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CHAPTER 1

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Poverty is real and painful problem for millions of people throughout the world. Poverty is a prominesnt obstacle in the way of rapid, balanced and sustainable economic development. Poverty, according to HDR (1997) is the denial of opportunities to lead along healthy, creative life and enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity, self respect and the respect of others. As per the (HRD 2 005), India’s ranking in human poverty index is 58 out of 177 countries. Women are the most vulnerable group affected by poverty. Women experience hunger and poverty in much more intensive ways than men. If one of the family members has to starve, it is an unwritten law that it has to be the mother. In India, poverty is mainly a rural problem. The overwhelming majority of poor people in India are concentrated in rural areas. Real empowerment occurs only when rights can be legitimately claimed and are universally acknowledged. It is the endeavor of Kudumbashree to bring the discussion on women’s rights and issues into the heart of the development debate. The organizational structure and capacity building programmes of Kudumbashree attempt to develop the leadership capabilities and opportunities for intervention in development activities. The Gender Self Learning Programme is a unique experiment to consolidate women's voices and discuss gender disparities.

Kudumbashree is an innovative poverty reduction programme implemented exclusively for women with support of state government and agencies since 1999. The objective of Kudumbashree is unequivocally declared as to eradicate absolute poverty through concerted community action and the leadership of government by facilitating organization of the poor for combining self help with demand red convergence of available service and resources to tackle the multiple dimension and manifestations of poverty holistically.
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The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGP) aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian job guarantee scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005.

1.1 Significance of SHG

India is one of the developing nations which has promoted institutions for providing micro finance to the poor under various poverty alleviation programmes. In fact, India has the largest network of bank branches in the world. Cooperative institutions, RRBs, and the rural branches of commercial banks have been providing credit to the poor through several schemes under the directions of the Govt. of India. The schemes like National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (NREGP), Kudumbashree, programmes under Small Framers Development Agencies (SFDA), SGSY all were intended to directly target different segments of the poor.

1.2 Statement of the Problem Economic independence is treated as an effective tool to escape from the clutches of poverty of the rural folk especially women. This is possible by setting up of sustainable IGAs/ MEs are not a panacea for the chronic problems of unemployment and poverty, yet MEs. Promotion is a viable and effective strategy for achieving significant income and assets of the poor and marginalized women. In Kerala, Kudumbashree Mission a Government sponsored poverty eradication mission focus attention on women empowerment, as an opportunity for providing gainful employment to the people below poverty line and thereby improving income and standard of living through which they can attain social and economic empowerment. Kudumbashree Mission of Government of Kerala targeted
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3 Objective of the Study The main objective of the study is to evaluate the Women’s development Programmes implemented by Pallivasal Grama Pachayath. Internet and reports of Pallivasal Grama Panchayath in Idukki District. To examine the attitude of beneficiaries towards these programmes. it is proposed to analyse and compare various women development programmes like Kudumbashree and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath Idukki district Kerala.4 Methodology The study is based on both primary and secondary data. In this study. Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development.the poor women and assists them in establishing Micro Enterprices. 3. The primary data will be collected from beneficiaries of development programme of Pallivasal Grama Panchayath. 4. The secondary data required for the study was collected from the Journals. 4 . 1. Other objectives are:1. To study how the women’s group is benefited through these programmes. To study the effectiveness of various Women’s development programmes. 1. To make suggestions for improving the Programmes for Women’s Development. 2. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The data will be collected with the help of interview schedule.

1. objectives of the study. The first chapter is the introductory chapter which shows significance of the study. percentages and diagrams are used. the analysis and findings would lack accuracy.The sampling procedure used being the convenient sampling. 5 .5 Samples Random sampling method is used for selecting samples. 3. Samples are collected from Pallivasal Grama Panchayath in Idukki District. 1. tools for analysis. 2. For the purpose of the study 25 Kudumbashree members and 25 NREGP members are selected as samples and approached with a structured interview schedule to elicit their views. 1. chapter scheme and limitations of the study etc.1. Some respondents were reluctant to reveal personal information this can affect the validity of all responses.The research is confined to certain part of Idukki District and does not necessarily shows a pattern applicable to all of the Country. methodology.8 Chapter Scheme The study is presented in five chapters.6 Tools of Analysis For the purpose of analysis statistical tools like average. 1.7 Limitations of the Study The study suffers from the following limitations. samples.

The third chapter provides theories on women development. 6 . The fourth chapter deals analysis and interpretation of the primary data and fifth chapter summarizes the main findings and suggestions.The second chapter gives review of literature.

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housing facilities and level of food security. Begam and Kamala. • Sharma (2001) opined that micro financing through SHGs is significantly contributing the development of poor in terms of increase in income level assets. The study revealed a significant change in the overall socio economic status of the member in terms of increase in income generating assets. savings. • Pukazhendhi (2000) documented the impact of SHGs members.P.CHAPTER 2 REVIEWS OF LITERATURE LITERATURE REVIEW • Razia. Pillai (2002) in their study in “Micro credit programmes. Sreenivasan (2000) conducted a study on the training programme for the self employment of women. They suggested that knowledge cum skill training programme must be taken up for creating self employment for the females of the vulnerable section of the society. borrowing capacity and income generating activities.R and P. improving in literacy level. He pointed out that every human being has enormous potential and opportunities should be created for every individual to discover his or her own potential and utilize it to its full capacity. Muhammed (2000) in the study entitled “Empowerment and Grammeen Bank” held the view that poverty has not been created by the poor people. • Yunas. • Lakshmi. income generating and empowerment of women some Empirical 8 . Devi K.

The average value of the assets.” SHG can play a vital role in achieving the long cherished goal of poverty alleviation and rural development through their diversified programs. Empowerment of women and the inculcation of financial training and discipline amongst the poor will undoubtedly have long term social economic benefits. Further almost all the members developed saving habit in the post SHG situation and about 70 percent of loan taken in post SHG situation was for income generation activities.” On the whole study include that micro credit based IGAS have clearly helped in 9 . It would help them to get regular income through self employment which in turn empowers them economically and socially. • Jayachandran (2009) in his study entitled “Impact of SHGs in Women Empowerment a Study in Kottayam District Kerala. improvement in housing condition. • Beena Skariah (2009) in her study “Micro finance support to micro enterprise under Kudumbashree program” pointed out that Kudumbashree through micro finance support motivates their members to undertake income generating activities by forming micro enterprises.Evidence from Kerala “examined the role of micro finance programmes in creating income generating activities for the poor women and how far they have been successful on the empowerment of the beneficiary women. • NABARD (2006) observed the following result in a study very 500 SHG member households from 283 SHGs spread over eleven states over India. • Susy Paul and Gireesh Kumar (2009) in a study entitled “Impact of SHG Bank Linkage Program on Income Generation of Rural Poor in Kerala.

The study revealed as increase in the average value of assets cpomprising live sock and consumer durabels by 72 percent between pre and post SHG period. • Puhazhendi and Satyasai(2010) in their study on impact of the SHG programme on members noticed that SHGs are an institutional arrangement could positively contribute to the economical and social empowerment of the poor. efforts will continue to further enhance the status of women as equal partners in development. 10 . The study also revealed that about 22 percent of the total sample household crossed poverty during the study period. But at the same time the incomes merger incomes generated where insufficient to improve the economic status of the households significant or to push all of them above the poverty line. including the implementation of gender sensitive programmes. Towards this end. women made advancements in various fields of development. to enable women to reach their full potential in the social and economic fields of development. During the Eighth Plan period. These IGAS made a positive change in the lives of the poor women by providing them with economic independence which brought along with itself confidence and autonomy.poverty alleviation and economically empowerment of rural poor especially women. the Government will provide the enabling environment and supportive mechanisms. About 59 percent of households admitted and increased its assets from pre to post SHG periods similarly the net income per households admitted as increase in assets from pre to post SHG period similarly the net income per household increased by 33 percent. CONCLUSION With the provision of equal access to healthcare as well as educational and training programmes and improved employment opportunities.

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media and research fields. 3. In this decade women are entering into the job market in increasing number and also venturing to become entrepreneurs. witnessing a steady improvement in the enrollment of women in the schools and colleges and even in the professional colleges. Due to increasing awareness among the parents. s26 laws have been enacted so far to protect women from 12 . efforts will continue to be undertaken to enhance the role. has improved the general health status of rural women. Women will be provided with the skills and knowledge to cope with the challenges of globalization and fulfill the needs of the knowledge-based economy. women continued to participate in and contribute towards the social and economic development of the country. Especially.1 Empowerment process of the Indian women In India the empowerment process has already begun. defense. We are now. child mortality rate has come down. The reproductive health status and general health status are better. the primary health strategy. when compared to their health status in the earlier decades. WOMEN DEVELOPMENT Women constitute an important pool of resource that can be mobilized to achieve the national development agenda. Through the continuous efforts of the Government in providing an enabling environment during the Seventh Plan period. position and status of women to ensure their participations equal partners in national development. During the Eighth Plan period. (majority of Indian women live in the villages} resulting in higher average expectation of life. They are entering even into the nontraditional sectors like the police. administration.CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL REVIEW OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 3.

Women’s voice will be heard in the highest forum of democracy and greater number of women will participate in the law making process. High ranges and wooded valleys are girded by three main rivers Periyar. Sustainable livelihood opportunities can be provided to the deprived and the destitute by means of lending asset creating facilities. The recent Law on the “protection of women against domestic violence” satisfies the long pending demand of the women activists. any programme for poverty alleviation must aim at improving the living environment of the women folk. Thalayar and Thodupuzhayar and their tributaries. When 33% reservation for women in parliament becomes a reality. hill stations. and the micro-credit and self-help groupings are a better means through which their living conditions can be improved. It is felt that the problem of poverty can be solved through a concerted effort by the State. mountain treks and elephant rides. 3. Idukki is one of the most nature rich areas of the state. Agriculture is the main 13 . In all developing countries state actions are being reinforced in streamlining poverty alleviation programmmes. Poverty alleviation schemes based on micro-credit system have been implemented in many of the developing countries in recentyears1. That day women of India will reach zenith in their empowerment process and their concerns will be expressed loudly and clearly to the world and the” suffering in silence decades” will come to an end.2 Women development programmes in Kerala Poverty is a crucial problem in all developing countries in the present day world. It offers diverse attractions like wildlife sanctuaries. Women households are the cruel victims of deprivation and destitution. In the political field. Therefore. An astonishing 50% of the area is covered by forest. 3.3 Women development in Idukki District Kerala's largest district.various crimes. It is through creating livelihood opportunities for the women that they can be empowered. spice plantations. the reservation for women in local administration is a step towards political empowerment.

economic and political spheres. Recently. social. floriculture. are being taken up by some progressive farmers / women in the district. Kudumbashree 14 .. revolving fund and loans from different banks the SHG members are running various income generation programmes. With their own savings. The various Women’s development Programmes implemented by Pallivasal Grama Pachayathu are : • Agriculture Development Programmes • Health Protection programmes • Kudumbashree Programmes • NREGP • House Construction Programmes • Educational Programmes • Computer Awareness Programmes • Dairy Farming Programmes • Self Employment Programmes In this study. 3. 1. it is proposed to analyse and compare various women development programmes like Kudumbashree and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath Idukki district Kerala. medicinal plants.4 Women Development Programmes in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath The Women development programme in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath aims to empower rural women in legal. The SHGS include both tribal and non tribal community members. mushroom cultivation. vanilla cultivation etc. both men and women.occupation of the people in the District. Dairy is the main supplementary source of income of the farmers in the district.

1. It has a governing body chaired by the state minister of LSG. It has a governing body chaired by the State Minister of LSG. Kudumbashree is formally registered as the "State Poverty Eradication Mission" (SPEM). Scientific and Charitable Societies Act 1955. Kudumbashree launched by the Government of Kerala in 1998 for wiping out absolute poverty from the State through concerted community action under the leadership of Local Self Governments.1Organizational Structure Kudumbashree was conceived as a joint programme of the Government of Kerala and NABARD implemented through Community Development Societies (CDSs) of Poor Women. entrepreneurship and empowerment. serving as the community wing of Local Governments. a society registered under the Travancore Kochi Literary. This official structure supports and facilitates the activities of the community network across the state. micro credit. thus providing them a more dignified life and a better future. Kudumbashree is formally registered as the "State Poverty Eradication Mission" (SPEM). Scientific and Charitable Societies Act 1955. Built around three critical components. Kudumbashree is today one of the largest women-empowering projects in the country. the Kudumbashree initiative has today succeeded in addressing the basic needs of the less privileged women. The programme has 37 lakh members and covers more than 50% of the households in Kerala. There is a state mission with field officers in each district.Kudumbashree is an innovative poverty reduction programme implemented exclusively for women with support of state government and agencies since 1999. There is a state mission with 15 . Literal meaning of Kudumbashree is prosperity (shree) of family (Kudumbam). a society registered under the Travancore Kochi Literary. The objective of Kudumbashree is unequivocally declared as to eradicate absolute poverty through concerted community action and the leadership of government by facilitating organization of the poor for combining self help with demand led convergence of available service and resources to tackle the multiple dimension and manifestations of poverty holistically.

The poor need to find a collective voice to help claim these rights. it was quick to gather momentum. in the • In the early nineties a community led poverty identification was developed as part of the Alappuzha UBSP Programme. the People's Plan Campaign for decentralized Governance created strong local self governments Municipalities) in the State.Kudumbashree differs from conventional programmes in that it perceives poverty not just as the deprivation of money. • The 73rd & 74th constitutional amendments strengthened PRIs and ULBs. but also as the deprivation of basic rights. • Kudumbashree was launched in 1998 as a community network that would work in tandem with local self governments for poverty eradication and women empowerment. the CBNP project of Malappuram tried to assimilate these experiences and develop a woman based community service delivery of government programmes. format • By this time the NABARD promoted SHG. (Panchayaths and structure for 16 . • Shortly afterwards. • In 1994.2 History and Background • Various forms of microfinance practices have been in Kerala from early days. existence in • When the concept of Self Help Group was introduced in Kerala 1980s. 1. linkage banking programme had established itself as a viable microfinance model.

Improving incomes of the poor through up gradation of vocational and managerial skills and creation of opportunities for self-employment and wage employment. 7. Ensuring better health and nutrition for all poor families. Encouraging thrift and investment through credit by developing CDSs to work. 8. improved shelter and healthy living environment. 10. discrimination based on gender/religion. Enabling the poor to participate in the decentralization process through the CDS. Facilitating self identification of the poor families through transparent risk index composed of socially accepted indicators of poverty through a participatory survey. Development Societies at the local government level. Area Development Societies at the local government ward level and Community.3 Objectives The Aims and Objectives for which the mission established shall be as follows: 1. smoking and drug abuse. as "Informal Banks of the Poor". caste etc. Helping the poor to fight social evils like alcoholism. 2. dowry. 9. 4. as a sub-system of the local governments. Empowering the women among the poor to improve their individual and collective capabilities by organizing them into Neighborhood Groups at the local level. Ensuring zero drops out in schools for all children belonging to the poor families. Promoting functional literacy among the poor and supporting continuing education.1. Ensuring access to basic amenities like safe drinking water. 3. 6. 17 . 5. sanitary latrines.

18 . By federating the NHGs at ward level. where the anti poverty programmes have been attempted through community based structure as envisaged in Kudumbashree in expanding the physical coverage and set new milestones for Kudumbashree by extending its activities to the rural areas. Kudumbashree Ward Samithy (ADS) 3.11. Collaborating with governmental and non-governmental institutions and agencies in all activities related to improving the quality of life of the poor. soul and life of Kudumbashree Mission.conducted with the active participation of the community. Kudumbashree Panchayath Samithy (CDS) Kudumbashree Mission and the CDS System CDS system is the heart. Hence afterwards. Massive training programs where organized for the Panchayath functionaries. It is envisaged as a three-tire system of the poor women of Kerala on the basis of a risk index based survey . area development societies (ADSs) will be formed. Unlike the Urban program there is slight variation in the organization structure adopted for the rural side: 1. it was decided to cover the entire rural area of the state in a phased manner and in the first phase 261 Grama pangayaths where identified by the following fixed criteria. officials and activist in the rural area. By organizing one women each from the high risk families of every locality. 12. the poor households of the state will be identified. grass root level self help groups called Neighbor Hood Groups (NHGs) will be formed throughout the state. Kudumbashree towards Rural Areas At the inception. the activities of Kudumbashree was confined to the Urban areas and Rural areas of Malappuram District. Kudumbashree Ayalkoottam (NHG) 2. Providing a mechanism for convergence of all resources and services meant for alleviation of poverty in the State.

Poverty alleviation programmes will be implemented as per the CDS plan. NHGs will prepare micro plans. In. while CDSs will be registered under Charitable Societies Act. At ADS level micro plans will be integrated to mini plans. to the system by way of sanctioning lones. Government officials were also invited to the meeting for explaining the scheme implemented by them. Neighborhood Group (NHG) For effective convergence of the programme. i. Formation of 190355 NHGs. On the basis of felt. the weekly meeting all members bring their thrift which will be collected and recycled. 17003 ADSs and CDSs is specified as the most important milestone in front of the poverty reduction mission named Kudumbashree. In each Neighborhood Group from along the poor women Five Volunteers are selected for undertaking various functional activities.tire Community Based Organization (CBO) is in action. Micro plans are also prepared after taking stock of the situation. 19 . The poor women will be given the opportunity to plan and design their own destiny. The lower most tier constitutes the Neighborhood Group consisting of 20-40 women members selected from the poor families. CDS system and development initiatives Kudumbashree mission believes in the inherent potentials of the poor women of the state. The CDS system will also function as an informal banking system for the financial empowerment of the poor women. In the meeting various problems faced by the group members are discussed along with suggestions for improving the situation. Meetings are convened on a weekly basis in the houses of NHG members.needs surveys conducted by the poor women themselves. NHGs and ADSs are envisaged as informal bodies. a three. by the poor women themselves.ADSs will get federated to community development societies at panchayat/ Municipality/ Corporation levels. Every CDS will integrate the mini plans of ADSs functioning under it to form the CDS plan.

General Body . ii.Infrastructural backwardness of the group is tackled with the help of various ongoing governmental programmes under the leadership of this volunteer. President. Community Health Volunteer.constituted by electing a president. 3.She will look after the various healths related aspects of the group members including children. Necessary training is imparted by NABARD for increasing their capability.The proceedings of the meeting are recorded by the secretary and necessary follow up including motivation and team building are the responsibilities of the secretary. Governing Body . She will liaison with the local bodies and act as a catalyst for local development.1. Income generation activities volunteer – The collection. consolidation and maintenance of books of accounts and registers in connection with thrift mobilization is looked after by this volunteer. Secretary and five members Committee from among the General Body. The activities and the decision in the ADS is decided by the representatives of the poor elected from various federating NHGs. 20 . 5. 4.She will preside over the weekly meeting and will impart necessary leadership and guidelines to the group members. Area Development Societies The second tire is Area Development Society. It is proposed to take micro contracting ass an income generating activity by this group after sharpening their functional skills through a series of training programmes. Area Development Society function through three distinct bodies viz. Secretary. Convergence of various programmes under taken by Health and Social Welfare Departments are also carried out under the leadership of the Community Health Volunteer 2. which is formed at ward level by federating 8-10 NHGs. 1. 2.consists of all president and Secretaries of federated NHGs along with representatives of Resource Persons selected from that area. women and the aged. Infrastructure Volunteer .

To streamline their activity with the activities of Local Self Governments. The Community Development Society monitors the programmes undertaken by the ADS on monthly basis and takes the steps to improve the implementation of the programmes. Vice president and seven other members elected from the General body of the CDS to form the committee of the CDS.3. The various activities taken up by Kudumbashree under MF are: 1. Community Development Society (CDS) Community Development Society is the apex body at the town level and is the coordinating agency for programme implementation. Matching Grant. 1. Each NHG has operational flexibility in respect of its MF operations. Monitoring and Advisory Committee . Very often. within a broad framework. Micro Finance Micro Finance (MF) is the core activity of Kudumbashree. KAASS. 4. A project officer of the Municipality/ Panchayath act as the member secretary of the CDS. 3. Chairpersons. Linkage Banking. in addition to the 21 . The CDS has a president. in tune with the policy framework of Local Self Governments.The committee and the Member Secratery constitutes the governing bodi of the CDS. 2. the binding force of the NHG. Interest Subsidy for Linkage Loans 5. Kudumbashree has positioned accountants in each CDS to keep track of the multifarious MF Activities of the CDS. a ward level monitoring and advisory committee is formed under the chairmanship of ward member of the Local Body iii.Vice chair persons and members of all the ADSs from the General body of the CDS. The silent feature of this arrangement is the fixation of priorities by the poor. Thrift and credit operations.

1. micro housing and micro insurance. The repayment is collected weekly during routine NHG meetings. These loans have been used for purposes ranging from covering hospital expenses to meeting working capital needs for micro enterprises. The savings of the women are pooled together and given out as loans to the most deserving. The function of thrift and credit is the core activity of the neighborhood group (NHG). These societies facilitate them to save and provide them with cost-effective and easy credit. 1. and forms the basis of the weekly meetings of the NHG. the CDS might have taken on need based MF products. on their own (such as cooking gas loans). Details are reported in the monthly meetings by the CDS.54 Crore and the internal loans generated are to the tune of ` 4372. They also serve as the delivery point for skill up gradation and market development support to micro enterprises. Kudumbashree home grown audit and account support service. The amount of loan and the priority of disbursement are decided by the NHG.1 Micro Credit Kudumbashree plays a vital role in enhancing the financial status of the less privileged women in the State through its thrift and credit societies.32 Crore (as on January 2011). The total thrift collected by NHGs in the state comes to ` 1549. The Community Development Societies facilitate bank linkages for farming. Accounts are scrupulously maintained and are subject to annual audit by KAAS.2 Thrift and Credit The NHGs of Kudumbashree double up as thrift & Credit Societies to encourage the poor to save and to provide them cost effective and easy credit. 22 .activities listed above. The activities of the CDS are subject to review and facilitation in the Evaluation Committee at LSG levels.

Bank Linkage -SHG The Bank Linkage programme has helped NHGs to augment their existing resources collected through thrift. In order to avail Matching grant a NHG must have passed the grading and availed loan from bank.4 Matching Grant to Thrift & Credit Societies Matching Grant is an incentive provided to NHGs. The total amount which has been mobilized under linkage banking is ` 1244. 1. performance of NHG in the Grading and loan availed from banks.For the year 2010-11 the total thrift collected by NHGs is ` 174.64 Crores respectively. will be participants in the 23 . For the year 2010-11 the total amount of loan disbursed by banks through linkage banking is ` 251. An amount of 10% of the savings of the NHG subject to a maximum of Rs 5000/.5 Interest Subsidy The interest subsidy scheme is a new initiative by the Government of Kerala to enhance the affordability of formal credit. matching grant will be provided if the NHG has passed grading. The linkage loans may be raised directly by the NHG or as bulk loan through the CDS.88 Crores and the internal loans generated is ` 458. 1. In case of SC/ST NHGs. all commercial and cooperative banks that are prepared to lend to Kudumbashree NHGs under the linkage banking programme at 9% or below.26 Crore to 13001 NHGs. The efficiency and effectiveness of the NHGs are verified on the basis of some objectively verifiable and easily identifiable parameters. The grant is released based on their assessment rated using a 15-point grading criteria developed by NABARD. As per the scheme.91 Crore and 131712 NHGs have availed of the loans.is provided as matching grant to each NHG. NABARD has developed a 15-point index for rating NHGs on the basis of which they will be allowed to link with various banks under the Linkage Banking Scheme. Availing bank loan for a SC/ST NHG is not compulsory in order to be eligible for matching grant. This grant linked to amount of thrift mobilized.

South Malabar Gramin Bank (SMGB) 5. Interest subsidy of 5% to NHGs and JLGs (farming groups) of Kudumbashree.Central Bank of India (CBI) 6.Canara Bank 7. The CDS would be raising the claim with the banks and the amount would be dispersed to a designated nodal branch by Kudumbashree State Mission in the case of commercial banks and to the concerned cooperative banks/societies by the district missions in the case of cooperative institutions. One highlight of the scheme is the inclusion of joint liability groups for farming in the ambit of the scheme Microfinance-Interest Subsidy Operational Guidelines for the scheme were approved by the State Level Bankers Committee held on 14.1. 2. Features 1. State Bank of Travancore (SBT) 2.scheme.2010. North Malabar Gramin Bank (NMGB) 4. Syndicate Bank 3. The operational modalities of channelizing interest subsidy through co-operative institutions to NHGs are being separately worked out.2010 and the scheme was formally launched on 28. The following banks have entered into Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Executive Director of Kudumbashree (as on March 2011): 1. Interest on loan amounts up to Rs 100. Punjab National Bank these seven banks are actively lending to the NHGs/JLGs under Interest Subsidy scheme.000 and periods upto 3 years.01. 24 . The interest subsidy would be provided as annual installments to the banks.

The new byelaws provide for internal auditors from within the community network. the Kudumbashree Accounts & Audit Service Society. 1. These internal auditors will be capacitated by KAASS. Interest subsidy channelized through banks institutions. These teams have been facilitating management of accounts at the NHG. Co-ordination between the banks and the NHGs will be through the CDS. There are over 300 members in KAASS across the state.3. 5. a home grown enterprise to ensure proper account keeping in the community network Each district has been furnished with a KAASS team that has been drawn from commerce graduates and is guided by professional chartered accountants.6 KAASS KAASS. 4. ADS and CDS levels. They function as a concurrent audit mechanism as well.64 Crore was disbursed to 3959 NHGs and 236 JLGs as interest subsidy. Participating banks charge annual interest at 9% or below. giving inputs to the mission teams about capacity building requirements for financial management. 25 . and pointing out to defects and rectification where ever needed. For the Year 2010-11. ` 1.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural The household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work National Rural employment Guarantee Act (NREGP) Implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The Act aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Act came into force on February 2, 2006 and was implemented in a phased manner. In Phase one it was introduced in 200 of the most backward districts of the country. It was implemented in an additional 130 districts in Phase two 20072008. As per the initial target, NREGA was to be expanded countrywide in five years. However, in order to bring the whole nation under its safety net and keeping in view the demand, the Scheme was extended to the remaining 274 rural districts of India from April 1, 2008 in Phase III. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)is the first ever law internationally, that guarantees wage employment at an unprecedented scale. The primary objective of the Act is augmenting wage employment. Its auxiliary objective is strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and so encourage sustainable development. The process outcomes include strengthening

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grassroots processes of democracy and infusing transparency and accountability in governance. With its rights-based framework and demand driven approach, National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) marks a paradigm shift from the previous wage programmes. The Act is also a significant vehicle for strengthening decentralization and deepening processes of democracy by giving a pivotal role to the Panchayati Raj Institutions in planning, monitoring and implementation. Unique features of the ACT include, time bound employment guarantee and wage payment within 15 days, incentive-disincentive structure to the State Governments for providing employment as 90 per cent of the cost for employment provided is borne by the Centre or payment of unemployment allowance at their own cost and emphasis on labour intensive works prohibiting the use of contractors and machinery. The Act also mandates 33 percent participation for women. Basic objective of the Act
1. Increasing Employment Opportunities:

In 2007-08, 3.39 crore households were provided employment and 143.5 crore person days were generated in 330 districts. In 2008-2009, upto July, 253 crore households have been provided employment and 85.29 crore person days have been generated.
2.

Enhancing Wage Earning and Impact on Minimum Wage: The enhanced wage earnings have lead to strengthening of the

livelihood resource base of the rural poor in India; in 2007-2008, more than 68% of funds utilised were in the form of wages paid to the labourers. In 2008-2009, 73% of the funds have been utilized in the form of wages.
3. Increasing Outreach to the poor:

Self targeting in nature, the Programme has high works participation of marginalized groups like SC/ST (57%), women (43%) in 2007-2008. In 2008-2009, upto July, the participation is SC/ST (54%) and women (49%), strengthening Natural
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Resource Base of Rural India: In 2007-08, 17.88 lakh works have been undertaken, of which 49% were related to water conservation. In 2008-2009, upto July, 16.88 lakh works have been undertaken, of which 49% are related to water conservation.

4. Financial Inclusion of the poor:

The Central government has been encouraging the state governments to make wage payment through bank and post office accounts of wage seekers. Thus far, 2.9 crore (upto July '08) NREGA bank and post office accounts have been opened to disburse wages. The Ministry is also encouraging the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) workers to obtain insurance under Jan Shri Bima Yojana. Initial evidence through independent studies indicates enhancement of agricultural productivity (through water harvesting, check dams, ground water recharging, improve moisture content, check in soil erosion and micro-irrigation), stemming of distress migration, increased access to markets and services through rural connectivity works, supplementing household incomes, Increase in women workforce participation ratios and the regeneration of natural resources

Broad Outlines

1. village. 2.

The NREGS is open to all rural households who are in need of wage

employment and desire to do unskilled manual work in and around his/her

ANREGS is not confined to BPL families. Efforts would be made to opportunities for women under the

provide one third of employment Programme. 3.

A job card is necessary for demanding employment under the scheme.

28

Funding Pattern 1. A job card will be issued to a family that applies for registration within 15 days by the Gram Panchayat after verification. 7. 13. 10. If employment is not provided within 15 days of application unemployment allowance will be paid by the Gram Panchayat. 11. 9. 14. All adult members whose name is on the job card can apply for employment. 29 . 6. To be eligible for a job card. 12.4. Job cards with photographs are given to a family as a whole. Unskilled manual work is provided within 15 days of demand. a family must have local residence in the area of the Gram Panchayat. 5. A written application by a job card holding family to the Gram Panchayat or Programme Officer is necessary for demanding employment. 8. Dated receipt of the application for employment must be given by the Gram Panchayat to the applicant. Registration. in writing or orally to the local gram panchayat for registration. To get a job card a family must apply for it. The entitlement of 100 days of employment in financial year is for a household as an aggregate. A job card holding family may demand employment according to its choice for a total number of 100 days. job cards and photographs are free of cost. Minimum wages for agricultural labour are to be paid according to the prevalent schedule of rural rates 15. The programme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme as cost sharing basis between the Centre and the Administration.

3.) 25% of the cost of material and wages of skilled and semiskilled workers. (a. (c. Details of Employment 30 . (b. to the District Programme Coordinator. (d. Fund Flow Government of India will release its share of funds to District Programme Coordinator.) Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council. The Administration will bear the costs on the following items under Additional Central Assistance of UT Administration. The amount required for payment of wages for unskilled manual workers under the scheme b. Corresponding Administration’s share to the District will be released by the Commissioner for Rural Development & Local Self Govt. Administrative expenses towards the salary of the Programme Officers and his supporting staff. Gram Rozgar Sevak and work site facilities.2.) Unemployment allowance payable in case the Administration cannot provide wage employment on time. The Central Government will bear the cost on the following items: a.) Administrative expenses towards salary of the officials at District and state levels appointed under NREGA. Upto 75% of the material cost and wages of skilled and semi- skilled workers c.

not less than one hundred days of such work in a financial year.a) At least twenty laborers become available for such work. 2.1. Every Panchayat/Tribal Council shall provide employment to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work for seven hours a day. A new work under the Scheme shall be commenced only if. 6. 4. As far as possible. The Panchayat/Tribal Council shall disburse wages on a weekly basis or in any case not later than a fortnight. employment shall be provided within a radius of five kilometers of the village where the applicant resides at the time of applying. 8 To ensure transparency in payment of wages all efforts would be made to pay the wages through Bank or post offices wherever such facilities exist 31 . 5. 7 The wages can be paid either in cash or through Bank or post office. 3 A period of employment shall ordinarily be at least fourteen days continuously with not more than six days in a week. and b) The laborers cannot be absorbed in the ongoing works. Every person who has done the work given to him under the scheme shall be entitled to receive the Agricultural Minimum Wages as notified by the Andaman and Nicobar Administration under section 3 of the Minimum wages Act 1948 for agricultural labourers. as determined by the State Government. in hilly areas and in respect of afforestation. in accordance with the preference of the wage earners. Provided that this condition shall not be applicable for new works.

CHAPTER 4 32 .

to study how the women’s group is benefited through these programmes. ANALYSIS OF DATA It deals with the analysis of data using percentage analysis. The main objectives of the study is to the effectiveness of various Women’s development programmes. The study was conducted with the help of both primary data and primary data. to examine the attitude of beneficiaries towards these programmes. 33 .CHAPTER 4 A COMARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP PROGRAMME The main important women development programme under Pallivasal Grama Panchayath is Kudumbashree and NREGP.to make suggestions for improving the Programmes for Women’s Development. Tables and suitable diagrams have been used at appropriate places. An analysis of a comparative study of women development programmes under Kudumbashree mission and NREGP programme is attempted in this chapter.

30 percent of the respondents are from the age group of 30-40 and 16 percent of the respondents are from above 50 age group. 34 .1 Age of the Respondents Kudumbashree NREGP Total Age Below 30 30-40 40-50 50 above Total No 2 7 13 3 25 % 8 28 52 12 100 No 8 12 5 25 % 32 48 20 100 No 2 15 25 8 50 % 4 30 50 16 100 Source: Primary data The above table shows that majority of the respondents are in the age group of 40-50.Table 4. And only small percent of respondents are from the age group of below 30.

In NREGP there are no respondents from the category of Muslim. 35 .Table 4. Only small number of respondents is 4 percent from the Muslim category. followed by Christian religion 34 percent.2 Religion of Respondent Kudumbashree Religion Hindu Muslim Christian Total No 16 2 7 25 % 64 8 28 100 No 15 10 25 NREGP % 60 40 100 No 31 2 17 50 Total % 62 4 34 100 Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from Hindu religion with 62 percent.

36 . followed by General Category 30 percent and 24 percent of the respondents are from SC/ST Category.3 Caste of Respondents Kudumbashree Caste SC/ST OBC General Total No 5 12 8 25 % 20 48 32 100 No 7 11 7 25 NREGP % 28 44 28 100 No 12 23 15 50 Total % 24 46 30 100 Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from OBC category with 46 percent.Distribution of samples by community The community wise distribution of samples is given on table 3 Table 4. In Kudumbashree and NREGP most of the respondents are from OBC Category and small numbers of respondents are from SC/ST and General Category.

4 Level of Education of Respondents Kudumbashree Educational Qualification Below SSLC SSLC Pre-degree Degree Total 11 3 1 25 44 12 4 100 7 1 25 10 40 17 No % No NREGP % No Total % 68 27 54 28 4 100 18 4 1 50 36 8 2 100 Source: primary data Table 4 reveals that major share of respondents 54 percent have education up to <SSLC 36 percent up to SSLC and only 8 percent each have education up to pre-degree and 2 percent respondent from the category of degree. Majority member of Kudumbashree units 44 percent have educational qualification up to SSLC under NREGP majority of the respondents have educational qualification up to below SSLC.Distribution of samples by level of Education The education wise distribution of samples is given in the table 4 Table 4. In short educational level of Kudumbashree members are better than NREGP members. 37 .

5 Marital Status of Respondents Kudumbashree NREGP Total Marital Status Married Un married Widowed Divorced Total No 25 25 % 100 100 No 25 25 % 100 100 No 50 50 % 100 100 Source: primary data Table 5 shows that all respondents are married. Distribution of sample by Occupation The occupation wise distribution of sample is given in the table 6 38 .Distribution of Samples by Marital Status The Marital status wise distribution of samples is given in the table 5 Table 4. This is equally true in the case of Kudumbashree unit and NREGP members. It is observed that there is no single un married women participate in the programme.

Distribution of samples by Annual Income The annual income wise distribution of samples is given in the table 4.Table 4. Out of 50 respondents 13 are self employed that is 26 %.6 Occupation of the Respondents Kudumbashree Occupation Jobless Coolies Self employed Employed Total No 5 13 5 2 25 % 20 52 20 8 100 No 2 15 8 25 NREGP % 8 60 32 100 No 7 28 13 2 50 Total % 14 56 26 4 100 Source: Primary data The above table shows the occupational status of the respondents. 4%are employed and 14% respondents are jobless. most of the respondents are coolies and self employees.7 39 . In the case occupation NREGP unit and Kudumbashree units. Out of the 50 respondents 28 are Coolies.

Table 4. And 14 percent respondents have income up to 1000. 26 percent respondents have income between 50000 and rupees 100000. And only 10 percent respondents have an annual income above 10000 rupees. NREGP members and Kudumbashree units.7 Annual income from Occupation Kudumbashree Annual Income Up to 10000 10000-50000 50000-100000 100000above Total No 5 10 7 3 25 % 20 40 28 12 100 NREGP No 2 15 6 2 25 % 8 60 24 8 100 No 7 25 13 5 50 Total % 14 50 26 10 100 Source: primary data This table shows that most of the respondent has an annual income between 10000-50000 that is 50 percent. In the case of annual income.8 Poverty line of Respondent Kudumbashree Poverty APL BPL No 16 9 % 64 36 No 12 13 40 NREGP % 48 52 No 28 22 Total % 56 44 . Table 4. most of the respondents are from the annual income between 10000 rupees and 50000 rupees.

Table 4.Total 25 100 25 100 50 100 Source: primary data It shows that most of the respondents are from APL category that is 56 percent and 44 percent are BPL Category.9 Housing Facilities Kudumbashree Housing facilities Concrete Asbestos Thatched No 12 4 % 48 16 No 12 5 41 NREGP % 48 20 No 24 9 - Total % 48 18 - .

48 percent of houses are concrete and 34 percent houses are tiled. In the case of NREGP members and Kudumbashree units majority percent have concrete house. Agricultural assistances from the programmes Table 4. 18 percent are asbestos.10 Do you have any agricultural assistance from the programme? Income Yes No 50 42 % 100 .Tiles Total Source: primary data 9 25 36 100 8 25 32 100 17 50 34 100 The above table shows that all respondents have their own house. There is no thatched house.

11 Agricultural assistance of Respondents No 1 2 3 4 Agricultural assistance 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000 No. of Respondents 33 12 5 43 % 66 24 10 .No Total Source: primary data 50 100 This table reflects that out of 50 respondents all respondents get agricultural assistance. Table 4.

Benefits of Kudumbashree scheme Table 4.Total Source: primary data 50 100 This table shows that out of 50 respondents 33 respondents get agricultural assistance between 1000 and 5000.12 Do you get any benefits from Kudumbashree Scheme? Benefits Yes No Total Source: primary data No 25 25 % 100 100 44 . 24 percent respondents get assistance between 5000 and 10000. And only 10 percent get assistance between 10000 and 25000.

Only small numbers of respondents are 8 percent enjoy the benefit above 25000 and 24 percent respondents between 10000 rupees and 25000 rupees.This table reflects that out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from Kudumbashree scheme.13 Benefits from the Kudumbashree Programme No 1 2 3 4 Benefits 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 Above 25000 Total Source: primary data This table shows that most of the respondents are get benefits between 1000 rupees and 5000 rupees. Out of 25 respondents 20 percent get the benefits between 5000 rupees and 10000 rupees. No of Respondents 12 5 6 2 25 % 48 20 24 8 100 Benefits of NREGP Table 4. Table 4.14 Do you get any benefits from NREGP Scheme? Benefits Yes No Total Source: primary data No 25 25 % 100 100 45 .

46 .15 Do you have regular source of income Income Yes No Total Source: primary data No 50 50 % 100 100 This table reflects that all respondents from Kudumbashree unit and NREGP unit have regular source of income. Income Generation of Members Table 4.This table reflects that out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from NREGP scheme.

The average monthly income of the members “before” and “after” and increase in income revealed by perception of the respondent is presented in table 15 Table 4. Post SHG Mean 4100 N 4 (7) 5317 38 (77) 14000 8 (16) 23417 50 (100) Increase 297 1008 5258 4547 47 .16 Incremental monthly income of the respondent Income Mean <5000 3803 Pre SHG N 19 (37) 500010000 >10000 8742 6325 26 (53) 5 (10) Total 18870 50 (100) Source: Primary data Note: Figure in brackets indicates percentages to total.Incremental income of the respondent Formation of Micro Enterprises results in increased income to the SHG members.

Only 16 percent of the respondent have income >10000. The average monthly earnings of the household before and after joining the group Rs 18870 and Rs 23417 respectively with increase Rs 4547 majority 77percent of the respondent have income in the range of Rs 5000-Rs 10000. It is gratifying to note that the proportion of members earning income between Rs 5000-Rs 10000 jumped from 53 percent to 77 percent registering an increased monthly income of Rs 1008.Table indicates increase in monthly earnings of the respondents after joining the group. It is a remarkable achievement that 6 percent of the members are able to change their income level above Rs 10000 with an average increase of Rs 5258. Distribution of respondent on basis of income level Bar diagram 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 < 5000 500010000 48 BE OR F AF E TR > 10000 .

20979 25446 23400 22626 2421 2820 18870 23417 4547 .2820. Saving Habits of Members 49 Mean After Rs.17: Incremental Monthly income Mean Income Before Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50 Source: primary data The analysis of increase in average monthly income as given in the table 16 reveals that members of SHG unit linked to NREGP dominates with an average increase of Rs. Rs. Income Increase Rs.Table 4.

18: Do you have Regular Saving Habits Saving Yes No Total No 50 50 % 100 100 Source: primary data All the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP units have regular saving. 50 .8973 during pre SHG period.19: Incremental saving of the respondent Saving Before Mean <1000 1000-2000 2000-3000 >3000 Total 323 1075 7575 8973 N 45(90) 2(4) 4(6) 50(100) After Mean 735 1470 2370 7313 11488 N 15(30) 18(37) 3(6) 14(27) 50(100) 412 395 2370 262 2915 Increase Source: primary data Table 19 it is evident that average annual saving was Rs. After the saving of Kudumbashree and NREGP average annual saving increased to Rs.2915. Table 4.11488 registering an increase of Rs.Table 4. Incremental saving of the respondent It is observed that all of the respondents have increase in the saving.

Before the formation of Kudumbashree and NREGP 90 percent of the respondent have saving of Rs.1: Distribution of Sample on the Basis of Saving Bar Diagram 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 < 1000 1000-2000 51 BEFORE AFTER 2000-3000 > 3000 .323 which declined to 30 percent after the formation of these groups.1000 with an average amount of Rs. Figures4.

7449 compared to NREGP units with Rs. There is significant variation in average increase in saving across different type of groups.Table 4. Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50 Source: primary data Mean Saving After Rs. 7656 Increase 207 7449 9299 12373 3074 8973 11488 2915 The analysis of change in total saving on the basis of type of SHGs indicates Kudumbashree units have higher increase in average savings with Rs. 52 .3074.20 Incremental Saving of the Respondent Mean Saving Before Rs.

21 Acquisition of Asset Asset Before joining Mean N 50 50 50 After joining Mean 39083 3300 71308 159072 272763 N 50 50 50 50 Increase Household assets Business assets Ornaments Land and Building Total Source: primary data 32966 63010 221064 317040 6117 3300 8298 61992 44277 Table 21 shows that out of 50 respondents their average asset value is Rs. • Household Asset • Business Assets • Ornaments and • Land and Building Table: 4.272763 with 53 .317040 but after the formation of group the asset value is Rs. Increase in asset base strengthen the financial position of the house hold and also improves its shock absorption capacity. Increase in asset holding has been analyzed by classifying the asset in to.Impact on Asset Acquisition Any programme targeting the poor should strengthen their asst holding pattern.

Before the formation of group the asset value under Kudumbashree unit is Rs. The asset value is increased after joining the group.Under NREGP unit before joining the group the asset value is Rs.44277.437770 with increase of Rs. 107756 with increase Rs.312700 and after Rs. Impact on Employment Generation 54 .increase Rs.116390. Table 4. Before the formation of the group nobody have business asset. It is observed that all of the respondents have increased the acquisition of asset after the formation of the Group.22 Acquisition of assets – Type of SHG Assets Kudumbashree Before Mean After Mean 41026 6600 72000 318144 437770 6426 6600 8000 95364 116390 Increase Before Mean 31332 62020 219348 312700 NREGP After Mean 37140 70616 107756 5808 8595 14403 Increase Household 34600 Business - Ornaments 64000 L&B Total 222780 321380 Source: primary data Table 22 shows that change in acquisition of assets on the basis of type of SHGs.321380 and after the formation of Micro Enterprises the asset value is Rs.14403.

manufacturing units etc provided to a great extent. Analysis of the distribution of samples on the basis of Employment Generation “before and after” formation of Micro Enterprises indicates that during pre SHG period. 55 . This declined to “0” during post SHG situation. Table 4. After formation of Micro Enterprises 25 respondents 50 percent have been employed between 20-30 days as against 16 respondents 32 percent during the pre SHG period.Undertaking supplementary activities such as animal husbandry.23 Average Monthly Employment Generation No of Days Before % After % Nil 1-10 10-20 20-30 Total Source: primary data 15 5 14 16 50 30 10 28 32 100 11 14 25 50 22 28 50 100 The above table shows that number of days of work increased after formation of Micro Enterprises. poultry farming etc and non farming activities like petty shop. It is observed that Micro Enterprises programme has been critical in employment generation to poor women. 15 percent of the respondents had no employment of their own.

24 Incremental Employment Generation. 56 . Problems Faced by Beneficiaries Women who set up Micro Enterprises are mainly new comers in business and they have to face many problems while running their enterprises.Type of SHG Type of SHG Mean Employment Before (Days) Mean Employment Increase Kudumbashree N=25 NREGP N=25 Total N=50 Source: primary data 3 22 19 - 18 18 2 20 19 Analysis of Employment Generation on the basis of type of SHG indicates that average employment generation is highest under Kudumbashree with 19days compared to NREGP with 18days.Table 4.

Table 4. But only a 40 percent of respondents face production problems under Kudumbashree units.25 Problems of Micro Enterprises Kudumbashree NREGP Total Problems Financial No 25 % 100 40 100 100 No 25 25 % 100 100 No 50 10 25 50 % 100 40 100 100 Production 10 Marketing Other Problems Source: primary data 25 25 Table 4. marketing and other problems. In NREGP. 57 . production.24 shows that all the respondents under Kudumbashree units face financial. there is no production and marketing problems and all respondents have financial and other problems.

CHAPTER 5 58 .

And only small percent of respondents are from the age group of below 30. followed by General Category 30 percent and 24 percent of the respondents are from SC/ST Category. Only small number of respondents is 4 percent from the Muslim category. On the basis of religion. In Kudumbashree and NREGP most of the respondents are from OBC Category and small numbers of respondents are from SC/ST and General Category. 59 . It is considered that most of the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP are from the age group of 40-50. 2. Majority of the respondents are in the age group of 40-50. 4.CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS 1. In NREGP there are no respondents from the category of Muslim. Majority member of Kudumbashree units 44 percent have educational qualification up to SSLC under NREGP majority of the respondents have educational qualification up to below SSLC. In short educational level of Kudumbashree members are better than NREGP members. 3. Community wise most of the respondents are from OBC category with 46 percent. Major share of respondents 54 percent have education up to <SSLC 36 percent up to SSLC and only 8 percent each have education up to pre-degree and 2 percent respondent from the category of degree. 30 percent of the respondents are from the age group of 30-40 and 16 percent of the respondents are from above 50 age group. Majority of the respondents from NREGP and Kudumbashree are Hindus. 62 percent of the respondents are from Hindu religion followed by Christian religion 34 percent.

Out of the 50 respondents 28 are Coolies. The occupational status of the respondents. 48 percent of houses are concrete and 34 percent houses are tiled. It is observed that there is no single unmarried women participate in the programme. In the case of NREGP members and Kudumbashree units majority percent have concrete house. And only 10 percent get assistance between 10000 and 25000. In the case occupation NREGP unit and Kudumbashree units. And only 10 percent respondents have an annual income above 10000 rupees. And 14 percent respondents have income up to 1000. Only small numbers of respondents are 8 percent enjoy the benefit above 25000 and 24 percent respondents between 10000 rupees and 25000 rupees. Most of the respondents are from APL category that is 56 percent and 44 percent are BPL Category. The respondent has an annual income between 10000-50000 that is 50 percent. most of the respondents are coolies and self employees. 11. This is equally true in the case of Kudumbashree unit and NREGP members. 7. 4%are employed and 14% respondents are jobless. That most of the respondents are get benefits between 1000 rupees and 5000 rupees from Kudumbashree units. 26 percent respondents have income between 50000 and rupees 100000. All respondents have their own house. 6. Out of 25 respondents 20 percent get the benefits between 5000 rupees and 10000 rupees. Out of 50 respondents 13 are self employed that is 26 %. 9. 8. There is no thatched house. 18 percent are asbestos. Marital status of members shows that all respondents are married. most of the respondents are from the annual income between 10000 rupees and 50000 rupees. NREGP members and Kudumbashree units.5. In the case of annual income. That out of 50 respondents 33 respondents gets agricultural assistance between 1000 and 5000. Out of 50 respondents all respondents get agricultural assistance. 10. 60 . 24 percent respondents get assistance between 5000 and 10000.

All the respondents from Kudumbashree and NREGP units have regular saving. The average monthly earnings of the household before and after joining the group Rs 18870 and Rs 23417 respectively with increase Rs 4547. 15 percent of the respondents had no employment of their own. with increase 16.2915.11488 registering an increase of Rs. This 61 .8973 during pre SHG period. Before the formation of group the asset value under Kudumbashree unit is Rs.321380 and after the formation of Micro Enterprises the asset value is Rs. 14. Analysis of the distribution of samples on the basis of Employment Generation “before and after” formation of Micro Enterprises indicates that during pre SHG period.437770 with increase of Rs. 107756 Rs.116390.2820. Out of 25 respondents all respondents get benefits from NREGP scheme. The analysis of increase in average monthly income as given in the table 16 reveals that members of SHG unit linked to NREGP dominates with an average increase of Rs. The average annual saving was Rs.3074. Out of 50 respondents their average asset value is Rs.317040 but after the formation of group the asset value is Rs.12.Under NREGP unit before joining the group the asset value is Rs.7449 compared to NREGP units with Rs. All respondents from Kudumbashree unit and NREGP unit have regular source of income.44277.272763 with increase Rs. Before the formation of the group nobody have business asset. 15.312700 and after Rs. It is observed that all of the respondents have increased the acquisition of asset after the formation of the Group. The asset value is increased after joining the group. After the saving of Kudumbashree and NREGP average annual saving increased to Rs. 13. The analysis of change in total saving on the basis of type of SHGs indicates Kudumbashree units have higher increase in average savings with Rs.14403.

4. programmes Conclusions Based on the analysis. there is no production and marketing problems and all respondents have financial and other problems. From the study it can be concluded that Kudumbashree and NREGP programme motivates their members to undertake Income Generating Activities. Timely orientation programmes are inevitable. marketing and other problems. production. Attractive saving schemes have to be introduced to enhance their thrift habits. It is observed that Micro Enterprises programme has been critical in employment generation to poor women. 3. It would help them to get 62 . 5. 6. it can be concluded that SHGs provided a convenient plat form for empowerment of women in the society. Analysis of Employment Generation on the basis of type of SHG indicates that average employment generation is highest under Kudumbashree with 19days compared to NREGP with 18days. SUGGESTIONS 1. But only a 40 percent of respondents face production problems under Kudumbashree units. self employment savings etc. 17. Legal awareness programmes must be conducted. 2.declined to “0” during post SHG situation. The respondents under Kudumbashree units face financial. In NREGP. The major factors that motivated the women to join the group are social contact. Adequate marketing facilities must be provided. Adequate training must be provided to the members. Educated women must be given the opportunity of formulating for women component plan.

000 9........ Age of Respondent 3........ Caste : ..... IDUKKI DISTRICT.. : 20 – 30 : Hindu : SC/ST 30 – 40 Muslim OBC 40 – 50 Christian General SSLC Pre degree Above 50 5.. A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH......... KERALA QUESTIONNNAIRE 1....regular income through self employment which in turn empowers them economically and socially... Name of Respondent 2... Whether you in APL or BPL : APL 10... Occupation : Jobless Employed 8....... 000 Above100000 BPL Asbestos Tiles 50. Educational Qualification: Below SSLC Degree 6.......... Type of hose roofing that you have? : Concrete Thatched 11.. Marital Status : Married Divorced 7.... Do you have any agriculture assistances from the programmes? Yes No 63 .000 – 50. Religion 4.. Annual income of your family: Up to 10.00.000 – 1..000 Unmarried Widowed Coolies Self employee 10..

before joining the group Amt. organizations with which you are saving. of after joining the group 15. Do you get any benefits from the ‘NREGP’? Yes No 14. Do you have any regular source of income? If source and monthly income:Source Income of the respondent Yes No Amt. Do you get any benefits from the ‘KudumbaShree’ programmes? Yes No If Yes Specify : 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000 1000-5000 13.If Yes Specify: 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-25000 25000-50000 12. Source Group Bank Chitty Others Total Amt. of after joining the group 64 . before joining the group Amt. Do you have regular saving habit? If yes.

before joining the group (value) House hold asset Business asset Ornaments Land & Building Amt. Acquisition of Asset Amt. if any Yes Yes BIBILOGRAPHY 65 . of days employed after joining the group 18.of days employed before joining the group Respondent No. Problems faced by beneficiaries? Financial problems Yes No No No No Production problems Yes Marketing problem Other problem 19. of after joining the group 17.16. Employment Details No. Suggestions.

44. Eswaran. 6.” Micro Finance Role of Self Help Groups in Rural Development published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam. Income Generating and Empowerment of Women Tecnology.org 66 .Pillai (2002) Micro Credit Programmes.Begam and Kamala.S.Dr.Rasia. Gireesh Kumar (2009) “ Impact of SHG Bank Linkage program on Income Generation of Rural Poor in Kerala” published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam October 30 and 31.Beena Skariah (2009) “ Micro Finance support to micro enterprise under Kudumbashree programme”.Lakshmi. 5.P.No. Kochin University of Science and www.Dr.27 3. Punithavathi Pandian.K.C. Micro Finance Role of Self Help Group in Rural Development published by Mar Athanasius College Kothamangalam October 30 and 31.Vol.R. Employment and Grammen Bank.Susy Paul and Dr.Puhazhendi and Satyasai (2010) “ Rural credit and Women Self Help Groups” 10.1.” Yojana.2008 7. Yojana (2002) Empowerment of Women through Micro Credit. “Running program for the Self Employment of Women” SEDME Vol. Kerala.R and P.Sreenivasan (2000). 2.kudumbashree. Nashi. 8. some Empirical Evidence from Kerala” seminar paper applied Economics. A Study of Stree Shakti (SHG) Programmes.Yunus Dr.2008 9.2 4.No. Muhammed (2000). Devi K.Jayachandran (2009) “Impact of SHGs in Women Empowerment a Study in Kottayam District. Southen Ecomist (2004) Micro Finance.1.

Com Reg. IDUKKI DISTRICT.Phil DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAR ATHANASIUS COLLEGE KOTHAMANGALAM 2010-2011 67 .Com.No: 160376 Under the guidance of Smt.A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH. M. M. Susy Paul. KERALA Dissertation submitted to the Mahathma Gandi University in Partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Commerce By ANU MOHANAN Final Year M.

M. Phd Selection Grade Lecturer Department of Commerce M. Anu Mohanan.A College.com student in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Master of Commerce (2010-2011) of Mahathma Gandi University.M. Kothamangalam 68 . Final M..MAR ATHANASIUS COLLEGE.Com. Susy Paul. Kerala. KOTHAMANGALAM DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Date: CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Dissertation titled “A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP IN PALLIVASAL GRAMA PANCHAYATH. KERALA” is a banafide record of work carried out by Miss. Smt.. IDUKKI DISTRICT.Phil.

. Selection Grade Lecturer. Comparative Kudumbashree Study hereby declare that this dissertation entitled “A of Women Development Programme under Misson and NREGP in Pallivasal Grama Panchayath. Mar Athanasius College . Idukki Dist. Place :Kothamangalam Date : Anu Mohanan 69 .Com.DECLARATION I. Anu Mohanan. Kothamangalam. Susy Paul. Kerala” has been prepared by me under the guidance and supervision of Smt. Phd.Phil. Department of Commerce. I also declare that this dissertation has not been submitted in fully or partly here of to any University or Institution for the award of any Degree or Diploma. M. M.

I am thankful to Almighty God for the successful completion of my dissertation. K. Being a student of Mar Athanasius College let me express my profound gratitude to Dr. Firstly. I am extremely grateful t o my friends for the help given to me in the preparation of this dissertation. I express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Smt. Smt. Above all. I am deeply indebted to the Mr. Susan Elias Kudumbashree officer for the assistance and co-operation for collection of data. Ph.Phil. M. the principal of Mar Athanasius College. ANU MOHANAN 70 .ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness too many people who have been involved with me at every phase of this study. Kothamangalam.Com. Winny Varghese.B Varadarajan Panchayat President of Pallivasal Grama Panchayat. Susy Paul M. I remember with great gratitude for the encouragement given by my parents and all members in my family in the successful completion of my work.D Selection Grade Lecturer and Head of the Department of Commerce for her valuable suggestions throughout the completion of the dissertation work.

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS APPENDIX. 11 IV. III.LIST OF CONTENTS List of Tables List of Figures Chapter Title Page No I. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE THEORETICAL REVIEW OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 1 7 II. A COMARITIVE STUDY OF WOMEN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME UNDER KUDUMBASHREE MISSION AND NREGP PROGRAMME 32 59 V.INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 71 .

2 4.8 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.1 4.4 4.BIBLOGRAPHY LIST OF TABLES Table No Title Page No 4.10 4.12 Age of Respondents Religion of Respondents Caste of Respondents Level of Education Marital Status Occupation of the Respondents Annual Income from occupation Poverty Line of Respondents Housing Facilities Do you have Agricultural Assistance from the Programme Agricultural Assistance from the Programme Do you get Benefits from Kudumbashree programme 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 72 .7 4.11 4.3 4.

Type of SHG Problems of Micro Enterprises 45 46 47 48 50 50 51 53 54 55 56 57 58 LIST OF FIGURES 4.24 4.17 4.42 4.2 Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Income Level Distribution of Respondents on the Basis of Savings 49 52 73 .21 4.1 4.18 4.20 4.16 4.Type of SHG Acquisition of Asset Acquisition of Asset.Type of SHG Average Employment Generation Incremental Employment Generation.14 4.13 4.15 4.23 4.19 4.4.25 Benefits from Kudumbashree programme Do you get Benefits from NREGP Do you have regular Source of Income Incremental Monthly income of the Respondent Incremental Monthly Income – Type of SHG Do you have regular Saving Habit Incremental Saving of the Respondent Incremental Saving of the Respondent.