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UNIVERSITY OF SUNDERLAND Computing, Engineering and Technology TERMS OF REFERENCE THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN ZAMBIAN

EDUCATION SYSTEM BY BRIAN JOHNSON ONDIEGE Stud no.099076430 Abstract Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the ability to support learning in a number of ways. It can facilitate communication, increase access to information, provide greater access to learning for students with special educational needs, model and simulate a range of scientific phenomena, and generally motivate students, develop problem solving capabilities and aid deeper understanding. However one of the challenges facing third world countries like Zambia is development of strategies and mechanisms necessary to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technologies for development in the educational sector. Some of the problems range from lack of proper infrastructure to lack of skilled human resources to utilise the ICT facilities in schools. This paper will examine the use of information and communications technology in the Zambian Education System what problems most schools are facing regarding its use and how they are finding solutions if any to those problems, what has been achieved and what are the future plans for Zambia in Information and Communication Technology. 1. Background, Sponsor and Problem

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can support learning in a number of ways. It can facilitate communication, increase access to information, provide greater access to learning for students with special educational needs, model and simulate a range of scientific phenomena, and generally motivate students, develop problem solving capabilities and aid deeper understanding. For students with special educational needs, the computer can provide access to learning in new ways and which for many were previously inaccessible. One of the major development challenges confronting Third-World countries is to develop the capacities, strategies, and mechanisms necessary to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technologies for development in the educational sector. As the ICT facilities expand reaching out more parts of the world, it is likely to touch almost every business and home. As it sweeps almost effortlessly into the daily routine of our activities, the society is developing a pervasive dependence on availability of ICT facilities. Everywhere we look today, the ICT such as the Internet matters. Companies, government departments, schools and individuals around the world are using the Internet to transform every aspect of their business. In the course of the last few years it has become evident that ICT in general, and particularly the Internet, is fundamentally changing the way we work and live and is helping to bring down barriers between countries. Reducing the digital divide means levelling the playing field for all as it has the power to affect society as a whole, and in very structured ways. For many schools in developing countries, ICT such as the Internet are tools that will

This research will concentrate on establishing the extent to which ICT is used in the Zambian education system also the use of information and communications technology in the Zambian Education System. Currently according to Shafika Isaacs (2007) Zambia has a modest ICT infrastructure that is concentrated in urban centres. what problems most schools are facing regarding its use and how they are finding solutions if any to those problems. .5 per 1 0. Internet can promote distance learning and make it possible to continue with education without necessary visiting the institution. the above-mentioned scenario is not easily achieved as is the case in developed countries. The possibilities ICTs offer have the potential to transform the organisation structures of schooling.023 per 1. what are the benefits of using ICT. shortwave 4 One of the major problems facing developing countries like is Zambia is development of strategies and mechanisms necessary to take advantage of the opportunities offered by Information and Communication Technology for development in the educational sector. and in very structured ways. As was the case with older technologies such as the radio and television. FM 5. Another problem is lack of proper infrastructure to lack of skilled human resources to utilise the ICT facilities in schools.000 persons 231 per 1. In the course of the last few years it has become evident that ICT in general. Reducing the digital divide means levelling the playing field for all as it has the power to affect society as a whole. what problems are affecting its use and what is expected in the future. For many schools in developing countries. Internet is not only flexible but also fast. is fundamentally changing the way we work and live and is helping to bring down barriers between countries. look at how ICT has impacted (changed peoples' lives).000 persons 9 AM 19 . what has been achieved and what are the future plans for Zambia. Internet can promote distance learning and make it possible to continue with education without necessary visiting the institution. whether in terms of classroom activities or administration. This paper will also research on the extent to which ICT is assisting students with disabilities like the deaf and the blind in Zambian education system. ICT such as the Internet are tools that will continue to prove of tremendous value.000 persons 464 per 1 16. Internet is not only flexible but also fast. As a bearer of information. It is felt that they can increase not only the effectiveness of the educational process but also its overall efficiency. and particularly the Internet. The following is a table showing state of national ICT infrastructure in Zambia Fixed-line subscribers (2004) Mobile subscribers (2004) Dial-up subscribers (2004) Broadband subscribers (2004) Internet users (2004) Television broadcast stations (2002) Radio stations (2001) 91. As a bearer of information. the new ICTs are considered to have tremendous potential for enhancing the teaching-learning process. Due to various problems associated with less developed countries like Zambia. Zambia underwent a process of liberalisation of its telecommunications and broadcast sectors in the early 1990s.7 per 1.continue to prove of tremendous value.

what cannot be improved and how to successfully implement an ICT strategy in their respective area of interest. with problems of human resource they will mean investment in training more trainers on how to use ICT and ensure there are no problems of understaffing. 2. This research proposes the following research technique tools • Observation Observation is a very important technique in carrying out any research this will mean travelling to different school visiting different stakeholders and seeing what is happening and coming up with recommendations • Interviews Key people will be interviewed on how ICT is being used what challenges they are facing. policy makers include . Examine the roles played by the policy makers on the use of ICTs in schools.2. 3. Focus of the Investigation and the Proposed Methodology This research is going to focus on lack of proper infrastructure to lack of skilled human resources to utilise ICT facilities in schools and how ICT can assist students with disabilities like. Examine current use of Information and Communications technology in Zambian educational system. This research proposes coming up with a detailed report on how the Zambians can properly utilise ICT. what can be improved. Interviews will be conducted at different days and at different time intervals according to the way the interview has been scheduled with different stakeholders • Questionnaires Questionnaires play a vital role in any key research especially in areas where the population is densely populated. how to integrate ICT in their education systems and they how to improve on the infrastructure that they have. In cases of ignorance awareness is very important this can be achieved through conducting free workshops and seminars to create awareness to the public. Here are some of the aims and objectives: Objectives 1. This will mean scheduling meetings with them especially if they are senior people a particular organization also students. Aims and Objectives The aim of this research is to check on the extent to which ICT is being utilised in the Zambian Education sector and come up with necessary recommendations where necessary. This report will also contain recommendations on how they can succeed towards the full implementation of ICT in their education system they will have to invest on ICT either through creating awareness on how to use ICT. Training could either be conducted in house that is trainers being trained by professionals in their respective places of work or they could enrol their trainers on ICT proficiency courses in colleges offering ICT. management of the schools and also the government who come up with rules and regulations of how ICT is to be used. This research proposes mobilization of other stakeholders like non-governmental and governmental agencies in the investment of ICT in the education sector.

5. 4. 4. Evaluate other services such as the role played by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). cyber cafes and tele-centres in promoting the use of ICTs in schools. Lack of up to date figures on population. 4. students. With observation you can be able to see what is happening on the ground going to different schools and observing which will be conducted both in urban and rural schools by checking on how ICT is being utilised. 2. It will be considered successful if the following are met: 1. 1. Project Outcomes The main outcome of this research is to come up with a comprehensive report on how the Zambian government can take full advantage of the opportunities that ICT has to offer in the education sector and come up with necessary recommendations on how to improve on the current framework. schools. 5. Therefore limited budget might be a major constraint. research papers is also a constraint. 3. Evaluate and establish the future of the ICTs in Zambian education system. the capital city of Zambia both urban and rural to interview teachers and students and also administer a questionnaire. 5. Another key research technique is Interviews key stakeholders like the government. Evaluate the services being provided by the cooperating partners such as the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) who fund many projects including ICT projects and others in introducing ICTs in Zambian schools. 2. If the students are familiar with ICT 4. 6. Improving the operations of the school administration. 7. Being in a the third world country. It’s improving the lives of the students in their fields of study It’s efficient. 3. 6. Constraints The research will require travelling to selected schools especially in Lusaka. school going age. 5. Time as the research is carried out on part-time basis. Establish any problems hindering the growing and use of the ICTS in the Zambian education system Make recommendations on developments and promotion of ICTs in the Zambian Educational System. non-governmental organizations. Information technology equipments available in schools from the statistics office and other relevant institutions Some schools or teachers might not be willing to give out information. teachers and some top management in the ICT sector with interview one can be able to tell what is happening from word of mouth and be able to come up with conclusive recommendations. problems of accessing current reference materials in terms of books and past . Proposed Evaluation Observation is a key research technique that will be used to evaluate what the requirements of the Zambian Education system. If all the staff teaching ICT are conversant with it.3.

Overhead projectors are very important when conducting seminars with large audience or schools with many Shafika Isaacs (2007) Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Zambia country Report: ICT in Education in Zambia . 8. 4. 1. 6. 3. 2. 7. 9. 5. References 10.7. Resources Personal Computer with access to the Internet Microsoft Word Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Excel Microsoft Project Reference Materials Financial resources Stationary Officers from relevant organisations students can use overhead projector to provide lectures to students 8.