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Q.1 Explain JPEG and MPEG in Detail ?

ANS: (A) JPEG:
M-JPEG is a video format that uses JPEG compression for each frame of video. Video is made up of a stream of pictures or frames. A standard TV contains 30 frames per second to create a smooth motion picture JPEG (pronounced "jay-peg") is a standardized image compression mechanism. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the original name of the committee that wrote the standard. JPEG is designed for compressing full-color or gray-scale images of natural, real-world scenes. It works well on photographs, artwork, and similar material; not so well on lettering, simple cartoons, or line drawings.

How JPEG Works:
Figure one describes the JPEG process. JPEG divides up the image into 8 by 8 pixel blocks, and then calculates the discrete cosine transform (DCT) of each block. A quantizer rounds off the DCT coefficients according to the quantization matrix. This step produces the "lossy" nature of JPEG, but allows for large compression ratios. JPEG's compression technique uses a variable length code on these coefficients, and then writes the compressed data stream to an output file (*.jpg). For decompression, JPEG recovers the quantized DCT coefficients from the compressed data stream, takes the inverse transforms and displays the image. Figure 1 shows this process.

(B) MPEG:

Without any compression. The frame compression takes into account that the human eye is not sensitive to certain changes in color. by any standards. Q.4 What is Distributed media control system? . but not practical for sending digital data over a telephone line or storing the video on our computers. After the success of MPEG-1. The MPEG-1 Audio layer 3 has been the most widely adopted. it needs more than 60 Mbps of bandwidth to transport all its data. It broadcasts 352 by 240 pixel video at 30 frames/sec and 24-bit pixel depth. consider the data requirements of NTSC video. This is OK for our analog TV sets. Studies have shown that the human eye is more sensitive to changes in luminance (Y) than the chrominance (CrCb) components. It can be used in CD-ROMs to create Video-CDs. and is today more commonly known as MP3 How MPEG works: The compression technique used in the MPEG-1 compresses each frame and then compresses the adjacent frames by noting just the change in video from frame to frame. Background: To understand the motivation behind all the work. This is called "down sampling" of data and is carried out by averaging out the pixel values in the chrominance components in such a way that a single value is shared by multiple pixels. is enormous. the group has worked to produce even better and more efficient versions of it. Their first work titled ‘Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbps of bandwidth to broadcast live audio/video.The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is the organization that defined the MPEG standards. which.5 Mbit/s’ formed the basis of what is now known as the MPEG-1 standard. A more efficient approach is to compress this data so that it can be transported at a much lower The MPEG-1 standard uses a mere 1. Compression is achieved by discarding some of the information stored in the CrCb components. The NTSC standard is used in the USA to send video signals to our TVs.

5 What is DVI Technology? .ANS: Distributed control system: A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system. The processor receives information from input modules and sends information to output modules. in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. DCS is a very broad term used in a variety of industries. Input and output modules form component parts of the DCS. The input modules receive information from input instruments in the process (or field) and transmit instructions to the output instruments in the field Q. to monitor and control distributed equipment. • • • • • • Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants Environmental control systems Traffic signals Radio signals Water management systems Oil refining plants A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers and uses both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol for communication. process or any kind of dynamic system. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring.

Display technology independence 3.ANS: The Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video interface standard covering the transmission of video between a source device (such as a personal computer) and a display device. EDID and DDC2B 4. Many laptops still have legacy VGA or. but fewer have DVI. and many other devices (such as projectors and consumer televisions) support DVI indirectly through HDMI. The DVI standard has achieved widespread acceptance in the PC industry. another video interface standard. HDMI ports. Content to remain in the lossless digital domain from creation to consumption 2. Plug and play through hot plug detection. in many newer models. The DVI interface enables: 1. Digital and Analog support in a single connector . both in desktop PCs and monitors. Most contemporary retail desktop PCs and LCD monitors feature a DVI interface.