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Sarah Dalley In what ways does your media product use, develop or challenge forms and conventions of real

media products? From the start of the coursework I worked in a group where we each brought knowledge of different things. We each had a different knowledge of media convention but after working together it all came into place. Documentary modes are important to distinguish particular traits and conventions of various styles of documentary (developed by Bill Nichols, 2001). There six types of documentary but for our documentary only one is related. The expositional mode aims to gain footage that strengthens the narrative. So we take cues from the commentary/ voice over and use clips/images to support it. During our research into other documentaries we found that it built up the basis of the majority of the documentary, for example in Supersize Me. This occurs in our documentary throughout our voiceover, and during interviews where we cut away to other footage or images. We did not use the Observational mode because even though we do show aspect of how students naturally behave we still have a direction to our documentary and do not simply observe what we show. The documentary has aspects of cinema verité where we included interviews and other media conventions, which we would not have been able to do if it was something, like direct cinema. We have attempted objectivity but we are aware that bias is difficult to eliminate, we chose who to interview, who not to interview, who to actually include or not to, so it is slightly subjective. This documentary is not realist because we suggest a point of view rather than just following and watching someone, like fly-on-the-wall. I think our documentary may have aspects of a Rhetorical narrative due to the fact that it speaks directly to the audience via the voice over and we present a reasoned argument about the Birmingham Riots. We may have used the story telling narrative talking about the riots and getting people, who were there, to talk about what happened however we were unable to do that for several reasons and so chose not to use it. We started off with the opening to the documentary, we had a few ideas and after doing some research found that a montage of shots went well with the usual conventions of a documentary. We started to plan out the opening sequence on paper using story boards, this way we had a rough idea of what we were aiming for. After looking through all our footage, we decided that we needed to use some borrowed clips of the riots, because we thought that a documentary about the riots, without riot footage wouldn t look very realistic. So we decided to use a few clips off YouTube and put them into our opening sequence, this should quickly inform the audience to what the documentary is going to feature. After the first few seconds of the riot footage we go into the second part of the opening sequence where we use our footage, our first shot is of the Sixth Form College, Solihull sign; we did

Sarah Dalley this to establish where our documentary is taking place. Once decided on all the shots we were going to use we had to make a decision of how long the montage opening sequence was going to last. In order to associate to the subject of the documentary riots we decided to put the clips in a quick sequence. However after watching it with it done quickly we decided it didn t look right; so we prolonged it a little bit, adding a clip and prolonging some others, we decided it looked better that little bit slowed down. The first 15 second of the opening sequence came out well over all, especially the footage of the riots, however the only bad bit is the quality of the riot footage, because it was taken of the internet it is bad quality and so has brought down the look of a real documentary. When thinking about the voice over we had to decide what role it was going to take on; whether it would be male or female or friendly or factual and so on. This was important because it had to go with the mood of the documentary, so if for example the voiceover was a serious man, and the background music was upbeat, it wouldn t work together. So we decided to go for the laid back but serious approach, using a female voice that very serious yet friendly at the same time. When we added in the voiceover to the timeline we had to make sure all volume levels were the same as the voice over, to do this we had to raise some clips and lower other clips sound levels. We put the voice over as loud as it would go and decided to level everything out to that so it all came out at a constant loud and constant level. When deciding the music we were going to use, we had to consider the same things that we did for the voice over, whether the tone of the music would match the documentary, i.e. whether it would be upbeat or slow passed etc. However with the music we also had to think about it not over powering the voice over. To do this we went along adjusting the levels of the music, at parts where it could be Pen Tool. louder than others i.e. where no one was speaking. To do this we used the Pen tool this made it so we were able to pin point where we wanted to raise or lower the sound levels. In the end we went with an upbeat but soft music that won t be too dominant over the voice over. To transition the opening sequence into the main part of the documentary we used transitions these make it so when you have two clips next to each other you can insert a transition of your choice between them which will slowly fade one into the other, this makes a smoother transmission between the two clips and makes the documentary flow more. There are also audio transitions which is the same as the video transitions but it s for the audio. You place it between two clips and this make the jump from on to the other not as jarring. In our documentary we have professional interviews where we have specialist in certain fields that our specific to our documentary i.e. we have a sociologist to explain why people may act in certain ways. After looking at other documentaries we found that there was usually text at the bottom of

Sarah Dalley the screen saying their Name and Job title. Therefore during these interviews for the first few seconds we had to add in the names of the interviewees. We did this by going to the button with a little A in the middle of a filmstrip. Then click on Text at the button and then Text again it will then come up with a black screen saying Sample Text However you do not need that so at the top of the box click on Controls it will then come up with lots of different option. We tried out several things but found that if we used just black or white text then some of the background would over power it and you could not read the text properly. This made it so we had to re think how we were going to do the names. We decided to put a black box around white writing across the full length of this screen. However having it completely black made it dominate the screen so we altered the opacity and made the box slightly clear and see through This made it so you could read the writing easily, made it look professional and still didn t take too much attention away from the person speaking. For interviews we also did Vox pops these are quick clips, often handheld, of anyone that was willing to give quick interviews from around the college or in Solihull. These help convey people s opinions in a more personal manner as they are speaking to the camera. So the audience also get opinions of people other than just the people that created this documentary, so they are more likely to believe what the vox pops interviewees say. There were a few problems with the vox pops such as lighting. When we were in Solihull is was a dull day and we hadn t got the Light balance on the correct setting so when we added the clip onto our timeline we found that it was quite dark and you couldn t see some of the people very well. However the response they gave was very good so we still included it in our documentary. In our documentary we used manual focus. This is when you change the focus points of the lenses. So for example, you would focus on someone in the foreground and then change the focus to the background. This takes the audiences attention from one thing to another, this is a possible way to transition through a scene. We use manual focus to create a mood in the documentary, we used it on students in the sixth form college we film in, for example as you can see above we used it on student s feet. This creates an atmosphere of business, students going to and from lessons, people in a rush to get places. Certain interviews we filmed were quite long, but they said several, good/ important bits of information. So to accommodate this, we used the Razor Blade tool . This cuts the clip the point you click, creating the

Sarah Dalley clip again next to it. You then adjust where you want the second clip to start and finish, this then creates a jump cut which is often used in real documentaries, such as Airline and Supersize me. During interviews we often added in other clips of footage, to break up the monotony of the interview and keep the audiences interest. However we created some rostrum footage, to show an example of the damage that the riots inflicted. So we had to get an image of the internet because we couldn t obtain any images first hand. So we made it so the camera would slide across the image from one corner to another, this creates the affect of movement while still showing in detail the damage created.

Interview from Supersize Me

For the interviews in our documentary we tried to follow the conventions of interviews from real documentaries. We tried to keep it so that the interviewees in our documentary to one side or another of the frame because after looking at different documentaries we found that there was a common convention of interviewees being to one side. In our radio trail we used clips from our documentary as well as recording another voice over, because of this there were many different levels of sound so we had to adjust them all. To do this you click on the track which will make a second part drop down, this will then let you adjust the volume of the track. You do this by clicking on the blue line where you want to adjust the sound and either raise it or lower it depending on the volume of the track. This will make it so from then on the volume is higher, so if you only want a part of it louder, you then click where you want to change the volume again and adjust it back to how you want. We had to do this with the voice over as the sound was lower than the rest of the clips from the documentary. We used clips from our documentary because while doing research into other radio trails, we looked at stations like BBC five live, and we found that during advertisements of events, they had several clips of people speaking from what sounded like the program so after listening to several trails like

Sarah Dalley this from different stations we decided that it would be a useful convention to use. For our radio trail we had to consider what kind of music we would have in the background. We had to make it so it linked with our documentary, so we went for quite a quick passed clip of music, but we made sure it didn t over power the clips and voiceover. Throughout the trail we changed the level of the music to emphasise certain parts of the trail while still keeping the music in the background. Track volume settings At the beginning of the radio trail we tried to challenge the normal conventions of a radio trail by, like with the documentary, putting in some sounds that then developed into the main trail. It was the sound of a police siren and people shouting. We were hoping this would show some continuity in our products. However through our research we never found very few trails with something like this at the start and so weren t that sure about the result however after getting audience feedback they didn t mention anything about it so we decided the risk worked well. We also used the same voice over as we did in the documentary again to keep some continuity in our products. Choosing which clips to put into our trail from the main documentary was very important because if we didn t put the right ones in it wouldn t attract any people to come and watch our documentary, as well as, if we did put the wrong ones in, possibly getting rid of possible audience; we decided to go with a range of voices, male and female, as well as some young and some older, so it appealed to the whole range of our target audience. In our double page spread after looking in magazines i.e. the radio times we decided that we needed to make sure you could clearly see the page number, date/issue of the magazine and in which magazine the article is featured. We also had to make sure that each of the conventions went with our article. We looked through a Radio Times which after research, we decided would be the best magazine to feature our article in, we found that they used a basic font of all capitals for the name of the magazine so we kept that but then I developed the page number and put it in a black box and had the number in white writing. I did this so that the number then related to the article as the article was a black back ground with white writing. We also put the day/date of when the documentary will be aired at the top of the article in a white box as we saw in the research into other magazines. For the article we decided to lay it out with 3 columns rather than two after deciding it looked better. We did this by going to the tool bar along the top of the page and looking for the icons you can see below. You then select columns and it will put your text into the amount of

Sarah Dalley columns you select. We decided to use columns because in all other magazines we looked at, they had columns and so it looked more like a real magazine. Throughout the double page spread we put in quotes of the documentary. We decided to use the usual quote convention after doing some research however, usually in the quote we found they were quotes from the article itself where as our quotes we from our documentary so we decided to challenge and developed this convention which in the end worked out very well. To do these quotes you create a text box and type in the writing you want. Then place the box where you would the quote and along the top tool bar you should find several options in which to choose for your text box. Select Text wrap this will wrap any text around the text box and create the effect you can see to the right. To change the colour of the text, you select the text and you go to the toolbar on the right hand side of the screen and select Swatches You then either click on the colour you want or you can double click on one and then you can change it to the colour you would like.

Sarah Dalley How effective is the combination of your main product and ancillary texts? We gave out a questionnaire to our target audience to get opinions on our products and one of our questions was Do you think the Documentary, Radio trail and Double Page Spread relate to each other? After looking at the feedback we found that 100% of the response said Yes . This indicates that they link to each other and that they have an effective combination. This also shows that they all target the same audience, along with the fact that they all relate to each other. We tried to do this by using some similar convents for the audio in the Radio trail that we also used in the documentary. For example we used the same voice over, this links the two products together and so make an effective combination. I think we created a brand identity for our products however I think that maybe the double page spread may be a bit of the odd one out, because with our radio trail and documentary they are quite light hearted and have a positive feeling around them where as our double page spread has quite a dark feeling around it, using black and red and prominent colours in it. We did choose these colours on purpose to relate to our subject, Riots, however this did relate to the fact that we were trying to escape a negative stereotype. The double page spread links in with the documentary because the masthead we used we tried to get it to relate to the subject of running riots as well. We did this by making the masthead rugged and ruined, and that along with the angle of the font adds to the affect of the Running Riot! making it an almost literal portrayal of the words themselves. In the double page spread it was also important to choose the right images to be shown as that is what might catch potential audience s attention. In the end we decided to use an image of the riots themselves in the article as well as images from the documentary showing teenagers youths in a good light this way we are not trying to pressurise the audience into viewing the article and then the documentary itself in a certain way. The radio trail and double page spread are both featured in/on BBC stations and magazines that aim for part of our target audience. This makes sure that all of the products are aimed at the right audience range however for our double page spread in the Radio Times it could also reach out for an audience out of our target range as the magazine aims for the top end of our age range and older than. This also shows that they are promoting the documentary effectively, and to the right people. They also promote it effectively by the contents, the article has an interview with one of the directors which may interest people more than usual, and it also has all the information about when it s being showed on TV so you

Sarah Dalley won t miss it. As with the double page spread the radio trail also has all the information about when the documentary is being aired on television, as well as clips from the documentary itself, hopefully capturing the attention of possible audience.

Sarah Dalley 3. What have you learned from your audience feedback? We created two questionnaires during the process of making our documentary, one before we filmed it, this one was to find out what our audience knew about the topic we had decided use. At this point we had decided to do Stereotypes of Youths however we were at a point where we thought the topic may have been too broad . So using the questionnaire we decided to ask about the Birmingham riots 2011. After looking through the responses we decided to do stereotypes of youths formed in the Birmingham Riots and named the documentary Running Riot . We gave most of these questionnaires to teenagers as they were part of our target audience (16-35 year olds) and because they were essentially what our documentary was going to be based on. This was a way to collect information on what their personal feeling were about our subject. We found that even amongst themselves they would categorise a Typical Teenager as things such as moody, argumentative and troublemaking. We also found that 100% of the responses said they thought teenagers have a bad stereotype and that they believe that a more positive portrayal should be shown in the media. The second questionnaire was to collect feedback on our documentary we created a questionnaire with several simple questions on it to find out what people would rate our documentary, whether they thought it was realistic, whether it was interesting and whether out 3 products related to each other. The following graph shows what our target audience rated our products. We found that in the majority everyone thought all our products were at least Good . Our documentary received the highest Excellent rating while the radio trail received the lowest. However, fortunately nobody thought any of the products were Bad or lower. On the other hand, looking back we never gave the opportunity of a Satisfactory so we may not have learned the audiences true feelings as accurately as we could. The responses to our other questions were quite positive with the only bad feedback being that some people didn t think the documentary was like a real BBC documentary. These questions were useful because it collected data that was easy to analyse

Sarah Dalley

However they were only closed questions with a limited response. To find out more about our audiences true feelings we also ask an open question; How could we improve our Documentary y y y y y y y y y Improve lighting during interviews Some sound levels need to be adjusted Too many establishing shots Possible change of music? Voice over needed to be louder Sound levels need to be continuous Image credits required Too many images More colour

Radio Trail Double Page Spread

The feedback we got from this question was very helpful because we now understand where we could have improved all of our products and in the future, be able to create products without these problems. From this questionnaire we learned that if we did it again we would, for our documentary, sort some lighting out for some of the interviews as we got the most responses to improve that.

Sarah Dalley How did you use media technologies in the construction and research, planning and evaluation stages? A major media technology we used was the internet. We used it for our blog, to gain research and help our planning. In our research and planning we used several different technologies to help us understand and plan what we ourselves would be doing for our documentary. We began with the process of looking into other documentaries such as Supersize Me, Airline and Teen Species: Girls. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHKCb0_2oD0 (YouTube link to Supersize Me). We used a source on our college website, http://media.solihull sfc.ac.uk/media/bro wse/84, to look at different documentaries; this was very useful because it had several different types and genres so we were able to observe different conventions. Using this website as well we were able to have a look at past student s documentaries to see what we could possibly incorporate into our documentary as well as what to possibly avoid or improve on. While planning and creating our documentary we kept a blog on www.blogger.com to begin with we started posting what we did on the type of blog that we were given, but we found this was limiting and found that there was a different type of blog where there were more options , where as the original one was very simple. So we changed our blog to the new one where we were able to make it relate more to our subject Running Riot which we did by changing the background setting and selecting an array of lights suggesting disorganization and chaos. The blog allowed us to upload our plan of the documentary and research we were doing, while also letting post YouTube videos and Scribd features which let us post presentations of the processes of editing our documentary, radio trail and double page spread. On our blog we have several different written documents like our log and transfer sheet as well as things like our hazard form/ risk assessment and checklist. To do this we had to use

Sarah Dalley a scanner to upload them onto the computer for us to then post on the blog. The scanner gave us a couple of problems like the quality of the scan, because the surface of the scanner had bits on it so that came out on the scan itself so it didn t look so good. Also when we scanned it, it came out upside down so we put it onto Adobe Photoshop and flipped it so it was the right way up. This is where all your video clips appear once you have logged and transferred them. You can select the clip you want and

Before being put in the timeline this screen lets you review clips and add in text

This is where you can view the footage that is on the timeline.

The upper timeline is where you edit, cut and view video clips.

The bottom timeline is where you can view the sound and edit the audio.

These monitor sound levels

The toolbar contain option to manipulate, move and change clips

To create our documentary we first had to film it, which meant having to learn how to use hardware such as the video camera and trip, along with the microphone. The camera was quite simple to use, it was the different effects that were the challenge, such as the manual focusing and light balancing. To do a manual focus, you use the joystick at the edge of the screen and roll it down until you come to focus then move the joy stick up, this selects the focus option, then move the joystick across until manual focus is chosen; you then using the joystick to change the focus point to where you want it. This can take you

Sarah Dalley from one part of the documentary to another because you can change the audience s attention from one thing to another. We put some manual shots into our documentary which gave a it a more professional look. We also learnt how to do manual light balance; this is when one of the pre set options doesn t suit the lighting you are in so you can do it yourself. You go to the light balancing option and you scroll across until to get to white balance . You get a piece of plain white paper and hold it in front of the lenses and click on the white balance option. Hold the paper there until the icon has stopped flashing, when you take away the paper the light balance should be right the lighting you are in without having a yellowy or bluey tint to it. We had to do this after some vox pops in Solihull didn t go so well when the light balance was on the wrong setting, and you couldn t see the interviewee s very well, because it was too dark however they said good things so we still featured them in the documentary. Using the tripod was also quite simple, however when setting it up we had to make sure we set it up at the correct height, and at level with the speaker, which again was a bit of the problem with the interviews in Solihull. We also had to make sure the camera level was correct otherwise the clip would have been lopsided or slanted, and that wouldn t have looked very good, so we had to make sure each time we put the tri pod up that the bubble was in the circle on the spirit level that was on the tripod. While filming we had to use the microphone which was simple enough however when we had to record the voice over, we leant to use the M- Audio Digital Recorder. It was quite easy to start to record; you press the Record button once to get it ready, a second time to start recording and a third time to stop. To replay the recorded sound you press the button on the right hand side of the Recorder and then move it up or down to scroll through the recordings to the one you want to listen to. You then press in the button on the right hand side again and this will replay your recording that is selected.

We used an Apple iMac to put our products together, this was better than a PC because it had all the software we needed on it. Also I prefer using Mac¶s especially on creative projects as I found they a generally easier to work with than Windows computers.

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe InDesign

Garage Band

Final Cut Express

Sarah Dalley

These are the 3 main piece of software that we used to create our products and we also used Adobe Photoshop a bit for our double page spread. To begin with for our documentary we opened a new sequence in Final Cut Express. We then had to Log and Transfer all of our clips that we thought we might use in the documentary; when we did this we wrote down each clip of footage, and then decided whether we wanted to use it or not. If we decided we did want to include a clip in the documentary logged and transferred it. Once we had all the clips on our sequence. We were able to use audio and video transitions in Final Cut Express this allowed to create a more fluid sense to the documentary, there were several different types of video transition we could have used including Cross fading and Dissolve however we went for a more simple effect of Fade to Colour this is where it just fades to black, we chose the simple one because we didn t want anything too drastic taking the focus off the contents of the documentary. You could also adjust the length of the transition so if you just wanted a smooth cut from on clip to the other you could make it short but if you wanted to go from one part of the documentary to another you could lengthen it and leave it black for a second or so, although we didn t use it in our 5 minute introduction it could have been a possibility if we were able to carry the documentary on.
These are the tracks where you add in your clips This is the sound level that you can adjust

If you select the Eye then you can select music or any sounds that you may want

Using these controls you can replay and listen what you have created

This is where you can do precise and delicate editing

Sarah Dalley For the radio trail we used Garage Band, where we created a new sequence. Like with our documentary we had a few sounds of people yelling and police sirens before we transitioned into the main part of the trailer. For the police siren we use one of the sound that already came in Garage Band this was very helpful because it was good quality. We also chose our background music the same way. You go to the eye and then at the bottom of the screen will come up with a lot of selections like Brass etc. By selecting the options you want, a list will come up that have each of the options and so we chose our music and sounds using that, this way we made sure it was all of good quality and was exactly what we wanted. When we put in the clips of our documentary we had to first export them and change them into an audio file type. This way we would import into Garage Band easily. We then cropped the track down until we had the clip we wanted and then we did it again with the next clip. Using the precise editing we were able to cut the clips of audio as precisely as we needed them to be, which was important when sometimes we only wanted a few words of what the interviewee was saying which meant having to cut them off mid sentence so we wouldn t have been able to have half a word on the end of the clip, or an intake of breathe because it would have made the trail less professional. For our double page spread we used Adobe InDesign the quality and precision of the package is excellent, the same as with Photoshop. The software focuses on placing images into frames; this makes it so the images can be manipulated as individual pictures. This was particularly useful when manipulating some of the image to the right size and shape. The way the program handles certain processes like, Text wrap with all the different option, so you can have the image behind the text or have the text wrapped around it, and the way it handle colours. It s called Swatches and you can either chose one of the preset ones or you can chose double click on one and modify it to the colour you want. This way you can get it precisely the way you want it without a limited choice of colour.

Sarah Dalley

This toolbar changes depending on what you have selected, for example if you have selected an image you will get options such as Text Wrap where as if you had selected text, you would have options such as Columns

This toolbar contains lots of different toolbars, each with its own function. The two that we used were Pages and Swatches

This toolbar has several different features that we used to help create our double page spread, such as the Direct Selection Tool, and Text Tool.