact, much greater, the house being encumbered with an additional At the present debt of 100 marks, and upwards. moment its obligations amount to 200 marks, but Prior Bernard, now in office, has leased an estate for five years, named Estotebite (? Eastby), to one of the creditors, named Walter de Sham. Jt is valued at a yearly rental of 100 shillings, and let for 400 marks, and of the term three years have already expired. He has also renewed or granted a fresh lease of another property (assigned on a twelve years' lease by his predecessor, the said John),
at

250 marks. Of this lease eight years have already expired, and the estate, which is called Sewell (? Swell, 35 per annum. Moreover, the Glouc.), is valued at

same Prior made over, for a large sum of money, to the above Walter de Sham a living, or benefice, named Eston (Easton, N'hants) worth 60, belonging to the of Northampton. How this was all managed, Priory
* For Charters of the Church of St. Vol. 79, fo. 9-12 (Bibl. Bodl.).

Andrew

of Northampton, see Dods. M.S.,

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

23

it, must be exwould take too long to put into The Prior says, that upon what remains he will writing. be able to hold on, and admits truly and honestly enough, that when he first came he was without experience and younger, and perhaps not very careful. Since that time, by God's help, he carries on his affairs well, honestly, and in earnest. At any rate the former administration of this convent and its property by Prior John, above The alluded to, was most objectionable and negligent.

and other matters

in connection with
it

plained verbally, for

conventual buildings are in good repair.
Cell subordinate to Cluni.

On the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (August 1st) we The ordinary arrived for our visitation of Montacute. number of resident monks (namely, 28) are here at this time ; sometimes the brethren appear to have been fewer. They perform their sacred offices devoutly, and lead
The conventual buildings regular and exemplary lives. are for the greater part in good repair; all necessary substance (as grain and stock) for the use of the comThe Prior munity, is sufficient till the coming harvest. took over the house from his predecessor, Dom Gilbert, with a debt of 550 marks. When the Lord Abbot
(of Cluni) was sojourning here, its obligations amounted to 300 marks, but that was 11 years ago. The debt at amounts to 200 marks, with an additional debt present 42. Besides (a matter kept back), there is a report of that the tithe of one of its cells is not forthcoming, and

in addition to this, a certain non-resident canon or priest, named Solomon of Rochester, has been constantly rob-

bing and defrauding the Prior for the last two years. The reputation of this Prior has been somewhat, or rather, to say the truth, very much vilified and blackened, and to an extent that he is not likely to get over. Still, for my own part, I firmly believe that he has been very unjustly defamed. Of whom, and about whom, or other matters relating thereto, it will be necessary to speak viva voce. The Prior certainly seems to have been decidedly remiss in his temporal administration of the priory, but by the

24

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

help of God he appears to have become, and now is, a steady, discreet, obedient, and devout person. The Cluni manor, or estate of Letcombe Regis, belonging to the Lord Abbot, now leased by the Prior of Montacute, is in a hazardous position, for the King's claims upon it for arrears and debts amount to 180. Against this, the Prior affirms that during the time he has held the manor, he has paid 20. However, whatever is owing is best known to the Lord Abbot himself. The same may be said of two other estates, leased by the mother-house to a certain knight, which appear in equal danger; the said lessee having paid nothing during the time he has held them.*
Cells to the Priory of St.

Martin des Champs.

On Tuesday before the Feast of St. Lawrence (10th August) we reached Barnstaple, a cell of St. Martin des The brethren consist of a prior and five Champs.
and in accordance with the Divine offices are properly conducted. The brotherhood here numbered at one time somewhat less, but the Ordinary (or Diocesan), whose jurisdiction the Prior acknowledges, and has always acknowledged, required him to have not less than five resident monks ; The indeed, he sometimes obliges him to have more. of grain and stock were far from necessary quantity abundant 'in this establishment, but the time of harvest is drawing near. The Prior (it would seem) had been engaged in litigation with a neighbouring abbot, in respect of a certain tithe, amounting to 15 marks, of which the abbot had fraudulently deprived him. The latter, howlive honestly,

monks, who

rule of the Order.

100, or something less (by ever, ultimately offered him of compensation) in order to cancel or quash the way I was told, after leaving the priory, that the matter. Prior had accepted this money, so that the abbot of course
retains,

and

will

certainly were under the impression that the Prior had been unconcerned and lukewarm in maintaining his
* Alludes to two of the Climi estates in England.

We

continue to retain, the tithe in question.

VISITATIONS OP ENGLISH CLUNTAO FOUNDATIONS.

25

rights.*

When he, the Prior, first took over the house, he found it encumbered with a debt of 53 marks, with an additional debt of 20 marks to one of the burgeois of Paris. On none of these obligations has he paid anything ; neither has he paid another six marks, owing to the Prior of St. Martin, out of the aforesaid debt of 53 marks, and 20. He has is under the impression that he only owes a precinct wall, sufficiently enclosed the priory with effective, although only of earth. He has also built a small grange or farmstead. The other conventual buildings There is are sufficient, and appear to be in good repair.
a good and handsome church, and solidly constructed. Of the aforesaid brethren he has conferred the habit on one [vestivit] ; another came by exchange into the
priory from Montacute, of which he (the Prior) had previously been the superior for four years. On the Saturday following, the Prior of St. James of Exeter, having been cited by us to attend in person, for we knew that he was very poor, and would be much inconvenienced by receiving us at his own priory, gave us a true and faithful account of the condition of his Convent; and to this effect: That he took over the house, when he first came to it, with a debt of 8, but the chief at the present time its liabilities amount to 20, cause of such increased amount beino-, that he had to rebuild two mills which were falling into ruin, but are now in good working order. Much of the property had been alienated by his predecessor Theobald, (at the present time Prior of Barnstaple), and this assertion he made in that Prior's presence ; neither could Prior Theobald deny it. What those alienations were, may be seen in a schedule which the Prior handed in to us. He had only one colleague resident at the priory, a man somewhat old, and no doubt of good and laudable reputation, but not having been ordained, it is impossible for the Divine offices to be regularly or properly con* Allusion seems to be
ties of

made

" Devon," iii., 34), in which it is said, that in 1435 (according to the Episcopal Register of Exeter ") this, or a very similar dispute on the question of tithe, was brought before the Bishop, in which case the question may have been revived. For the foundation of the priory of St. Mary Magdalene, see Dods. MS., V., 147,
f.

to the subject

by Oliver

(" Ecclesiastical

Antiqui-

32 (Bibl. Bodl.).

4

26

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

We therefore impressed upon him the necessity ducted. In this of getting a canon from the Prior of Montacute. he acquiesced, being what he himself wished, so that this arrangement will remain in force until otherwise ordered The Prior by the Prior of St. Martin-des- Champs. is a good, worthy man, and renders all due obedience to The church, the Diocesan, but his convent is very poor. and priory generally, he reported as being in good conHe has dition, as far as the buildings themselves go. been there already four years.
Cell to St. Martin-des-Champs.

The same day the Prior of St. Clare arrived, whom wo had ordered to attend upon us. We had already understood that this Prior and his colleague were leading an immoral and incontinent life neither do they agree with one another. The Divine offices are not only totally neglected, but the goods of the church are for the most part The Prior takes upon himself dissipated and alienated. all sorts of manual labour, and acts more like a subordinate ; the establishment is not worth more than 72 marks, and for all this state of things the Prior and Monseigneur the Abbot of St. Martin must provide what;

As far as constructions ever remedy they think fit. or buildings go in the aforesaid house, they may be considered nily for everything has been made away with.
Cells subordinate to Montacute.

On

the Sunday following we arrived at Careswell, a

house subordinate to Montacute, where there are three monks and a prior, who live cornmendably, honestly, and according to rule. The Prior is a good man, and, although an Englishman, humble, sensible, and discreet. The church and conventual buildings are all in good condition. The convent has no debt, and there is a sufficiency He took of provisions to last until the next harvest. over the house with a pecuniary obligation of 60 marks, and has been there now three years.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CMJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.
Cell to Montacute.

27

the following Tuesday, we came to St. Mary of Holme, a cell subordinate to Montacute. There are two monks and a prior, who live regularly and commendably, and fulfil their different religious duties according to the exigencies of the place, and the limited number of the community. The Prior took over the house with a debt of 20 marks, which is entirely liquidated, and it now owes nothing. He has been Prior for three The different buildings and church are in good years. has sufficient provisions to last until ; and the house repair next harvest.

On

Cells to the Priory of

Lewes.

On

the

Sunday

pendent on Lewes.

to 18, who live out their Divine offices properly. Nevertheless, the Prior has been publicly accused of immorality, usury,* disobe-

we arrived at Farley, a house deThe number of the brethren amount correctly and according to rule, and carry
after

This has been going on for the he even himself distinctly admitted. He acknowledges no obedience to superior authority, and told us plainly, that he had no intention of attending the Chapter General, and ignored all commands in that The house, otherwise, is not in debt, and as far respect. as temporal matters go, the supplies are abundant ; but in
dience,
last ten years, as
its

and incontinency.

spiritual condition, as affects the said Prior,

who

is

most insubordinate and quite incorrigible, its shortcomings are manifestly great. On the following Tuesday we came to Clifford, a cell to
Montacute. The brethren here number eight, independent of the Prior. They live regular and good lives, and all devotional offices and rites are properly conducted. The Prior is an especially worthy man, and of good He received the house, on his first appointment, report. with a debt of 114 marks ; its liabilities are now reduced to 100 marks. He put a new roof to the main building,

and thoroughly repaired
lib.

it,

for

it

was

fast falling into

* For definition of " usury," as here understood, see Decretales Gregorii IX.,
V., f 259.
.

28
ruin.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CI/DNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

The priory

is

in a bad neighbourhood, its sur-

roundings being of the very worst.

House subordinate

to the Priory of la Charite.

Friday after the Feast of St. Bartholomew (25th August) we entered on our visitation of Wenlock, one of the cells of la Charite. At the present time the number of resident monks is only 35, whereas in olden time there used to be 40 and upwards. They perform their Divine

On

and live honestly and according to rule. of seven, or nearly eight years, since the upwards temporalities were made over to the present Prior, and
offices properly,

It

is

according to his own account he found it with liabilities amounting to 1,700 marks; but such we ascertained was far from being the case, the debt at the time in question not amounting to more than 500 marks. Probably,

by the aid of what is in hand, and what is owing to the house, the said 500 marks may be redeemed. But the following will show the mode in which the said Prior pretended to have taken over the Convent " In such and such a locality [he made out] there is a farm-house wanting, worth 200 marks. On another estate a dwelling-house worth 100 marks is also non-existent. On another estate 200 head of cattle, 100 milch cows, Certain silver utensils 3,000 sheep are unaccounted for. are not forthcoming, valued at so much," etc. ; and in thus reckoning up, and computing fictitious deficiencies in that manner, he asserted the Convent's debt to amount to the foregoing 1,700 marks, testifying to its truth, and confirming such attestation both by his own seal and But the whole matter was a piece that of the house. of pure invention, and a downright fraud, for neither cattle, cows, or sheep ever existed, as so set down; neither could he, or anyone else, have pretended to have even discovered any such deficiencies, or run up such a total, either in respect of a longer or shorter period of time, for this house happens to be, perhaps, one of the
:

richest

and best endowed
all this,

of any.

In addition to

he

let

on a

life

lease one of the

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

29

convent's estates to a certain knight and his wife, and Neither of the parties for this he received 800 marks. are now living, so that the property has reverted
his wife not having enjoyed it Besides this, he made away with a virgate of the convent's land to one of its officials (named Simon), as a copyhold of inheritance, and on a like tenure he gave the Priory's porter another virgate of land. Again, to an official (named John Trecy) he demised his own prebend for life, with horse and servant, which he is thus entitled to hold as of the convent of Wenlock during life. Seeing, however, that the said John had conveyed to the Church of Wenlock a full carrucate of land with all its belongings, this arrangement may have had something redeemable in it, but in spite of this, the Prior alienated this very same carrucate of land to a party named Nicholas Brisbane, which he had neither power or right to convey, so that of course he not only got the equivalent, but probably has the money still. He has thus been guilty of gross fraud in respect of the church, which stands still unreleased from its original engagement. Then again, to cite another case ; when the Prior first came to Wenlock, he conveyed a yearly rent of 15 marks on the revenues of the priory to Adam de Straton, for which he gave him security by deed, under his own and the Convent's hand; but he has never satis-

to him, the knight

and

above three years.

fied this obligation in respect of one penny. this last business would plainly be, that if succeeded him in the priorate, who did not

The result

of

another Prior chime in with the arrangement, the said Adam would not only recover the whole, both arrears and rent, but, what would be Moreworse, he would stand possessed of the property.
over, when the Lord Abbot [of Gluni] was in England, the Prior affirmed that the debt of his convent amounted to 2,200 marks, although he had then been in office for six years ; but when I was at Berdinondsey he told me the debt was only 800 marks. Coming here, as I have, during his absence abroad (for he is out of the country), I have not been able to ascertain the exact truth, either from the brethren of the house, or from those whom the Convent's

30

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLtJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

debt of 500 marks chiefly concerns, and I have quite come to the conclusion, that it is almost impossible to elicit the truth from English monks. All the foregoing I discovered to be, as stated, from the Prior's own papers and legal documents, and I told him the state of the case on his return from abroad ; at which he
appeared, of course, very much astonished. Certainly, if this matter is well looked into, and thoroughly investigated, it will be found that the liabilities of the house exceed 1,800 marks. It is perfectly evident, and clear to anyone of sense, that the Priory of Wenlock will not only be liable for this debt, but still greater loss and complications will arise in respect of
ton,
if

Bermondsey and Northamp-

the present Prior remains any longer at his post. He sells and alienates whatever he possibly can, and, apart from this, is altogether a restless and discontented In an underhand way, he is manoeuvring character.

become elected, if he possibly can, to (the See of) Rochester, and thus to make himself independent of In all this matter we see great peril impending. Cluni.*
to

Cells to the Priory of

Bermondsey.

the following Monday we arrived at St. James of Derby, a cell subordinate to Bermondsey. The house consists of a prior and 2 monks ; the former is a worthy and good man, and of exemplary report, and has only come to take charge of the house since the last Feast of One of his colleagues leads a chaste the Purification. and honest life, which cannot, however, be said of the
other,

On

who

lives

disreputably,
to

expelled, and removed

and whom we have do penancef at Bermondsey
;

whilst another has been substituted in his place. Divine offices are rightly and properly conducted. When he (the Prior) first came, he received it with a debt of 40 shillings, but inasmuch as he found nothing in the house, neither was able to obtain anything in the neighbourhood, he was under the necessity of contracting a debt
* It seems strange that such a worthless character should be aspiring to a bishopric t Rusticated.
!

named

as even

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUN1AO FOUNDATIONS.

31

4 10s. He was just on the point of getting in his harvest, which will quite support him till next season. The conventual buildings are sufficiently good, but the roof of the church was in bad repair, and we told him to get a new roof on it.
of Cells immediately

dependent on Cluni.

On Thursday
we came

after the Feast of St. Augustine (Sept.

Lenton, where there are 25 monks, the 6th), usual complement, leading good and commendable lives, and living according to rule. Devotional exercises are also properly and solemnly conducted. The Prior is a man, of blameless repute. He found the worthy, good house with a money-debt of 935 marks, and one for 40 sacks of wool, (the cost of each being 15 marks), and of these last he has paid for 32, and still owes for 8 sacks. On the other hand, the convent is in debt to the amount of 1030 marks, arising from a dispute with the Chapter
to

of Lichfield,* composed of rich and influential persons ; some of them being about the King. The matter concerns The Prior has already a yearly tithe of 250 marks. 160 marks in litigation, and thinks he shall expended

have to incur further legal trouble, and carry the matter either into the King's court (or the Roman court), t in order to recover these 160 marks. Moreover, when he first entered on his duties, he found an insufficiency of all

He has also necessary provisions and sources of supply. had since then, to pay an annuity of 40 marks to the outgoing Prior, which he can ill afford. There is another 40 on a certain property which originated with debt of a former Prior (Roger), and not contracted by him.
* This matter refers to litigation with the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, respecting the tithes of certain churches in the Peak of Derbyshire, originally bestowed by William Peverell on the Priory of Lenton, bat which, on the confiscation (temp. Henry II.) of the Peverell estates, were granted by the King to his son, John, E. of Mortaigne, who gave them to the Canons of Lichfield. (Harl. MS., 4630, 4799). Cf. "Derbyshire Archaeological Soc. Journal," V., 133 seq. ; Godfrey, " Hist, of Lenton." As the probable appeal would The word curia is alone given in the original. " has been omitted rather than be to Home, we consider that the word " Romana " that of Eegis ;" the Koman Court being a more likely tribunal of appeal than the King's Court.
f-

32

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLTJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.
Cells to la Charite.

On Monday preceding the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (Sept. 8th), we arrived at the Priory of Monk-Bretton, accompanied by certain officers of the Sheriff, Nicholas de Knocking at the outer gate, we demanded admittance in the name of our Lord Abbot, on whose service we had come to carry out the visitation of the house. To this we received no answer. Again and again the knocking was repeated, but to our continued demand for admission
. .

.

.

the portal-gate remained persistently closed. certain whose name was William de Biole, person, however, seemed to be acting for the Prior and Sub-Prior and the rest of the convent, on this occasion, and upon him, in the presence of all, we forthwith proceeded to pass sentence of excommunication ; which being done publickly

A

departure. The same day we the matter to the King, and to the immediately reported Sheriff, and in due course received the following commands and instructions By the King we were ordered to take into custody the above William de Riole ; and the Sheriff directed us to force or make good our entrance into the As for myself, I quitted the spot, but left the priory. Prior of Montacute to await the necessary warrants and summonses. On their arrival he returned to MonkBretton priory, accompanied by the bailiff and other On entering the priory, he at once sheriff's officers. to the church, and knocked at the door of the proceeded Certain of the inmates, habited in the chapter-house. dress of the Order, were there ; some were sitting in the The visiting Prior then entered the chaptercloisters. in order to carry out the duties of his office, but house, not a single monk appeared, and being asked the reason, the fraternity affirmed, one and all, that they had no intention of attending ; their Prior was away, and they would not attend without him. Upon this the Prior of Montacute, in presence of the entire assemblage, proceeded to pass sentence of excommunication upon the said William, the Prior, the Sub-Prior, and the whole contumacious com-

and

in writing,

we took our

:

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

33

of the

munity, proclaiming them so excommunicated on the part Abbot of Cluni, and revoking at the same time the

compact or agreement which was in existence between the priories, declared it null and void.* Upon this the Prior of Pontefract withdrew at once, without either eating or drinking, or holding any further communicaIt will be imperative to interfere very tion with them. seriously in this matter, and consider what measures are
to be adopted.

Cells

dependent on

la Charite.

The same day we came on to Pontefract, where the number 27, including the Prior. They properly conduct and devoutly perform the Divine offices, leading The conventual also honest and commendable lives. buildings are well roofed, and in good repair, and the Prior has added to them the church is good, as
brethren
;

temporal wants, in respect of food or provisions, they are botli abundant and sufficient until the next harvest. On his first appointment, he found the liabilities of the house to amount to It is 12 years since he first took it over, 3,200 marks. and now the debt is reduced to 350 marks, or even less; and this the Prior affirmed in the presence of the whole In Convent, in which all that community agreed. addition to this, the Prior has obtained a small property of 2 carrucates of land, which seems to be a profitable acMoreover, 15 years ago the Convent incurred quisition.
to its

also its ornamentation.

As

an obligation of 400 marks, for which it made itself liable for the Priory of JMonk-Bretton but it holds bonds and written securities from that house, by which the latter indemnify and protect it against loss.
;

Monk-Bretton, near Cudworth and Barnsley, in Yorkshire, was founded for Cluniac monks, temp. Hen. II., by Adam FitzSwain. In 1269 this convent had a dispute with the Priory of Pontefract, about 10 years before the above-named occurrence, which was settled by arbitration in the presence of the Prior of York, and some of the Friars-Preachers of Pontefract. The compact annulled on this occasion, seems in some way to relate to this matter, and is possibly referred to in the next Visitation report on Pontefract. A charter-book of Bretton is (or was) in the possession of Mr. Wentworth, of Woolley. Extracts from a chartulary of the priory, are also found among the Dodsworth MSS., Vol. 61, f. 32 j and Vol. 62, f. 48b. and Vol. 116, f. 29-38 (Bibl. Bodl.).
;

*

5

34

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.
Cells dependent

on Lewes.

following the Nativity of the Blessed The Virgin (Sept. 8th), we arrived at Castle-Acre.* brethren number 35. They conduct themselves well, and carry out the Divine offices and all other ecclesiastical The liabilities of the house rites, in a proper manner. amount now to 1,700 marks, but when the Prior first came to it, the debt was only 600 marks. Another debt, which it incurred and became responsible for, is in respect of the present Abbot of Vezelay,t MiloJ, at the time he was Prior of Lewes. There is an insufficiency of grain, or what will be necessary to last, till the coming harvest. The Prior is too extravagant. He would resign gladly enough if he could, but the difficulty is to find someone willing to replace him, and take over the house. I reported the matter in question to the Prior of Lewes. The following Tuesday we got to Thetford. The Prior of this house, named Vincent, found 13 monks when he first came, but now their number has increased to 22. They all lead commendable lives, and the Divine offices are properly and devoutly conducted. The buildings are in good repair, and the church and cloister re-

On Monday

markably good and handsome. There is a sufficiency of grain, stock and provisions to last until next harvest. The debt of the house was 500 marks when the Prior
took
it over, notwithstanding that his predecessor, Prior Thomas, affirmed that its liabilities did not exceed 400 marks, with another debt of 300 marks, in respect of its avou-e ; but this last debt is liquidated. The Prior of this house took in hand the repair of the conventual buildings, and the construction of new farm100 towards them, houses, barns, etc., and laid out and it is to be hoped that he will accomplish the matter satisfactorily, for he is a worthy, good man, and the

whole country

is

high in his praise.

The house, however,
He

* Founded by William de Warenne, 1st E. of Surrey, f Vezelay, Abbey (Yon tie, France). J Milo de Columbiers (or Columbers), was elected Prior of Lewes in 1268.

resigned in 1274, on becoming Abbot of Vezelay.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.
is

35

very much embarrassed and crippled, by the continued abode there of the avoue, brother of the Earl Marshal,* who costs the house more than the whole There was a religious community and Prior together.
great complaint also made with reference to the loss of a certain silver drinking-cup. On the Thursday following we found ourselves at Horksley, a house subordinate to Thetford, where the brotherhood consist of 4 monks and a prior, all leading good and regular lives, and rightly celebrating the The Prior has not long entered on his Divine offices. duties ; he found the house with a debt of 40 marks, which has since increased to 100, but from the surplus

have by his coming harvest, he will be it by 40 marks. The Sunday following we were at Prittlewell, a cell to Lewes, where the brethren number 14, living good

which he

will

able to redeem

and regular

observing the rule of the Order, and properly conducting their Divine offices. The Prior had to rebuild his church, but the other conventual buildings are in good repair, and the house has no other debt than that of 500 marks, for which it is responsible in respect of the present abbot of Vezelay, at the time he was The Prior is a worthy man, blameless, Prior of Lewes. and of good report. There is a sufficiency, although not more than enough, of necessary food, to last till next
lives,

harvest.

On Friday
(21st

after the Feast of St.

Sept.) to 50, living When the temporalities with the rule of the Order. were made over to him, the Prior found the house encumbered with a debt of 4,000 marks, but at the present moment the amount is reduced to 2,800 marks, leaving still a debt of 250 marks for the restoration of the church, and 250 marks on another account. For these sums certain silver vessels and utensils have

we came

to

amount

Matthew the Apostle Lewes, where the brethren correctly, and in accordance

* Allusion is here made to the brother of the Earl Marshal, Roger Bigot, 5th E. of Norfolk, who was nephew to Roger, the 4th Earl, and succeeded to the honours in 1270.

36

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLITNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

been pledged, and deposited as security. Moreover, there is a balance on the wrong side in respect of a contract for wool, of which no more could be provided by the Convent to the purchasers than amounted to 100 marks. Again, there had been, and was, another deficit in respect of the necessary grain and stock for the
use of the convent, reckoning from the first Sunday in Lent to the coming harvest. A deficiency also existed in other agricultural matters, amounting to 600 head of cattle on some of their farms, with 400 swine, and 6,000 sheep ; and there is owing besides to wine dealers an account to the amount of 25 casks of wine for the past year ; the cask of wine is reckoned at 4 marks Another sum is due to the Lord Abbot [of sterling. Cluni] amounting to 100 marks, in respect of the ConIn short, vent's customary annual tribute or pension. the Priory of Lewes is in such a financial condition, that according to those who know it well, it will be very difficult to relieve its liabilities at all, and at the best it will take upwards of 20 years to liquidate its debts, a state of things, true and deplorable as it is, but tolerably notorious, and how it has come to this condition, by whose misrule caused, and from what other circumstances arising, is a matter also full well known.
Cell to the Priory of

Lewes.

following, we came to MonksHorton, where there are 13 brethren, conducting themselves well, leading honest lives, and carrying on their

On

the

Wednesday

devotional exercises with regularity and proThe spiritualities and temporalities of this priory priety. are in the most satisfactory condition ; the house owes nothing, and the necessary amount of grain and stock for the subsistence of the community is in superabundThe Prior, who is an Englishman, is a most excelance.
various
lent

man, and irreproachable

in his life

and character;

He put a new roof to his reputation stands very high. the church, and has also thoroughly repaired the

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.
cloisters; and,
spiritually

37
is

thanks to him, the aforesaid house
in perfect condition.

and temporally

[On a narrow

roll 'of parchment, consisting of three membranes, tacked end to end, and written on both sides ; length 27 inches, width 7f inches. Endorsed VISITATIO
C-

ANGLIE ANNO II and beneath, FACTUM ; EST. " Nouv. acq. latin," 2280, No. II. B.N.]
;

LXXIX.

ensuing descriptive enumeration of the English and Scotch foundations of Cluni is undated, but from the contents, appears to have been compiled from Visitation- reports of 1298 (26 Edw. I.) ; 1390 (13 Bic. II.) ; and 1405
\_lhe

(6#. IF).]
Here follow the different abbeys, priories, and cells directly or subordinately subject to the Church of Cluni, in the province and kingdoms of England and Scotland.
First and foremost,
of Glasgow, in amount to 25.*
is

which the

Paisley, an abbey in the diocese fixed number of the brethren

Next, the abbey of Crossraguel, in the Glasgow diocese, directly subject to that of Paisley, of which the brotherhood in 1405 (6 Hen. IV.) numbered 10. t The Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes, in [Cluni]. which the regulated number of monks should as a rule be 35, although in olden times, according to some, there have been as many as 45 or 50. Eight masses should be celebrated here every day, of which three are with chant (or inusio), and these are set down in the table of week-day lessons. The observance of the " washing
* The Abbey of Paisley, dedicated to SS. Mary, James, Milbnrga, and Mirin, was a Cluniac foundation of the reformed Order of St. Benedict. It was founded in 1163-4 by Walter Fitz-Alan, the first of the Stewarts, and Baron of Renfrew, and colonized by monks from St. Milbnrga, of Wenlock. It was the burial place
of many of the Stewarts [Stuarts], until their accession to the throne of Scotland. f Crossraguell, Crosragmol, or Croceraguell, was founded for Cluuiac monks from Paisley, by Dnncan, 1st Earl of Carrick, and was made exempt from it in

1244.

The

site

was near Maybole,

in Ayrshire.

38
of

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNtAC FOUNDATIONS.

the feet" [mandatuni],* and almsgiving, are daily followed, with the uniform upholding and performance of the convent's rule. Of the five [immediate^ affiliations the abbey of Cluni) this house is the second, and on (of this subject there exists a decision arrived at in 1298 by

Bertrand (du Colombier) Abbot of Cluni, relating to this priory, on being instituted to which, the Prior of Lewes will be seen to pledge himself to many obligations. This compact has, in fact, been annulled, having been revoked by the decretal t of the Holy See on the former practice of election, and is confirmed by letters apostolic in our
possession.

The Priory of Montacute, also, is imme[Cluni]. diately dependent on the Abbey of Cluni, in which the established number of the brotherhood is 34. There are six daily masses, of which three are with chant (or music), and three without (low masses), and these are given in the table of lessons, save one, which is chanted in a certain chapel dedicated to St. Michael. Hospitality,
and all things which are prescribed by statute and rule, are duly and properly observed, and the brethren assemble regularly for the daily chapter. The Priory of Lenton, also, founded in \_Gluni~\. honour of the Holy Trinity, in the diocese of York, is immediately subordinate to the mother-house of Cluni. In this house the proper complement of the brethren should be 32, although some maintain that there is no fixed number. There are daily six masses celebrated, as set down in the table of lessons, of which three are conventual masses, with music, and three are low masses, of which last, one is of the Trinity, and the remaining two are masses "for the dead." Monastic obligations are all duly and strictly observed. The founder of the was William Peverell.J He and his successors are priory
almsgiving,
* The observance of this prescribed custom took place daily, from the beginning of Lent to the calends of November (Du Cange) known also, as Mandatum quotidianum ; and is not to be confounded with the "washing of feet" in Holy week. t Decretal ; law or decision made by the command of the Pope. " Kecords of j See Charter of foundation of Lenton Priory, Cluni," i., pp
;

59-62.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

39

under the obligation, as patrons, to transmit yearly to the Church of Cluni a mark of silver, in acknowledgment This of the stipulations on that head when founded. was confirmed by the King's letters patent. obligation [C har ite -sur-Loire]. In the Priory of Bermondsey, a cell to the Priory of la Charite, the constituted number There are daily of monks should not be less than 24. celebrated here five masses, as set forth in the table of lessons; of these, three are with chant (music), and two are " said," without music (or low masses), although in former times there were six daily celebrations. Hospitality, almsgiving, silence, and all other monastic obligations and duties, as enjoined by rule, are well observed.
of

The Priory, also, of St. Milburga [Charite-sur-Loire]. is a cell to the same Priory of la Charite", Wenlock,

and its brotherhood number 40 monks. Every day seven masses should be celebrated as a rule, and of Alms are daily these, three are with chant (or music).

bestowed (on the poor), and all statutes prescribed by the rule of the Order, are duly and strictly carried out. The Priory of St. John the \Charite-sur-Loire]. at Pontefract, one of canons-regular \_conEvangelist ventualis]* is another cell immediately subordinate to la Charite, and is situated on the confines (or borders) of The accustomed number of monks (or resiScotland.! dent brethren) in this house is 20 ; and there are four "conventual masses" daily celebrated here,j of which one is, however, " said," or without music, being notified All duties and other monastic in the table of lessons. are duly performed. obligations The Priory of Castle-Acre is a cell or off\Lewes\. The number of its monks shoot of Lewes Priory. as a rule, be 26, and there are seven celebrations should,
* See foot-note, p. 15 antea, on this denomination. site of Pontefract (as above) is a noteworthy instance of the imperfect geographical knowledge of those days. The Scotch Abbey of Paisley remitted its tribute or pension to the Mother-house through the Prior of Pontefract, as the nearest English Cluniac house (S. " Records of Cluni," ii., p. 160). " Conventual " Catholic Mass," see J For particulars of Dictionary," Addis and Arnold, 1884.

t The

40

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH

CLtJNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

of the mass "here daily, written down in the table of lessons three of these are with chant (or music), and four without either. It is said that in former times the brotherhood were not limited to any fixed number, and the brethren sometimes have been as many as 30, and
;

upwards.
[Lewes'].

The Priory
priory, and

of Prittlewell is also subordinate
is

to

Lewes

within

the

jurisdiction

of

London,* the number of its brethren amounting to 24. The only alms distributed to the poor are the remains or leavings from the refectory, or what may be collected from the Prior's table. Four daily masses are celebrated in this priory, all of which are set down in the table of lessons, and of these, three are with, and one without,
chant (or music).

The Priory of St. Mary Magdalene, of [Lewes]. is also a cell to Lewes. The brethren number Farley, and of the six daily masses here celebrated, and 20, noted in the table of lessons, three are with chant (or
music). [Lewes].

Another

Mary

at Clifford.

cell to Lewes Priory is that of The number of monks amount

St.

to

11. There are daily celebrated here three masses with " for the " for dead," and a mass chant, another mass Divine offices, hospitality, almsgiving, benefactors." and all monastic obligations and duties are here duly
it is possible. Mendham is a cell subordinate to the [Castle Acre]. The brethren amount to 9 in Priory of Castle Acre. number, and the fixed number of daily masses are three; " said " of these, two are with chant, and the other is

performed, as far as

throughout. The Priory of St. James at [St. Martin-des- Champs]. Exeter consists of a Prior and one monk, and is a cell directly subordinate to St. Martiri-des-Champs.
The
" civitas " in the is original, and must be taken iuferentially. the jurisdiction of the city (or rather of the Lord Mayor as Conservator of The parish Thames), would place Prittlewell at its extreme eastern boundary borders on the Thames, and is in the diocese of London, within the ecclesiastical

* The word

jurisdiction of

whose Bishop

it

would

lie.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS.

41

Martin-des-Champs], The Priory of St. Mary Magdalene, or known also as of St. Clare, is another ceil to St. Martin-des-Champs, and consists only of a Prior and one monk. The Priory of Monks-Horton is a cell [Lewes]. directly dependent on Lewes, in which, according to some, the brethren should number at least 8, but, according to other authority, the number should not be less than 13. There are three masses daily celebrated, viz., high mass, that of the Blessed Virgin, and the third for the dead. At high mass the deacon says (or sings) the Gospel. The reading " at table " in the refectory, during the dinner-hour, is strictly performed ; and the care of the conventual-seal is in charge of three of the community, namely, the Prior, Sub-Prior, and one other
[S7.

of the brethren.

[Priory

of Thetford].
is

To

this

Priory,

the

cell

of

directly subject, and the number of its Wangford brethren is fixed by some at 5, and by others at 4 only. The number of daily masses are two, and both celebrations take place with chant (or music). Another cell to Castle-Acre priory is [_Gastle-Acre~]. that of Bromholme,* and is immediately subordinate to it.

The brethren number
[Charite-sur-Loire].
is

25.

Andrew of to la Charite. directly subject Northampton The number of monks belonging to it is fixed by some There are five daily celebrations at 25, by others at 30. of mass, of which three take place with music (or chant), and the service is set down in the table of lessons. The
of
St.

The Priory

a

cell

ordinary monks' loaves (or bread baked for them) should weigh 52 [pounds ?], and a tenth part of what is baked for the conventual establishment is distributed to
the poor. The Priory of Horksley is a cell directly [Thetford], to the Priory of Thetford. The number of the subject monks is stated by some to be 3, by others not to exceed
* It

was

from

all

at one time a cell to Castle.Acre, but obligations to it.

was subsequently discharged

6

42
2.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH OLUNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

Divine service
[Lewes'].

is

celebrated here without chant (or
is

music), except mass and vespers.

Stanesgate Priory,

a

cell to

Lewes, and

consists of 2
its

monks, or

is

fixed

by some

daily,

community. and that with chant (or music).

One mass should be

monks for celebrated here
at 3

The Priory of St. Mary of Thetford is in the [Cluni]. diocese of Norwich, and a direct affiliation of the motherThe religious community comprise church of Cluni. 22 monks, but according to some there is no determinate number of its brethren. There are six daily masses celebrated, three with chant (or music), and three withtenth part of the bread is out (or low-masses). distribution and almsgiving. All monastic reserved for in respect of the Order's rule and obligations and duties, statutes, are duly observed. The Priory of Bromholme, or Baketun, is [Cluni]. of Cluni. directly subordinate to the mother-house The brotherhood number 16. There are five masses celebrated daily, three of which are with chant (or " said" throughout. It is asserted, music), and two are on the other hand, that four celebrations are the proper number of services. All statutes and monastic duties are well and thoroughly observed, and, according to the visitation of 1390, there were at that time 18 monks, In conformity with the agreement including the Prior. or contract formerly in force between this house and the

A

Priory of Castle- Acre, to which it was at one time directly subordinate, the vacant priorship, whenever it happened, was accustomed to be filled up by the latter house. To this Priory, that of Malpas [Priory of Montacute]. is a cell. The Priory of St. Augustine of [Ckarite-sur-Loire] near Northampton, in which the religious Daventry, community consist of 18 brethren, is a cell directly subject to the Priory of la Charite. In the Priory of Rainham [Normannes[Castle-Acre]. or Normannesberch], the community comprise the burg Prior and 2 monks, and the cell is immediately subordinate to the Priory of Castle- Acre.
.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLTJNIAO FOUNDATIONS.

43

The Priorj
and consists

also of Sleusham, is another cell fco it, of a Prior and 1 monk. There is one daily

celebration here.

The cell of Roche, subordinate to Lenton [Lenton]. Priory, consists of a Prior and 1 monk. That of Kershal is another cell subject to Lenton, with a Prior and 1 monk, and the celebration of mass takes
place here only once daily. To this priory, Dudley is a subordinate [Wenlock]. cell. There are 4 monks in this house, and the Divine office of mass takes place twice daily. One celebration " said." is with chant, the other is The Priory of Cares well is directly sub[Montacute]. The number of the religious ject to that of Montacute. community of this house is fixed by some at 3 monks, including the Prior, or at 6 monks with the Prior. The Priory of Holme is, also, a cell to [Montacute]. Montacute. The fraternity consist of the Prior and 2 brethren.

The Priory of St. James, of Derby, is \_Bermonds ey~\ It consists of directly subject as a cell to Bermondsey. the Prior and 2 monks, and there is one daily celebration of mass. Tickford Priory, in which the religious com[Lewes]. consist of 16 brethren, is directly subordinate to munity
.

Lewes.
[To the foregoing, follows the enumeration of the four great Cluni estates in England, those, namely, of Letcombe Regis (Berks), Offord-Cluny (Hunts), Tixover, and Manton
(Rut.)]

Extracted from the Records, Charters, and Evidences among the Archives of the Abbey of Cluni, by us the undersigned, public notaries, official scribes, and secretaries of the said Abbey.
(Signed)
CHASTELLIEB,
PAILLIEB.

44

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLtlNIAC FOUNDATIONS,

[Copy made by Lambert de Barive;
of
the 15th century fci'rca

the original in a hand 1450) endorsed BENEFIOIA REGULARIA ORDINIS CLUNIACENSIS IN REGNI8 ET DOMINIIS ANGLIE ET SCOTIE EXISTENTIA. " Collection Morean," Vol. 283, f. 41-44 B.N.]
;

;

ABBEYS, PRIORIES, SUBJECTS,
[The
letter

&o.

""

after the

page

signifies "note."']

Almondbury, 21. Almoner, 11, 11 n.
Arles-sur-Tech (Perpignan), 9
n.

Careswell (priory) (Dev.),
43.

6,

26,

(Visitation

of),

26, 43.
of),

Auvergne, 6 n. Avoue, 19, 34.

Carrick (Duncan, 1st E.

37
),

n.

Castle- Acre (Visitation of 34.
6.

19,

Bablew (priory) (Som.), Balme (abbey), 9 n.
24, 25.
(Visitation

(priory) (Norf.), 6, 19, 34. (cells to), 40, 41, 41 n, 42. Cellarer, 11, 11 n, 18.
5, 6,

Barnstaple (priory) (Dev.),

of),

24, 25.

Chamberlain, 12, 13. Chant, 39, 40, 41, 42. Chapter (General-), 9, 9 n.
(Provincial-), 9 n. Charite-sur-Loire (priory of), 9 n,
13, 22, 28, 32.
(cells subject to), 32, 33, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. Charlieu (Loire), 9 n, 12, 12 n.

Beaulieu (abbey) (Argonne), 9 n.

Bennington (Herts.), 16.
Benoit (St.) (on the Po), 9 n. Bermondsey (Surr.), 5, 6, 13, 13 n,
20, 29, 30, 39, 43.
(Visitation 22, 39.
(cells

of),

16, 20, 21,

to),

30, 43.

Chart (Kent), 21. Church-lessons (reading
Cistercian Order, 6. Clare (St.), 41.

of), 17.

Bigot (Roger) (founder of Thetford), 12 n. (5th E. of Norfolk), 34 n. (avoue of Thetford Priory),
34, 34 n.

Clifford (Heref.), 6, 27, 40.

(Visitation

Cluni (Order
n.

of), 27, 40. of), 5, 6, 7, 9 n.
of,

Bourgogne (Fr.), 6
Bretton
6, 32,

(affiliations

in

England

(Monk

Bretton) (York.),
),

and Scotland),
9
in

33, 33 n. (disgraceful proceedings at 32, 33.

5, 6. (affiliations of, in France, etc.), n.

(affiliations directly subject to,

(Visitation of), 32, 33. (charter-book of), 33 Bromholme (Norf.), 6, 19.
.

England), 23, 31, 37, 38, 42. (provinces of the Order of ),
n.

5, 6, 6 n.

(Visitation 41 n 42.

of),

19,

41,

Columbiers (Milo de), 34, 34 Completorium, 17, 17 n, 19.

46
Compline, 17, 17
Confession, 15. Constable, 14.
rc,

INDEX.
19.
n.

Compredon (Catalonia), 9

(Dor.), 6, 27, 43. (Visitation of), 27, 43. Horksley (Essex), 6, 34, 41.

Holme
-

(Visitation
,

of),

34, 41.

Conventual (conventualis) 15, 15 w, 39, 39 n.
Conventual-seal, 15, 39, 41.

Horton (Monk's- Horton) (Kent),
6, 14,

14

n,

36.

Court (King's)
31
n.

(

Roman),

31,

(Visitation 36, 41.

of),

14, 15, 16,

(Conventual- seal of), 15.
Hostelar, 14, 14 n.
Italy (province of Cluni), 6 w, 9 n.

Crossraguel (abbey), 37, 37 n. Crupper (Saddle-), 17, 19, 20. Curia Romana, 31, 31 n.

Dauphine (Fr.), 6 n. Daventry (N'hants),

6,

42.
30, 31, 43.
n, 43.

Kershall priory (Lane., Notts.),
43.

6,

Derby

(St.

James

of), 6, 30, 43.

(Visitation Diocesan, 7, 24.

of),

King's Court (Curia Regis), 31, 31 n.
Lection, 17.

Dudley priory (Wor.), 13
Earl-Marshal, 34. Eastby, 22. Easton (N'hants), 22.

Lector-Mensa3, 15 n.

Leggings, 16, 16rc, 17.

Letcombe-Regis (Berks), 24, 43. Lenton priory (Notts.), 6, 11 w,
9.

England (province of Cluni), 6w,

English Monks (their untruthfulness, in the 13th century), 30. Exeter (St. James of), 25, 40.
(Visitation

18, 20, 31, 32.
(litigation
field), 31,

of
n.

with
),

Lich18,

31

of),

25, 26, 40.

(Visitations of 31, 32, 38. (cells to ), 43.

11,

Farley (Wilts),
40.

6, 17, 19,

(Visitation

of),

27, 40. 17, 18, 27,

Lewes
6,

9

(St. Pancras, priory of), 5, rc, 19, 37.

Figeac (abbey of) (Lot), 9 n. FitzAlan (Walter-) (founder of Paisley), 37 n. France (province of Cluni), 6 n.

(the second affiliation Cluni), 6, 38. (financial condition of,

of
in

1279), 35.
(Visitations 37, 38.

of),

11,

35,

Gascogne (province of Cluni), 6 n. Gassicourt (Mantes), 11. Germany (province of Cluni), 6 n,
9 n.

(cells to), 15, 27, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. Lichfield (canons of), 31, 31 n. Lombardy (province of Cluni), 9n.

Gigny (Lyon), 9 n. Glasgow (diocese of), 37. Gregory (Pope VII.), 7.
Hallingbury (Herts.), 16. Hampton (Middx.), 21.

London

(jurisdiction of

),

39

n.

Lorraine (province of Cluni), 6 n. Lyon (province of Cluni), 6 n.

Malpas (priory) (Monm.),

6, 42.

Mandatum (mandatum
num), 38.

quotidia-

Hitcham

(Norf.), 6.

INDEX.
Manton, (Kutl.), 43. Marcigny (Autun), 9
Marie (St. Martin (St.
(cells

47
5,

n.

Pancras (St., of Lewes), S. Lewes.

9 n.

de Najera), 9 n.

des-Champs) (Paris),

9 n, 24, 26.

Paray (Autun), 9 n. Pay erne (Lausanne), 9 n. Pension (or tribute), 39 n.
(the Venerable, Abbot of Cluni), 6. Peverell (William, founder of Len-

to),
15.

40, 41.

Peter

Mass (High),

(of the Blessed Virgin), 15. (for the dead), 38, 40. (for benefactors), 40.

ton), 38,

38

n.

(conventual-), 39, 39 n. (low-), 38, 40, 41. Melton-Mowbray (Leic.), 6. Moissac (Cahors), 9 n.

Poitou (province of Cluni), 6. Pont St. Esprit (Gard.), 9 n. Pontefract (York.), 6, 14 n,
33, 39. (Visitation

19,

of),

14, 33, 39,

Monk-Bretton (York.),

S. Bretton.

Monks

(English

)

(their

un-

39 n. Preen (Salop),

6.

character in the 13th century), 30. (favourable exceptions), 26, 36.
truthful

Monks-Horton (Kent), Monks' loaves, 41.

S.

Horton.

Prior (Grand of Cluni), 9 n. - (Claustral of Cluni), 9 n. Prittlewell (Essex), 6, 19, 35, 40. (Visitation of), 19, 35, 40, 41.
Procurator, 11.

Monstierneuf (Poitiers), 9 n. Montacute (Som.), 6, 17, 23, 38. (Visitation of), 11, 11 n, 17 23 38
'(cells to
),

Provence (province of Cluni),
6 n, 9, 37.

6,

Praemonstratensian Order, 7.

26, 27, 42, 43.
n.

Mont-Didier (Amiens), 20, 20 Mozac (Clermont), 9 n.

Myndharu (Mendham)
40.

(Suff.), 6,

Rainhani priory (Norf.), 42. Reader-at-table, 15, 17, 41. in the Refectory, 15, 17, 41. in the Infirmary, 17, 41.

Richmond

(Surr.), 16.
),

Nantua (Lyon), 9 n. Norfolk (Roger Bigot, 5th E.

Riding-boots, 16, 16 n. Riole (Rgole) (William de
of),

32,

33.

34 n. Normannesberch (Norf.), 6, 42. Northampton (St. Andrew of),
22, 41.
(Visitation

Roche (Notts), 43. Rochester (Kent) (See
6,

of), 30.

Sacrist, 14,

14

n.

of),

13, 16, 22,
6.

41.

Northampton nunnery,

Saddle-crupper, 16, 17, 18, 19. Saint Clare, 26. - (Visitation of), 26. S. Exeter. St. James (of Exeter).
(of Derby), 30.
S. Martin. Saintonge (province of Cluni), 6 n.
St.

Offord Cluny (Hunts.), 43. Ordinary (Diocesan), 7, 8, 34.

Martin-des-Champs.

Order (monastic),

S. Cluniac, Cis-

tercian, Prsemonstratensian.

St. Syriac (Corn.), 6. Sandals, 16, 16 n.

Paisley (Ayr.) (Abbey of), 5, 9 n, 13 n, 37, 37 n.

Sauxillanges (Clermont), 9 w. Scotland (province of Cluni), 9, 37.

48
Seal (conventual 41.

INDEX.
of Horton), 39,
),

Sham (Walter de
Sleusham (Norf.),

22.

6, 43.

Thiers (Clermont), 9 n. Tixover (Rut.), 43. Todwick (York.), 16. Trecy (John), 29.

Sotulares corrigiati, 16, 16 n.

Tykeford (priory) (Bucks),

6, 43.

Souvigny (Autun), 9 n. Spain (province of Cluni), 6

n, 9 n. Stanesgate priory (Essex), 6, 42. Straton (Adam de), 21, 22. Swell (Glou.), 22.

Vienne (Isere), 6

n.

Visitation, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 passim.

Table (of lessons), 38, 39, 40, 41,
42. Tarentaise (province of Cluni), 6. Thetford priory (Norf.), 6, 18, 34, 42.
(Visitation 18, 34, 42. (Patron of
19, 34.
(cells to
), 35, 41.

Waltham (Essex), 21. Wangford (Suff.), 6, 41. Warenne (William de) (1st E.
Surrey), 34 n. Washing of the feet 31, 387i.

of

(mandatum\

Wenlock

of),
;

12,

12 w,
),

(Salop), 6, 13 n, 14, 18, 22, 28, 39.
(Visitation 18, 28, 29, 39.
(cells

of),
13

13,

13 n,

avoue of

to),

n, 43.

Widford (Essex),

16, 21.

'

ORDINANCE FOE THE BETTER OBSERVANCE OF THE OBITS AND SERVICES FOR THE DEAD, THROUGHOUT THE SUBORDINATE FOUNDATIONS OF CLUNI.
THE following singular and important document, being an Ordinance emanating from the Priory of la Charit6 sur Loire, to its several affiliations in France and England, should of right have found its place among the Charters and Records of Cluni lately published, affecting this It has, however, only recently been acquired country. by the French National Library, and for its transcript, made with his own hand, we have to tender our sincerest obligations to M. Leopold Delisle, the eminent DirectorGeneral of that establishment.* The peculiar value and interest which attach to this record, are a sufficient apology for its present, though somewhat tardy publication, more especially as supplementing the foregoing Visitations, with which it has no immediate connection. The mode and order employed for transmitting notice
of

occurring among members of all Cluniac foundations, subordinate to the Priory of la Charite, is interestingly set forth, and affords a curious example of the reciprocal system of announcing the fact, both in France and England. Longueville,t in the vicinity of Dieppe, was the priory named from which such notice, occurring among French ecclesiastics, was to be for-

deaths

* M. Simeon Luce, in acknowledging his obligations to M. Leopold Delisle, "Du reste, fai de melle editing his "Chronicles of Froissart," observes: date tant d? obligations a Veminent diplomatiste, que depuis longtemps je ne les compte plus." This remark applies, also, entirely to ourselves. f Longueville, in the Pays do Caux, lies between Dieppe and Kouen. It was the seat of a Clnniac priory dedicated to St. Faith, and founded in 1093 by Walter Giffard, Earl of Lougueville in Normandy, and Earl of Buckingham in England, who, dying in 1102, was there buried. Among other endowments, he gave it the manor of Newton-Longville in Bucks, from which the cell there founded derived its appellation. Both the castle and monastery of Longueville were long known as Longr villeGiffard (or Guiffard) ; See mandate dated at Rouen (t. Hen. VI.), to the ba liff of Caux, to induct Kobert Fabri to the chapel of the castle of Longueville-Guiffard (Rymer ix., 713) and, in 1421, restitution of the temporalities is made to the prior of St. Faith, Longueville-Guiffard (ib. x., 160).

when

;

7

50

warded

to England, and to which, on the other hand, similar intelligence of deaths was to be brought occurring among those of the same order in England. For the due circulation of such information, it had

been customary in olden time, but had apparently somefallen out of use, as we learn from the document, to send messengers from one convent to all others of the same order, notifying the decease of any member, or members of the community. This laudable practice was observed, to the intent that they might be remembered in the masses, or services for the souls of the dead being the doctrine of the efficacy of prayer for the departed. The situation of Longueville Priory, from its vicinity to Dieppe, was eminently adapted for this purpose of communication, and that port was plainly selected as the most accessible for the Sussex coast, from whence to pass or repass the Channel, either for Lewes or Battle.* Its prior (in conjunction with the priors and procurators of all other Cluniac foundations), was called upon to transmit and receive all such notices, as they arrived

what

;

;

and the infringement of this obligation, or its neglect, was punishable by exclusion from communion of the Church, and other penalties. This we learn from the concluding words of the record. Without such reciprocal interchange, troublesome and tedious though it was, neither the Bead- (Bede-) rollf of
the order (soliciting the prayers of the faithful), or the Obit-roll J (containing the deaths of the brethren and their anniversary services), could be either properly drawn up or recorded ; hence the Ordinance for the renewal, and proper observance of the practice; from a neglect of which (observes the document), the dead had
Dieppe was opposite to Rye, one of the Cinque -Ports, and both these seamuch used in the days of the Plantagenet Kings, and even longer. The latter was the ancient port of departure for the Continent, and to it, in 1572, the refugees escaped from Dieppe. This last was from the earliest times, the chief French port for the embarkation and disembarkation of troops, to and fro, even when en route for Calais from this country. f A bead (or bede) is tantamount to a prayer (Jacob, Law Diet.). The bead-roll was a list of deceased persons, for the repose of whose souls a certain number of prayers were recited, and as such was necessary and used for keeping the obit, or anniversary of their death observing such days with prayers. + Obits were the solemn services for the dead, or for the repose of a departed as well as those on the anniversary of a persoul, performed before interment
ports were
; ;

*

son's death.

51
in

" cases been deprived of that holy and wholethe offering up of prayers, by some thought," namely, which they were loosed from their sins.

many

Universis

Johannes, humilis prior de Caritate, & ejusdem loci conCum sancta & salubris sit ventus, salutem in Domino.
cogitatio pro defunctis orare ut a peccatis solvantur, ne fratres sub domo de Caritate ubilibet habitantes, de

presentes

litteras

inspecturis,

frater

hoc seculo migraturi, non audifcis eorum obitibusj, quod ob deferendorum brevium negligenciam multociens novimus evenisse, debitis orationum suffragiis defraudentur, Nos, antiquum & pium statutum, in ecclesia nostra de Karitate pro fatribus nostris defunctis hue usque laudabiliter observatum, renovare volentes, statuimus, et, ut perpetuitatem obtineat, illud sanctum statutum approbando unanimiter confirmamus, scilicet, quod uni famulo in domo nostra de Caritate, deputato defunctorum fratrum brevibus deferendis provideatur, sicut hactenus et diu est consuetum, statuentes ut idem famulus, quoin eadem domo fratrem obire contigerit, infra biduum post ipsius obitum iter arripiat, ejusdem fratris breve portaturus per omnes domos ad ecclesiam de In Karitate pertinentes citra mare Anglie constitutas. quacunque autem dictarum domorum venerit, quotiens novum breve detulerit, una nocte sufficienter procurabitiens
tur,

&

sex denarios monete currentis percipiet, a priore
sive

vel

procuratore

celerario

ejusdem

domus

sibi,

antequam dictam
persolvendos.

ibidem breve ventus ejusdem domus,

domum exeat, sine aliqua difficultate Cum autem apud Longarn Villam venerit, dimittet, & cum litteris prioris vel consi

prior presens non f uerit, nomen brevigeri tenoremque brevis continentibus, apud Karitatem redibit. Prior vero, vel celerarius de Longavilla, per primurn nuncium quern post breve susceptum in

Angliam transfretabit, illud destinabunt ad propinquiorem de domibus nostris in Anglia constitutis,|| ut inde ad
Breve would be the deed announcing the death of a member of a monastic it was also the circular notice or certificate of it, forwarded from one convent to another of the same order breve mortuorum, or de defunctis, or pro defunctis (Du Cange}. It was from this that the bead-roll, or register of deaths to be prayed for was constituted. The nearest Cluniac monastery would have been that of Lewes.
fraternity
;
; II

52
possit transferri. firmiter precipimus obedientie
alias

quoque in virtute omnibus prioribus et procuratoribus domorum que sunt citra mare Anglie constitute, ut ille in cujus do mo f rater decesserit, de brevi transmittendo sibi provideat, ut infra triduum post ipsius

domos

Illud

fatris

obitum, nuncius ejus iter arripiat apud Karitatem,

dictum breve delaturus. Priores vero domorum nostraram in Anglia positarum, infra octo dies post obiturn fratrum penes ipsos decedentium nuncios proprios, cum brevibus fratrum defuoctorum, apud Longam Villam iter aggredi
faciant,

cum

ipsi nuncii, cum illuc brevia detulerint antedicta, litteris prioris vel conventus ejusdem domus, si

&

prior presens non fuerit, nomen nuncii teuoremque brevis continentibus, ad domos redibunt unde missi fuerunt. Que videlicet brevia, cum apud Longam Yillarn fuerint

deportata, ibidem conserventur, quousque per brevigerum ejusdem dornus, cum ad nos venerit, vel per nostrum, cum
illuc iverit,

apud Caritatem deportentur.

Omnium autem

domorum nostrarum
autem

fratribus firmiter injungimus ut, ea die qua breve susceperint, pro fratibus defunctis quicquid ordo Cluniacensis exigit facere non omittant. Quicumque

procurator, ubilibet habitans, breve apud ipsum defuncti ad locum sibi determinatum & infra terminum sibi prefixurn, sicut superius est expressum, transmittere neglexerit, ex tune in antea, quousque illud transmiserit, potum omnimodo liquoris preterquam aquam, & introitum ecclesie sibi noverit Actum anno Domini CC interdictum. septimo, die Assuinptionis beate Marie.
prior,

vel

fratris

M

XL

[Original

draft ;

among

the

Additional Latin

MSS.
2566,

of the National mem. 4.]

Library

of France;

No.

fralrte.

SOUTH COUNTIES PRESS LIMITED,

64,

HIGH STREET, LEWES.

CLUNIACS.

VISITATIONS OF ENGLISH CLUNIAC FOUNDATIONS IN AIQ-4443 (AB)