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Introduction Exp.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872)
Jean-Marc Richard
Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie
Universit ´ e Joseph Fourier–IN2P3-CNRS
Grenoble, France
QWG Meeting, July 2006
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Table of contents
1
Introduction
2
Exp. results
3
Models for X and Y
Hybrids of heavy quarkonia
Meson molecules
Diquark–antidiquark
QCD Sum Rules
4
Chromomagnetic interaction
General considerations
First applications
Application to the X(3872)
5
Outlook
Experiments
Theory
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Introduction
Several models for the X(3872)
friendly but critical survey of models,
a simple chromomagnetic model seemingly explains small width
and
bluedecay patterns,
tentative extrapolation to other configurations
Work in collaboration with H. Høgaasen (Oslo), P. Sorba
(Annecy) and F. Buccella (Napoli)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872), Exp. results, B decay
Belle (KEK)X(3.872) CDF (Fermilab)
*
)
2
Mass (GeV/c
-
π
+
π ψ J/
3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00
2
C
a
n
d
i
d
a
t
e
s
/

5

M
e
V
/
c
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400 CDF II
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872), Exp. results, cont., BaBar
X(3872)
E
v
e
n
t
s
/

5

M
e
V
/
c
2
(a)
h
c
(b) (c)
m
J/ψππ
(GeV/c
2
)
(d)
1
10
10
2
3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75
0
5
10
15
3.4 3.5
0
100
200
3.6 3.7 3.8
0
10
20
30
3.85 3.9
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872), exp., cont.,D0
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872), exp., cont.,CLEO
X(3872) not seen in γγ and in ISR
(from K. Seth’s recent review)
5. THE SAGA OF X(3872)
In 2003 Belle [14] announced the discovery of an unexpected narrow state, X(3872), in
B–decays. It was quickly confirmed by CDF, DØ, and BaBar. The average of the masses
measured by the four experiments is M(X) = 3871.5 ±0.4 MeV. Note that this is very
close to M(D
0
) +M(D
∗0
) = 3870.3±2.0 MeV [11].
The unique decay, the narrow width, and the closeness of its mass to M(D
0
D
∗0
)
have given rise to intense theoretical speculations about the nature of X(3872). Is it
a charmonium state (1
++
, 2
−−
, 3
−−
), or a hybrid (1
++
), or a glueball mixed with
vector charmonium (1
−−
), or a unique ‘dimeson’, a D
0
D
∗0
(1
++
, 0
−+
) molecule? To
sift through these speculations it is necessary to determine J
PC
(X).
At CLEO [15] we have analyzed ∼ 15 fb
−1
of e
+
e

collision data taken in the
bottomonium region for possible production of X(3872) in two–photon fusion and ISR,
and have established the following 90% confidence limits:
Two–photon fusion (J
PC
(X) =J
P+
): (2J +1)Γ(X →e
+
e

) < 0.65 eV,
ISR (J
PC
(X) = 1
−−
): B(X →π
+
π

J/ψ) ×Γ(X →e
+
e

) < 8.3 eV.
With BaBar’s recent limit of B(X →π
+
π

J/ψ) > 0.042 [16], the ISR result leads
to Γ(X →e
+
e

) < 200 eV. Recall that Γ(ψ(3770)) = 260±40 eV.
At CLEO an attempt is underway to measure the mass of D
0
with high precision, so
that the proposed interpretation of X(3872) as a D
0
D
∗0
molecule can be submitted to a
critical test.
6. ψ(2S) DECAYS TO BARYON–ANTIBARYON PAIRS
Very few decays of charmonia to baryon–antibaryon pairs have been measured. Using
3.08 million ψ(2S) decays, CLEO [17] has measured the decays ψ(2S) → B
¯
B with
B ≡ p, Λ, Σ
+
, Σ
0
, Ξ

, Ξ
0
, (Ξ
∗0
) and (Ω

), many of them for the first time. A rather
curious feature of these results is that the branching ratios for all B
¯
B pairs are nearly the
same, ∼B(ψ(2S) →B
¯
B) ≈2.7×10
−4
. This is surprising, considering that phase space
is quite different for the different B
¯
B pairs.
7. THE ρ −π PROBLEMOF J/ψ(1S) AND ψ(2S)
A simple prediction of pQCD is that the ratio
Q ≡
B(ψ(2S) →hadrons)
B(J/ψ →hadrons)
=
B(ψ(2S) →leptons)
B(J/ψ →leptons)
= 0.13±0.1.
BES has studied this over a long time by measuring many hadronic decays of ψ(2S).
Recently CLEO [18] has measured many more two–body and many body decays of
ψ(2S) using the data for ∼3 million ψ(2S). The results are that while Q varies between
0.1% and 10% for two–body decays, it is generally larger, varying between 2% and
See, also, Babar.
Hence J
PC
= 1
−−
excluded, as well as many C = +. But 1
+
permitted, as not coupled to γγ (Landau, Lee & Yang).
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
X(3872) summary
M = 3871.7 ±0.6 MeV
m(D
0
) + m(D
0,∗
) = 3871.3 ±1.0
Γ < 2.3 MeV
J
PC
= 1
++
favoured, I = 0 also favoured
Decays seen
X →J/ψ + γ , X →J/ψ + ω , X →J/ψ + π
+
π

,
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Models for X and Y
Hybrids of heavy quarkonia
Early speculation by Gilles and Tye (1978), Mandula and Horn
(1978), and Hasenfratz, Horgan, Kuti and R. (19 80)
The gluon, being coloured, is not only the vector of the
interaction, it can also play a constituent role.
Ordinary quarkonium: governed by V
QQ
, a kind of
Born–Oppenheimer potential with the gluon field in its
ground-state
Hybrid quarkonium: Next Born–Opppenheimer potential, with
gluon field excited.
Further predictions Flux-tube models, lattice QCD, etc., usually
give masses a little higher, and indicate some signatures in the
decay pattern (Pene et al.)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Models for X and Y
Hybrids of heavy quarkonia
Early speculation by Gilles and Tye (1978), Mandula and Horn
(1978), and Hasenfratz, Horgan, Kuti and R. (19 80)
The gluon, being coloured, is not only the vector of the
interaction, it can also play a constituent role.
Ordinary quarkonium: governed by V
QQ
, a kind of
Born–Oppenheimer potential with the gluon field in its
ground-state
Hybrid quarkonium: Next Born–Opppenheimer potential, with
gluon field excited.
Further predictions Flux-tube models, lattice QCD, etc., usually
give masses a little higher, and indicate some signatures in the
decay pattern (Pene et al.)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Models for X and Y
Hybrids of heavy quarkonia
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Models for X and Y
Hybrids 1980 predictions
c
¯
cg ∼ 4 GeV b
¯
bg ∼ 10.4 GeV
Mass and some properties of X(3940) makes it a possible
candidate for hybrid.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons, provided they
contain light quarks.
In particular, it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced
by pion exchange in
DD

+ c.c.
D
D D

D

π
See Voloshin et al., T¨ ornqvist, Manohar, Swanson, Braaten,
Barnes et al., Close et al., Riska & Julia-Diaz, etc.
NN potential read as a convolution of qq potentials, thus the
long-range hadron–hadron potential can be estimated.
DD

+ c.c. potential weaker than the NN one, but experienced by
heavier particles, hence binding can be envisaged.
Hence when the X(3872) was discovered just at the D
0
D
0,∗
threshold, it was considered as a good candidate.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons, provided they
contain light quarks.
In particular, it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced
by pion exchange in
DD

+ c.c.
D
D D

D

π
See Voloshin et al., T¨ ornqvist, Manohar, Swanson, Braaten,
Barnes et al., Close et al., Riska & Julia-Diaz, etc.
NN potential read as a convolution of qq potentials, thus the
long-range hadron–hadron potential can be estimated.
DD

+ c.c. potential weaker than the NN one, but experienced by
heavier particles, hence binding can be envisaged.
Hence when the X(3872) was discovered just at the D
0
D
0,∗
threshold, it was considered as a good candidate.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons, provided they
contain light quarks.
In particular, it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced
by pion exchange in
DD

+ c.c.
D
D D

D

π
See Voloshin et al., T¨ ornqvist, Manohar, Swanson, Braaten,
Barnes et al., Close et al., Riska & Julia-Diaz, etc.
NN potential read as a convolution of qq potentials, thus the
long-range hadron–hadron potential can be estimated.
DD

+ c.c. potential weaker than the NN one, but experienced by
heavier particles, hence binding can be envisaged.
Hence when the X(3872) was discovered just at the D
0
D
0,∗
threshold, it was considered as a good candidate.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
But
a previous attempt to identify molecules in the hidden-charm
spectrum
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
failed. The preferential decay of ψ(4.04) into DD

+ c.c., as
compared to DD and D

D

, the suppressed decay of ψ(4.4),
come from their nodal structure.
1 2 3 4 5
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
Volume 71 B, number 2 PHYSICS LETTERS 21 November 1977
o t h
S C
1 0 0
5 0
I0
5
oi ,
01' '_
D'D" D D " O B D D 1 0 k 2 G e V 2 1 5
Fi g. 2. The rati o o t h / o t . q h as functi on of the moment um of
- - 2 2 th
the decay products k for R = 5.2 GeV- . o i s our predi c-
ti on and o~ h stands for si mple quark spi n counti ng. The re-
sults are normali zed to 100 for the channel D' D*.
F r o m I ' ( 4 -+ e+e ± ) = 4. 7 keY, we f i nd R 2 = 2. 8
Ge V - 2 , a nd f r o m P ( ~ ' -+ e+e - ) = 2. 0 k e V we f i nd
R 2 = 5. 2 Ge V - 2 . Thi s gi ves a f eel i ng o f t he l i mi t a t i ons
o f t he h a r mo n i c os ci l l at or but s hows t hat t he f i t t e d
val ue i s r eas onabl e. An o t h e r d e t e r mi n a t i o n o f R 2
f r o m a l i near Regge s l ope o f 1. Ge V - 2 gi ves [3]
R 2 = 4 Ge V - 2 . I n t abl e 1 we s how t he sensi t i veness
o f our r esul t s as R 2 changes. For R 2 = 5. 2 Ge V - 2 we
pr e di c t t he l e p t o n i c wi d t h o f q/ ' :
~ q a " -+ e+e - ) = 2. 0 k e V. ( 11)
Al t h o u g h t he pr eci se nume r i c a l r esul t s are sensi t i ve
t o t he val ue o f R 2, our c onc l us i on i s t hat t he node s
o f t he r adi al l y e x c i t e d wave f u n c t i o n can e xpl a i n
qua l i t a t i ve l y t he dat a. Thi s seems t o us a ve r y ser i ous
s uppor t i n f avor o f t he c g as s i gnment f or t he 4 " ( 4 . 0 2 8 )
r es onance.
An anal ogous e x p l a n a t i o n ha s be e n gi ven f or t he
s uppr es s i on o f t he mo d e p ' ( 1 . 6 0 0 ) -+ rr 7r. Wi t hi n t he
s ame QPCM s c he me , Ka u f ma n n and J a c o b [5] f i nd a
ver y s t r ong s uppr es s i on o f p ' -+ n 7r wi t h r e s pe c t t o
P' -+ P O a nd O' -~ 19 e. The s ame e x p l a n a t i o n o f t he
s uppr es s i on o f O' -+ 7r 7r has be e n p r o p o s e d by B6hm
Table 1
Vari ati on of the results (normali zed to 100 for D' D*) wi th
R 2 (GeV -2)
a(DD) o(DD*+DD*) o(D*D*)
F1 4 F 2 7 F 3
Exp. 1 5 100
Spi n 100 100 100
counti ng
R 2 = 2.8 4.2 27.0 100
R 2 = 4.0 0.06 13.6 100
R 2 = 5.2 1.04 5.2 100
et al. [6] i n t hei r mo d e l o f t he me s oni c s p e c t r u m wi t h-
i n t he Be t he - Sa l pe t e r e q u a t i o n wi t h s t r ong bi ndi ng.
The zer o o f t he Laguer r e p o l y n o mi a l i s agai n r esponsi -
bl e f or t he p h e n o me n o n . The di f f e r e nc e i n det ai l be-
t we e n b o t h f r a me wor ks s t r e ngt he ns t he s i gni f i cance
o f t he e xpl a na t i on. Lane and Ei c ht e n ma d e a ver y i n-
t er es t i ng and c o mp l e t e s t udy o f t he e+e - a nni hi l a t i on
at c h a r m t hr e s hol d [ 7] . Al t h o u g h t hi s i s n o t e xpl i c i t l y
s t at ed i n t hei r paper t h e y wer e awar e o f t he i mp o r t a n t
r ol e pl a ye d by t he node s o f t he r adi al e x c i t a t i o n wave
f u n c t i o n ( pr i vat e c o mmu n i c a t i o n [ 8] ) . Thi s f act con-
f i r ms t hat t he r es ul t i s n o t ve r y sensi t i ve t o t he par t i cu-
l ar mo d e l used.
Ref erences
[1 ] A. De Rfi jula, H. Georgi and S.L. Glashow, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 37 (1976) 398; 38 (1977) 317.
[2] We use the formulati on of the model exposed i n:
A. Le Yaouanc, L. Oli ver, O. Pdne and J.-C. Raynal,
Phys. Rev. D8 (1973) 2223; D9 (1974) 1415; Dl l (1975)
1272.
Former references on thi s model are:
L. Mi cu, Nucl. Phys. B10 (1969) 521 ;
R. Carli tz and M. Ki sli nger, Phys. Rev. D2 (1970) 336;
E. Colglazi er and J. Rosner, Nucl. Phys. B27 (1971) 349.
[3] R. Barbi eri , R. Gatto, R. K6gerler and Z. Kunst, Phys.
Lett. 56B (1975) 477.
[4] A. Le Yaouanc et al., LPTHE 72/6 (unpubli shed).
[5] W.B. Kaufmann and R.J. Jacob, Phys. Rev. D10 (1974)
1051.
[6] M. B6hm, H. Joos and M. Krammer, Nucl. Phys. B69
(1974) 349.
[7] K. Lane and E. Ei chten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37 (1976) 477.
[8] We thank Professors J.D. Jackson, K. Gottfri ed and K.
Lane for havi ng poi nted out thi s fact to us.
399
Volume 72B, number 1 PHYSICS LETTERS 5 December 1977
F (4,(4 414))//Fs c
~ f a c t o r 6 5
2
164
5
E
i I
I 0 . z , I 0 . 6 ] 0 . 8 1 1.0 11.2 ?z, 1.6 1 . 8 2 . 0 2 2 2 / , 2 . 6
F ' F " FF" F F D~I~)" Df2f' D5 k 2 GeV z
Fig. 1. The ratio of the prediction of the partial decay width of ~p(4.414) into any CC pair (C being any ground state charmed
meson) to the simple spin counting estimate with the k 3 law.
M = ( * C q Z B l - - ~ 3 re,i,/, ~ s , s ' (x~n)ss , Y l m ( k q - k ~ )
+ . + • p
x ( , v ) i j k q ( t , s ) b ~ . ~ O , s ) N ' A > , ( 1 )
wher e a + (b +) are quar k ( ant i quar k) cr eat i on oper at or s ,
Xl is t he spi n t r i pl et wave f unct i on, s, s ' ( i , j ) are spi n
( SU( 4) ) quar k i ndi ces, 3' is a cons t ant i nde pe nde nt o f
t he consi der ed ver t ex, and t he ' b"s are t he wave func-
t i ons o f t he hadr ons i nvol ved, q~ is t he SU( 4) wave
f unct i on of t he cr eat ed pai r. In pr act i ce we wi l l assume
SU( 4) and SU( 3) br eaki ng:
q50 = u~ + dd + esSg + e c c ~, ( 2)
wi t h 0 < e c < e s < 1.
Si nce ~( 4. 414) is expect ed to decay i nt o FF, F F * +
FF* and F*~' *, t he char med and st range mesons, we
need an i ndependent est i mat e of e s. Let us fi rst make
a general r emar k concer ni ng t he val i di t y of t he SU( 3)
s ymme t r y for t he st r ong i nt er act i on vert i ces. As far
as t he coupl i ng signs are concer ned, SU( 3) is exper i -
ment al l y ver y wel l est abl i shed: i t i mpl i es t hat e s is
posi t i ve. Concerni ng t he m a g n i t u d e of t he coupl i ngs,
t her e are st at i st i cal t est s [7] whi ch show t hat for a
ver y large number of coupl i ng const ant s, l eavi ng as
uni que par amet er s t he D / F r at i os, t he SU( 3) s ymme t r y
is good. However, t hese t est s do not di scr i mi nat e be-
t ween t he cases in whi ch onl y non- st r ange quar ks are
cr eat ed, such as K** -+ K' c o , K** ~ KO, ~ ~ KI{, ...
and t he cases where st range quar ks are cr eat ed, such
as in f -+ Kg, , A 2 ~ KK . . . . . In t he quar k model , asi de
f r om t he fact t hat t he D / F r at i os are no mor e free pa-
r amet er s, t hese t wo cases are cl ear l y di st i nct .
Due t o SU( 3) br eaki ng o f t he masses, t here is no
r eason t o t ake e s = 1. The def i ni t e dependence on t he
quar k masses depends on t he model . For i nst ance, Lane
and Ei cht en [4] pr edi ct a mass dependence equi val ent
to e s - (rnu/ rns) 2 in t he l anguage of o u l model . A na-
t ur al est i mat e wi t hi n our scheme coul d be t o consi der
a uni versal SU( 4) coupl i ng cons t ant mul t i pl yi ng a
Gal i l ean i nvar i ant oper at or : t hi s amount s t o consi der
di f f er ences of quar k vel oci t i es in eq. ( 1) i nst ead of
di f f er ences of quar k mome nt a . Thi s gives e s = rn u /rn s,
and adopt i ng t he values rnu_~ 0. 35 GeV and rn s
0. 60 GeV, we get e s -~ 1/ V' 3 ( not e t hat t he same argu-
ment l eads t o e c ~ 1/5). Let us see t hat t hi s est i mat e
of e s is in agr eement wi t h ol d hadr on s pect r os copy.
The best t hi ng t o do is t o compar e decay modes o f
t he same r esonance whi ch involve or not t he cr eat i on
58
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
D
D D

D

π
in DD

→D

D, there is a transfer of energy. Non local potential,
with reduced range, less effective for binding (Suzuki).
no evidence for hard core to prevent from dominance of
short-range forces
some extension of meson–meson molecules even more
speculative, e.g., J/ψ −ω! apart from coming back to the
bootstrap theory of strong interaction
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Mesons molecules
A detailed study by Swanson indicates
Pion exchange good enough to bind BB

+ c.c.
Too weak for DD

+ c.c.
Supplemented by DD

↔J/ψ + ω, surprisingly large.
5
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
ϕ
α
r (1/GeV)
(DD
*
)
S
ωJ/ψ
(DD
*
)
D
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 5 10 15 20 25
P
(
ϕ
α
)

(
%
)
E
B
(MeV)
D
0
D
0*
D
+
D
-*
ωJ/ψ
ρJ/ψ
FIG. 2: (left) Three Channel Isoscalar Wavefunction Components. (right) Component Strength vs. Binding Energy.
with ωJ/ψ. Unfortunately, only a very rough upper limit on the total width of the D
0∗
exists[23] so estimates of the
D
0
¯
D
0
π
0
and D
0
¯
D
0
γ decay widths are essentially useless. The figures in the table have been obtained by assuming
that Γ(D
0∗
→ D
0
γ) ≈ 25 keV and Γ(D
0∗
→ D
0
π
0
) ≈ 43 keV; both of these estimates are anchored in D
±∗
decays
and should be reliable. Notice that the D
±
π

mode is closed. All other possible decay modes of the ˆ χ
c1
are relatively
small, although the π
0
γJ/ψ mode may be of interest if it is detectable.
TABLE I: Some Decay Modes of the ˆ χ
c1
(3872) (keV).
B
E
(MeV) D
0
¯
D
0
π
0
D
0
¯
D
0
γ D
+
D

π
0
(D
+
¯
D
0
π

+c.c)/

2 D
+
D

γ π
+
π

J/ψ π
+
π

γJ/ψ π
+
π

π
0
J/ψ π
0
γJ/ψ
0.7 67 38 5.1 4.7 0.2 1290 12.9 720 70
1.0 66 36 6.4 5.8 0.3 1215 12.1 820 80
2.0 57 32 9.5 8.6 0.4 975 9.8 1040 100
3.8 52 28 12.5 11.4 0.6 690 6.9 1190 115
6.1 46 26 15.0 13.6 0.7 450 4.5 1270 120
9.0 43 24 16.9 15.3 0.8 285 2.9 1280 125
12.7 38 22 18.5 16.7 0.9 180 1.8 1240 120
IV. CONCLUSIONS
I have argued that the X(3872) is a J
PC
= 1
++
D
¯
D

hadronic resonance with important admixtures of ρJ/ψ
and ωJ/ψ states, dubbed the ˆ χ
c1
. This assertion is supported by detailed computations in a microscopic model
which incorporates pion and quark exchange interactions. The model has been heavily tested on nuclear physics and
meson-meson scattering data and can be regarded as reasonably reliable. The 1
++
ˆ χ
c1
is the only D
¯
D

state which
binds; no other J
PC
or charge modes exist in this model. Furthermore, no D
¯
D molecules are expected. It is likely,
however, that a rich D

¯
D

, B
¯
B

and B

¯
B

spectrum exists. Thus the discovery of the X(3872) may be the entree
into a new regime of hadronic physics which will offer important insight into the workings of strong QCD and should
help clarify many open issues in light quark spectroscopy. Indeed, the experimental and theoretical analysis of heavy
molecules is simplified because of their hidden flavour components.
It is clear that further experimental studies of the X(3872) are of great importance. For example, determining its
spin and parity are of immediate concern. The fact that the X is polarized in B → KX will help greatly in this.
Furthermore, detecting a π
0
π
0
J/ψ decay mode would immediately eliminate the ˆ χ
c1
interpretation of the X.
It is also important to gather enough events to reconstruct the invariant mass of various subsystems such as π
+
π

in
π
+
π

J/ψ (which should peak at the ρ mass). Perhaps a more interesting test would be the invariant mass distribution
of the π
+
π

π
0
subsystem in the π
+
π

π
0
J/ψ decay mode, which should have all of its events near the edge of phase
space due to the narrow width of the virtual ω. It is therefore encouraging that the 3πJ/ψ decay mode is roughly
1/2 the strength of the 2πJ/ψ mode. Although some events will be lost due to the decreased efficiency in detecting
neutral pions, this deficit should be made up by the new data being collected at Belle and BaBar.
Lastly, determining branching fractions, especially those arising from different wavefunction components such as
D
0
¯
D
0
π
0
, π
+
π

J/ψ, and π
+
π

π
0
J/ψ, would help greatly in pinning down the internal structure of the X and provide
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Diquark–antidiquark
Cara semplicit ` a, quanto mi piaci!
Picture promoted by several authors, in particular Maiani et al.
Describe X and Y as (cq) −(
¯
c
¯
q) and (cs) −(
¯
c
¯
s).
Four quark interpretation of Y(4260)
L. Maiani
*
Universita` di Roma ’’La Sapienza’’ and I. N. F. N., Roma, Italy
F. Piccinini

I. N. F. N. Sezione di Pavia and Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, via A. Bassi, 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy
A. D. Polosa

Dip. di Fisica, Universita` di Bari and I. N. F. N., Bari, Italy
V. Riquer
§
I. N. F. N., Roma, Italy
(Received 5 July 2005; published 11 August 2005)
We propose that the Y(4260) particle recently announced by BABAR is the first orbital excitation of a
diquark-antidiquark state (jcs|j c s|). Using parameters recently determined to describe the X(3872) and
X(3940) we show that the Y mass is compatible with the orbital excitation picture. A crucial prediction is
that Y(4260) should decay predominantly in D
s

D
s
. The Y(4260) should also be seen in B nonleptonic
decays in association with one kaon. We consider the full nonet of related four-quark states and their
predicted properties. Finally, we comment on a possible narrow resonance in the same channel.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.031502 PACS numbers: 12.39.2x, 12.38.2t
In a series of exciting experiments, BELLE and BABAR
have discovered several states that, although decaying in
charmonium plus pions, do not seem to fit the c c picture, in
particular, the X(3872) and X(3940) states.
In a recent paper [1] we have pointed out that the
properties of the new states can be well explained if they
are S-wave diquark-antidiquark bound states with the com-
position (q ÷ u; d): j(cq)( c q)|
Swave
. An alternative sce-
nario is the molecular picture where the X(3872) would be
a D
0

D

bound state. A crucial difference between the two
alternatives is that colored objects in a rising confining
potential, such as diquarks, should exhibit a series of
orbital angular momentum excitations. This is clearly at
variance with the molecular picture. Colorless objects
bound by a short range potential should have a very limited
spectrum, possibly restricted to S-wave states only.
In this paper we would like to propose that the first
orbital excitation of a diquark-antidiquark state may have
indeed been found in the state Y(4260) recently announced
by the BABAR Collaboration [2]. We discuss the properties
of the new state in this framework and spell out a few
distinctive predictions. The most revealing among them is
that the dominant decay mode of Y(4260) should be in
D
s

D
s
pairs. We shall also briefly discuss other states
implied by the scheme and their properties. We comment
on the possibility of an additional narrow state.
The Y(4260) is observed by BABAR in e
+
e

annihila-
tion, in association with an Initial-State-Radiation photon,
which implies J
PC
÷ 1

. The particle has a width of
about 90 MeV and it is seen to decay in J=
+

. The

+

mass distribution peaks around 1 GeV, consistently
with a decay into J=f
0
(980). BABAR reports the value [2]
ÿ(Y - e
+
e

) × Br(Y - J=
+

) ÷ 5:5 1:0
+0:8
0:7
eV
(1)
The diquark-antidiquark assumption together with the
negative parity call for at least one unit of orbital angular
momentum. In addition, the decay into f
0
(980), which fits
the (jsq|j s q|)
Swave
hypothesis [3], suggests a jcs|j c s|
composition. All considered, we are led to the following
assumption for the Y(4260):
Y(4260) ÷ (jcs|
S÷0
j c s|
S÷0
)
Pwave
(2)
with both diquarks in a

3 color state.
As discussed in [1] we expect diquarks involving
charmed quarks to be bound also in states with nonvanish-
ing spin (bad diquarks [4], with S ÷ 1). Thus, several other
states with J
PC
÷ 1

are possible and one would expect
the physical Y(4260) to be a linear superposition of all such
states. The state in (2) is supposedly the lowest lying
among them and we restrict to it in this first analysis.
Following [1], a simple mass formula for the Y state can
be given as follows:
M
Y
÷ 2m
jcq|
+ 2(m
s
m
q
) 3
cs
+B
c

L(L + 1)
2

:
(3)
m
jcq|
is the mass of the heavy-light diquark as computed in
Ref. [1], i.e., m
jcq|
÷ 1933 MeV, m
q
and m
s
are the con-
stituent up and strange quark masses, respectively. A fit to
*
Electronic address: luciano.maiani@roma1.infn.it

Electronic address: fulvio.piccinini@pv.infn.it

Electronic address: antonio.polosa@cern.ch
§
Electronic address: veronica.riquer@cern.ch
PHYSICAL REVIEW D 72, 031502(R) (2005)
RAPID COMMUNICATIONS
1550-7998=2005=72(3)=031502(3)$23.00 031502-1  2005 The American Physical Society
Four quark interpretation of Y(4260)
L. Maiani
*
Universita` di Roma ’’La Sapienza’’ and I. N. F. N., Roma, Italy
F. Piccinini

I. N. F. N. Sezione di Pavia and Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, via A. Bassi, 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy
A. D. Polosa

Dip. di Fisica, Universita` di Bari and I. N. F. N., Bari, Italy
V. Riquer
§
I. N. F. N., Roma, Italy
(Received 5 July 2005; published 11 August 2005)
We propose that the Y(4260) particle recently announced by BABAR is the first orbital excitation of a
diquark-antidiquark state (jcs|j c s|). Using parameters recently determined to describe the X(3872) and
X(3940) we show that the Y mass is compatible with the orbital excitation picture. A crucial prediction is
that Y(4260) should decay predominantly in D
s

D
s
. The Y(4260) should also be seen in B nonleptonic
decays in association with one kaon. We consider the full nonet of related four-quark states and their
predicted properties. Finally, we comment on a possible narrow resonance in the same channel.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.72.031502 PACS numbers: 12.39.2x, 12.38.2t
In a series of exciting experiments, BELLE and BABAR
have discovered several states that, although decaying in
charmonium plus pions, do not seem to fit the c c picture, in
particular, the X(3872) and X(3940) states.
In a recent paper [1] we have pointed out that the
properties of the new states can be well explained if they
are S-wave diquark-antidiquark bound states with the com-
position (q ÷ u; d): j(cq)( c q)|
Swave
. An alternative sce-
nario is the molecular picture where the X(3872) would be
a D
0

D

bound state. A crucial difference between the two
alternatives is that colored objects in a rising confining
potential, such as diquarks, should exhibit a series of
orbital angular momentum excitations. This is clearly at
variance with the molecular picture. Colorless objects
bound by a short range potential should have a very limited
spectrum, possibly restricted to S-wave states only.
In this paper we would like to propose that the first
orbital excitation of a diquark-antidiquark state may have
indeed been found in the state Y(4260) recently announced
by the BABAR Collaboration [2]. We discuss the properties
of the new state in this framework and spell out a few
distinctive predictions. The most revealing among them is
that the dominant decay mode of Y(4260) should be in
D
s

D
s
pairs. We shall also briefly discuss other states
implied by the scheme and their properties. We comment
on the possibility of an additional narrow state.
The Y(4260) is observed by BABAR in e
+
e

annihila-
tion, in association with an Initial-State-Radiation photon,
which implies J
PC
÷ 1

. The particle has a width of
about 90 MeV and it is seen to decay in J=
+

. The

+

mass distribution peaks around 1 GeV, consistently
with a decay into J=f
0
(980). BABAR reports the value [2]
ÿ(Y - e
+
e

) × Br(Y - J=
+

) ÷ 5:5 1:0
+0:8
0:7
eV
(1)
The diquark-antidiquark assumption together with the
negative parity call for at least one unit of orbital angular
momentum. In addition, the decay into f
0
(980), which fits
the (jsq|j s q|)
Swave
hypothesis [3], suggests a jcs|j c s|
composition. All considered, we are led to the following
assumption for the Y(4260):
Y(4260) ÷ (jcs|
S÷0
j c s|
S÷0
)
Pwave
(2)
with both diquarks in a

3 color state.
As discussed in [1] we expect diquarks involving
charmed quarks to be bound also in states with nonvanish-
ing spin (bad diquarks [4], with S ÷ 1). Thus, several other
states with J
PC
÷ 1

are possible and one would expect
the physical Y(4260) to be a linear superposition of all such
states. The state in (2) is supposedly the lowest lying
among them and we restrict to it in this first analysis.
Following [1], a simple mass formula for the Y state can
be given as follows:
M
Y
÷ 2m
jcq|
+ 2(m
s
m
q
) 3
cs
+B
c

L(L + 1)
2

:
(3)
m
jcq|
is the mass of the heavy-light diquark as computed in
Ref. [1], i.e., m
jcq|
÷ 1933 MeV, m
q
and m
s
are the con-
stituent up and strange quark masses, respectively. A fit to
*
Electronic address: luciano.maiani@roma1.infn.it

Electronic address: fulvio.piccinini@pv.infn.it

Electronic address: antonio.polosa@cern.ch
§
Electronic address: veronica.riquer@cern.ch
PHYSICAL REVIEW D 72, 031502(R) (2005)
RAPID COMMUNICATIONS
1550-7998=2005=72(3)=031502(3)$23.00 031502-1  2005 The American Physical Society
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Diquark–antidiquark
Cont.
But
clustering not demonstrated, unlike that of orbitally excited
baryons.
diquark mass arbitrary and chosen somewhat low
(cs)(cs)(cs) looks bound with respect to (ccc) + (sss), but the
authors do not worry much.
same type of diquarks, or triquarks, led to unconfirmed
dibaryons, baryonia and pentaquarks.
the very small width of X(3872) does not come naturally
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
QCD Sum Rules
Work in progress, by S. Narison
(Montpellier), Marina Nielsen and R.
Matheus (Sao Paulo) and J.M.R.
X(3872) comes rather well with an
operator inspired by the
diquark–antiquark picture,
Operators inspired by the
chromomagnetic models have higher
dimension and thus hardly change
much the results
narrow width remains puzzling
1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4 s
0
= (3.872 + ∆E)
2
GeV
2
∆E = 0.5 GeV
∆E = 0.4 GeV
∆E = 0.3 GeV
∆E = 0.2 GeV
m
X

(
G
e
V
)
M
2
(GeV
2
)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
QCD Sum Rules
Work in progress, by S. Narison
(Montpellier), Marina Nielsen and R.
Matheus (Sao Paulo) and J.M.R.
X(3872) comes rather well with an
operator inspired by the
diquark–antiquark picture,
Operators inspired by the
chromomagnetic models have higher
dimension and thus hardly change
much the results
narrow width remains puzzling
1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4 s
0
= (3.872 + ∆E)
2
GeV
2
∆E = 0.5 GeV
∆E = 0.4 GeV
∆E = 0.3 GeV
∆E = 0.2 GeV
m
X

(
G
e
V
)
M
2
(GeV
2
)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction
In QED, the −α/r comes from one photon exchange, in the NR
limit
Spin corrections are expressed by the Breit–Fermi terms, to be
treated at first order
V
ss
=
α
12m
1
m
2
δ
(3)
(

r ) σ
1

2
+ terms for ≥ 1
pushing, e.g., orthohydrogen above parahydrogen,
in 1975, DGG + Bag model + Zhakarov, Lipkin, Isgur, Karl, etc.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
In short, for S-waves,
H
SS
= −

i <j
C
ij
σ
i

j
˜
λ
i
.
˜
λ
j
,
called spin-colour or
chromomagnetic
Hamiltonian, where the
strength factors contains the
gluon coupling, the inverse
(effective) quark masses and
the short range correlations.
a convincing phenomenology
has been developed for
ordinary hadrons on this
Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1
terms not written here: Le
Yaouanc et al., Isgur and Karl,
Eichten et al., Schnitzer,
Bag-model team, etc.
an important progress by
Jaffe in 1977, demonstrating
that in the limit where C
ij
= C
factors out, a striking
coherence is observed
H
SS
(uuddss)≤2H
SS
(uds) ,
suggesting a stable
H = (uuddss) about 150 MeV
below its dissociation
threshold into two Λ(uds).
leading to an intense
experimental activity (search
for the H and its analogues)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
In short, for S-waves,
H
SS
= −

i <j
C
ij
σ
i

j
˜
λ
i
.
˜
λ
j
,
called spin-colour or
chromomagnetic
Hamiltonian, where the
strength factors contains the
gluon coupling, the inverse
(effective) quark masses and
the short range correlations.
a convincing phenomenology
has been developed for
ordinary hadrons on this
Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1
terms not written here: Le
Yaouanc et al., Isgur and Karl,
Eichten et al., Schnitzer,
Bag-model team, etc.
an important progress by
Jaffe in 1977, demonstrating
that in the limit where C
ij
= C
factors out, a striking
coherence is observed
H
SS
(uuddss)≤2H
SS
(uds) ,
suggesting a stable
H = (uuddss) about 150 MeV
below its dissociation
threshold into two Λ(uds).
leading to an intense
experimental activity (search
for the H and its analogues)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
In short, for S-waves,
H
SS
= −

i <j
C
ij
σ
i

j
˜
λ
i
.
˜
λ
j
,
called spin-colour or
chromomagnetic
Hamiltonian, where the
strength factors contains the
gluon coupling, the inverse
(effective) quark masses and
the short range correlations.
a convincing phenomenology
has been developed for
ordinary hadrons on this
Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1
terms not written here: Le
Yaouanc et al., Isgur and Karl,
Eichten et al., Schnitzer,
Bag-model team, etc.
an important progress by
Jaffe in 1977, demonstrating
that in the limit where C
ij
= C
factors out, a striking
coherence is observed
H
SS
(uuddss)≤2H
SS
(uds) ,
suggesting a stable
H = (uuddss) about 150 MeV
below its dissociation
threshold into two Λ(uds).
leading to an intense
experimental activity (search
for the H and its analogues)
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
As well as an intense theoretical activity
to analyse in specific models, the strong
competition between H and (Λ −Λ), when all
terms and all possible refinements of the
Hamiltonian are included. See, e.g., Yazaki
et al., Fleck, Gignoux, R., Silvestre-Brac,
Phys.Lett.B220 (1989) 616, and many
others.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
As well as an intense theoretical activity
to analyse in specific models, the strong
competition between H and (Λ −Λ), when all
terms and all possible refinements of the
Hamiltonian are included. See, e.g., Yazaki
et al., Fleck, Gignoux, R., Silvestre-Brac,
Phys.Lett.B220 (1989) 616, and many
others.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Chromomagnetic interaction: applications
and to predict other favourable configurations
baryonium, Chan H.M., Høgaasen,
meso-baryon, De Swart, Sorba,
dibaryons Aerts et al.
Heavy pentaquark (1987-vintage) Gignoux et al., Lipkin
(Qqqqq)<(Qq) + (qqq) ?
Thourough survey by Silvestre-Brac and Leandri, Lichtenberg et
al., etc.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Application to the X(3872)
Assume
H
SS
= −

i <j
C
ij
σ
i

j
˜
λ
i
.
˜
λ
j
,
to be the leading mechanism for (cq
¯
c
¯
u).
Adjust C
ij
from known hadrons.
Diagonalise this Hamiltonian.
good surprise A state comes with J
PC
= 1
++
with a mass near
M m(D) + m(D

),
in the limit C(cq) = C(
¯
cq), ∃ eigenstate that is a pure colour
octet–octet [c
¯
c]
8
[q
¯
q]
8
, which hence cannot dissociate into (c
¯
c)
and (q
¯
q)
The cross colour channel, [c
¯
q][q
¯
c] contains of course a copious
singlet–singlet component, but is is entirely pseudoscalar–vector
and hence the corresponding decay is suppressed by
phase-space.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Application to the X(3872)
Assume
H
SS
= −

i <j
C
ij
σ
i

j
˜
λ
i
.
˜
λ
j
,
to be the leading mechanism for (cq
¯
c
¯
u).
Adjust C
ij
from known hadrons.
Diagonalise this Hamiltonian.
good surprise A state comes with J
PC
= 1
++
with a mass near
M m(D) + m(D

),
in the limit C(cq) = C(
¯
cq), ∃ eigenstate that is a pure colour
octet–octet [c
¯
c]
8
[q
¯
q]
8
, which hence cannot dissociate into (c
¯
c)
and (q
¯
q)
The cross colour channel, [c
¯
q][q
¯
c] contains of course a copious
singlet–singlet component, but is is entirely pseudoscalar–vector
and hence the corresponding decay is suppressed by
phase-space.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Application to the X(3872)
If C(cq) = C(
¯
cq), a small [c
¯
c]
1
[q
¯
q]
1
singlet–singlet component
appears, but restricted to vector–vector, i.e., J/ψ + ω
Due to isospin mixing (m
u
= m
d
), coupling to decay channels) a
smaller J/ψ + ρ
0
also occurs, which, however, dominates the
decay due to more favourable phase-space.
this corresponds to the observed J/ψ π
+
π

decay mode, and to
the small width.
the second neutral (dominantly I = 1) and the charged partners,
slightly higher but much broader are to be found.
the charged X
±
probably suppressed in B decay, hence might be
found better at collider than B factories
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Application to the X(3872)
If C(cq) = C(
¯
cq), a small [c
¯
c]
1
[q
¯
q]
1
singlet–singlet component
appears, but restricted to vector–vector, i.e., J/ψ + ω
Due to isospin mixing (m
u
= m
d
), coupling to decay channels) a
smaller J/ψ + ρ
0
also occurs, which, however, dominates the
decay due to more favourable phase-space.
this corresponds to the observed J/ψ π
+
π

decay mode, and to
the small width.
the second neutral (dominantly I = 1) and the charged partners,
slightly higher but much broader are to be found.
the charged X
±
probably suppressed in B decay, hence might be
found better at collider than B factories
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Other multiquarks?
Not too many! Most of them very broad, as they dissociate into
two colour singlets,
(b
¯
bq
¯
q) analogue of X(3872) expected,
Favourable chromomagnetic effects in (bc
¯
u
¯
d),
Large multiquark components in light scalar mesons.
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, experimental aspects
Several interesting
candidates for new
type of hadrons in
recent months
Most reliable, by
far, in the
heavy-quark sector.
Beware of cuts in
the forward
hemisphere and
kinematical
reflections
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, experimental aspects
Several interesting
candidates for new
type of hadrons in
recent months
Most reliable, by
far, in the
heavy-quark sector.
Beware of cuts in
the forward
hemisphere and
kinematical
reflections
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, experimental aspects
Charmonium family rather diverse
Radial and orbital and spin degrees
of freedom now identified
Exotics also present
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, experimental aspects
Charmonium family rather diverse
Radial and orbital and spin degrees
of freedom now identified
Exotics also present
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, theory aspects
at least some X’s
and Y’s well
described as
hybrids and
multiquarks,
no model yet got
overall agreement
colour gives a very
rich dynamics
JMR X(3872)
Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook
Outlook, theory aspects
at least some X’s
and Y’s well
described as
hybrids and
multiquarks,
no model yet got
overall agreement
colour gives a very
rich dynamics
JMR X(3872)

Introduction

Exp. results

Models for X and Y

Chromomagnetic interaction

Outlook

Table of contents
1 2 3

Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Hybrids of heavy quarkonia Meson molecules Diquark–antidiquark QCD Sum Rules Chromomagnetic interaction General considerations First applications Application to the X(3872) Outlook Experiments Theory

4

5

JMR

X(3872)

Introduction

Exp. results

Models for X and Y

Chromomagnetic interaction

Outlook

Introduction

Several models for the X(3872)
friendly but critical survey of models, a simple chromomagnetic model seemingly explains small width and bluedecay patterns, tentative extrapolation to other configurations Work in collaboration with H. Høgaasen (Oslo), P. Sorba (Annecy) and F. Buccella (Napoli)

JMR

X(3872)

Introduction

Exp. results

Models for X and Y

Chromomagnetic interaction

Outlook

X(3872), Exp. results, B decay
Belle (KEK)
*

X (3.872) CDF (Fermilab)
3000 2500
2

CDF II 1400
1300 1200 1100 1000 900 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95

Candidates/ 5 MeV/c
JMR

2000 1500 1000 500

0 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.80 3.85 3.90 3.95 4.00 2 J/ ψ π +π - Mass (GeV/c )

X(3872)

6 3. BaBar 10 2 (a) X(3872) Events/ 5 MeV/c2 10 1 3.85 3.25 30 4.75 (b) hc 200 (c) (d) 20 100 10 0 3. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook X(3872).75 4 4. results.5 15 10 5 0 0 3.Introduction Exp.5 3.7 3.4 3.9 mJ/ψππ(GeV/c ) JMR X(3872) .5 4. Exp. cont.8 2 3..

Introduction Exp.. exp.. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook X (3872).D0 JMR X(3872) . cont.

Seth’s recent it is necessary to determine J PC (X). It was quickly confirmed by CDF. Λ. or a unique ‘dimeson’. sift through these speculations review) At CLEO [15] we have analyzed ∼ 15 fb−1 of e+ e− collision data taken in the bottomonium region for possible production of X(3872) in two–photon fusion and ISR.measure the as many with= +. the ISR result leads to Γ(X → e+ e− ) < 200 eV.4 MeV. DØ. exp. or a glueball mixed with vector charmonium (1−− ). X(3872) for the first time. Σ0 . Ξ0 . also.Introduction Exp. ISR (J PC (X) = 1−− ): B(X → π + π − J/ψ ) × Γ(X → e+ e− ) < 8. The average of the masses measured by the four experiments is M(X) = 3871. But 1+ At CLEO an = 1 underway to as well mass of D0 C high precision..3 ± 2. Note that this is very close to M(D0 ) + M(D∗0 ) = 3870. so permitted. asinterpretation of X(3872) as a D0D∗0 molecule& Yang). THE SAGA OF X(3872) X(3872) not seen in γγ and in ISR With BaBar’s recent See. a D0 D∗0 (1++ . 6. and the closeness of its mass to M(D0 D∗0 ) have given rise to intense theoretical speculations about the nature of X(3872).3 eV. Σ+ .08 million ψ (2S) decays. Recall that Γ(ψ (3770)) = 260 ± 40 eV. X(3872). Is it a charmonium state (1++ . The unique decay. Lee can be submitted to a critical test. −− Hence J PC attempt is excluded. CLEO [17] has measured the decays ψ (2S) → BB with B ≡ p. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook X (3872). that the proposed not coupled to γγ (Landau..042 [16].CLEO of an unexpected narrow state. the narrow width. or a hybrid (1++ ). and BaBar.5 ± 0. 0−+ ) molecule? To (from K. in In 2003 Belle [14] announced the discovery B–decays. cont. Ξ− . 2−− .65 eV. Babar. Using ¯ 3. 3−− ).0 MeV [11]. A rather many of them JMR . 5. and have established the following 90% confidence limits: Two–photon fusion (J PC (X) = J P+): (2J + 1)Γ(X → e+ e− ) < 0.limit of B(X → π +π −J/ψ ) > 0. (Ξ∗0 ) and (Ω− ). ψ (2S) DECAYS TO BARYON–ANTIBARYON PAIRS Very few decays of charmonia to baryon–antibaryon pairs have been measured.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook X(3872) summary M = 3871.6 MeV m(D0 ) + m(D0.3 MeV J PC = 1++ favoured. X → J/ψ + π + π − .∗ ) = 3871.7 ± 0.0 Γ < 2. I = 0 also favoured Decays seen X → J/ψ + γ . X → J/ψ + ω . JMR X(3872) .Introduction Exp.3 ± 1.

Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Models for X and Y Hybrids of heavy quarkonia Early speculation by Gilles and Tye (1978). Kuti and R. and Hasenfratz. Horgan. is not only the vector of the interaction. Mandula and Horn (1978). JMR X(3872) . being coloured. (19 80) The gluon. it can also play a constituent role.

being coloured. usually give masses a little higher. Ordinary quarkonium: governed by VQQ . Kuti and R. Horgan. etc. it can also play a constituent role. (19 80) The gluon. Mandula and Horn (1978).Introduction Exp. Further predictions Flux-tube models. lattice QCD.) JMR X(3872) . with gluon field excited. a kind of Born–Oppenheimer potential with the gluon field in its ground-state Hybrid quarkonium: Next Born–Opppenheimer potential. and Hasenfratz. and indicate some signatures in the decay pattern (Pene et al.. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Models for X and Y Hybrids of heavy quarkonia Early speculation by Gilles and Tye (1978). is not only the vector of the interaction.

Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Models for X and Y Hybrids of heavy quarkonia JMR X(3872) .

JMR X(3872) .4 GeV Mass and some properties of X(3940) makes it a possible candidate for hybrid. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Models for X and Y Hybrids 1980 predictions ¯ c c g ∼ 4 GeV ¯ bbg ∼ 10.Introduction Exp.

provided they contain light quarks. In particular. JMR X(3872) .Introduction Exp.c. it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced by pion exchange in DD∗ + c. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons.

etc.c. Manohar. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons. Riska & Julia-Diaz.. provided they contain light quarks. Barnes et al. DD∗ + c.c. Braaten. but experienced by heavier particles. it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced by pion exchange in D∗ D DD∗ + c. π D D∗ ¨ See Voloshin et al. Swanson. Tornqvist. hence binding can be envisaged. potential weaker than the NN one. NN potential read as a convolution of qq potentials.Introduction Exp. JMR X(3872) . thus the long-range hadron–hadron potential can be estimated... In particular. Close et al.

c. Tornqvist. Hence when the X(3872) was discovered just at the D0 D0. etc. hence binding can be envisaged. Swanson.. Manohar. In particular. it was considered as a good candidate. potential weaker than the NN one.Introduction Exp. Braaten. provided they contain light quarks.. NN potential read as a convolution of qq potentials. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules Yukawa interaction acts between all hadrons.∗ threshold.c. Barnes et al. thus the long-range hadron–hadron potential can be estimated. but experienced by heavier particles. Close et al. π D D∗ ¨ See Voloshin et al. DD∗ + c. JMR X(3872) . it was predicted that a strong attraction is induced by pion exchange in D∗ D DD∗ + c.. Riska & Julia-Diaz.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules But a previous attempt to identify molecules in the hidden-charm spectrum JMR X(3872) .Introduction Exp.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules JMR X(3872) .Introduction Exp.

.6 JMR X(3872) .2 1 -0. as compared to DD and D∗ D∗ . come from their nodal structure.2 2 3 4 5 -0. the suppressed decay of ψ(4.Introduction Exp.6 0.c.4 0.04) into DD∗ + c.8 0. The preferential decay of ψ(4.4 -0.4). results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules failed. 0.

k~) is good. + • p oi .81 1.(4 414))//Fsc counting R 2 = 2. 1.2 GeV-2 . 2. these tests do not discriminate besults are normalized to 100 for the channel D'D*. u n c tconstant(private o fo m m u n the a t i o n the D/F ratios are no more confrom i c fact that [8]).unique tparameters the D/F is n othe explicitly at A l h o u g h this ratios.04 27. aside f 3' is a i o n independent c F r o m I ' ( 4 -+ e+e ± ) = 4.6 ]0.8 (SU(4)) quark indices.8 ~ R 2 = 4.i. Volume 72B. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules Volume 71 B.6 5.annihilation tion and o~h stands for simple quark spin counting. The ratio oth/ot. I 0.8 2. The ratio of the prediction of explanation.. Spin F (4. number 1 o(DD*+DD*) 4 F2 5 100 o(D*D*) 7 F3 100 5 December 1977 1 PHYSICS LETTERS I0 5 et al.qh as function of the momentum of to the simple spin counting estimate with the k 3 law.s' (x~n)ss. s'(i. In the quark model.. 2. The difference in detail beI 0. we find R 2 = 2. j) are spin as in f -+ Kg.6 1.. tweenwere in which only non-strange quarks are stated in e y the cases the i m r t n x (.. ~p~oKI{. s )N'A>. their paper t h created. The re.06 1. charm threshold [7].a. meson) -the decay products k for R 2 = 5.Bl--~3 re. E The zero of the Laguerre p o l y n o m i a l is again responsii I 01' '_ ble for the p h e n o m e n o n .. such asaware ' co .f K** ~ KO. A 2 ~ KK . [6] in their m o d e l o f the mesonic s p e c t r u m within the Bethe-Salpeter e q u a t i o n with strong binding. t (1) K** -+ K o where a + (b +) are quark (antiquark) creation operators. 1.v)ijkq(t.~O.6 D'D" DD" O B D D 10 k 2 GeV 2 15 F'F" k2 tween FF" o tFh D~I~)" Df2f' D5 strengthens theGeVz b F frameworks significance Fig. number 2 PHYSICS LETTERS 21 November 1977 Table 1 Variation of the results (normalized to 100 for D'D*) with R 2 (GeV -2) oth SC 100 50 a(DD) F1 Exp. This fact free paJMR 164 5 + .2 ?z.7 keY.2 2 X(3872) . t SU(3) symmetry M= (*CqZ ~s.2 100 100 100 R 2 = 5.z. However. s)b~.0f a c t o r 6 5 100 100 4.. and o the radial role played by the nodes thef cases where strangeequarkst a t icreated.0 11. Ylm(kq .0 22 2/./.2 0. s. o th is our predicteresting and c o m p l e t e study o f the e+e . ofLane into any Eichten m a grounda very inthe partial decay width ~p(4.414) and CC pair (C being any d e state charmed of the Fig. such x c i are o n wave Xl is the spin triplet wave function..Introduction Exp.0 13.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules D∗ D π D D∗ in DD∗ → D∗ D.. less effective for binding (Suzuki). there is a transfer of energy. Non local potential. J/ψ − ω! apart from coming back to the bootstrap theory of strong interaction JMR X(3872) .g. e. with reduced range. no evidence for hard core to prevent from dominance of short-range forces some extension of meson–meson molecules even more speculative.Introduction Exp.

Too weak for DD∗ + c.1 0.05 0 0 5 10 15 20 r (1/GeV) 25 30 35 40 0 0 5 (DD*)D P(ϕα) (%) 60 (DD*)S 100 80 D0D0 40 D+D-* 20 FIG. Supplemented by DD∗ ↔ J/ψ + ω.2 ϕα ωJ/ψ 0. 0.c.35 0. 2: (left) Three Channel Isoscalar Wavefunction Components. surprisingly large.25 0.Introduction Exp.15 0. (right) Com JMR X(3872) .c. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Mesons molecules A detailed study by Swanson indicates Pion exchange good enough to bind BB∗ + c.3 0.

Riquer‡ ÿ90 MeV and it is seen to decay in J=   .1103/PhysRevD.. F. Polosa‡ PACS numbers: 12. Picture promoted by several Piccinini† in particular Maiani et al. consistentl  charmonium plus pions. N. di Fisica. Roma.39. Finally. N.. Italy . D. N. Bassi. quanto mi piaci! Four quark interpretation of Y…4260† L. We consider the full nonet of related four-quark states and their Sezione di Pavia and Dipartimento di Fisicapossible narrowTeorica. D. DOI: 10. Italy (Received 5 July 2005. The particle has a width o In a series of exciting experiments. I-27100. predicted properties. REVIEW Bari 031502(R) (2005) PHYSICAL Universita diD 72. F. 0 ` Dip. Bari. Pavia.Introduction Exp.2x. N.determinedRoma. Universita di Bari and I. I-27100. Using Sapienza’’ and I. Piccinini† decays in association with one kaon. Polosa‡ ` Dip. 031502(R) (2005) ` Cara semplicita. authors. N. N. N. F... Italy I. A crucial prediction is  that Y…4260† should decay predominantly in Ds Ds . Roma. Ita A.. N. Bassi. Roma. although decaying in V. viathe same channel. Maiani We propose that the Y…4260† particle recently announced by BABAR is the first orbital excitation of a  diquark-antidiquark state …‰csŠ‰c sŠ†. the X…3872† and X…3940† states. published 11 August 2005) x N. Italy X…3872† and ` Universita di Roma ’’La parameters recently N. N. F. Italy ¯¯ ¯¯ Describe X and Y as (cq) − (c q ) and (cs) − (c s). RAPID C V. Italy F.72. Italy into J= f …980†. BABAR reports the value [2 JMR X(3872) with a decay particular. di Fisica.and I. we comment on a Nucleare e resonance in A. 12. F. 6..2t which implies JPC ˆ 1ÿÿ . Riquer Four quark interpretation of Y…4260† I. Bari. N. via A. N. A. do not seem to fit the cc picture.38. N. Th   mass distribution peaks around 1 GeV. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Diquark–antidiquark RAPID COMMUNIC PHYSICAL REVIEW D 72. The Y…4260† should also be seen in B nonleptonic F. 6. in I. F. Sezione di Pavia and Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica. L. N. BELLE and BABAR ‡ ÿ x about have discovered several states that. Maiani* ` Universita di Roma ’’La Sapienza’’ and I.031502 * Pavia. to describe the X…3940† we show that the Y mass is compatible with the orbital excitation picture. F. F. N.

Introduction Exp. but the authors do not worry much. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Diquark–antidiquark Cont. But clustering not demonstrated. the very small width of X(3872) does not come naturally JMR X(3872) . baryonia and pentaquarks. unlike that of orbitally excited baryons. or triquarks. diquark mass arbitrary and chosen somewhat low (cs)(cs)(cs) looks bound with respect to (ccc) + (sss). same type of diquarks. led to unconfirmed dibaryons.

R. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook QCD Sum Rules Work in progress. Marina Nielsen and R.Introduction Exp. by S. Matheus (Sao Paulo) and J. Narison (Montpellier). X(3872) comes rather well with an operator inspired by the diquark–antiquark picture.M. Operators inspired by the chromomagnetic models have higher dimension and thus hardly change much the results narrow width remains puzzling JMR X(3872) .

X(3872) comes rather well with an operator inspired by the diquark–antiquark picture.3 4.M.2 2.1 2.0 M2 (GeV2 ) JMR X(3872) .3 2.872 + ∆E) GeV ∆E = 0.Introduction Exp.2 4.1 s0 = (3.4 GeV ∆E = 0.4 2.4 4.7 2.3 GeV ∆E = 0.0 2.9 2. by S.4 1.9 3. Marina Nielsen and R.5 2.7 3.R.6 3.6 2. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook QCD Sum Rules Work in progress.5 GeV ∆E = 0.9 3. Matheus (Sao Paulo) and J.2 GeV 2 2 mX (GeV) 4.0 3. Narison (Montpellier).8 2. Operators inspired by the chromomagnetic models have higher dimension and thus hardly change much the results narrow width remains puzzling 4.8 3.5 3.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction In QED.g. Isgur. Karl. DGG + Bag model + Zhakarov. orthohydrogen above parahydrogen.σ2 + terms for 12m1 m2 ≥1 pushing. JMR X(3872) . the −α/r comes from one photon exchange. in 1975. etc. to be treated at first order Vss = α δ (3) (r ) σ1 .Introduction Exp. e. in the NR limit Spin corrections are expressed by the Breit–Fermi terms.. Lipkin.

the inverse (effective) quark masses and the short range correlations. HSS = − i<j ˜ ˜ Cij σi . a convincing phenomenology has been developed for ordinary hadrons on this Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1 terms not written here: Le Yaouanc et al.. for S-waves. X(3872) .Introduction Exp. JMR Eichten et al. where the strength factors contains the gluon coupling.σj λi . called spin-colour or chromomagnetic Hamiltonian..λj . results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications In short. Schnitzer. Isgur and Karl.

the inverse (effective) quark masses and the short range correlations. a striking coherence is observed HSS (uuddss) ≤2 HSS (uds) . demonstrating that in the limit where Cij = C factors out. for S-waves.λj .Introduction Exp. HSS = − i<j ˜ ˜ Cij σi . Isgur and Karl. where the strength factors contains the gluon coupling. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications In short. an important progress by Jaffe in 1977.σj λi . suggesting a stable H = (uuddss) about 150 MeV below its dissociation threshold into two Λ(uds). Schnitzer. X(3872) . JMR Eichten et al. called spin-colour or chromomagnetic Hamiltonian... a convincing phenomenology has been developed for ordinary hadrons on this Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1 terms not written here: Le Yaouanc et al.

the inverse (effective) quark masses and the short range correlations. JMR Eichten et al. HSS = − i<j ˜ ˜ Cij σi . leading to an intense experimental activity (search for the H and its analogues) X(3872) . called spin-colour or chromomagnetic Hamiltonian.λj . a convincing phenomenology has been developed for ordinary hadrons on this Hamiltonian and the ≥ 1 terms not written here: Le Yaouanc et al.σj λi .Introduction Exp. for S-waves. demonstrating that in the limit where Cij = C factors out. Schnitzer. an important progress by Jaffe in 1977. suggesting a stable H = (uuddss) about 150 MeV below its dissociation threshold into two Λ(uds). where the strength factors contains the gluon coupling.. a striking coherence is observed HSS (uuddss) ≤2 HSS (uds) . results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications In short.. Isgur and Karl.

R. JMR X(3872) .Introduction Exp.. Yazaki et al. the strong competition between H and (Λ − Λ).g. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications As well as an intense theoretical activity to analyse in specific models. Fleck. and many others. Silvestre-Brac.. e.B220 (1989) 616.. See.Lett. Gignoux. Phys. when all terms and all possible refinements of the Hamiltonian are included.

Yazaki et al. See.Lett.. Silvestre-Brac.. e.Introduction Exp. Gignoux. JMR X(3872) .g.. the strong competition between H and (Λ − Λ). when all terms and all possible refinements of the Hamiltonian are included. Phys.B220 (1989) 616. and many others. Fleck. R. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications As well as an intense theoretical activity to analyse in specific models.

. De Swart. Sorba. dibaryons Aerts et al.M. etc.Introduction Exp.. JMR X(3872) . Heavy pentaquark (1987-vintage) Gignoux et al.. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Chromomagnetic interaction: applications and to predict other favourable configurations baryonium. Høgaasen. Lipkin (Qqqqq)<(Qq) + (qqq) ? Thourough survey by Silvestre-Brac and Leandri. Lichtenberg et al. meso-baryon. Chan H.

Adjust Cij from known hadrons. Diagonalise this Hamiltonian.Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Application to the X(3872) Assume HSS = − i<j ˜ ˜ Cij σi .σj λi . JMR X(3872) .λj . ¯¯ to be the leading mechanism for (cq c u ).

good surprise A state comes with J PC = 1++ with a mass near M m(D) + m(D∗ ). ¯¯ to be the leading mechanism for (cq c u ). ∃ eigenstate that is a pure colour ¯ ¯ ¯ octet–octet [c c ]8 [q q ]8 . results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Application to the X(3872) Assume HSS = − i<j ˜ ˜ Cij σi .λj . but is is entirely pseudoscalar–vector and hence the corresponding decay is suppressed by phase-space. Adjust Cij from known hadrons. JMR X(3872) . ¯ in the limit C(cq) = C(c q). [c q ][q c ] contains of course a copious singlet–singlet component. which hence cannot dissociate into (c c ) ¯ and (q q ) ¯ ¯ The cross colour channel. Diagonalise this Hamiltonian.Introduction Exp.σj λi .

dominates the decay due to more favourable phase-space. JMR X(3872) . and to the small width. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Application to the X(3872) ¯ ¯ ¯ If C(cq) = C(c q). i. J/ψ + ω Due to isospin mixing (mu = md ).e. but restricted to vector–vector. which. this corresponds to the observed J/ψ π + π − decay mode.Introduction Exp. coupling to decay channels) a smaller J/ψ + ρ0 also occurs. however. a small [c c ]1 [q q ]1 singlet–singlet component appears..

but restricted to vector–vector.e. the second neutral (dominantly I = 1) and the charged partners. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Application to the X(3872) ¯ ¯ ¯ If C(cq) = C(c q). this corresponds to the observed J/ψ π + π − decay mode. dominates the decay due to more favourable phase-space. which. the charged X ± probably suppressed in B decay. a small [c c ]1 [q q ]1 singlet–singlet component appears. coupling to decay channels) a smaller J/ψ + ρ0 also occurs. J/ψ + ω Due to isospin mixing (mu = md ).. and to the small width. i. slightly higher but much broader are to be found.Introduction Exp. however. hence might be found better at collider than B factories JMR X(3872) .

¯¯ Favourable chromomagnetic effects in (bc u d). Large multiquark components in light scalar mesons. ¯ ¯ (bbq q ) analogue of X (3872) expected. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Other multiquarks? Not too many! Most of them very broad. as they dissociate into two colour singlets.Introduction Exp. JMR X(3872) .

Introduction Exp. Beware of cuts in the forward hemisphere and kinematical reflections JMR X(3872) . experimental aspects Several interesting candidates for new type of hadrons in recent months Most reliable. by far. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook. in the heavy-quark sector.

results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook. by far. experimental aspects Several interesting candidates for new type of hadrons in recent months Most reliable.Introduction Exp. Beware of cuts in the forward hemisphere and kinematical reflections JMR X(3872) . in the heavy-quark sector.

experimental aspects Charmonium family rather diverse Radial and orbital and spin degrees of freedom now identified Exotics also present JMR X(3872) . results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook.Introduction Exp.

Introduction Exp. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook. experimental aspects Charmonium family rather diverse Radial and orbital and spin degrees of freedom now identified Exotics also present JMR X(3872) .

no model yet got overall agreement colour gives a very rich dynamics JMR X(3872) . results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook.Introduction Exp. theory aspects at least some X’s and Y’s well described as hybrids and multiquarks.

Introduction Exp. no model yet got overall agreement colour gives a very rich dynamics JMR X(3872) . theory aspects at least some X’s and Y’s well described as hybrids and multiquarks. results Models for X and Y Chromomagnetic interaction Outlook Outlook.