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G.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

2(7), 2010, 3054-3077

FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM combined with “CRYPTOGRAPHY” for Authentication.
G.Prasanna Lakshmi*
Research Scholar ,Computer Science, GITAM University, Opposite Rushikonda Beach, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh-530045, India† prasannagandi@yahoo.com Phone No :9324230128

Abstract: Biometrics technology, which uses physical or behavioral characteristics to identify users, has come to attract increased attention as a means of reliable personal authentication that helps the identity of an actual user. Among various modalities of Biometrics, Fingerprints are known to have the longest history of actual use in law enforcement applications with proven performance. This project surveys the state of the art in fingerprint identification technology. In this project, a design schema of a security authentication system combined with fingerprint identification and public key cryptography is explored, and its specific security mechanism is discussed in detail. In our schema, fingerprint is added into user's private key and served a security parameter, such that user’s secret key is separated into secret key parameters and fingerprint, by secret splitting mechanism, which makes the secret key to be bounded with user's information. This will increase the security of secret key ultimately. In such an authentication system, the diplex authentication technologies --- fingerprint and smart card --- are adopted, and the user fingerprint needn’t to be transmitted during the authentication process, which can protect user's privacy effectively.

Keywords: Biometric Cryptography 1; Minutiae2; Encryption3. 1. Introduction.
Verifying the identity of an individual can be done through three main methods; what an individual has, what an individual knows or owns, and what an individual is. The first method is typically achieved through the use of a token, such as an identification card, badge, magnetic stripe, or Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag. The second method can be achieved through the use of a password, or personal identification number (PIN), and the third method can be accomplished through what an individual is, more formally known as biometric technologies. Similar to the first two authentication methods, biometric systems too contain vulnerabilities and are susceptible to attack. Some of these vulnerabilities are similar or even overlapping across all three authentication mechanisms. However, attacks specific to biometric systems focus on liveness detection of a human i.e. is this finger from a live sample, or a gelatin sample. There have been various documented attacks in the literature which examine the attack on the sensor . While understanding and preventing attacks on the sensor are interesting research topics in need of investigation, this project examines the global and local features of a live sample compared to that of a gelatin finger from the same user after acquisition on a commercially available biometric fingerprint sensor.

2. Biometric System Vulnerabilities
All security measures, including mechanisms for authenticating identity, have ways of being circumvented. Certainly the processes in working around these measures vary in difficulty based on effort and resources needed to carry out the deceptive act. Authentication mechanisms based on secrets are particularly vulnerable to "guessing" attacks. Token mechanisms that rely on the possession of an object, most notably a card or badge technology are most vulnerable to theft or falsified reproduction. Biometric technologies closely tie the authenticator to individual identity of the user through the use of physiological or behavioral characteristics. While this property is an added advantage over the previous two authentication mechanisms mentioned; it places a great emphasis on validating the integrity of the biometric sample acquired and transferred in the biometric system. Ratha, N., et al. provided a model identifying vulnerabilities in biometric systems [3]. An

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G.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 3054-3077 example of the threat model is shown below in Figure 1, and builds on the general biometric model outlined in Mansfield and Wayman [4].

Figure 1: Biometric Threat Model

2.1 FINGERPRINT FEATURES
In fingerprint features are classified into three classes. Level 1 features show macro details of the ridge flow shape, Level 2 features (minutiae point) are discriminative enough for recognition, and Level 3 features (pores) complement the uniqueness of Level 2 features.

 Global Ridge Pattern
A fingerprint is a pattern of alternating convex skin called ridges and concave skin called valleys with a spiralcurve-like line shape (Figure 1.1.5). There are two types of ridge flows: the pseudo-parallel ridge flows and high-curvature ridge flows which are located around the core point and/or delta point(s). This representation relies on the ridge structure, global landmarks and ridge pattern characteristics. The commonly used global fingerprint features are: • singular points – discontinuities in the orientation field. There are two types of singular points. A core is the uppermost of the innermost curving ridge.

Figure: Global Ridge Patterns

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the discriminative abilities of this representation are limited due to absence of singular points. It is formally defined in [32] and is extensively utilized for contextual filtering of fingerprint images. fingerprint classification. It is com. They are usually used for fingerprint registration.G.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. (a) A ridge ending minutia: (x. • Ridge orientation map – local direction of the ridge-valley structure. and minutia feature verification and filtering. image enhancement.monly utilized for classification. Figure: Minutia ridge patterns Figure: Minutiae relation model. is the minutia’s orientation. 2(7). This representation is sensitive to the quality of the fingerprint images [36]. is the minutia’s orientation (b) A ridge bifurcation minutia: (x. • Ridge frequency map – the reciprocal of the ridge distance in the direction per-pendicular to local ridge orientation. 3054-3077 And a delta point is the junction point where three ridge flows meet. ISSN: 0975-5462 3056 .y) are the minutia coordinates. 2010. However.y) are the minutia coordinates.

2010. This module re presents the implementation of a minutiae based approach to fingerprint ISSN: 0975-5462 3057 . 3054-3077 Block Diagrams Figure 2 : Fingerprint Enrollment & Authentication system 2.1 ACTUAL SYSTEM Fingerprints are the most widely used biometric feature for person identification and verification in the field of biometric identification.G.1.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7).

Enrollment Module 4. Authentication module. Fingerprint features database 3. An ideal scheme for combining physical identity (biometric features) with logical identity (key) Biometric features are permanently associated with the user and can be used for identification.   Protection of biometric data itself is a “privacy” issue Biometrics cannot be revoked Biometric cryptography:    Combining Biometrics and Cryptography Use biometrics to generate cryptographic keys Successful biometric verification generates correct key The major steps involved in “FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION”: 1.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. Fingerprint database 2.G. Figure 3: Steps in Fingerprint classification & recognition Figure: data collection is done using sensor Figure: preprocessing block output ISSN: 0975-5462 3058 . 2(7). 3054-3077 identification and verification with cryptography. 2010.

A time-scale representation of a digital signal is obtained using digital filtering techniques. multiplying by the signal. After the filtering. half of the samples can be eliminated according to the Nyquist’s rule.HL & HH frequency components Figure: Feature extraction 3. 2(7). respectively. since the signal now has a ISSN: 0975-5462 3059 . ThThis procedure can mathematically be expressed asis procedure can mathematically be expressed as : Having said that. The signal is passed through a series of high pass filters to analyze the high frequencies. DWT employs two sets of functions. LH. 3054-3077 Figure: after wavelet transformation Image is converted into LL. shifting the window in time. In the discrete case. called scaling functions and wavelet functions.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. and it is passed through a series of low pass filters to analyze the low frequencies. 2010. we now look how the DWT is actually computed: The DWT analyzes the signal at different frequency bands with different resolutions by decomposing the signal into a coarse approximation and detail information. and integrating over all times.FEATURE SELECTION  DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM : The main idea is the same as it is in the CWT. The decomposition of the signal into different frequency bands is simply obtained by successive high pass and low pass filtering of the time domain signal. which are associated with low pass and high pass filters.G. filters of different cutoff frequencies are used to analyze the signal at different scales. The original signal x[n] is first passed through a half band high pass filter g[n] and a low pass filter h[n]. Recall that the CWT is a correlation between a wavelet at different scales and the signal with the scale (or the frequency) being used as a measure of similarity. The continuous wavelet transform was computed by changing the scale of the analysis window.

G. This constitutes one level of decomposition and can mathematically be expressed as follows g Figure: Discrete Wavelet Transform Tree Figure: Divisions of image after D. the image has to enhanced. 2(7). 2010. The signal can therefore be subsampled by 2. ISSN: 0975-5462 3060 . 3.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. simply by discarding every other sample. 3054-3077 highest frequency of  /2 radians instead of  .T.1 FEATURE EXTRACTION It’s combining process of cropping & centralizing. Before going to perform these.W.

3054-3077 Centralizing Cropping Features Weiner filter Distortion of fingerprint is more serious issue: 1 A fingerprint image is a 2D image of a 3D finger 2 2D image is affected by pressure.G. Center . 2(7).Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. sweat. alignment and position of finger. 3 Applying weiner filter is more suitable. 2010. scratches. Figure: Cropping and Centralization ISSN: 0975-5462 3061 .

3054-3077 3.G. ISSN: 0975-5462 3062 . Wiener filter uses a pixel-wise adaptive Wiener method based on statistics estimated from a local neighborhood of each pixel. Later in that chapter.1. Wiener low-pass filters an intensity image that has been degraded by constant power additive noise. In the Digital Filters and Z Transforms chapter we introduced inverse filters as a way of undoing some instrumental effect to determine the "true" signal. PRIVACY & SECURITY ISSUES IN BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS: Figure: Privacy & Security issues in Fingerprint identification system. we saw that if we have a filter which has a large number of terms in it: then we can do "another implementation" of the same filter in terms of its inverse that may have fewer significant terms in it: 4.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.1 WIENER FILTER Wiener Filter Perform 2-D adaptive noise-removal filtering. 2(7). 2010.

Figure 1-1 is an illustration of the conventional encryption process.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. Figure: conventional encryption Figure: conventional decryption ISSN: 0975-5462 3063 .1 Conventional Cryptography In conventional cryptography.G. also called secret-key or symmetric-key encryption. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an example of a conventional cryptosystem that is widely employed by the Federal Government. 2(7). one key is used both for encryption and decryption. 2010. 3054-3077 4.

But you don't want to keep using the same key. I will take my name. you need to agree on some sort of key that you and he can use to encode/decode messages. and Db as discussed in the previous section. and decode it using Da. So he simply encodes the junk using my public key Ea and makes certain that it is my name. Your enemy's information can completely mislead you. especially with computers. It is based on the following idea: It is very simply to multiply numbers together. and Adleman. which only my friend knows how to decode. If you send them cryptographically. and someone has broken your code. So your enemy can pretend to be your friend and send you a message just like your friend as they both have access to the public key. Shamir.2 RSA ALGORITHM  Public Key Cryptography: One of the biggest problems in cryptography is the distribution of keys. If you hire some courier to deliver the new key. Da. and in fact. it is common to choose a small public exponent for the public key. In fact.  Certification There is. but it's easy to do. But it's also a pain to get keys to your friend. The junk characters are what I got by decoding my name. 2010. and I encode the whole message using Eb. entire groups of users can use the same public exponent. but in such a way that he is certain that the message is from me.1. where RSA are the initials of the three creators: Rivest. etcetera. you should probably change it with each message. You can encode any text for certification.) This makes encryption faster than decryption and verification faster than signing. or you will make it easier and easier for others to crack your cipher. If you mail them. 3054-3077 4. Eb.  RSA Encryption and Decryption: One commonly used cipher form is called RSA Encryption. since I am the only person who knows Da. (There are some restrictions on the prime factors of the modulus when the public exponent is fixed. In practical applications. I am the only person who can do this.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. he knows the message is from me. a problem with the scheme above. that is also expensive. that person will also have the next key. of course. If you have to go to Europe regularly to hand-deliver the next key. ISSN: 0975-5462 3064 . assuming that you both have the public and private keys Ea. When he receives it. and he will have a message with an additional piece of what looks to him like junk characters. Here's how to do it. Then I include that text in the real message I wish to send. But it can be very difficult to factor numbers. Since I am the only one who knows how to make text that will encode to my name. anyone can send a message to you. he will decode it using Db. you have to trust the courier.G. and pretend that it is an encoded message. Since the public keys are really public. Suppose you live in the United States and want to pass information secretly to your friend in Europe. Suppose I wish to send my friend a message that only he can read. each with a different modulus. So how can you be certain that a message that says it is from your friend is really from your friend? Here is one way to do it. they might be stolen. 2(7). If you truly want to keep the information secret.

such as methods based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). they are not as common due to their greater software complexity and the fact that they may actually be slower for typical key sizes. 3054-3077 With the typical modular exponentiation algorithms used to implement the RSA algorithm. In practice. “Fast multiplication” techniques. public key operations take O(k2) steps.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. Message (M) B If M equals M1 then identity of Entity A is proved Figure: authentication operation of RSA ISSN: 0975-5462 3065 . 2(7).G. where k is the number of bits in the modulus. 2010. however. require asymptotically fewer steps.  Encryption Operation of RSA Message(M) Public Key of B Encrypt operation Ciphertext Decrypt operation Ciphertext Private Key D A Ciphertext B Message(M) Figure: encryption operation of RSA • Entity A wants to send secret message(cipher text) to B – – Uses Public key of B and Encrypt operation to generate Ciphertext Sends Ciphertext to Entity B • Entity B wants to read the Message(M) sent by A – – Receives Ciphertext from A Uses its private key D and Decrypt operation to get Message(M)  Authentication Operation of RSA Message(M) Signing operation Public key E of A Signature(S) Verifying operation Message(M1) Signature(S) A Private key D Signature (S). and key generation takes O(k4) steps. private key operations take O(k3) steps.

Find P and Q. Your private key is the number D (reveal it to no one). p-1)=1. because there are no known easy methods of calculating D. then use that value of D. q-1) = 2. also E and (P-1)(Q-1) are relatively prime. E). gcd (dq. Signature(S) to Entity B Entity B wants to verify identity of A – – – Receives Signature(S) and Message(M) from A Verifying operation to generate Message(M1) from S Compares M1 and M to verify identity of A 5 . (P-1)(Q-1) can't be prime because it's an even number. D is the secret exponent. If P and Q are each 1024 bits long. but it must be odd. E does not have to be prime.ALGORITHM The algorithm can be given below. The decryption function is T = (C^D) mod PQ. PQ. Let p and q be very be two very large primes of nearly the same size such that gcd (p-1. or Q given only (PQ. T is the plaintext (a positive integer). 3.1) is evenly divisible by (P-1)(Q-1). 5. Compute D such that (DE . must be less than the modulus.G. 2010. Pick two random integers dp and dq such that gcd (dp. where C is the cipher text (a positive integer). The message being encrypted. T is the plaintext (a positive integer). 1. P. Mathematicians write this as DE = 1 (mod (P-1)(Q-1)). 2. Your public key is the pair (PQ. 2.g. 5. 3. and they call D the multiplicative inverse of E. This is easy to do simply find an integer X which causes D = (X(P-1)(Q-1) + 1)/E to be an integer. E is less than PQ. 3054-3077 • Entity A wants to prove its identity to B – – • Signing operation to generate Signature (S) sends Message(M). where C is the cipher text (a positive integer). T. 4. the sun will burn out before the most powerful computers presently in existence can factor your modulus into P and Q. Compute N = p*q. and ^ indicates exponentiation. 2(7).. two large (e. and Phi=(p-1)*(q-1).Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. E is the public exponent. E) (your public key). and ^ indicates exponentiation. 1024-bit) prime numbers. which means they have no prime factors in common. The encryption function is C = (T^E) mod PQ. Choose E such that E is greater than 1. q-1)=1 and dp==dq mod 2.1 RSA-CRT key generation 1. You can publish your public key freely. ISSN: 0975-5462 3066 . The product PQ is the modulus (often called N in the literature).

then Cdp==Cd (mod p). p-1) = gcd (5. 2(7). gcd (p-1. 5. 5. Choose p = 7. Since gcd (dp. q-1)=1. x=d’==(d-1)/2==(dq –1)/2 mod( q-1)/2. To find a solution to d==dp mod p-1. q-1) = gcd (3. M=Mq=Cdq(mod q)= Cd(mod q). which implies that d is odd and d-1 is even. gcd (d. Compute e=d-1 (mod Phi ). we now turn our attention to RSA-CRT decryption. We now illustrate the scheme using an over simplified example. Mp=Cdp(mod p)= Cd(mod p) and Mq=Cdq(mod q)= Cd(mod q). Since gcd (dp. (q-1)/2)=1. Similarly. ISSN: 0975-5462 3067 . dq = 3. d-1==dq –1 mod q-1. However. dq-1 are even integers.G. q-1) = 2. 2010. d==dq mod q-1. 3054-3077 4. p-1)=1 and d==dp mod p-1. the respective moduli have to be relatively prime in pairs for a solution to necessarily exist. p-1)=1. We find a solution to d-1==dp –1 mod p-1. Find a d such that d==dp mod p-1 and d==dq mod q-1. gcd (dp .6) = 1. gcd (dq . We have gcd (d. Theorem If C is not divisible by p and dp==d mod p-1. Let dp = 5. dp. phi (N) = (p-1)*(q-1) = 6*10 = 60. e> and the private key is <p.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.10) = 1. Using Chinese Remainder Theorem we find d such that d = (2*d’) +1. q-1)=1. N = p*q = 7*11 = 77.1)/2. Then using Chinese Remainder Theorem. we find a solution for M=Mp(mod p)= Cd(mod p). We observe that p-1 and q-1 are even and that we cannot directly apply the Chinese Remainder Theorem. Hence gcd (d. The public key is <N. dq>. Let M be the plaintext and C the cipher text. gcd ((p. q. To apply the Chinese Remainder Theorem in step 4.1.2 RSA-CRT Decryption Since RSA-CRT encryption is same as that of the standard RSA encryption procedure. For decryption we find 1. we have gcd (d. e can be computed. we have x=d’== (d-1)/2==(dp –1)/2 mod( p-1)/2. essentially dp. q = 11. 2. By applying the cancellation law and taking the common factor 2 out. p-1)=1. phi (N))=1 and by step 5. dq are odd integers and dp-1. p-1)=1 and gcd (dq.

we find M = Mp mod p = cd mod p. Let the plaintext M=5. M1 =15/3 = 5. Therefore d’ = 11 and d = (2*d’)+1 = (2*11) +1 = 23. d-1==3-1 mod 10. ISSN: 0975-5462 3068 . We have. Now we find. (d-1)/2==(3-1)/2 mod (10/2).Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 5*N1==1 mod 3. d’ = x = 2*5*2 + 1*3*2 = 26(mod 15) = 11. d==3 mod 10. M = 3*5 = 15. 1. On applying the cancellation law.10) . d = 23. M2 = 15/5=3. We cannot apply the Chinese Remainder theorem since gcd (6. e*23==1 mod 60. x = d’= (d-1)/2== 1 mod 5. 2010.G. 3*N2==1 mod 5. 3054-3077 We are to find d such that d==5 mod 6. 2(7). e = 47. hence we convert the system of congruences in such a manner that the cancellation law can be applied Therefore. N2=2. x = d’= (d-1)/2== 2 mod 3. Mq = 33 mod 11= 27 mod 11 = 5. Using the Chinese Remainder Theorem. Solving using Chinese Remainder Theorem. For decryption. (d-1)/2==(5-1)/2 mod (6/2). we have d-1==5-1 mod 6. C=547 mod 77 = 3. M = Mq mod q = cd mod q. N1=2. e such that e*d==1 mod phi(N). Mp = 35 mod 7 = 243 mod 7 = 5.

3 CRT to Multi-Prime RSA: Based on the property of the RSA algorithm. the modulus S1=M D mod p S2=M D mod q By applying Fermat’s theorem. the modulus N is the product of large prime numbers. M1 = 77/7 = 11. 5. 7*N2==1 mod 11. In multi prime CRT and RSA we have S=MD mod (p×q×r) We can obtain S1=MD1 mod p S2=MD2 mod q S3=MD3 mod r. Thus the size of the exponents is reduced to half of the original size in 2prime RSA. Thus x = M = 5. Where. M2 = 77/11 = 7. D1=Dmod(p-1) D2=Dmod(q-1) D3=Dmod(r-1) ISSN: 0975-5462 3069 . we can obtain S1=M D 1 mod p S2=M D 2 mod q where D1=D mod (p-1) and D2=D mod(q-1). N2=8. Thus we can use Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) to accelerate the computation. as desired.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.G. 11*N1==1 mod 7. In this specific example (Mp and Mq)=5 is a common solution and it is not necessary to further apply the Chinese Remainder Theorem. N1=2. 2(7). 3054-3077 M = 7*11 = 77. Applying CRT we can compute the results S as S = (S1c1q+S2c2p) mod N Where c1=q-1 mod p c2=p-1 mod q. In 2-prime CRT and 2-prime RSA. 2010.1. x = 5*11*2 + 5*7*8 = 390 mod 77 =5. 2 The size of p and q about half of N.

1024-bit 2prime and multi-prime RSA can be done with 512-bit and 341-bit exponents and modulus respectively. 3054-3077 We can apply the CRT to retrive S as S=(S1c1qr+ S2c2pr+ S3c3pq) Where C1=(rq)-1 mod p C2=(pr)-1 mod q C3=(pq)-1 mod r Hence the size of the exponents is further reduced to one third the original. Based on above analysis.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7). 7 Results and Conclusions GUI ISSN: 0975-5462 3070 . 2010.G.

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2010.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. Considering the growing phase of the present mobile market. 2(7). fingerprint identification mouses. The fingerprint markets are classified as follows: Figure: market applications of fingerprint identification As the advanced technology enables even more compact fingerprint sensor size. the range of application is extended to the mobile market. 3054-3077 8 APPLICATIONS Markets for fingerprint technology include entrance control and door-lock applications. its potential is the greatest of all application markets. and many others. ISSN: 0975-5462 3075 .G. fingerprint mobile phones.

G. 2010.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. then there may be a chance of a bad user tampering or corrupting the data. Figure: cryptography in system security ISSN: 0975-5462 3076 . 3054-3077  SYSTEM SECURITY: Figure: role of bad user If there is only fingerprint or any of the biometric technology is used. 2(7). so we are combining the fingerprint technology with cryptography which results in a totally secured system.

“Sheep. 3. Goats. Dit-Yan et al. Maltoni. ISSN: 0975-5462 3077 . eds. New York: Springer. D. 16th Int'l Conf.” Computer. Lambs and Wolves: A Statistical Analysis of Speaker Performance. 1351-1354. Maio. Sept. Int'l Conf. [2] R. Cappelli.” Proc. Mar.. [5] Y. Oct. D. [4] R. 2000. Bolle. pp. Language and Speech Processing. Moon. no.” Proc. Nov. 1090-1104. 16th Int'l Conf. and S. Martin. “Synthetic Fingerprint-Image Generation. Maio. 744-747. 15th Int'l Conf. Cappelli. D. 2000. no. 3054-3077 The problem faced by the single biometric system is solved by combining the system with cryptography which is yielding many advantages & applications in real time. N. [3] R. D. References [1] R. Przybocky.J.L. 475-478. 2002. Wilson.” Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. Prabhakar. S. 2010. Ratha. vol. Pattern Recognition. “Synthetic Fingerprint-Database Generation. “SVC2004: First International Signature Verification Competition. and D. 2003. Maltoni. A. 2(7). C. and D.J. pp. 2002. Pattern Recognition. Phillips. vol. Advances in Pattern Recognition. 369-376. 22. 10.” Proc. “The FERET Evaluation Methodology for Face-Recognition Algorithms.K. D. Pankanti. Maltoni. 33. “Modelling Plastic Distortion in Fingerprint Images. [7] S.Prasanna Lakshmi / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.A. 2001. “An Introduction to Evaluating Biometric Systems. pp. Phillips.” Proc. Rauss. and P. Doddington et al. “Synthetic Fingerprint Generation. A. Feb. 1622. Maltoni. vol. Pattern Recognition.” Proc. Cappelli. pp..J.G. and D. July 2004. [8] P. Maio. “Structure in Errors: A Case Study in Fingerprint Verification. and R.K. Biometric Authentication. Second Int'l Conf. pp. 2. Erol. pp. Cappelli. [6] G. Maio. Jain. Int'l Conf. Aug.” Proc. and M. H. Rizvi. 2000.M. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. A. 1998.” IEEE Trans. [9] P.