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Smart Antennas For Wireless Systems

R.SUDARSHAN
VIII Semester B.E Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering REVA Institute of Technology and Management, Bangalore-560064

ABSTRACT:--

One of the most rapidly developing areas of communications is “Smart Antenna” systems. Smart antennas are basically an antenna array system with a digital signal-processing capability to transmit and receive in an adaptive, spatially sensitive manner. In other words, such a system can automatically change the directionality of its radiation patterns in response to its signal environment. This can dramatically increase the performance characteristics (such as capacity) of a wireless system. In this paper, we discuss the basic antennas and antenna systems along with their drawbacks. Then we discuss about the smart antenna systems, types, working and their advantages and applications. I. INTRODUCTION Antennas Radio antennas couple electromagnetic energy from one medium (space) to another (e.g., wire, coaxial cable, or waveguide). Physical designs can vary greatly. Omnidirectional Antennas Since the early days of wireless communications, there has been the simple dipole antenna, which radiates and receives equally well in all directions. To find its users, this single-element design broadcasts omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples radiating outward in a pool of water. While adequate for simple RF environments where no specific knowledge of the users' whereabouts is available, this unfocused approach scatters signals, reaching desired users with only a small percentage of the overall energy sent out into the environment. Cellular communications has reached mass-market status over the past decade with the emergence of two very successful standards: CDMA and GSM. Over this same decade, an important enabling technology, “smart antennas,” has also matured. Combined with today’s powerful, low-cost processors, advanced smart antenna technology is destined to become an important part of the cellular landscape over the next decade.

Smart antenna systems utilize multiple antennas at base stations or handsets to better pinpoint or focus radio energy and thereby improve signal quality. Since cellular communications systems employ radio signals that interact with the environment and each other, these improvements in signal quality lead to systemwide benefits with respect to coverage, service quality and, ultimately, the economics of cellular service. To some extent, the phrase “smart antennas” is misleading. There is nothing smart about the antennas themselves. What’s smart is the sophisticated signal processing applied to simultaneous signals from an array or collection of multiple antennas. Wireless communication systems are limited in performance and capacity by three major impairments .The first of these is multipath fading, which is caused by the multiple paths that the transmitted signal can take to the receive antenna. The signals from these paths add with different phases, resulting in a received signal amplitude and phase that vary with antenna location, direction, and polarization] as well as with time. The second impairment is delay spread, which is the difference in propagation delays among the multiple paths. The third impairment is co-channel interference . One of the key techniques that can be used to overcome these problems are the smart antennas.

II. ANTENNAS AND ANTENNA SYSTEMS

Antenna is the port through which radio frequency (RF) energy is coupled from the transmitter to the outside. The two most basic conventional antennas are omnidirectional antennas and directional antennas. 1.) Omnidirectional Antennas:Since the early days of wireless communications, there has been the simple dipole antenna, which radiates and receives equally well in all directions. To find its users, this single-element design broadcasts omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples radiating outward in a pool of water. While adequate for

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simple RF environments where no specific knowledge of the users' whereabouts is available, this unfocused approach scatters signals, reaching desired users with only a small percentage of the overall energy sent out into the environment.

Figure 2. Directional Antenna and Coverage Pattern All practical antennas are at least somewhat directional, although usually only the direction in the plane parallel to the earth is considered, and practical antennas can easily be omnidirectional in one plane. Figure 1. Omnidirectional Antenna and Coverage Patterns Given this limitation, omnidirectional strategies attempt to overcome environmental challenges by simply boosting the power level of the signals broadcast. In a setting of numerous users (and interferers), this makes a bad situation worse in that the signals that miss the intended user become interference for those in the same or adjoining cells. In uplink applications (user to base station), omnidirectional antennas offer no preferential gain for the signals of served users. In other words, users have to shout over competing signal energy. Also, this single-element approach cannot selectively reject signals interfering with those of served users and has no spatial multipath mitigation or equalization capabilities. Omnidirectional strategies directly and adversely impact spectral efficiency, limiting frequency reuse. These limitations force system designers and network planners to devise increasingly sophisticated and costly remedies. In recent years, the limitations of broadcast antenna technology on the quality, capacity, and coverage of wireless systems have prompted an evolution in the fundamental design and role of the antenna in a wireless system. 2.) Directional Antennas:A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates greater power in one or more directions allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and reduced interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas like Yagi-Uda antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas when a greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. Figure 3. The Effect of Multipath on a Mobile User III. WIRELESS SYSTEM IMPAIRMENTS Wireless communication systems are limited in performance and capacity by the following major impairments :1.) Multipath:Multipath is a condition where the transmitted radio signal is reflected by physical features/structures, creating multiple signal paths between the base station and the user terminal.

• Problem associated with multipath are: • Fading- When the waves of multipath signals are out of
phase, reduction in signal strength can occur. One such type of reduction is called a fade; the phenomenon is known as "Rayleigh fading" or "fast fading”.

• Phase Cancellation- When waves of two multipath signals
are rotated to exactly 180° out of phase, the signals will cancel each other.

Figure 4. Illustration of Phase Cancellation

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• Delay Spread- The effect of multipath on signal quality
for a digital air interface (e.g., TDMA) can be slightly different. Here, the main concern is that multiple reflections of the same signal may arrive at the receiver at different times. This can result in intersymbol interference (or bits crashing into one another) that the receiver cannot sort out. When this occurs, the bit error rate rises and eventually causes noticeable degradation in signal quality. 2.) Co-channel Interference (CCI) :One of the primary forms of man-made signal degradation associated with digital radio, cochannel interference occurs when the same carrier frequency reaches the same receiver from two separate transmitters.

• Your brain, a specialized signal processor, does a large number of calculations to correlate information and compute the location of the speaker. Our brain also adds the strength of the signals from each ear together, so you perceive sound in one chosen direction as being twice as loud as everything else. Adaptive smart antenna systems do the same thing, using antennas instead of ears. As a result, 8, 10, or 12 ears can be employed to help fine-tune and turn up signal information. Also, because antennas both listen and talk, an adaptive antenna system can send signals back in the same direction from which they came. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear 8 or 10 or 12 times louder but talk back more loudly and directly as well. Going a step further, if additional speakers joined in, your internal signal processor could also tune out unwanted noise (interference) and alternately focus on one conversation at a time. Thus, advanced adaptive array systems have a similar ability to differentiate between desired and undesired signals. Thus “smart antenna” can be defined an antenna array system with a digital signal-processing capability to transmit and receive in an adaptive, spatially sensitive manner. In other words, such a system can automatically change the directionality of its radiation patterns in response to its signal environment. V. TYPES OF SMART ANTENNAS There are two types of smart antennas which include switched beam and adaptive array smart antenna. 1.) Switched Beam Antenna :Switched beam systems have several available fixed beam patterns. A decision is made as to which beam to access, at any given point in time.

Figure 5. Illustration of Cochannel Interference in a Typical Cellular Grid. Both broadcast antennas as well as more focused antenna systems scatter signals across relatively wide areas. The signals that miss an intended user can become interference for users on the same frequency in the same or adjoining cells. To combat the effects of cochannel interference, smart antenna systems are used, which not only focus directionally on intended users, but in many cases direct nulls or intentional noninterference toward known, undesired users.

IV. THE CONCEPR OF “SMART ANTENNA” :A Useful Analogy for Adaptive Smart Antennas To understand how an adaptive antenna system works, close your eyes and converse with someone as they move about the room. You will notice that you can determine their location without seeing them because of the following: • You hear the speaker's signals through your two ears, your acoustic sensors. • The voice arrives at each ear at a different time. Figure 6. Switched Beam System Coverage Patterns (Sectors) They form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in particular directions. These antenna systems detect signal strength, choose from one of several predetermined, fixed

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beams, and switch from one beam to another as the mobile moves throughout the sector. Instead of shaping the directional antenna pattern with the metallic properties and physical design of a single element (like a sectorized antenna), switched beam systems combine the outputs of multiple antennas in such a way as to form finely sectorized (directional) beams with more spatial electivity than can be achieved with conventional, singleelement approaches. It is an alternative to higher-order sectorized system by dividing the macro-sector into micro-sectors without antennas increasing in the base station site.

2.) Adaptive Beam Antenna :Adaptive antenna technology represents the most advanced smart antenna approach to date. Using a variety of new signalprocessing algorithms, the adaptive system takes advantage of its ability to effectively locate and track various types of signals to dynamically minimize interference and maximize intended signal reception.

Figure 9. Adaptive Array Coverage: A Representative Depiction of a Main Lobe Extending Toward a User with a Null Directed Toward a Cochannel Interferer

Figure 7. Block Diagram of Switched Beam Antenna System Figure above shows the block diagram of switched beam antenna system. It consists of

The Digital Signal Processor steers the main beam towards the desired Mobile Station (MS), follows it as it moves while simultaneously nulling the interfering signals.

• Phase Shifting Network which forms multiple beams
looking in certain directions (i.e. Buttler Matrix or Blas Matrix).

• RF Switch actuates the right beam in the desired direction. • The Control Logic is governed by an algorithm which
scans all the beams and selects the one receiving the strongest signal based on a measurement made by the detector. Figure 10. Block Diagram of Adaptive Beam Antenna System In this Digital Beamformer, the Adaptive System utilizes base band adaptive & DOA algorithm to continuously distinguish between desired signals, multipath, and interfering signals. There are many adaptive algorithms (Blind or Non Blind) to update the array weights, each with its speed of convergence and required processing time (CMA and LMS adaptive algorithms). The DOA is estimation used to estimate the direction of arrival of the signal, using techniques such as MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification). They involve finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spectrum.

Figure 8. Typical Switched Beam Antenna

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VI. SWITCHED vs ADAPTIVE BEAM ANTENNA Switched beam is an extension of the current microcellular or cellular sectorization method of splitting a typical cell. The switched beam system selects one of several predetermined fixed-beam patterns (based on weighted combinations of antenna outputs) with the greatest output power in the remote user's channel. On the other hand adaptive antenna systems approach communication between a user and base station in a different way, in effect adding a dimension of space. By adjusting to an RF environment as it changes (or the spatial origin of signals), adaptive antenna technology can dynamically alter the signal patterns to near infinity to optimize the performance of the wireless system.

Range/Coverage- Switched beam systems can increase base station range from 20 to 200 percent over conventional sectored cells. The added coverage can save an operator substantial infrastructure costs and means lower prices for consumers. In comparison, adaptive array systems can cover a broader, more uniform area with the same power levels as a switched beam system.

Interference Suppression- Switched beam antennas suppress interference arriving from directions away from the active beam's center, because beam patterns are fixed. Switched beam have difficulty in distinguishing between a desired signal and an interferer. Also, because their beams are predetermined, sensitivity can vary as the user moves through the sector. In comparison Adaptive array technology offers more comprehensive interference rejection. Also, because it transmits an infinite, rather than finite, number of combinations, its narrower focus creates less interference to neighboring users than a switched-beam approach.

Figure 11. Beamforming Lobes and Nulls that Switched Beam(Left) and Adaptive Array (Right) Systems Might Choose for identical User Signals (Green Line) and Cochannel Interferers (Yellow Lines) Figure above depicts the beamforming pattern that the switched beam and the adaptive beam might chose for user signal and interferer signal. It is observed that in the case of switched beam, the center of the main lobe is not perfectly oriented towards the direction of user signal and the side lobes towards the interferer signal. While in the adaptive beam, the main lobe is perfectly oriented towards the user signal and simultaneously nulling the interferer signal. Thus, the adaptive beam antenna can be referred to as a “fully smart” antenna system with better coverage/range and interference rejection compared to switched beam. Comparison between switched beam and adaptive array system:-

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)- SDMA, employs advanced processing techniques to locate and track fixed or mobile terminals, adaptively steering transmission signals toward users and away from interferers. This adaptive array technology achieves superior levels of interference suppression, making possible more efficient reuse of frequencies than the standard fixed hexagonal reuse patterns.

Figure 12. Fully Adaptive Spatial Processing, Supporting Two Users on the Same Conventional Channel Simultaneously in the Same Cell Adaptive spatial processing integrates a higher level of measurement and analysis of the scattering aspects of the RF environment. Whereas traditional beamforming and beamsteering techniques assume one correct direction of transmission toward a user, spatial processing maximizes the use of multiple antennas to combine signals in space in a method that transcends a one user-one beam methodology. VII. THE ARCHITECTURE OF SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS:-

• Integration- Switched beam systems are traditionally
designed to retrofit widely deployed cellular systems. Switched beam antennas are easier to implement and low at cost. In comparison, adaptive array systems have been deployed with a more fully integrated approach that offers less hardware redundancy than switched beam systems but with increased hardware complexity and cost.

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Switched beam and adaptive array systems enable a base station to customize the beams they generate for each remote user effectively by means of internal feedback control. Generally, each approach forms a main lobe toward individual users and attempts to reject interference or noise from outside of the main lobe. Smart antennas have two main functions: The Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimation and Beamforming:1.) Direction of Arrival(DOA):The DOA estimation is used to estimate the direction of arrival of the signal, using techniques such as MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification). They involve finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of this spectrum. These calculations are computationally intensive 2.) Beamforming:The method of combining the signals from several elements is understood as beam forming. The direction in which the array has maximum response is said to be the beam pointing direction. Beamforming is the method used to create the radiation pattern of the antenna array by adding constructively the phases of the signals in the direction of the targets/mobiles desired, and nulling the pattern of the targets/mobiles that are undesired/interfering targets. Listening to the Cell (Uplink Processing) It is assumed here that a smart antenna is only employed at the base station and not at the handset or subscriber unit. Such remote radio terminals transmit using omnidirectional antennas, leaving it to the base station to separate the desired signals from interference selectively. Typically, the received signal from the spatially distributed antenna elements is multiplied by a weight, a complex adjustment of amplitude and a phase. These signals are combined to yield the array output. An adaptive algorithm controls the weights according to predefined objectives. For a switched beam system, this may be primarily maximum gain; for an adaptive array system, other factors may receive equal consideration. These dynamic calculations enable the system to change its radiation pattern for optimized signal reception. Speaking to the Users (Downlink Processing) The task of transmitting in a spatially selective manner is the major basis for differentiating between switched beam and adaptive array systems. Switched beam systems communicate with users by changing between preset directional patterns, largely on the basis of signal strength. In comparison, adaptive arrays attempt to understand the RF

environment more comprehensively and transmit more selectively. The type of downlink processing used depends on whether the communication system uses time division duplex (TDD), which transmits and receives on the same frequency or frequency division duplex (FDD), which uses separate frequencies for transmit and receiving (e.g., GSM). In most FDD systems, the uplink and downlink fading and other propagation characteristics may be considered independent, whereas in TDD systems the uplink and downlink channels can be considered reciprocal. Hence, in TDD systems uplink channel information may be used to achieve spatially selective transmission. In FDD systems, the uplink channel information cannot be used directly and other types of downlink processing must be considered.

VIII. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF SMART ANTENNAS:The benefits and advantages of smart antenna systems are:-

Better range/Coverage- Focusing the energy sent out into the cell increases base station range and coverage. Lower power requirements also enable a greater battery life and smaller/lighter handset size. Increased Capacity- Certain adaptive technologies (such as space division multiple access) support the reuse of frequencies within the same cell, improving capacity. Spatial Diversity- Composite information from the array is used to minimize fading and other undesirable effects of multipath propagation. Interference Rejection- Antenna pattern can be generated toward cochannel interference sources, improving the Signal-to-interference ratio of the received signals. Multipath Rejection- can reduce the effective delay spread of the channel, allowing higher bit rates to be supported without the use of an equalizer. Power Efficiency- combines the inputs to multiple elements to optimize available processing gain in the downlink (toward the user). Reduced Expense- Lower amplifier costs, power consumption, and higher reliability.

Applications of smart antenna systems:-

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Smart antennas are used in various applications. They were widely used in the field of military and defense applications in the early 1990s. Some of them are long range surveillance radars, military communication systems, geophysical exploration, jammer cancellation, interference reduction, signal classification, directional transmission. Due to the advent of powerful low-cost digital signal processors (DSPs), general-purpose processors have made intelligent antennas practical for commercial cellular communications systems like wireless local loop(WLL), interference reduction with fast fading, signal acquisition and tracking, adaptive retransmission. Smart antennas are also used in wireless technologies like 3G, WiMax,WLAN,UWB, satellite radio/TV etc.

“Smart Antenna Systems Tutorial”, The International Engineering Consortiumhttp ://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/smart_ant/ Smart Antennas for Wireless Systems www.jackwinters.com/Globecom03.pdf “Smart Antennas Tutorial,” http://viterbi.ece.iisc.ernet.in/prem/SmartAnt Smart antenna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_antenna Smart Antenna: Switched Beam http://www.steepestascent.com/content/mediaassets/pdf/exampl e%20beamforming.pdf Adaptive Array Antenna for W-CDMA Systems www.fujitsu.com/downloads/MAG/vol38-2/paper10.pdf

IX. CONCLUSION A smart antenna is a digital wireless communications antenna system that takes advantage of diversity effect at the source (transmitter), the destination (receiver), or both. The purpose of a smart antenna system is to increase the signal quality through more focused transmission of radio signals while enhancing capacity through increased frequency reuse. Specifically, unlike the conventional scheme, no tower climbing and no physical changing of antenna orientation are needed except for the initial software installation. All the required sector orientation and beam widths are softwarecontrollable, remotely configurable. “Study Of Smart Antennas On Mobile Communication” http://www.memoireonline.com/08/08/1453/study-of-smartantennas-on-mobile-communications.html

X. REFERENCES

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