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The Polar Fitness Test resulting an OwnIndex is developed to measure aerobic (cardiovascular) fitness.

It predicts maximal aerobic power (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max in This indicates how many millilitres of oxygen your body is able to transport and use per each kilogram of your body weight in one minute. The test is targeted to healthy adults. It is fully automatic and can be performed at rest in less than five minutes. No other equipment such as treadmill is needed. It is an easy, safe and quick way to estimate your maximal aerobic power. It is as reliable as any other submaximal fitness test. The Polar Fitness Test is based on

Resting heart rate

• • • • • •

Heart rate variability Gender Age Height Body weight Self-assessment of the level of long-term physical activity (last 6 months)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE POLAR FITNESS TEST™ The Polar Fitness Test™ in most Polar HR monitors and training computers resulting an OwnIndex predicts maximal aerobic power (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max). The test includes resting measurements of heart rate and heart rate variability with personal information. The test has been developed using artificial neural network (Väinämö et al. 1996,1997,1998), calculation, which is a widely used method in signal processing. In the test development study, 305 laboratory fitness measurements of 15-65- year-old healthy men and women were performed (Väinämö et al. 1996, Väinämö et al. 1998). None of the subjects had any medication. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured with an ergospirometer (Medikro M 909, Kuopio, Finland)) during graded maximal cycle ergometer (Tunturi EL 400, Turku Finland) tests. The fact that each subject reached his or her maximal aerobic power was checked using three criteria: no increase in VO2 despite load increase, respiratory quotient > 1.1 and blood lactate > 8 mmol/l. Before maximal stress test at least 250 R-R intervals (5 minutes)

an advanced modification of OwnIndex. Tschopp et al.4 ml/kg/min. Correlation coefficient between the laboratory measured VO2max and OwnIndexS prediction in the data was 0. height. At the present in all Polar heart rate monitors. 2000). After that the rest of the 305 subjects were used for the teaching of the network. Typically the mean errors vary between 8-15%.5 l/min. calibration of the ergosprirometer). Heart Signals Co. the error in the VO2max prediction was less than 0. physical activity is assessed using a four-level scale (low/middle/high/top). the accuracy of the OwnIndexS can be considered good. The scale has been modified from NASA/JSC physical activity scale (Ross et al. 2000) on trained subjects.7 ml/kg/min).5 min) are measured during the test. age. Finland) and manual methods (visual inspection).5%. Kempele. Measurement errors were removed from R-R intervals using both automatic (Hearts software. Correlation coefficient between the laboratory measured VO2max and the artificial neural network prediction was 0.g. In 95% of the cases the error in the prediction was less than 9. 1990) used also in a non-exercise test for . Kempele. heart rate variability. 2000.2% (3. Body weight was used for the calculation of relative VO2max (ml/min/kg). In 95% of the cases in the teaching data and in 60 % of the cases in the validation data. whose maximal aerobic power was measured in a maximal graded treadmill exercise test. Polar Fitness Test was further developed to result OwnIndexS. Thus the number of subjects used in the final stage was 424. The mean error of the prediction is good compared to any other predictive tests of maximal aerobic power. 450 laboratory fitness measurements of 15-65-yearold healthy men and women were performed. In the laboratory measurements of VO2max. It was shown that the VO2max prediction associated reasonably highly with VO2max measured in the laboratory in both men and women. the test-to-test variation within an individual is 3-5% due to physiological day-to-day variation and technical parameters (e. gender. To obtain the measures for heart rate and heart rate variability. were included in the final development of the neural network.96 and the mean error in the prediction was 8. 255 heart beats (3 . age and height were used as predictive variables in the neural network analysis. gender. 381 of which were randomly selected for the teaching of the network and 43 for the validation (Kinnunen et al. which was described above. Finland). Development of the VO2max prediction in the neural network was done in two phases: firstly 25 subjects were randomly selected as testing (validation) samples. The artificial neural network was modified into Polar Fitness Test™. POLAR FITNESS TEST™ Polar Fitness Test™ predicts a person's aerobic fitness from the resting heart rate. Further development of the Polar Fitness Test™ was conducted based on the development study.97 and the mean error in the VO2max prediction was 6.were recorded from each subject at complete rest in a laying position using Polar R-R Recorder™ (Polar Electro Oy. The measured maximal aerobic power values in the data varied between 1-6 l/min (25-60 ml/min/kg). body weight and self-assessment of the level of long-term physical activity. Thus. OwnIndexS was further validated in studies (Peltola et al. At this stage 119 fitness measurements of healthy American men and women. In the test development study. In addition to heart rate and heart rate variability.

there is no need to control the effects of breathing to the normal variation of heart rate and heart rate variability during the test. the activity assessment together with heart rate measurement explain about half of the OwnIndex hand the background variables (gender. It is therefore important to minimize the disturbing effects and standardize the testing conditions in order to achieve accurate and reliable results (always perform the test in a similar way at the same time of the day). For obtaining a change in aerobic fitness. transient changes in the measured heart rate values due to coughing. Polar Fitness Test™ takes into account heart rate variability (HRV).2003. There is normal daily variation in the resting heart rate and heart rate variability. if a person's regular exercise habits have not changed during the previous 3 months. Kiviniemi et al. POLAR OWNINDEX® The effects of the above mentioned variables in Polar Fitness Test™ cannot be totally separated from each other – the variables always act in concert. The effect of long-term physical activity on the Index is essential: the greater the activity. excitement or other disturbances. In general. Hautala et al. There can also be undesired. Tulppo et al. regular physical activity of at least 6 weeks is needed. Fifteen men were in the control group. their effect on the changes of the index is minor. Because gender and height are very stable and the changes in age are slow. however.maximal aerobic power prediction (Jackson et al. Short-term changes in these variables explain the changes in consecutive Polar Fitness Test™ measurements. the better the fitness. The physical activity score should remain the same. Before the training period the mean error in VO2max prediction by Polar Fitness Test™ was .Hedelin et al. 2010). age. The index is raised by a reduction in body weight and lowered by an increase in it. and breathing and momentary changes in blood pressure cause normal momentary variation. 2003. where 52 healthy 20-60-year-old men were measured before and after an 8-week exercise training. 2003. 1990). However. In general. Resting heart rate and heart rate variability are sensitive measures and reflect the status of the body. Recent studies have shown that HRV has value in individual responsiveness of cardiorespiratory training (Bouchard et al. To achieve long-term changes in the resting heart rate and heart rate variability.1999. Higher vagally mediated HRV has been associated with larger improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (Hautala et al. regular training for a longer period of time is required. speaking. 2001. body movement. and lowered by an increase in the resting heart rate and a decrease in heart rate variability. 2007) Polar Fitness Test™ fits best to the follow-up of long-term changes in aerobic fitness. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE TEST Polar Fitness Test™ has been validated in a study. Kiviniemi et al. OwnIndex is raised by a decrease in the resting heart rate and an increase in heart rate variability. A healthy adult can achieve a 10-15% increase in about three months when training 3-4 times weekly for 30-40 min at moderate intensity. height and body weight) the other half.

The test thus detected the direction of the change correctly but slightly underestimated the change. The associations of the fitness and diastolic BP. The reliability of Polar Fitness Test™ in consecutive tests for the same individual is good. The values did not differ statistically. the OwnIndex measured with Polar M52 HR monitor was compared to laboratory measured gas analysis value by Crumpton et al. When 11 subjects repeated the test in the morning. The mean deviation in the prediction before and after the training was 4-5 ml/min/kg in all groups. PRACTICAL CONDUCTION OF POLAR FITNESS TEST™ .8) on an average (SD) and by Polar Fitness Test 47. In this study Polar Fitness Test™ was also validated as a measure of fitness change. The effect of the exercise training was on the average 4. Borodulin et al. The standard deviations calculated separately for each time of the day were smaller than the standard deviation of all results. Because this is less than standard deviation of the mean VO2max values within an age group (5-7 ml/min/kg). In a thesis work by Borodulin (2006) it was also shown that Polar Fitness Test is related to cardiovascular health so that those with better health status score higher OwnIndex values.2(7. Based on the results the Polar Fitness Test was a feasible the aerobic fitness being easy to carry out in a ten-week timeperiod for nearly 6000 subjects. The conclusion was that Polar Fitness test is valid in adult men.5 ml/min/kg. In this study on 28 men (39 years) the maximal aerobic power in laboratory scored 47. in both sitting and laying positions. A higher fitness and a lower waist-hip ratio (WHR) were independently associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). (2003) have reported the relationship of OwnIndex to self-reported fitness and leisure-time physical activity in a big sample of Finnish adults (n=5346). In this study predicted maximal aerobic power in 60 men (average age 45 years and BMI 31 kg/m2) with OI (average. unpublished 2000). The mean deviation in the estimated change of aerobic power was 4. the validity of Polar Fitness Test™ can be considered good. respectively. and with higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL to total cholesterol ratio.1). (2003). trigycerides and HDL to total cholesterol ratio were stronger in men with higher WHR. Polar Fitness Test™ predicted this change to be 2.SD) scored 34. Polar OwnIndex has been studied also in overweight men (Pokki and Laukkanen. in the middle of the day and in the evening during 8 days.7) and 34.7% compared to the laboratory measurement of maximal aerobic power. Further.4) ml/kg/min in repeated measurements.2.4(12.9(5. Aerobic fitness was lower among women and decreased in both genders with age. This indicates that the test can be conducted at any time of the day but it should always be repeated at about the same time. the average individual standard deviation of the consecutive test results was less than 8 % from the individual mean value.7(6.1 ml/min/kg (10 %) when measured in the laboratory.4 ml/min/kg (6 %) on an average. Self-rated fitness showed a strong direct association. Self-rated fitness and self-reported activity showed both a strong direct relationship with OwnIndex. while the laboratory measured mean(SD) value was 36.1). Conclusion was that Polar Fitness Test is well repeatable and reliable in overweight men. lower total cholesterol and trigyceride levels.6(5.2% and after the training -0.

HOW TO INTERPRET POLAR OWNINDEX® OwnIndex is equivalent to the maximal aerobic power.g. VO2max. MODERATE (1-3 hours per week): You participate regularly in recreational sports. Activity levels are: 1. e. are given to the heart rate monitor. 3. VO2max . noisy music and telephone ringing disturb the testing. or you exercise to improve performance for competitive purposes. Height must be given to the nearest centimetre (or feet and inches) and weight within the nearest kilogram (or pounds). It is recommended to be performed in a peaceful environment. LOW (0-1 hours per week): You do not participate regularly in programmed recreational sport or heavy physical activity. Unusually heavy physical effort as well as alcoholic beverages or pharmacological stimulants should be avoided on the test day and the day before.g. rather national. 4. Below an example of normal values presented as a mean (standard deviation) according to the age group (Fletcher et al. you walk only for Age. e. as any other fitness test result. since talking (even a cough). The maximal aerobic power.g. Activity assessment is done by selecting the alternative that best describes your general longterm activity level. you run 5-10 km or 3-6 miles per week or spend 1-3 hours per week in comparable physical activity. HIGH (3-5 hours per week): You participate at least 3 times a week in heavy physical exercise. This indicates how many millilitres of oxygen your body is able to transport and use per each kilogram of your body weight in one minute. gender. e. TOP (5+ hours per week): You participate in heavy physical exercise at least 5 times a week. 1995). height and body weight as well as physical activity level. is most meaningful when used in comparing individual values and changes. you run 20-50 km or 12-31 miles per week or spend 3-5 hours per week in comparable physical activity. age. 2.The background variables. or your work requires modest physical activity. can be used to compare the fitness results to the average values of those with the same age and gender. Norms. years 20-29 Men Women 43(7) 36(7) . Eating a heavy meal or smoking 2-3 hours prior to the testing should be avoided. or exercise hard enough to cause heavy breathing or perspiration only occasionally For reproducible heart rate and heart rate variability measurement the test should be conducted in well-standardized conditions. in ml/min/kg.

ml/kg/min) AGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . for a 33year-old woman any index between 31-37 (34-3 and 34+3) represents "average fitness" compared to other women of the same age. Values less than 31 are below the average and those higher than 37 are above the average.g.30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 42(7) 34(6) 40(7) 32(6) 36(7) 29(5) 33(7) 27(5) Individual OwnIndex can be compared to the population norms as follows: One standard deviation around the mean (half SD up and half down) represents "average fitness". MEN / MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE (VO2max. ml/kg/min) AGE 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-65 1 <32 <31 <29 <28 <26 <25 <24 <22 <21 2 32-37 31-35 29-34 28-32 26-31 25-29 24-27 22-26 21-24 3 38-43 36-42 35-40 33-38 32-35 30-34 28-32 27-30 25-28 4 44-50 43-48 41-45 39-43 36-41 35-39 33-36 31-34 29-32 5 51-56 49-53 46-51 44-48 42-46 40-43 37-41 35-39 33-36 6 57-62 54-59 52-56 49-54 47-51 44-48 42-46 40-43 37-40 7 >62 >59 >56 >54 >51 >48 >46 >43 >40 WOMEN / MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE (VO2max. For international use the fitness classification by Shvartz & Reibold (1990) presented in Table 1 is recommended. E.

because the classification has been developed in representative samples of individuals from different countries. However. the people in classes 1-3 would most probably obtain lots of heath benefits and improve their fitness by starting regular exercise. Regular exercisers participating occasionally in competition events score 60-70 (men) and 50-60 (women). Individuals exercising regularly. class 6 "very good" and class 7 "excellent" cardiovascular fitness compared to individuals of the same gender and age. Because cardiovascular health is related to aerobic fitness. class 4 "average". HRmax-p has been developed on 431 15-65-year old men and women (Hannula et al. class 3 "fair". The people in classes 5-7 most probably already have good health. height. class 5 "good". In a population. increase in exercise is recommended for fitness improvement. but not in competitive level. 11 % of the people belong to classes 1-2 and 6-7. class 2 "poor". class 1 corresponds to "very poor". 2000). and their exercise increase targets to improve their performance. Fitness class is a useful reference when interpreting the individual test results. MAXIMUM HEART RATE PREDICTION IN CONNECTION TO POLAR FITNESS TEST Maximum heart rate prediction (HRmax-p) is carried out simultaneously with Polar Fitness Test in some heart rate monitors and training computers. This corresponds to "gaussian distribution". heart rate variability at rest. HRmax-p is based on resting heart rate. The values differ to some extent according to the sport but there are no reliable reference values in the literature for the different sports. Of the subjects 175 were used in the development of the HRmax . VO2max (measured or predicted). body weight and maximal oxygen uptake. Top athletes in endurance sports typically score VO2max values (ml/kg/min) above 70 (men) and 60 (women).20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-65 <27 <26 <25 <24 <22 <21 <19 <18 <16 27-31 26-30 25-29 24-27 22-25 21-23 19-22 18-20 16-18 32-36 31-35 30-33 28-31 26-29 24-27 23-25 21-23 19-21 37-41 36-40 34-37 32-35 30-33 28-31 26-29 24-27 22-24 42-46 41-44 38-42 36-40 34-37 32-35 30-32 28-30 25-27 47-51 45-49 43-46 41-44 38-41 36-38 33-36 31-33 28-30 >51 >49 >46 >44 >41 >38 >36 >33 >30 In this classification. gender. Those in class 4 should at least maintain their exercise habits to ensure better health. have values between 40-60 (men) and 30-50 (women) and sedentary adults most probably below 40 (men) and 30 (women). age. 22% in classes 3 and 5 and 34% in class 4.

krvni pritisak u mirovanju i pod optereæenjem. Preporucuje se onima koji pocinju sa vezbanjem.prediction formula and the rest 256 in a validation study...5%) compared to 7.. Slicna je situacija u mnogim fitness klubovima kod nas. tako i strucnjak za fizicku kulturu.6 bpm (4.Funkcionalni parametri ( puls u miru.Zdravstveno stanje vezbaca i porodicnu anamnezu ( da li je neko u porodici bolovao od seæera. ali moze biti i veoma stetno.) 3. dakle. odreðuje individualni program vezbanja za svakog. telesnu masu.Opste podatke( ime i prezime. triceps. Koristi se za redukciju telesne mase. obim nadlaktice.. nakon utvrðenih odgovarajuæih antropoloskih karakteristika. onima koji zele da se oslobode stresa i unaprede svoje zdravlje.Telesnu visinu. tj.4 bpm with the age-based formula. bez dovoljno strucnog lica koje vodi sam program. One se odreðuju kao procenti od maksimalne vrednosti srcane frekvence.. lako se moze pratiti putem srcane frekvence ( pulsa ). ZONA 2 – Umerena. otvaraju ih privatna lica. preko kojih se moze zakljuciti stanje kardiovaskularnog sistema..) 5. zgib nathvatom-pothvatom. krvnog pritiska. bench press. sa frekvencom od 60-70 % od maksimuma. 4. voznja biciklergometra. Kao sto lekar nakon utvrðene dijagnoze prepise odgovarajuæu terapiju lekovima. Telesno vezbanje moze biti veoma korisno. opruzaci nogu.Test snage ( biceps. stomaka. Od sadrzaja se koriste: plivanje.9 bpm with the HRmax-p method and 9. The mean absolute error in HRmax-p was 6. REFERENCES Fitness vezbovni pokret u svetu i kod nas u velikoj je ekspanziji i bas iz tog razloga. a sa prvenstveno ekonomskim ciljem. Koristi se pet zona treninga: ZONA 1 – Rekreativna sa frekvencom od 50-60 % od maksimuma. odreðuju se na inicijalnom merenju. zanimanje. trbusni misiæi. Jedini pravilan pristup odreðivanju optereæenja je individualan pristup formiranja zona treninga.. ekstenzija leða. .) 2. Koje antropoloske karakteristike je potrebno “snimiti“ kod buduæeg vezbaca? 1... zona optereæenja.5 bpm (3.1%) in the agebased formula.) Reakcija organizma vezbaca na primenjena optereæenja. radi biznisa. grudi. cesto se vezbanje odvija nekontrolisano. listovi. The study showed that HRmax-p predicted the individual HRmax more accurately than the age-based formula (220-age). starost. The standard deviation (SD) of the prediction error was 7. pol.

ZONA 5 – Maksimalnog intenziteta. Formula za izracunavanje fitness indeksa za osobe zenskog pola od 18 do 65 godina je sledeæa: 304. vreme postignuto na UKK testu ( 16 minuta i 30 sekundi ). Test se izvodi brzim hodanjem na ravnoj stazi i registruje se vreme hodanja i puls na kraju hodanja. tredmil.aquarobik. Precizno merenje frekvence srca omoguæava izracunavanje fitness indeksa ( FI).16 On nam govori o telesnoj tezini vezbaca i na osnovu toga ga svrstavamo u jednu od sledeæih grupa: < od 20 = mrsav.. Korisnici fitness programa ne treba da ulaze u ovu zonu.) ZONA 4 – Nivo anaerobnog praga sa frekvencom pulsa 80-90 % od maksimuma. 164 x 164 = 2.69 = 24.Vise je koriste sportisti.. nema dovoljnu telesnu tezinu 20. body mass indeksa(BMI ) i energetske potrosnje tokom testa. po pravilu rezervisana za sportiste.1 – 30 = gojaznost 30 = opasno po zdravlje ( FI ) predstavlja opstu sposobnost korisnika fitness programa.32 x HR + 1. prisutna je u step aerobiku.+ 0..16 BMI =24. + 0. fitness program rada na trenazerima. kik aerobiku i drugim sadrzajima gde je intenzitet visok. PRIMER: ®enska osoba. starosti 54 godine.14 x sekund.69 65 : 2.5 x min. Dugotrajne aktivnosti srednjeg intenziteta ( trcanje.1 x BMI ) + 0.4 x godine Formula za izracunavanje fitness indeksa za osobe muskog pola od 18 do 65 godina je sledeæa: .(8.. puls na kraju testa ( HR ) 170 otk/min. ZONA 3 – Aerobna. sa frekvencom pulsa od 70-80 % od maksimuma. visoka 164 cm. Koristi se za poboljsanje opste izdrzljivosti. teska 65 kg.1 – 25 = idealna tezina 25. UKK test je test brzog hodanja na 2 km i namenjen je za procenjivanje kondicije zdravih odraslih osoba od 18 do 65 godina zivota. (BMI) se izracunava tako sto se telesna tezina ( u kilogramima ) podeli sa telesnom visinom ( u metrima na kvadrat ).

420 – ( 11.6 x min.1 – 95 = nizak prosek 95. U sledeæoj tabeli su date vrednosti fitness indeksa ( FI ) za osobe oba pola: < 70 = znacajno ispod prosek 70. Posle dva meseca ponoviti test i na osnovu novog programirati treninge u novonastalim uslovima.1 – 105 = prosecan 105. Ana S. o Odmah po ulasku u cilj meri se frekvencija srca. pripremio: UKK za procenu maksimalne potrošnje kiseonika o Test se izvodi na otvotrnom prostoru.2 x sekund.1 – 110 = dobar prosek 110.67. . Na osnovu ovih testova moguæe je sa velikom sigurnosæu utvrditi stanje kondicije korisnika fitness programa i uticati na korekciju zabelezenog stanja. + 0. 11. da bi se izbegla lutanja i improvizacija u izboru aktivnosti i stepena optereæenja. o Kandidat ima zadatak da za što kraće vreme prehoda distancu od 2 km. Shodno tome program vezbanja æe se realizovati 3-4 puta nedeljno u trajanju svakog treninga 20-30 min. Priru č nik je posve ć en svimljubiteljimazdravog načina ţ ivota i onimakoji su u raznimnedoumicama .2 x godine Fitness indeks za ovu osobu iznosi 61.56 x HR + 2. o Maksimalna potrošnja kiseonika se izračunava na osnovu izmerenog vremena hodanja. + 0.1 – 89 = ispod proseka 89.1 – 130 = malo iznad proseka >130 = znatno iznad proseka Posmatrana osoba je svrstana u grupu znacajno ispod proseka. frekvencije srca i vrednosti Body-Mass-Index-a (dobija se iz odnosa telesne visine i telesne mase kandidata). od kojih u krajnjoj liniji zavisi zdravlje.. Ovakav profesionalni pristup kljuc je savremenog vezbanja u fitness klubovima.10.2010.6 x BMI ) + 0.


Pojam fitnesa Fitnes u u ţ em smislu podrazumeva odre đ enefizi č ke sposobnosti odnosnove š tine pojedinca: kardiovaskularna /respiratorna sposobnostorganizma da usvajakiseonik. a oslobadja ugljendioksid .



to jestsposobnost da semaksimizira opseg kretanja uzglobu .sposobnost organizma dakoristi energiju(izdr ţ ljivost) mi š i ć na sposobnost (snaga) fleksibilnost.