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Bandwidth: - Bandwidth means how much bits sent within a second.

LAN: - Logical explanation of how big is network connected are
said to be connected in LAN. Note: - 2 or more computers or communicating devices connected in a room, in a floor, in a building or in a campus are said to be connected in a LAN. Characteristics of LAN:

LAN is capable to provide high bandwidth because we share large file over LAN. LAN Deployment should be cheap or cost effective. LAN Devices or equipment should be compact & compressed in Size. LAN is Capable to running Voice, Video & Data triple place service over single compress infrastructure. Network architecture or LAN architecture which we are creating should be Convert architecture means capable of providing services like Data, Voice, Video. It is possible only if LAN is IP enabled because IP have capability to run all the 3 services on single convert architecture LAN. For Voice service device used ip port diagnogate- central device will be IPPBX. For video services every employee will have newtwork connected vedio or Usb connected vedio on their desk and use central device media convertor u.

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LAN is capable to distinguish packet & providing QOS [Quality of Service] as per transmission services required .kiso quality of exp chahiye etc.

 Biggest LAN is Campus LAN how long it is.

LAN is managing by central administrator.

 Owner of premise is owner of LAN.  LAN is a Private network.

Triple Place Services:-

LAN is Capable to running Voice, Video & Data triple place service over single compress infrastructure.

1. Data
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Data is best effort service. It is in sensitive (means not sensitive).

 No guarantee when it will at destination.  It guaranteed it will reach proper & prefect data.

We don’t know that how many times it will retransmit, drop, and corrupt between reaching the proper the Data.

2. Voice  Voice is Real time Communication.

Mainly it is based on QOE {Quality of Experience}.

Once time can be delay or jitter bearable but not Drop. Voice is delay sensitive. When voice communication take place mean IP phone receives my Analog voice (voice packet) and convert into digital through process called digitations and create small small voice digital packets and the send packet to IP network.   Mainly it is based on QOE {Quality of Experience}. It create similar artificial packet starting or ending of voice packet. When Voice and Video communication take place on a data network we get some benefit which we learn here. It will move in terms of small  . Video  Video is real time Communication. Small Packet up to 8kb-64Kb voice packet (hahaha drop result into haha)      3. When I do call from IP phone mean placing IP call. Once time drop can be bearable but not delay or jitter. QOE is affected through Delay (consistence delay or latency).0001) drop is ignorable. When we capture video of 1 second may be of standard definition video or High definition video then file size of 2mb or 8mb respectively.It control is important. Video is drop sensitive. It used Voice concealment program with Artificial Intelligence. 1/10000 (0. Drop & Jitter (inconsistence delay).

when video break it is due to I. Second .0001) drop is ignorable. Voice Quality: Voice is delay sensitive. TV or Setup box has 300ms buffering capacity and show video consistency. Your network should have Capability to distinguish packet and provide quality as required service and this Capability given by IP because IP communication is going on here.P frame.  I= index-ek second ki Vedio ki indexsing hai. B.  In order to control the framing of video. First Video Quality: Video is drop sensitive. Sequence or framing of video packet is must because it necessary to place each packet on required place otherwise communication will disturber. Packet gets through I. P farm.B.or big packet.  Priority Given.   1/100000 (0. koun kaha kaise.  Delay is bearable up to 200ms. Our eye has can bearer 300ms delay. Video blank hogaya to index fram drop hogaya hai ye nahi hona chahiye aur ager huwa to video kuch sec k liye jaye aur phir aayega  B=buffering – actual vedio.

 Biggest MAN is City how long it is. Distributive in case of critical Network (IN EACH BRANCHES). Devices taken on Lease may be from ISP or brought by customer.Manipulate Area Network. data. It guaranteed it will reach proper & prefect data. 2 or more computer or communicating devices or networks which geographically separated but within a City connected are said to be MAN.  . and video.  Administrative Control is distributive or centrally (ATM CENTER). MAN Deployment is costly. Voice TRANK and connect PBX for voice. Characteristics of MAN: MAN is capable to high & moderate bandwidth. { Main Factor is cost effective} Owner of premises is Owner of MAN. Customer Premise Equipment (CPE ) mostly router.Data Quality: It is in sensitive.     Connection Provide by Service Provider. Third MAN MAN: . Link taken on Lease and also CPE & May taken on Lease.

 WAN Deployment is costly. Devices taken on Lease may be from ISP or brought by customer. Characteristics of WAN: WAN is capable to high & moderate bandwidth.  Administrative Control is distributive. 2 or more computer or communicating devices which geographically separated but not within a City connected are said to be WAN. .  Connection Provide by Service Provider.Wide Area Network.  Data communication not possible through satellite. { Main Factor is cost effective}  Owner of premises is Owner of WAN.WAN WAN: .

(LAN. For Mumbai office local LAN to ISP Network . Two type of links taken on Lease from ISP. . In this case Service provider gives SLA {Service Level Agreement}. LAN. WAN Public Network.5% always. MAN.Private Network is owned by user by their private use in LAN. From ISP Network – to Global WAN Network . Link taken on lease form ISP for connecting company private network such as two or more MAN and WAN. From Global WAN Net to USA local ISP Network – from USA local ISP Network to local USA office LAN. 2. Another link is taken for internet Surfing from local ISP Provider. MAN. It is very expensive as it based on SLA. WAN) 12- Private Network. 1. Such links are dedicated link and on such link companies’ private data only passes. One branch in Mumbai and another one USA. Internet Private Network. WAN. Public Network: . The ISP committed to company that this link will be up for 99.There are two types of Network. MAN. For security purpose we can allowed public user in this Network main factor is Cost Effective.Public network used globally.

Communication Technologies:Technology work is to Facilitate or run or carried Communication but it does not Communicated its own. usper communication karne wala logic yane software. voltage etc. It Contains devices to communicate two pair of communication devices.Setup required for communication channels are said to be Layer 1 technology. Like cable. Layer 2(Software):.(jab user send the data tab technologies janti hai k kaise bhejega kaha bhejna hai ye sab communication karne jimaydari technologies hai) Technology two part  Layer 1(Hardware):. wire. . HUB. boosting devices. Somebody (Protocol) has to use Technology to communicate.Logic required to communication are said to be Software technology. Means protocol. pinouts.Now when any user wants to send data or communicate to remote branch or Internet than it route thought device called router to the concern network.

Star topology. Gigabit Ethernet 1000mbs. Ethernet Technology is compact & cost effective.2000se 2lakh central devies. Ethernet type or variance are Ethernet 10mbs. It is 10-Mbps to 10000-Mbps. In MAN & WAN services are used.Ethernet Technology not protocol:Ethernet is Technology which used in most of network infrastructure.    Ethernet Tech. Ethernet Devices should be compact & compressed. In LAN 100% Ethernet technology is used. 10Gigabit 10000mbs. Features of Ethernet Technology (Comparing with LAN Feature): Ethernet gives High bandwidth in LAN. Tatol exp 20people I can connect. Video & Data. . provides Quality of service over Voice. And new 100gigabit provides 100000mbs. Even I have to setup at home. 5 rs meter wire. Fast Ethernet provides 100mbs. 5 connector.  It can be used in IP enable network also.

 It uses 802.  Copper wire Medium (Electrical medium) covers 100 M  500 M (Data goes through 0-5 volt as it in electrical signal) Optical wire Medium (fiber pastic ka tukde)Covers 500 M  2 Km (Signal goes in light waves. Ethernet Topology   Bus Ring .3 Ethernet Technology.3 Ethernet Technology Ethernet Topology mean view hub and scope or star were central device is hub or switch.Wireless Network is also a part of Ethernet Tech. Access point connected with wire with communicating devices. Catch electrical signal and convert into optical signal)   Trough repeater we can also cover large area. It uses 802. devices or Technologies. Some Devices & technologies. It covers large area through diff. Note: .

Features of Serial Technology: Serial Tech. While sending data in Serial Tech. capable takes Junk of data and line driving to longer distance.  Serial Tech. On other end serial tech use karta hai high imposing signal. Not possible in Ethernet 5 volt  Serial Tech.6kb Line driving means super imposing of signal in to high intensity signal and delivered to longer distance. gives high intensity to send & received Data. So Synchronize is important to maintain two end of communication.   Junk of data size is anything from 9. has chances of loss data.  Star Mash Serial Technology Most of people use serial technology in open environment Network like MAN & WAN. use to cover longer distance.  .

It is done in such a manner first the sender computer or device will send the service ready to send to receiver and then receiver send clear to send. As it cover long distance there is always as chances of data corruption or conflict so for preventing it from corruption some extra control signal run such as ready to send and clear to send.6kb to so on) and send to the receiver and at the receiver end it collect and match with CRC Code and if it perfect than it send the ack to sender device and if not perfect then receiver demand for the same chuck of data.        Serial technology can also provide high bandwidth but will very expensive as comparing to local LAN. The destination node replies with a Clear to Send frame (CTS). CRC {cyclic redundancy check} available in Serial technology to detect and/or some bit correction in communications transmissions. A Node wishing to send data initiates the process by sending a Request to Send Frame (RTS). . In order to synchronize between sender & receiver some additional control signal are exchange in serial technology. has some level of bit correction mechanism. After that the sender put CRC code on chuck of data (chuck of data may of 9. It this service continuous goes on till it perfectly received know as bit correction mechanism and reduces the bandwidth.rts ctc and ack signal It takes some part of bandwidth. Serial Tech. While covering longer distance has chances to corrupt data bits.

Ethernet Technology Hardware Mediums Thin wire (10B2):. Switch.Repeater & bridge (Co-axial cable).Switch & router Twisted Pair (10/100/1000/10000 BT):. router. . (10mbs and 500m) Twisted Pair (10/100/1000/10000 BT):. (Base of Twisted pair 10mbps) Fiber Optic (10/100/1000/10000 BF):.Hub. Technology means is 10B2 means 10mbps and 200 meters.Repeater & bridge (Co-axial cable) TV Cable 100 channels run on different frequency.Hub. CCC means coverage connector and capacity will be same. Thick wire (10B5): . Switch. UTP (Unshielded twisted pair) (4 pair and 8 core) plastic cover STP (Shielded twisted pair) (4 pair and 8 core) metal jaly shield and plus Plastic cover. router There are two types of twisted pair cables. Both of them have only that shielding of metal jaly.

Unshielded Twisted Pair: . a popular type of cable that consists of two unshielded wires twisted around each other.  Keep away UTP wire from electric wire (Distance 3 m parallel). Unshielded Twisted Pair. Due to its low cost. Connection Required RJ-45 connector. means one pair of wires twisted. Techniques: Keep Distance while cabling UTP wire from Electromagnetic Devices like Tube light because old tube light contain Choke which generate high electromagnetic interferences and distort signal or use STP. It covers 100 m area. . UTP cabling is used largely or extensively for LAN.UTP mostly use for cabling internal Network connection.

Cabling in open Environment required STP. STP cabling includes metal shielding over each individual pair of copper wires. Specify a 100 meter length between active devices. . Cat 6:. Motor radiations can affect the bandwidth of wire. 10/100/1000 mbps bandwidth capacity. (6 inch can bearable keep distance)  Keep away UTP wire from X-ray room. Shielded Twisted Pair: .5 Volt run from UTP and 250 volt run from electric wire then 250 volt distort the 5 volt and communication will down. Because the shielding is made of metal. Lightning also destroyed the system.Category 5 is a description of a cable that consists of four unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wires with 10/100 mbps bandwidth. is a cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other network Physical Layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5 and Category 3 cable standards.For Buying. Category of Cables: . Mainly cables are categories through their speed/capacity. Cat 5:.Category 4 is a description of a cable that consists of four unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wires with 10 mbps (10 mbps means 1crore parsec speed define by network Card) bandwidth. Twisted pair cables are often shielded in attempt to prevent electromagnetic interference. In STP cable contain metal shield which connected to metal of connector and help to prevent from lighting and radio magnetic interference. Mostly we use STP to outdoor cabling.Category 6 commonly referred to as Cat 6. Cat 4:. Result into LAN card Damage frequently. Keep prevention from data corrupt from lighting or electronic magnetic interferences from Motor. it may also serve as a ground.

Thickness of wire of Cat6 than cat5 and cat4 2. 100 mbps. Here two Wires are loosely coupled to each other in a one pair. Thickness of cat 6 wire more the cat 4. and 5.Wire doesn’t decide the speed our Network card define speed by Frequency generator mean clock circuit on network card know as Ip555. Network card push signal through clock circuit 10 mbps. Two rules: . When current flow between two Wire in opposite direction and if they are tied coupled then cancelling the radiation 1. Maximum signal flow from the wire depend on thickness of wire . more twist of wire.Note: . (This help to know about radiation occurs while flowing current) . Right Hand thumb rule. 100 mbps push. Wires are like road which necessary to push signal that why called 10mbps. More Twist of wire of Cat6 than cat5 and cat4 Why we have to used use twisted wire and not flat wire? When radiation coming from wire not from outside and prevent it and it is done through Twisting of pair of wires.Right Hand Thumb rule & Cross talk rule. When a current flow from the wire in a given direction then electromagnetic radiation generate from it will flow in same direction in anti clock form around the wire.

Cross talk rule: when a two wire carries current in opposite direction and if they are tied coupled result in the electromagnetic radiation coming from both the wire will cancel through each other. (Used for twisting of pair of wires) Some Important Points while connecting PC.  10 mbps 10mbps X 10 mbps 100mbps Switch  10 mbps mbps 100 . Here two wires are tiredly coupled to each other in a one pair.

Starting from the left. a straight-through cable. The wires within the Ethernet crossover cable can reverse the transmit and receive signals. Routing Device: Router. Diagram: 1 2 3 6 6 1 2 3 Pc mouth on pin1 and switch ear on pin 1. from left to right. where the smaller cables inside the Ethernet cable on both ends will be in the same order of colors. the 1st and . Crossover Cable:These cables have different pin points or plugs on each side.While connecting two computers there Network speed should be same otherwise need to use communicating device like Switch. This type of cable is used to connect the computer to a hub or Router to a switch. switch used to excess network. Types of Cable:Straight Cable:In straight Cable pin no 1 directly connected directly to other end pin no 1 and so on. Devices: H Device: Computers. . Anything to switch Straight Cable. Access Device: Hub.

Diagram: 1 2 3 6 3 6 1 2 Note: .Pin No 4.3rd wires and the 2nd and 6th wires are crossed. POE Enabled switch provide power -48volt . 7 & 8 are PoE (Power over Ethernet) ear on pin 1 and ear on pin 1 of both the devices. It automatically defines connection and cable type and work according it. This cable is typically flat and has a light blue color. IT Had a features of auto sensing & self sensing. Did not worry about Type of cable. Rollover cable: -Rollover cable also known as Cisco console cable is a type of null-modem cable that is most commonly used to connect a computer terminal to a router's console port. 5. and can be seen through the RJ-45 connectors at each end of the crossover cable. Now a Day some new generation communication Devices has facility of Auto Sensing & Self Sensing. Similar device cross cable.

Where Above wire we can use? Access Device Straight Cable Access Device Access Device Cross Over Cable Access Device Straight Cable Cross Over Cable Cross Over Cable Cross Over Cable .

Fiber Cable In Ethernet Technology use fiber Cable Connector: .2 Km-----44 km Capacity: .500 mm ----. That why 500m Single Mode Fiber Cable: No chances of data movement because only single tracker is available. The Differences is in microns. Diameter of wire means Thickness of wires is good then high amount of optical rays will pass but chances of reflection as many rays passed through it at a time possible in case of multimode fiber cable that why it multimode fiber cable is used for shorter distance. Diameter is difference between Multimode Fiber Cable and Single Mode Fiber Cable is Multimode is little tin as compare to Single mode but we can’t see it though it from are naked eyes.10/100/1000/10000/10000 mbps There are two types of fiber optical cable Multimode (Covers 500m+) & Single Mode (Covers 2km+).LC/SC/ST Coverage: . . Multimode Fiber Cable: In this as data moves from wire chances of going on other tracker or time slot of wire due to much space available so for this purpose shorter area help to provide data send on concern track. That why it covers long area around 2km+.

It covers 500 meter to 40 km distance. using light wave form or pulses.A cable that contains individual glass fibers.  It is Use full in electromagnetic radiations area which doesn’t affect on fiber like Motor radiation. lightning. designed for the Transmission of digital information. Advantages of Use of Fiber Cable. Typical multimode links have data rates of 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps over link lengths of up to 600 meters. 1- Multimode Fiber (MM).  Mostly Fiber Optic Cable we use to cover longer distance with high & moderate bandwidth.  Basic Types of Fiber. 2- Fiber Optic Modules:- . Single Mode Fiber(SM): .Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber.This a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances. X-ray Room etc. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8–10 micrometers. Fiber optical cable use to uplink or interconnect the link or switch. such as within a building or on a campus. .

the GBIC enables networking devices to be upgraded in the field to support optical signals. and offer high speed and physical compactness. SFP transceivers are available with a variety of different transmitter and receiver types. SFP modules are commonly available in several different categories. As a plug-in module. allowing users to select the appropriate transceiver according to their needs.500m++2k multimode module LX Module Long hold or reach -2k++ single mode fiber ZX Module Ultra long hold or reach 40k++ . Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) or Mini-GBIC: small formfactor pluggable (SFP) is a specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers. GBIC modules are hot swappable and contain ID and system information that a switch can use to determine the device's capabilities.There are two types of fiber optic cable module GBIC & SFP module. The GBIC converts the serial electrical signals to serial optical signals and vice versa. The devices are designed for use with small form factor (SFF) connectors. SX Module short hold or reach. Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) Module: A hardware module used to attach network devices to fiber-based transmission systems such as Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet. SFP (small form Pluggable):The Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) is a compact optical transceiver used in optical communications for both telecommunication and data communications applications. They are hot-swappable.

Broadband is high speed connectivity in India if u has 256kbps or above link then u are owner of Internet Broadband. 80 km (ZX). Here we will learn from internet point of view. 120 km (EX or EZX)] 1490 nm 1310 nm (BX). Internet through modem provide . Lease taken from ISP and ISP can provide Ethernet technology between our two Man Networks.12345- 850 nm 550m multi-mode fiber (SX) 1310 nm 10 km single-mode fiber (LX) 1490 nm 10 km single-mode fiber (BS-D) 1550 nm 40 km (XD). Single Fiber Bi-Directional Gigabit SFP Transceivers Metro Ethernet Network prepared by the ISP and can provide us Link on Lease of metro Ethernet Network.