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Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Energy considerations
Kinetic energy is absorbed during slippage of a clutch and this energy appears as heat. The clutch or brake operation is completed at the instance in which the two angular velocities θ1 and θ2 become equal. Let the time required for the entire operation be t1, then,
I I ω − ω2 t1 = 1 2 1 T I1 + I2

( (

)

)

This is derived by writing the equations of motion involving inertia i.e •• I1 θ 1 = −T •• I 2 θ 2 = −T • T θ1 = − t + ω1 I1 • T θ2 = − t + ω2 I2

• • • ⎛T ⎞ T θ = θ1 − θ2 = − t + ω1 − ⎜ t + ω2 ⎟ I1 ⎝ I2 ⎠ ⎛I +I ⎞ = ω1 − ω2 − T ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ t ⎝ I1I 2 ⎠ from which

t=

I1I2 ( ω1 − ω2 ) T ( I1 + I 2 )

as at the instance of completion of clutching

operation ω1-ω2 = 0 Assuming the torque to be constant, the rate of energy dissipation during the operation is then,
⎡ ⎛I +I ⎞ ⎤ U = Tθ• = T ⎢ ω1 − ω2 − T ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ .t ⎥ ⎝ I1I 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Due to space limitations. wet clutches rather than dry clutches are often use WORKED OUT EXAMPLE 1 Design an automotive plate clutch to transmit a torque of 550 N-m.t ⎥ ⎝ I1I 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ t1 t1 ⎡ ⎛I +I ⎞ ⎤ E = ∫ udt = T ∫ ⎢ω1 − ω2 − T ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ t ⎥dt ⎝ I1I 2 ⎠ ⎦ 0 0⎣ 2 I1I2 ω1 − ω2 E= 2 I1 + I2 ( ( ) ) Thus the energy absorbed during clutch slip is a function of the magnitude of the inertia and the angular velocities only.Machine Design II Prof.Gopinath & Prof. E= I1I 2 ( ω1 − ω2 )2 2 ( I1 + I 2 ) ⎡ ⎛I +I ⎞ ⎤ U = Tθ• = T ⎢ω1 − ω2 − T ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ . calculate: The inner diameter of the friction disc the spring force required to keep the clutch in engaged position Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Mayuram The total energy dissipated during the clutching operation or braking cycle is obtained by integrating the above equation from t=0 to t = t1 .25 and the permissible intensity of pressure is 0. To contain the temperature rise when very frequent clutching operations. The coefficient of friction is 0.M.5 N/mm2. M. Heat dissipation and temperature rise are governed by the same equations presented during brakes. The result can be summed up as. K. This energy compared to the brake energy may be negligible. the outer diameter of the friction disc is fixed as 250 mm. Using the uniform wear theory.

The friction lining is provided on both sides of the friction disc. we have ( 275 ×103 ) = π ( 0. K. Therefore two pairs of contacting surfaces-one between the fly wheel and the friction disc and the other between the friction disc and the pressure plate. all the three answer are correct.28N ( ) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . M.Mayuram Solution: As noted the friction disc of the automotive clutch is fixed between the flywheel on one side and the pressure plate on the other. As a design engineer.5)(87) (125 − 87 ) = 10390.Gopinath & Prof.Machine Design II Prof. The inner radius cannot be negative.25)( 0.145 mm (iii) ri =-143.M. It is a cubic equation.145. one should select the inner radius as 87. with following three roots: (i) ri = 87. the torque transmitted by one pair of contacting surfaces is (550/2) or 275 N-m ( M t )f = πµpa ri ( ro2 − ri2 ) From the Eqr 8ri 1252 − ri 2 = 5602254 Rearranging the terms.23 mm Mathematically. ri=87 mm Actuating force needed can be determined using the equation Fa = 2πpa ri ro − ri = 2π(0. For minimum cost of friction lining.5) ri (1252 − ri2 ) ( ) The above equation is solved by the trial and error method. which results in a minimum area of friction lining compared with 56. Therefore.08 mm.08 mm (ii) ri = 56.

use N= 8. K. this will give a clutch that is over designed by a factor of 8/6. dynamic friction coefficient. The torque load is shared equally among the disc.Gopinath & Prof.69= 1. and the clamping force.06(wet) and pmax =1400 kPa. 3. M. the total number of disks N. Space restriction limit the outside disk diameter to 100 mm. Determine appropriate values for the disc inside diameter. and the clamping force Fa. f=0.m.m Find: Determine the disc inside diameter di. pmax =1400 kPa. or nine discs. Solution Known: A multiple – disc with outside disc diameter.Machine Design II Prof. T= 85 N. It is evident that this requires a total of 4+5. Decisions and Assumptions Use the largest allowable outside disc diameter. remembering that the outer disks have friction surfaces on one side only. Possible alternatives include (a) accepting ( ) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the total number of discs. The wear rate is uniform at the interface. Design values for the molded friction material and steel disks to be used are f=0.Mayuram WORKED OUT EXAMPLE 2 A multiple-disc wet clutch is to be designed for transmitting a torque of 85 N. Design Analysis: Using design equation for torque under constant wear gives 2 N = T / ⎡ πpmax ri f ro − ri2 ⎤ = 6. d0≤ 100 mm.06(wet) and maximum disc allowable pressure.19.577) The coefficient of friction f is a constant. do=100 mm (ro =50 mm). With no other changes. To transmits a torque.69 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Since N must be an even integer. Select ri =29 mm (based on the optimum d/D ratio of 0.M.

(b) clamping force= 4500 N and (C) a total of nine discs. the clamping force is computed to be just sufficient to produce the desired torque: ⎛r +r T = Ff ⎜ o i ⎜ 2 ⎝ F = 4483 N ⎞ ⎛ 0. ⎟ N = 85 N. With the choice of alternative d.M.m = F(0. M.Mayuram the 19 percent over design.Gopinath & Prof. (c) decreasing ro.Machine Design II Prof. we Find that the final proposed answers are (a) inside diameter= 58 mm. K.050 + 0. and (d) leaving both radii unchanged and reducing both pmax and F by a factor of 1.06) ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ Rounding up the calculated value of F. (b) increasing ri. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .029 ⎞ m ⎟ 8.19 4.