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Implementation of HVAC heat transfer research into CFD software

CIBSE NVG seminar, London, 18 November 2008

Dr Yehuda Sinai Project Manager – Fire, Safety & HVAC ANSYS UK Ltd.
yehuda.sinai@ansys.com

© 2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Contents • Introduction • Window sub-grid model • Web-enabled CFD • Conclusions

© 2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

– This presentation will focus on CFX. Inc. structural response) – and more. All rights reserved.Introduction • ANSYS. – Developer of ANSYS family of products. Inc. 3 ANSYS. • Family of products includes – ANSYS Mechanical (structural FE) – CFX (general-purpose CFD and FSI) – FLUENT (general-purpose CFD) – Airpak (customised for HVAC) – AUTODYN (blast. Proprietary . © 2008 ANSYS.

the computational cost can be excessive for multiple glazing. All rights reserved. or for a large number of windows. Inc. • However. Proprietary . • It is possible to model conduction and radiation (grey or non-grey) in glass using CFX. fluid convection. © 2008 ANSYS. • CFX offers CHT (Conjugate Heat Transfer). and radiation in gas and semi-transparent solids. 4 ANSYS.Window sub-grid model • Window assemblies involve solid & fluid conduction. large windows/facades. Inc.

Inc. No. • The work is ongoing. Int. 2. 5 ANSYS. • Sinai. Proprietary . • The model – takes the analysis further than the obvious approximations such as U + transmission coefficient. © 2008 ANSYS. – is a combined-mode theory. All rights reserved. for incorporation as boundary conditions in CFD. Inc. J. the author has been developing 1-D sub-grid window models. 2003. Ventilation. Vol.Window sub-grid model • For this reason. 2.

6 ANSYS.Window sub-grid model • Schematic . Proprietary .double glazing T1 Fluid domain T2 Exterior T3 Solid 1 Air gap Solid 2 L1 L2 x T4 Ta © 2008 ANSYS. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. • Panes 1 & 2 subject to volumetric heating = Q1 & Q2 W/m3. © 2008 ANSYS. ∇. • In gap and outside: Radiation and correlation for convection. Inc. 7 ANSYS.e.(k∇T ) = −Q (1) • Aim: Produce Cauchy relationship between convective flux and T1 (i. heat transfer coefficient). Inc. Proprietary . • In Solid 1 & Solid 2: Conduction + radiation.Window sub-grid model • Grey or non-grey.

8 ANSYS. and applying continuity of temperature & convective flux. Inc. leads to  k1  T2   k1T1 Q1L1  0 − ( + h23 ) h 23  L    − ( L + 2 )  1 1          Q2 L2 k2 k2  − − ( + h23 )  h 23  T  =   2 L2 L2    3   Q2 L2       k2 k ) 0 − ( 2 + h4 a )   − (h4 aTa +  2  L2 L2    T4   ( 2) • h23 and h4a are the convective + longwave radiation HTCs between solids 1 & 2 and between surface 4 and the ambient. All rights reserved.Window sub-grid model • Solving the conduction equation for each solid. Inc. © 2008 ANSYS. Proprietary .

Inc.Window sub-grid model • Solving these three equations leads to ~ ~ = U (T − T ) q s 1 where 1 1 ~ ~ L L U −1 = R = 1 + 2 + + k1 k2 h23 h4 a Ts = Ta + Tr . Tr = R1φ1 + R2φ2 R1 = L1 L2 1 1 . + + + 2k1 k2 h23 h4 a R2 = L2 1 + 2k2 h4 a ( 4) (3) © 2008 ANSYS. Inc. 9 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Proprietary .

10 ANSYS. Inc. • Ts is the effective ‘sink/source’ temperature. All rights reserved. This embodies the multimode effects. Inc. equal to the ambient temperature plus a ‘radiant temperature displacement’. Proprietary . © 2008 ANSYS.Window sub-grid model • R is recognizable as the single-mode series resistance.

. qE is the incident external flux)..) = α1τ 2 qE (1 − ρ1ρ 2 ) (5)  ρ1τ 2  (φ2 ) E = α 2 qE 1 +   (1 − ρ1ρ 2 )  © 2008 ANSYS. Inc.Window sub-grid model • Radiant absorption in slabs. Inc. Proprietary . 2 (φ1 ) E = α1τ 2 qE (1 + ρ1ρ 2 + ρ12 ρ 2 + . All rights reserved. – Model can be grey or no-grey. ( 6) 11 ANSYS. – Allowing for multiple reflections between slabs (‘E’ denotes due to external radiant source. but must account for spectral effects.

– Transparent slabs and vanishing slab resistances (e. © 2008 ANSYS. 12 ANSYS. Proprietary . Inc. All rights reserved.Window sub-grid model • Similar expressions for absorption due to radiation arriving from the interior. • Verification: – Transparent slabs: Classical overall resistance obtained for single-mode resistances in series. Inc.g. thin slabs): T1 → T2 . as it should.

4 0.Window sub-grid model • Example: – Two slabs. Qe=1000 W/m^2 90 80 70 60 Tr (K) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. Inc. Inc. h4a = 30 W/m2/K. L = 6 mm.8 1 Absorptivity © 2008 ANSYS. 13 ANSYS. Proprietary . Qi=0.2 0. All rights reserved. k = 1.4 W/m/K – h23 = 5 W/m2/K.6 0. ρ = 0.

– Car park ventilation and fire. 14 ANSYS. to develop two customized web-enabled CFD tools: – Room ventilation (software named SimulateAir). Inc. • ANSYS UK has customized a web tool named EASA. ROOMVENT 2004). All rights reserved. Inc.Web-enabled CFD • Fläkt Woods has commissioned ANSYS UK Ltd. • This followed validation of ANSYS-CFX against Fläkt Woods’ own experiments (Sinai et al. in collaboration with EASA Ltd. Proprietary . © 2008 ANSYS.

returned over web. • ANSYS has developed a customized geometry tool. • Small quantity of data sent to server over internet. • Fläkt Woods has coupled SimulateAir to IDA (a zone model). • Pre-selected results. Inc. 15 ANSYS.Web-enabled CFD • Problem definition is performed locally. Inc. Proprietary . in html format. and entire process performed in batch there. All rights reserved. © 2008 ANSYS.

All rights reserved. 16 ANSYS. Courtesy Fläkt Woods © 2008 ANSYS. Chilled beams (Box Method). Inc.Web-enabled CFD • Example from SimulateAir. Inc. Proprietary .

Inc.Web-enabled CFD • Example from SimulateAir. 17 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Courtesy Fläkt Woods © 2008 ANSYS. Proprietary .

Courtesy Fläkt Woods © 2008 ANSYS. Inc. 18 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary .Web-enabled CFD • Example from SimulateAir.

Web-enabled CFD • Car park ventilation & fire. Proprietary . Inc. 19 ANSYS. Postulated example. Courtesy Fläkt Woods © 2008 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.

with the aid of EASA Ltd. • The customization was carried out by my colleague M. Owens. Inc. All rights reserved. based on the EASA software. Proprietary . 20 ANSYS. Inc. has been developed in collaboration with Fläkt Woods. © 2008 ANSYS.Acknowledgements • The web-enabled tool.

Proprietary . challenges remain. © 2008 ANSYS. All rights reserved. • Web-enabled CFD simplifies the simulation process and facilitates wider usage. Inc. Inc.Conclusions • Whilst software and hardware improvements continue apace. 21 ANSYS. • Sub-models such as that described here will therefore continue to play a role.