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WWW Seminar November 10, 2009

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Power Quality and Harmonic Mitigation

Agenda
● Overview ● Harmonic Basics ● IEEE 519 ● Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods ● AccuSine® PCS ● Applications & Installation Notes ● Specification Recommendations ● Summary

Schneider Electric

-Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009

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Schneider Power Quality Correction Group

● Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Filtering:
● Capacitor Systems ●LV & MV up to 15 kV ●Fixed, Standard and Detuned Auto Banks ● AccuSine PCS

● Voltage Regulation:
● Hybrid VAR Compensator ● Electronic Sag Fighter

Schneider Electric

-Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009

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5.3.4. ●p = number of pulses or rectifiers in circuit 3rdHarmonic 7thHarmonic 5thHarmonic Fundamental Harmonic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 : 19 Frequency 60Hz 120Hz 180Hz 240Hz 300Hz 360Hz 420Hz : 1140Hz Sequence + 0 0 0 0 + : + Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 4 .Harmonic Basics Resultant Waveform ● What are harmonics? ● Proliferated by power semiconductor devices ●Converts power (AC to DC) ● A harmonic is a component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental power line frequency ●Characteristic harmonics are the predominate harmonics seen by the power distribution system ● Predicted by the following equation: ●Hc = np +/. etc.2.1 ●hC = characteristic harmonics to be expected ●n = an integer from 1.

1 Hc = characteristic harmonic order present n = an integer p = number of pulses Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 Hn 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 Harmonics present by rectifier design Type of rectifier 1 phase 2 phase 3 phase 3 phase 3 phase 4-pulse 4-pulse 6-pulse 12-pulse 18-pulse x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 5 .Multi-pulse Converters Hc = np +/.

Harmonic Basics ● Nonlinear loads draw it ● Example: 6-Pulse VFD Converter DC bus Inverter M A B C Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 6 .

Harmonic Basics ● Why a concern? ● Current distortion ●Added heating. reduced capacity in : – Transformers – Conductors and cables ●Heating effect proportional to harmonic order squared ●Nuisance tripping of electronic circuit breakers (thermal overload) ●Blown fuses ●Detrimental to generators – Heating of windings ●Detrimental to UPS – UPS can’t supply the current Ih Loads Vh = Ih x Zh Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 7 .

Harmonic Basics ● Voltage distortion ● Interference with other electronic loads ●Faulting to destruction ● Creates harmonic currents in linear loads ● Generator regulators can’t function ●Shut downs Ih ● Not compatible with standard PF caps ● Potential resonance condition ●Excessive voltage ● Overheating of PF correction capacitors ● Tripping of PF protection equipment ● Shutdown / damage to electronic equipment Loads Vh = Ih x Zh Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 8 .

Total Power Factor TPF = (DPF) x (Distortion factor) KW DPF = KVAf = Cos  1 1 + THD(I)2 Distortion Factor = = Cos  TPF = Total or true power factor DPF = Displacement power factor Distortion Factor = Harmonic power factor Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 9 .

7433 = .95 ● THD(I) = 90% ●(no DC choke & no input line reactor) ● Distortion Factor = 1 1 + .7433 ● TPF = .95 x .7061 Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 10 .Total Power Factor Example ● Variable frequency drive (PWM type) ● DPF = .92 = .

THDv.How are harmonics handled today? ● Mixed bag of objectives ●Basis of compliance is mixed – THDi. TDD? – IEEE 519-1992? ●Where is PCC? ●What level of harmonics is to be attained? ●How to obtain compliance? – Sometimes defined – Sometimes open ended ● Validation ●Poorly defined ●By each equipment vendor ●No ‘Total Responsibility’ for harmonics ● Has the User been protected where it matters – inside the facility Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 11 .

g. Can’t operate on backup generators/UPS ● Force the IEEE 519 discussion to the utility PCC ● Many types of solutions are not compatible ● Each manufacturer does his own thing without regard to other solutions ● Approaches are for ‘my’ equipment only ● ‘My’ simulation is for ‘my’ equipment only – I can’t include the others ● ‘Total’ solution not achieved ● User has system that exceeds specification objectives ● Consulting engineers can’t get overall compliance Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 12 .Typical Present Situation ● Specifications direct manufacturers of nonlinear loads to comply within equipment specifications ● Manufacturers of nonlinear loads have other concerns ● Sell standard equipment at competitive prices ●Leads to minimized harmonic solutions ●Leads to misleading information about harmonic performance ●Leads to operational difficulties – e.

2 ● Defines PCC (point of common coupling) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 13 .3 for systems < 69 kV ● Defines limits for voltage notches caused by SCR rectifiers – Table 10.ANSI Standard IEEE 519-1992 ● Issues addressed: ● THD(V) delivered by utility to user (Chapter 11) ●THD(V) must be < 5% [< 69 KV systems] ● Defines the amount of TDD a user can cause (Chapter 10) ●Based upon size of user in relation to power source ●Table 10.

IEEE 519-1992 ● Defines current distortion as TDD ● Total Demand Distortion ●Largest amplitude of harmonic current occurs at maximum load of nonlinear device – if electrical system can handle this it can handle all lower amplitudes ●Always referenced to full load current ●Effective meaning of current distortion ● Defines voltage distortion as THD ● Total harmonic voltage distortion ● Does not use THD(I) ● Total harmonic current distortion ● Instrument measurement (instantaneous values) ● Uses measured load current to calculate THD(I) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 14 .

28 32.00 246.80 Measured Fund I.21 27.9% 2.00 424.97 13.70 767. TDD decreases while THD(I) increases.8% 4.58 111.0% 6.63 424.7% 3.68 592. Harm I.3% 1.57 34.20 16.00 35.00 592.68 836.23 21.0% TDD 3.IEEE 519-1992 • TDD and THD(I) are not the same except at 100% load • As load decreases.4% 2.9% 12.00 836.00 767. rms rms 936.8% 1.00 111.1% 4.32 THD(I) 3.4% 15 Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 .8% 3.2% 4. rms Full load 936.53 246.6% 5. • Example: Total I.

3% 0.5% 1.2% 7.0% 4.0% Isc = short circuit current capacity of source Iload = demand load current (fundamental) TDD = Total Demand Distortion (TDD = Total harmonic current distortion measured against fundamental current at demand load.0% 15.5% 5.0% 1.0% 6.5% h>=35 0.IEEE 519-1992 Table 10.0% 12.0% 11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35 2.7% 1.0% 2.4% TDD 5.) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 16 .0% 1.0% 20.0% 8.3 Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (<69 kV) I sc / Iload <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000 <11 4.0% 10.0% 1.0% 12.0% 7.5% 0.0% 0.0% 15.5% 4.5% 2.5% 0.6% 3.5% 5.

Harmonic Standards • Most harmonic problems are not at the PCC with utility. Typically harmonic problem occur: • Within a facility • With generator & UPS operation • Where nonlinear loads are concentrated Need to protect the user from self by moving the harmonic mitigation requirements to where harmonic loads are located • Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 17 .

Agenda I. Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Specification Recommendations VI. AccuSine® PCS IV. Summary Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 18 . Harmonic Basics II. Applications V.

Harmonic Mitigation Methods ● Typically applied per device ● Line reactors/DC bus chokes/isolation transformers ● 5th harmonic filters (trap filters) ● Broadband filters ● Multi-pulse transformers/converters ● Active front end (AFE) converter ● System solution ● Active harmonic filter Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 19 .

*** Increasing short circuit capacity (lower impedance source or larger KVA capacity) raises TDD but lowers THD(V).1.40% TDD 18 . ^ Can be said for all methods listed.8% TDD Typical Price Multiplier* Cost of transformer and installation change out 0.65 .0.85 1.2.15% TDD 8 .0 .20 .5 * Price compared to a standard 6-pulse VFD.1.22% TDD 8 .Harmonic mitigation methods . .1.50 1.50% TDD 30 .15 1.1.05 .(Applied per VFD) Solution Increase short circuit capacity C-Less Technology Impedance (3% LR or 3% DC choke) 5th Harmonic filter Broadband filter 12-pulse rectifiers 18-pulse rectifiers Active front end converter Advantage Reduces THD(V) ●Lower TDD ●Simplified design ●Less cost ●Low cost adder ●Simple Reduces 5th & total TDD Reduces TDD (thru 13th) ●Reduces TDD ●Reliable ●Reduces TDD ●Reliable ●Very good TDD ●Regeneration possible Disadvantage ●Increases TDD ●Not likely to occur** ●Compliance is limited ●Application limited ●Size limited ●Compliance difficult ●Does not meet harmonic levels at higher orders^ ●Large heat losses ●Application limited ●Large footprint/heavy ●Good for >100 HP ●Large footprint/heavy ●Good for >100 HP ●Large footprint/heavy ●Very high cost per unit ●High heat losses Typical % TDD Dependent upon SCR*** 30 .90 .1. ** Utilities and users are not likely to change their distribution systems.25 .15 % TDD 5 .65 .45 1.85 < 5% TDD 2.95 1.

95 1. *** Increasing short circuit capacity (lower impedance source or larger KVA capacity) raises TDD but lowers THD(V).65 .85 1.45 AccuSine 1.85 AccuSine < 5% TDD 2.2.1.15% TDD 8 . ^ Can be said for all methods listed.1.0.1.0 . ** Utilities and users are not likely to change their distribution systems.20 .15 1.8% TDD Typical Price Multiplier* Cost of transformer and installation change out 0.22% TDD 8 .05 .Harmonic mitigation methods Solution Increase short circuit capacity C-Less Technology Impedance (3% LR or 3% DC choke) 5th Harmonic filter Broadband filter 12-pulse rectifiers 18-pulse rectifiers Active front end converter Advantage Reduces THD(V) ●Lower TDD ●Simplified design ●Less cost ●Low cost adder ●Simple Reduces 5th & total TDD Reduces TDD (thru 13th) ●Reduces TDD ●Reliable ●Reduces TDD ●Reliable ●Very good TDD ●Regeneration possible Disadvantage ●Increases TDD ●Not likely to occur** ●Compliance is limited ●Application limited ●Size limited ●Compliance difficult ●Does not meet harmonic levels at higher orders^ ●Large heat losses ●Application limited ●Large footprint/heavy ●Good for >100 HP ●Large footprint/heavy ●Good for >100 HP ●Large footprint/heavy ●Very high cost per unit ●High heat losses Typical % TDD Dependent upon SCR*** 30 .90 . Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 21 .65 .50% TDD 30 .40% TDD 18 .15 % TDD 5 .5 * Price compared to a standard 6-pulse VFD.1.

Inductors/Transformers/DC Bus Chokes
Description: Converter-applied inductors or isolation transformers. ●Pros:
● ● ● ● Inexpensive & reliable Transient protection for loads 1st Z yields big TDD reduction (90% to 35% w/3% Z) Complimentary to active harmonic control

●Cons:
● Limited reduction of TDD at equipment terminals after 1st Z ● Reduction dependent on source Z

Schneider Electric

-Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009

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5th Harmonic Filter (Trap Filter)
• Inductor (Lp) and Capacitor (C) provide low impedance source for a single frequency (5th)
• Must add more tuned filters to filter more frequencies Zs Ls Lp C Load

• Inductor Ls required to detune filter from electrical system and other filters • If Ls not present, filter is sink for all 5th harmonics in system • If Ls not present, resonance with other tuned filters possible • Injects leading reactive current (KVAR) at all times – may not need

Vs

Schneider Electric

-Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009

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Broadband Filters
L L Lp C

~
Source

Load

• Mitigates up to 13th order or higher • Each inductor (L) > 8% impedance • V drops ~ 16% at load • Trapezoidal voltage to load •Can only be used on diode converters • Prevents fast current changes (only good for centrifugal loads) • When generators are present, re-tuning may be required • Capacitor (C) designed to boost V at load to proper level (injects leading VARs) • Physically large • High heat losses (>5%) • Series device

Schneider Electric

-Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009

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Multi-Pulse Drives Description: Drives/UPS with two (12 pulse) or three (18 pulse) input bridges fed by a transformer with two or three phase shifted output windings. ●Pros: ● Reduces TDD to 10% (12 pulse) & 5% (18 pulse) at loads ● Reliable ●Cons: ● ● ● ● ● High installation cost with external transformer Large footprint (even w/autotransformer) Series solution with reduction in efficiency One required for each product Cannot retrofit Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 25 .

Harmonic mitigation methods VFD mitigation topologies 6-Pulse converter DC Link Reactor 12-Pulse converter + A 18-Pulse converter Multipulse Transformer A Line Reactor 9 1 2 Rectifier Assembly DC+ DC Bus Load B C 8 3 M AC Line Delta Wye 4 7 - C 6 5 B DC- Transformer Tertiary Delta “C-less” or 3% reactance min (if included). simplified cabling Externally mounted 3 winding transformer. complicated A 100 0 Large footprint.0s 0. more wire and cabling.02s 18 pulse Current waveform distorted TDD 30% to 40% with 3% reactor (depending on network impedance) Current slightly distorted TDD 8% to 15% (depending on network impedance) Current wave form good TDD 5% to 7% (depending on network impedance) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 26 . small footprint. more steel & copper (losses) A 100 0 A 100 0 6 pulse 12 pulse 0.

Active Front End (AFE) Converters ● Used in UPS and VFD ● Replaces diode converter with IGBT converter ● The hype Input Filter Required to limit THDv to <5% A C S o u r c e ● Permits current smoothing on AC lines (< 5% TDD) ● Permits 4-quadrant operation of VFD ● Maintains unity TOTAL PF ● Meets all harmonics specs around the world VFD IGBT DC Bus IGBT Filter Schneider Electric Converter Inverter AC Motor -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 27 .

AFE Converters Significant harmonics above 50th order American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) requires examination to 100th order when AFE applied Higher frequencies yield higher heating of current path & potential resonance with capacitors Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 28 .

AFE Converters ● Cons ● Larger and more expensive than 6 pulse drives ●Approximately twice the size & price ● Mains voltage must be free of imbalance and voltage harmonics ●Generates more harmonics ● Without mains filter THD(V) can reach 40% ● Requires short circuit ratio > 40 at PCC ● Switched mode power supplies prohibited ● Capacitors prohibited on mains ● IGBT & SCR rectifiers prohibited on same mains ●No other nonlinear loads permitted 200 KVA rated AFE VFD PWM VFD DC Drive PF caps 100 KVA rated Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 29 .

Conventional Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Harmonic Basics II. AccuSine® PCS IV. Specification Recommendations VI.Agenda I. Summary Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 30 . Applications V.

The System Solution ● The System Solution: ● Single point of responsibility for the ‘total’ harmonics ● One specification for harmonic definitions ● One validation responsibility and guarantee ● Standard nonlinear products ● 3% input line reactors on most non-linear devices. 3% DC bus choke okay for PWM VFD ● Limits rms current at load for diode rectifiers ● Avoids interaction with snubber circuit for SCR rectifier ● Best cost and performance ● Compatible with all nonlinear products ● Compliance with harmonic specifications ● Controls harmonic levels with facility Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 31 .

Schneider Electric’s Solution ● AccuSine Power Correction System (PCS) ● Active harmonic filter ● Provides 5% TDD per load or system ● Cancels everything from 2nd to 50th harmonic order ● Used on any/all nonlinear load ● Active reactive current correction ● Does not use PF capacitors ● Used to correct Displacement PF ● In conjunction with or independent of harmonic control (dual mode) ● High-speed reactive power Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 32 .

UPS. AccuSine and 6 pulse drive combination has lower initial and operating costs than 18 pulse drives ● For installations with redundant drives. DC power supplies ● Provides DPF correction ● More cost effective for multiple loads ● For two or more drives. size AccuSine for the operating drives only ● Saves space ● Lower heat losses ● Not critical to operation ● Parallel connected Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 33 .Active Harmonic Filter System Solution ● Applied to one or many nonlinear loads ● VFD. DC drives. UV.

300-500 HP sizes favor 18-P VFD Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 34 .Comparison of 18-P VFD to AccuSine PCS + standard VFD ● Footprint required ● AccuSine PCS+ Std VFD less than 18-P VFD (w/autotransformer) for all conditions ● Heat losses ● AccuSine PCS+ Std VFD less than 18-P VFD ●Exception at single units of 50-75 HP. AccuSine PCS + Std VFD always beats 18-P VFD ● If only one VFD involved. advantage 18-P VFD ● Less costly to operate AccuSine PCS+ Std VFD ● Less site cooling required with AccuSine PCS + Std VFD ● Price (first cost) ● When more than one VFD.

AccuSine Active Harmonic Filter Is Ia CT Il ~ Source L AHF •Parallel connected •Is + Ia = Il AHF Load •Ia includes 2nd to 25/50th harmonic current •Is <5% TDD Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 35 .

AccuSine® PCS Power Diagram IGBT Module C C C Pre-charge Contactor Fuse E E E S1 S3 S5 AC Lines Fuse Fuse Line Inductor DC Bus Capacitors + C Inductor C C C Filter Board S2 E E E S4 S6 Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 36 .

System Solution AccuSine® PCS Sizing Example ● A 125 HP variable torque 6-pulse VFD with 3% LR ● Required AHF filtering capability = 47.5 = 285 amps) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 37 .5 amperes ● Two 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR ● Required AHF size = 84.4 amps ● Three 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR ● Required AHF size = 113.6 amps ● (not 6 x 47.5 amps ● Six 125 HP VT VFD w/3% LR ● Required AHF size = 157.

AccuSine Performance At VFD Terminals AccuSine injection Source current Order Fund 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 TDD AS off AS on % I fund % I fund 100.478% 31.438% 0.293% 0.67% 38 Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 .038% 0.325% 0.660% 0.28% 2.337% 0.052% 3.740% 0.427% 0.000%100.904% 0.243% 0.000% 0.367% 0.259% 0.068% 0.480% 0.281% 0.679% 0.261% 0.348% 0.590% 35.177% 0.489% 0.674% 11.042% 0.521% 0.284% 0.170% 1.120% 1.464% 2.409% 2.397% 1.769% 1.238% 0.815% 0.435% 0.420% 0.800% 0.279% 1.710% 4.297% 7.347% 0.282% 0.639% 0.267% 0.263% 2.588% 0.240% 0.

700 HP Drive – AccuSine ON – OFF Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 39 .

700 HP Drive – AccuSine ON – OFF Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 40 .

700 HP Drive – AccuSine ON – OFF Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 41 .

700 HP Drive – AccuSine ON – OFF Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 42 .

700 HP Drive – AccuSine ON – OFF Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 43 .

Applications ● Most common – VFD sites ● Centrifugal pumps and fans ●Pumping Stations – Potable – Wastewater ●Wastewater Plants ●Water Purification (potable) ● Disinfectant Systems ●UV systems (ultraviolet) – Electronic ballasts – 3 ●Ozone generators (SCR power supplies) ● Industrial – in-rush support Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 44 .

AccuSine PCS Specifications ● Universal Application ● 208 – 480 VAC ● No user action required to set ● Highly customized transformers for higher voltages (to 15 kV) ● 50 or 60 Hz ● ● ● ● Fuse protected (200.400V Logic ride through – 1 to 10 minutes Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 45 .000 AIC) UL 508 & CSA approved CE EMC .

Specification Discussion ● Write a specification in Section 16 for an active harmonic filter ● Specify any points of concern for insertion of AHF ●Size of AHF ●Located per electrical bus ● Specify total responsibility for all harmonics in facility ● Specify TDD levels desired at each location ●5% TDD guarantees 5% THDv (caused by the loads) with any source ● Specify compliance tests for each location ● Write standard nonlinear load specification ●Reduces harmonic incompatibilities and product interactions ●Need 3% impedance on each nonlinear load ● Universal solution ● Good for all nonlinear loads ● Apply AccuSine per electrical bus (best economics) ● Can attain 5% TDD per load or bus inside the plant ● Avoids harmonic problems – both TDD and THD(V) ● Write TDD specs not THD(I) at 5% Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 46 .

reactivar.AccuSine Tools ● Internet Tools ● Active Filter Guide Spec (www.squaredleantools.com) ● Stand alone spec section (Section 16) ● Includes harmonic and PF correction requirements ● Selection Program (www.com) ● Easy selection based upon loads not source (same selection for utility or generator) ● Simple tool to use ● We guarantee results if used properly during design/layout stage ● Brochure ● Application Notes ● Water/wastewater and other applications ● Installation Bulletin ● Best/total information for consultant ● MCC Selector Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 47 .

Product Package ● Standard (UL only) ● Enclosed – NEMA 1 ● 50 amp – 48”H x 21”W x 19”D. 775 lbs ●Free standing ● Chassis & NEMA12 Also Available Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 48 . 350 lbs ●Wall mounted ● 300 amp – 75”H x 32”W x 20”D. 250 lbs ● 100 amp – 65”H x 21”W x 19”D.

Product Package ● International enclosures ● NEMA 12.62”(600mm) ●Weight – 661Ib(300Kg) ●100 amp – 75”(1905mm) x 31.62”(600mm) ●Weight – 771Ib(350 Kg) ●300 amp – 91”(2300mm) x 39. ABS.5”(800mm) x 23.5”(800mm) x 23. C-Tick.37”(1000mm) x 31.5”(800mm) ●Weight – 1212Ib(550 Kg) ● Free standing with door interlocked disconnect ● CE Certified. UL. CUL Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 49 . IP30. IP54 ●50 amp – 75”(1905mm) x 31.

Product Re-packaging ● Maximum ambient into air inlet – 400C ● Must meet air flow at inlet of AccuSine ● 50 amp – 300 CFM ● 100 amp – 500 CFM ● 300 amp .1250 CFM ● Heat released ● 50 amp – 1800 watts ● 100 amp – 3000 watts ● 300 amp – 9000 watts ● DIM considerations required ● On chassis ● Remote with cable Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 50 .

Product Re-packaging ● MCC Packaging ● 50 & 100 amp models only ● Requires one vertical 20” x 20” section ● Includes circuit breaker Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 51 .

AccuSine PCS Current Transformers ● AC lines ● Class 1 ● 400 Hz ● Four sizes ●500:5/1000:5/3000:5/5000:5 ● Stock split core – round units ● Added to AccuSine (when parallel connected & source sense) ● Use solid core at equal ratio as AC lines CT Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 52 .

AccuSine PCS Performance Load(s) DEFINITIONS Is = source current Ias = AccuSine current Il = total load current (vector representations) Ias Source XFMR Is Il •AccuSine Logic •Is + Ias = Il •AccuSine injects the harmonics the loads want Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 53 .

AccuSine PCS Performance ● Obtain 5% TDD (current distortion) ● Overall 10:1 attenuation ●Cos  = .998 ● Obtain near unity lagging DPF (Cos  ● Optional: Inject to obtain a user set point ● Either or both functions ● VAR compensation ● 100 second detect-to-inject ● Dynamic response ● ½ cycle to full control for step load changes Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 54 .

AccuSine PCS Overall Performance ● Harmonic compensation ● 2nd through 50th order ● Includes inter-harmonics ● Independent of source impedance ●Selection and operation same whether on AC line or backup generator or UPS output ● Reactive current injection ● Secondary function to harmonic mode ● Defaults to unity lagging set point ● Injects leading or lagging reactive current Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 55 .

90 lagging) ● Can inject leading (capacitive) or lagging (inductive) reactive current Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 56 .AccuSine PCS Cos  Performance ● In dual mode (Cos  + Cos ) ● Reactive current injection is secondary to harmonic mitigation ● Activation of Cos in the field via DIM ● Default to unity lagging Cos  ● Can enter a set point (i. 0.e.

0 70.0 80.0 Examples Ih 10.0 100.0 95.0 43.0 100.0 Ir 99.7 86.0 95.0 100.4 91.5 98.0 90.6 80.4 60.6 31.0 60.0 100.2 Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 57 .0 100.0 100.0 100.0 71.0 100.0 20.0 50.0 100.0 30.Dual Mode Operation Ias = Ih2 + Ir2 Ias = rms output current of AccuSine Ih = rms harmonic current Ir = rms reactive current Ias 100.0 40.

AccuSine PCS Installation Considerations (When in ‘harmonic mode’ – does not apply for ‘reactive mode-only’) Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 58 .

AccuSine PCS Installation Considerations ● For Optimal Performance: ● Impedance – 3% input line reactors (minimum) on every nonlinear load ● Transformer. 3% DC bus choke for PWM VFD or long power cables (not encapsulated type) can substitute for line reactors ● Standardizes selection of AccuSine ●Diode rectifiers: Need to limit rms current at load (limits rise of Ihrms at load) ●Thyristor rectifiers: Need to protect snubbers (capacitors) on thyristor ● No capacitors downstream of CT Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 59 .

Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 60 .AccuSine PCS Installation Considerations Main – Left Main-tie-main Tie Main – Right CBml CTml CBal CTtl CTtr CBar CBmr CTmr AccuSine L AccuSine R This configuration provides individual AccuSine operation per side regardless of breaker positions.

Summary ● Universal solution ● Good for all nonlinear loads (3-phase) ● Apply AccuSine per electrical bus (best economics) ● System Solution ● Can attain 5% TDD per load or bus inside the plant ●Guarantees 5% THDv ●Requires 3% impedance at loads ● Selection based upon loads ● Easy to use on-line tool ●www.com Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 61 .squaredleantools.

Thank You ! Questions? Schneider Electric -Power Quality Correction Group – October 2009 62 .