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Lecture 1 Introduction

Computer Communication & Networks
Engr. Fahad Khan

Who’s Who

 Engr.
 2008

Fahad Khan

-2010 MS (Software Engineering) from UET ,Taxila  Area of Specialization: Communication & Computer Networks, Software Engineering  2003-2007 BE (Software Engineering) from UET Taxila

Lab Engineer
 Engr.

Mirza Ahsan Ullah

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Web Resources
 

Course web urses.htm This website and email will serve as a communication medium between you and me besides the lecture timing.

Do visit the course website regularly and see Recent Announcements for updates.
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Grading Policy Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 4 .

Grading Policy Final Exam Mid Exam Assignments Quizzes Labs 40 20 10 10 20 Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 5 .

FAQs Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 6 .

Exams consist of design questions. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 7 . numerical. maybe true-false and short answer questions. More about Exams you can see Past Exams from WEB.Answers to FAQs  All home works are due at the beginning of the class indicated on the course calendar  After that 10% penalty: only if submitted before solutions are posted.    Exams are closed-book and extremely time limited.

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ISBN 0-07-292354-7.  Reference books:   Stallings: Data and Computer Communications (Prentice Hall) 8th Edition Tannenbaum: Computer Networks (Prentice-Hall) 4th edition 9 Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan . 2003. Forouzan. 4/e  B.Reading  Text book:  Data Communications and Networking.A. McGraw-Hill.

Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 10 .Required Skills  The course does not assume prior knowledge of networking.

My Requirement from YOU  I require YOU to take active part during lectures  Which means Lot of Questioning in the class – (Interactive session) Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 11 .

so that you could  know the science being used in running this network  Use this knowledge in your professional field Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 12 .Aim of the Course  Aim of the course is to introduce you to the world of computer networks.

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Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 14 .What is a Network?  In general the network means . a set of objects connected to each other for the sake of some sort of information interchange.

Types of Networks[1]            Electrical Network Computer Network Biological Network Artificial neural Network Social Network Business Network Radio Network Telecommunications Network Satellite Network Television Network Universities Network Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 15 .

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Social network

Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online.[2]

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Radio network

Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience for there information or entertainment.

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Examples      FM 100 FM 96 FM 105 Radio Pakistan BBC London Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 21 .

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Telecommunications network  From its origins in the military communications networks of the early 1950s. corporate networks. office information systems. telecommunications technology has evolved substantially. It can now be applied in almost every facet of modern society: banking. reservation systems. and the Internet Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 25 .

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Communication satellites are used in networks by retransmitting signals from a ground base to a large area of the earth. They provide global wide access to information by transmitting radio signals from orbit around the earth. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 28 .Satellite Networks  Satellites are the height of modern communications technology.

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Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 30 . whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers to provide information and entertainment to the people.Television network  A television network is a network for distribution of television program content.

Examples of TV Networks         Geo TV Haq Tv Hum TV Express TV Al Jazeera CNN Discovery Channel Fox News Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 31 .

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Computer Network ?    Set of serial lines to attach terminals to mainframe ? Telephone network carrying voice traffic ? Cable network to disseminate video signals ? Specialized to handle: Keystrokes Voice Video Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 33 .

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Computer Network  A computer network is a system in which computers are connected to share information and resources. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 35 . This web site reviews the techniques you can use to set up and possibly manage a network for home or a small business. The connection can be done as peer-to-peer or client/server.

[1] Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device. often simply referred to as a network. then the two devices are said to be in a network Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 36 .Another Definition……  A computer network. is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information.

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Communication media  Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network. G. Power Line Communication.Hn) Optical fiber Radio waves (wireless lan)    Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 38 . such as : Electrical Cable (Homepna.

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Types of Computer Networks           Personal area network Local area network Home network Storage area network Campus network Backbone network Metropolitan area network Wide area network Enterprise private network Virtual private network Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 40 .

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telephones. scanners.Personal area network  A Personal Area Network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices.A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN. PDAs. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. and even video game consoles. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 42 . printers. fax machines.

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smaller geographic range.Local area network   A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 44 . computer laboratory. or closely positioned group of buildings. include their higher data transfer rates. The defining characteristics of LANs. and no need for leased telecommunication lines. Each computer or device on the network is a node. school. office building. in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks).

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Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 46 .Home network  A Home Network is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home. such as printers and mobile computing devices. often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. An important function is the sharing of Internet access. usually a small number of personal computers and accessories.

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Storage area network  A torage rea etwork (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated. and optical jukeboxes. block level data storage. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices. accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. S A N 48 Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan . such as disk arrays. tape libraries.

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) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise. routers) and transmission media (optical fiber.Campus Area network  A Campus Area Network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANs within a limited geographical area. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 50 . The networking equipment (switches. Cat5 cabling etc. copper plant. government etc. university.).

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in different buildings in a campus environment. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 52 .Backbone network  A Backbone Network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building. Normally. or over wide areas. providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks. the backbone's capacity is greater than that of the networks connected to it.

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and provides up-link services to wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet.Metropolitan area network  A etropolitan rea etwork (MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. M A N Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 54 . A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology. such as fiber-optical links.

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Wide area network A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer  network that covers a large geographic area such as a city. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines. such as telephone companies. cables. country. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. and air waves. or spans even intercontinental distances. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 56 .

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remote offices. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 58 . shops. e..Enterprise private network  An Enterprise Private Network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect various company sites. in order to share computer resources. head offices.g. production sites.

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One common application is secure communications through the public Internet.. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. the Internet) instead of by physical wires. Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 60 .g.Virtual private network  A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e. such as authentication or content encryption. but a VPN need not have explicit security features.

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Why not connect each node with every other node ?    Number of computers that can be connected becomes very limited Number of wires coming out of each node becomes unmanageable Amount of physical hardware/devices required becomes very expensiveata forwarding nodes Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 62 .

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What Goes Wrong in the Network?     Reliability at stake Bit-level errors (electrical interference) Packet-level errors (congestion)  distinction between lost and late packet Link and node failures  distinction between broken and flaky link  distinction between failed and slow node Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 64 .

What Goes Undesirable in the Network?      Required performance at stake Messages are delayed Messages are delivered out-of-order Third parties eavesdrop The challenge is to fill the gap between application expectations and hardware capabilities Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 65 .

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Research areas in Networking        Routing Security Ad-hoc networks Wireless networks Protocols Quality of Service … Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 67 .

Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 68 . [2] [3]http://en.References    [1] etwork Copy Right 2012@Fahad khan 69 .

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