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Phase Locked Loop Design as a Frequency

Multiplier
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF


Master of Technology
in
VLSI Design and Embedded System
By
GEORGE TOM VARGHESE
ROLL No: 207EC204




Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute Of Technology
Rourkela
2007-2009





Phase Locked Loop Design as a Frequency
Multiplier
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

Master of Technology
in
VLSI Design and Embedded System

By
GEORGE TOM VARGHESE
ROLL No: 207EC204

Under the Guidance of

Prof. KAMALAKANTA MAHAPATRA

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute Of Technology
Rourkela
2007-2009








National Institute Of Technology
Rourkela

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “Phase Locked Loop Design As A
Frequency Multiplier” submitted by George Tom Varghese in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology Degree in Electronics
& Communication Engineering with specialization in “VLSI Design and
Embedded System” at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed
University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and
guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been
submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or
Diploma.


Date: Prof. K. K. Mahapatra
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg.
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project is by far the most significant accomplishment in my life and it
would be impossible without people (especially my family) who supported me and
believed in me.

I am thankful to Dr. K. K. Mahapatra, Professor in the department of Electronics
and Communication Engineering, NIT Rourkela for giving me the opportunity to
work under him and lending every support at every stage of this project work. I
truly appreciate and value him esteemed guidance and encouragement from the
beginning to the end of this thesis. I am indebted to his for having helped me shape
the problem and providing insights towards the solution. His trust and support
inspired me in the most important moments of making right decisions and I am
glad to work with him.

I want to thank all my teachers Prof. S.K. Patra, Prof. G.Panda, Prof. G.S.
Rath, Prof. S. Meher, and Prof. D.P.Acharya for providing a solid background
for my studies and research thereafter.

I also very thankful to all my class mates and seniors of VLSI lab-I especially
Sushant Pattnaik, Dr. Jitendra K Das, Swain Ayas Kanta and K Sudeendra Kumar
who always encouraged me in the successful completion of my thesis work.


GEORGE TOM VARGHESE
ROLL No: 207EC204


ii


CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................................................IV
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................. V
ABBREVIATIONS USED ....................................................................................................................VII
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................1
1.1 MOTIVATION .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.3 APPLICATIONS ................................................................................................................................ 4
1.4 LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................................................... 4
PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR ..........................................................................................6
2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 7
2.2 PHASE DETECTOR AND PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR ................................................................... 7
2.3 LOW GLITCH HIGH SPEED CMOS PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR ................................................. 12
2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF PFD ........................................................................................................... 17
CHARGE PUMP ...................................................................................................................... 21
3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 22
3.2 CHARGE PUMP CONFIGURATION ................................................................................................... 24
3.3 MODIFIED CHARGE PUMP ............................................................................................................. 27
LOOP FILTER ......................................................................................................................... 29
4.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 30
4.2 TRANSFER FUNCTION OF PFD/CP/LPF .......................................................................................... 31
4.3 ADDITION OF RESISTANCE INTO THE LOOP FILTER ........................................................................ 34
4.4 ADDITION OF SECOND CAPACITOR INTO THE LOOP FILTER............................................................ 37
VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR & DIVIDE BY COUNTER ................................ 38


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5.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 39
5.2 CURRENT STARVED VCO ............................................................................................................. 41
5.3 PLL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................... 44
5.4 DIVIDE BY COUNTER..................................................................................................................... 45
5.5 PHASE LOCKED LOOP ................................................................................................................... 46
APPLICATIONS OF PLL & CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................... 48
6.1 CLOCK RECOVERY ........................................................................................................................ 49
6.2 CLOCK GENERATION .................................................................................................................... 49
6.3 FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS ................................................................................................................ 49
6.4 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................. 50
REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................... 51
LAYOUTS ............................................................................................................................................ 54





iv


ABSTRACT

High-performance digital systems use clocks to sequence operations and synchronize between
functional units and between ICs. Clock frequencies and data rates have been increasing with
each generation of processing technology and processor architecture. Phase locked-loops (PLLs)
are widely used to generate well-timed on-chip clocks in high-performance digital systems.
A PLL is a closed loop frequency system that locks the phase of an output signal to an
input reference signal. PLL‘s are widely used in computer, radio, and telecommunications
systems where it is necessary to stabilize a generated signal or to detect signals. The term ―lock‖
refers to a constant or zero phase difference between two signals. The signal from the feedback
path
D
f is compared to the input reference signal,
IN
f until the two signals are locked. If the
phase is unmatched, this is called the unlocked state, and the signal is sent to each component in
the loop to correct the phase difference. These components consist of the Phase Frequency
Detector (PFD), the charge pump (CP), the low pass filter (LPF), the voltage controlled oscillator
(VCO) and divide by counter. The PFD detects any phase differences in
D
f and
IN
f and then
generates an error signal. According to that error signal the CP either increases or decreases the
amount of charge to the LPF. This amount of charge either speeds up or slows down the VCO.
The loop continues in this process until the phase difference between
D
f and
IN
f is zero or
constant—this is the locked mode. After the loop has attained a locked status, the loop still
continues in the process but the output of each component is constant. The output signal
D
f has
the same phase and/or frequency as
IN
f .A divider can be used in the feedback path to synthesize a
frequency different than that of the reference signal.
The application I chose in designing the
PLL was a frequency synthesizer. A frequency synthesizer generates a frequency that can have a
different frequency from the original reference signal.

v
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.Basic block diagram of a PLL .......................................................................................4
Figure2. XOR Phase Detector ....................................................................................................7
Figure 3. XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = 0 ...........................................................8
Figure 4.XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π/2 ........................................................9
Figure 5.XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π ...........................................................9
Figure 6.PD Characteristics Graph of Phase Difference ranging from 0 to 2Π ........................... 10
Figure 7.PFD Implementation ................................................................................................... 11
Figure 8.PFD Simulation I (A Leads B) .................................................................................... 11
Figure 9.PFD Simulation II (B Leads A) ................................................................................... 12
Figure 10.Negative Logic Resettable D flip-flop ....................................................................... 13
Figure 12.Positive Logic Resettable D flip-flop ......................................................................... 14
Figure 11.Zoomed view of CMOS PFD, when ―NAND‖ gate is used [glitch is from 25.06 ns to
25.26 ns]. .................................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 13.AND Gate implementation using Pass Transistor Logic ............................................ 15
Figure 14.Proposed PFD Implementation .................................................................................. 16
Figure 15.Zoomed View of Simulation of Proposed PFD .......................................................... 16
Figure 16.Simulation of Proposed PFD with 1ns Phase Difference ............................................ 17
Figure 17.Proposed PFD‘s 2 GHz Operation ............................................................................. 18
Figure 18.Generation of Coincident Pulses when the Phase Difference is Zero .......................... 19
Figure 19.Tristate Output Schematic ......................................................................................... 22
Figure 20.Tristate Output Simulation ........................................................................................ 23
Figure 21.Tristate Output VDD Variation Schematic................................................................. 23
Figure 22.Tristate Output VDD Variation Simulation ................................................................ 24
Figure 23.Charge Pump Configuration ...................................................................................... 25
Figure 24. Charge Pump Simulation .......................................................................................... 25
Figure 25.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic ................................................................... 26
Figure 26.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic ................................................................... 26
Figure 27.Modified Charge Pump Schematic ............................................................................ 27

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Figure 28.Modified Charge Pump Simulation with NMOS on ................................................... 28
Figure 29.Modified Charge Pump Simulation with PMOS on ................................................... 28
Figure 30.Loop Filter Schematic ............................................................................................... 30
Figure 31.Test of Linearity of PFD/CP/LPF Combination ......................................................... 31
Figure 32.Ramp Approximation of the Response ...................................................................... 32
Figure 33.Step Response of PFD/CP/LPF Combination ............................................................ 33
Figure 34.Linear Model of Simple Charge Pump PLL ............................................................... 34
Figure 35.Loop Gain Characteristics of Simple Charge Pump PLL and after the addition of zero
into the loop gain ...................................................................................................................... 35
Figure 36.Schematic of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 .................................................................. 36
Figure 37.Simulation of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 ................................................................. 36
Figure 38.Schematic of Loop Filter with R1, C1 and C2 ........................................................... 37
Figure 39. Simulation of Loop Filter with R1, C1 and C2 .......................................................... 37
Figure 40.A Five Stage Ring Oscillator ..................................................................................... 39
Figure 41.Differential Ring Oscillator ....................................................................................... 40
Figure 42.Regenerative Feedback System ................................................................................. 41
Figure 43.Current Starved VCO ................................................................................................ 42
Figure 44.Frequency Vs Control Voltage of Current Starved VCO ............................................ 43
Figure 45.Schematic of Divide by 64 Counter ........................................................................... 45
Figure 46.Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter .......................................................................... 45
Figure 47.Phase Locked Loop Schematic .................................................................................. 46
Figure 48.Simulation of 8.8 MHz .............................................................................................. 47
Figure 49.Simulation of 11.5 MHz ............................................................................................ 47







vii

ABBREVIATIONS USED


PLL Phase Locked Loop
PFD Phase Frequency Detector
CP Charge Pump
LPF Loop Filter
VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator
control
V
Control Voltage
XOR Exclusive OR
ç Damping Factor
L
T Lock Time
n
e Natural Frequency
PDI
K Charge Pump Gain
VCO
K VCO Gain








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Chapter 1






INTRODUCTION







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1.1 Motivation

A PLL is essentially a feedback loop that locks the on-chip clock phase to that of an input
clock or signal. High-performance PLLs and clock buffers are widely used within a digital
system for two purposes: clock generation, and timing recovery. For clock generation, since off-
chip reference frequencies are limited by the maximum frequency of a crystal frequency
reference, (Typically in the range of 10 MHz) a PLL receives the reference clock and multiplies
the frequency to the multi-gigahertz operating frequency. The high-frequency clock is then
driven to all parts of the chip. Timing recovery pertains to the data communication between
chips. As data rates increase to satisfy the increase in on-chip processing rate, the phase
relationship between the input data and the on-chip clock is not fixed. To reliably receive the
high-speed data, a PLL locks the clock phase that samples the data to the phase of the input data.
Phase locked loop is closed loop control system that compares the output phase with the
input phase. High-performance digital systems use clocks to sequence operations and
synchronize between functional units and between ICs. Clock frequencies and data rates have
been increasing with each generation of processing technology and processor architecture.
Within the digital systems, well-timed clocks are generated with phase-locked loops (PLLs). The
rapid increase of the system‘s clock frequency possesses challenges in generating and
distributing the clock with low uncertainty.

1.2 System Overview

Phase-locked loops (PLLs) generate well-timed on-chip clocks for various applications such
as clock-and-data recovery, microprocessor clock generation and frequency synthesizer. The
basic concept of phase locking has remained the same since its invention in the 1930s. However,
design and implementation of PLLs continue to be challenging as design requirements of a PLL
such as clock timing uncertainty, power consumption and area become more stringent.
This section briefly discusses the basic concept of phase locking. A PLL is a closed-loop
feedback system that sets fixed phase relationship between its output clock phase and the phase
of a reference clock. A PLL tracks the phase changes that are within the bandwidth of the PLL.

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A PLL also multiplies a low-frequency reference clock
REF
CK , to produce a high-frequency
clock
OUT
CK .
A PLL is a negative feedback control system circuit. As the name implies, the purpose of a
PLL is to generate a signal in which the phase is the same as the phase of a reference signal. This
is done after many iterations of comparing the reference and feedback signals. The overall goal
of the PLL is to match the reference and feedback signals in phase, this is the lock mode. After
this, the PLL continues to compare the two signals but since they are in lock mode, the PLL
output is constant.
A basic form of a PLL consists of five main blocks:
1. Phase Detector or Phase Frequency Detector (PD or PFD)
2. Charge Pump (CP)
3. Low Pass Filter (LPF)
4. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
5. Divide by ‗N‘ Counter
The phase frequency detector (comparator) produces an error output signal based on the
phase difference between the phase of the feedback clock and the phase of the reference clock.
Over time, small frequency differences accumulate as an increasing phase error. If there is a
phase difference between the two signals, it generates ―up‖ or ―down‖ synchronized signals to
the charge pump/ low pass filter. If the error signal from the PFD is an ―up‖ signal, then the
charge pump pumps charge onto the LPF capacitor which increases the control voltage
control
V . On
the contrary, if the error signal from the PFD is a ―down‖ signal, the charge pump removes
charge from the LPF capacitor, which decreases
control
V .
control
V is the input to the VCO. Thus, the
LPF is necessary to only allow DC signals into the VCO and is also necessary to store the charge
from the CP. The purpose of the VCO is to either speed up or slow down the feedback signal
according to the error generated by the PFD. If the PFD generates an ―up‖ signal, the VCO
speeds up. On the contrary, if a ―down‖ signal is generated, the VCO slows down. The frequency
of oscillation is divided down to the feedback clock by a frequency divider. The phase is locked
when the feedback clock has a constant phase error and the same frequency as the reference
clock. Because the feedback clock is a divided version of the oscillator‘s clock frequency, the
frequency of oscillation is N times the reference clock.

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Figure 1.Basic block diagram of a PLL

1.3 Applications

The input of the PLL is a reference frequency,
IN
f from the user. The VCO sends another
input frequency,
D
f into the PFD to compare the reference frequency with the VCO frequency.
After the PLL corrects the frequency to have zero offset phase, or to be in the lock mode, the
frequency is taken as an output at the VCO,
D
f . Therefore, a frequency is synthesized. (Note:
Constraints on the input frequency
IN
f must be within the tuning range of the VCO and the PLL
as a whole system. The tuning range is the range in which the VCO functions properly. If
IN
f
isn‘t within this tuning range, a divider is necessary). A divider can be used in the feedback path
to synthesize a frequency different than that of the reference signal. Furthermore, since the
reference signal is a clock signal, the output is also a clock signal—thus a clock generator.

1.4 Literature Review

There are mainly two types of phase detectors are used in PLL.
1) XOR phase detector
2) Phase frequency detector

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The XOR phase detector is simply exclusive OR gate. Depending upon the phase difference
between the inputs varies, so width of the output pulses, thereby providing a dc level
proportional to the phase difference between the inputs. While the XOR circuit produces error
pulses on both rising and falling edges (The phase frequency detector will respond only to
positive or negative transitions). The operation of phase detectors is similar to that of differential
amplifiers in that both sense the difference between the inputs, generating a proportional output.
The average phase detector output contains little frequency information and no valuable phase
information. Since the phase detector is insensitive to frequency difference at the input, upon
start-up when the oscillator‘s frequency divided by N is far from the reference frequency, the
PLL may fail to lock. The problem is known as an inadequate acquisition range of the PLL. To
remedy the problem, a phase-frequency detector (PFD) is used that can detect both phase and
frequency differences.
The output of the PFD should be combined into a single output for driving the loop filter.
There are two methods of doing this. The first method is called tri-state output. The second
configuration is charge pump.
The loop filter is the brain of PLL. If the loop filter values are not selected correctly, it
may take the loop too long to lock, or once locked small variations in the input data may cause
the loop to unlock.
There are mainly two types of voltage controlled oscillators used in PLL. The source
coupled VCO can be designed to dissipate less power than the current starved VCO. The major
disadvantage of this configuration is the need of a capacitor. However this configuration is useful
when the VCO center frequency is set by an external capacitor. The operation of current starved
VCO is similar to the ring oscillator.
We design the VCO in such a way that the output of VCO is ‗N‘ times the reference
frequency. So the output of the VCO is passed through a divide by ‗N‘ counter and feedback to
the input.






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CHAPTER 2




PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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2.1 Introduction

The phase frequency detector, PFD, measures the difference in phase between the reference and
feedback signals. If there is a phase difference between the two signals, it generates ―up‖ or
―down‖ synchronized signals to the charge pump/ low pass filter. If the error signal from the
PFD is an ―up‖ signal, then the charge pump pumps charge onto the LPF capacitor which
increases the control voltage
control
V . On the contrary, if the error signal from the PFD is a ―down‖
signal, the charge pump removes charge from the LPF capacitor, which decreases
control
V .
control
V
is the input to the VCO. Thus, the LPF is necessary to only allow DC signals into the VCO and is
also necessary to store the charge from the CP. The purpose of the VCO is to either speed up or
slow down the feedback signal according to the error generated by the PFD. If the PFD generates
an ―up‖ signal, the VCO speeds up. On the contrary, if a ―down‖ signal is generated, the VCO
slows down. The output of the VCO is then fed back to the PFD in order to recalculate the phase
difference, thus creating a closed loop frequency control system.

2.2 Phase Detector and Phase Frequency Detector

A phase detector is a circuit that detects the difference in phase between its two input
signals. An example of a basic phase detector is the XOR gate. It produces error pulses on both
falling and rising edges. a detailed analysis of the XOR PD when the reference and feedback
signals are out of phase by zero, Π/2, and Π respectively.






Figure2. XOR Phase Detector
vco
|

ref |
ref
|
avg
V
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Figure 3. XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = 0

In Figure 3, the phase difference between the two signals is zero—locked phase. The average
output
avg
V , from the XOR gate is zero for this case. The XOR input/output characteristic graph
is a plot of
avg
V versus the phase difference. Figures 4 and 5 represent the phase difference for
Π/2, and Π. The XOR PD characteristic plot is shown in figure 6.
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Figure 4.XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π/2


Figure 5.XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Figure 6.PD Characteristics Graph of Phase Difference ranging from 0 to 2Π

The XOR PD as shown above in Figure is a very simple implementation of a PD, however; its
major disadvantage is that it can lock onto harmonics of the reference signal and most
importantly it cannot detect a difference in frequency.
To take care of these disadvantages, we implemented the Phase
Frequency Detector, which can detect a difference in phase and frequency between the reference
and feedback signals. Also, unlike the XOR gate PD, it responds to only rising edges of the two
inputs and it is free from false locking to harmonics. Furthermore, the PFD outputs either an
―QA‖ or a ―QB‖ to the CP. The PFD design uses two flip flops with reset features. The inputs to
the two clocks are the reference and feedback signals. The D inputs are connected to VDD—
always remaining high. The outputs are either ―QA‖ or ―QB‖ pulses. These outputs are both
connected to an AND gate to the reset of the D-FF‘s. When both QA and QB are high, the output
through the AND gate is high, which resets the flip flops. Thus both signals cannot be high at the
same time. This means that the output of the PFD is either an up or down pulse—but not both.
The difference in phase is measured by whichever rising edge occurs first.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Figure 7.PFD Implementation

The PFD circuit can be analyzed in two different ways. One way in which A leads B and the
other in which B leads A.

Figure 8.PFD Simulation I (A Leads B)
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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The QA pulse is the difference between the phases of the two clock signals. This QA pulse
indicates to the rest of the circuit that the feedback signal needs to speed up or ―catch up‖ with
the reference signal. In the second case B is leading A. In this QB pulse represents the difference
between the phases of the two clock signals. Figure 9 represents B leads A simulation results.

Figure 9.PFD Simulation II (B Leads A)


2.3 Low Glitch High Speed CMOS Phase Frequency
Detector

The phase frequency detector generates the error signal corresponding to the difference
between phase or frequency of the reference input and the feedback output. The PFD has two
outputs. In order to combine two outputs into a single output, the charge pump is used. The
output of the charge pump is directly connected to the loop filter. The function of the loop filter
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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is to filter out the high frequency components from the PFD output. The voltage controlled
oscillator accepts the control voltage from the loop filter and generates the oscillating output.
The VCO output is feedback to the input through a divide by counter. The process is continued
until both the input signals are synchronized or locked. In this we introduce a new CMOS PFD
with low glitch. The low glitch is achieved by using a pass transistor ―AND‖ gate instead of
CMOS gate. With the usage of negative logic resettable D flip-flop in the design, the
functionality of PFD can be achieved with the help of ―NAND‖ gate instead of ―AND‖ gate
[Fig 10].




QA
Clock

D

Reset


Figure 10.Negative Logic Resettable D flip-flop

The inputs to the PFD are two signals which are having a period of 100 ns and with a
phase difference of 90º (25 ns). Since CMOS logic consumes very low power, the PFD having a
power dissipation of 2.089 µW in 90 nm technology with Vdd=1.8 V. The glitch at the output of
PFD is more is the disadvantage of this circuit [Fig 11]. The duration of glitch in the PFD is 200
ps [25.06 ns to 25.26 ns]. If the glitch is more at the output of PFD, the reset time of the flip-flop
is also more. Effectively the duration of glitch is a factor which determines the speed of the PFD.
In order to reduce the glitch as well as increase the speed of PFD, a new low glitch CMOS PFD
is proposed, but with more power dissipation.

QA'
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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For the reduction of glitch at the output of PFD, pass transistor ―AND‖ gate is used in the
implementation. For that purpose, conversion of negative resettable D flip-flop to positive
resettable D flip-flop is required. This is achieved with the addition of a single inverter at the
―reset‖ terminal of the implementation [Fig 12].





Clock


D

Reset



Figure 12.Positive Logic Resettable D flip-flop
QA
QA'
Figure 11.Zoomed view of CMOS PFD, when “NAND” gate is used [glitch is
from 25.06 ns to 25.26 ns].
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Since normal and inverted outputs are available in the D flip-flop, effectively only two
extra transistors are required for implementing ―and‖ gate using pass transistor logic [Fig 13]. In
this gate, if the B input is high, the top transistor is turned on and copies the input A to the output
F. When B is low, the bottom pass transistor is turned on and passes a logic zero. The presence
of switch B' is essential to ensure a low impedance path to the supply rails under all
circumstances. The NMOS device is effective at passing a zero logic, but it is poor at pulling a
node to logic one. Whenever a pass transistor pulls a node high, the output only charges up to
Vdd-threshold voltage of NMOS.











Figure 13.AND Gate implementation using Pass Transistor Logic

But in the proposed PFD, this voltage is sufficient to enable the reset pin of the flip-flop. So
functionality is achieved correctly. The gate delay in the feedback path is reduced by a factor of
two in the proposed PFD as compared to the previous circuit. [Total number of gates in the
feedback path is four [CMOS ―NAND‖] in the previous PFD]. Totally the proposed PFD [Fig
14] having a power dissipation of 3.047 µW in 90 nm technology with Vdd=1.8 V with a
reduced glitch. The inputs to the proposed PFD are the same signals that applied to the prior
circuit. The outputs of the two PFD‘s are similar without zooming. The zoomed view establishes
the advantage of the proposed PFD over the prior circuit. The duration of glitch is only 140 ps.
[25.06 ns to 25.20 ns] Fig 15.


F=A.B
B'
B
A
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Vdd







Vdd






Figure 14.Proposed PFD Implementation
















A
B
Pass Transistor ―And‖
Gate
D
QA
Clock QA'

RESET QA'

D
QB
Clock

RESET

Figure 15.Zoomed View of Simulation of Proposed PFD
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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The reduction in the duration of the glitch will reduce the reset time of the flip-flops also.
The reset time is one of the factors which determine the speed of the PFD. As the reset time
decreases, speed of PFD will increase. Since reset time of the proposed PFD is less, the speed of
the PFD increases.
2.4 Characteristics of PFD

Phase sensitivity, maximum operating frequency and dead zone region are the
characteristics of any PFD. Sensitivity of PFD means the smallest difference the PFD can detect
and produce corresponding correct output signals, this leads to a conclusion that the higher the
sensitivity, the better the PFD. The proposed PFD is sensitive to even very small phase
differences [Upto1 ns] [Fig 16].
















The definition of maximum operating frequency is defined as one over the shortest period
with correct PFD output signals when the inputs have the same frequency and 90º phase
difference. This definition is most suitable for flip-flop based PFD where this frequency can be
easily identified. The maximum operating frequency is inversely proportional to the reset pulse
Figure 16.Simulation of Proposed PFD with 1ns Phase Difference
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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width of the circuit. Since reset pulse width is less in the proposed PFD, it can be operated over a
higher range than the prior PFD. The proposed PFD can operate up to 2 GHz [Fig 17].


















A hypothetical PFD produces no pulses for a zero input phase difference. Whenever a
small phase error comes, due to finite rise time and fall time, the output of PFD pulse may not
find enough time to reach a logical high level. When the phase error is within the dead zone, the
control system does not change the control voltage. In other words, if the input phase difference
falls below a certain value, the output voltage of the PFD is no longer a function of phase
difference. If the phase difference is below the threshold level, the charge pump injects no
current. The dead zone is highly undesirable because it allows the VCO to accumulate random
phase error with respect to the input while receiving no corrective feedback. The proposed PFD
generates narrow, coincident pulses on both QA and QB even when the phase difference is zero
[Fig 18]. Effectively the coincident pulses on QA and QB can eliminate the dead zone.

Figure 17.Proposed PFD’s 2 GHz Operation
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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A high speed low glitch CMOS phase frequency detector is proposed in 90 nm
technology with Vdd=1.8 V in Cadence tool. . Proposed new circuit uses ―AND‖ gate using pass
transistor logic rather than conventional CMOS logic. The usage of pass transistor reduces the
glitch at the output of the PFD. The proposed PFD is having a better phase sensitivity, no dead
zone and a higher frequency of operation. Simulation results shows that the proposed PFD has
low glitch as compared to conventional PFD. So the speed of the proposed PFD is also high. The
proposed PFD can be used in PLL applications such as frequency multiplier, clock recovery
purposes.





Figure 18.Generation of Coincident Pulses when the Phase Difference is Zero
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Table I
Comparison Conventional PFD Proposed PFD
Technology 90 nm 90 nm
Vdd 1.8 V 1.8 V
Current 1.160 µA 1.693 µA
Power Dissipation 2.089 µW 3.047 µW
Dead Zone Zero Zero
Reset Time 200 ps 140 ps
Glitch 25.06 ns to 25.26 ns 25.06 ns to 25.20 ns






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CHAPTER 3



CHARGE PUMP








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3.1 Introduction

The output of the PFD should be combined into a single output for driving the loop filter. There
are two methods of doing this. The first method is called tri-state output. When both signals are
low, both mosfets are off and the output is in a high impedance state. If the QA signal goes high,
PMOS turns on and pulls the output to VDD while if the QB is high, the output is pulled low
through NMOS. The main problem that exists with this configuration is that the power supply
variation can significantly affect the output voltage when PMOS is on. Figure 19 and 20
represents tri-state output configuration and simulation.


Figure 19.Tristate Output Schematic
Next I am discussing about the VDD variation in the tri-state output. Suppose VDD
changes to 1.75 instead of 1.8. Then figure 22 represents how the circuit will behave to
this condition and figure 21 represents the corresponding schematic diagram.
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Figure 20.Tristate Output Simulation


Figure 21.Tristate Output VDD Variation Schematic
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Figure 22.Tristate Output VDD Variation Simulation
3.2 Charge Pump Configuration

The second configuration is charge pump. When the PFD QA signal goes high, NMOS turns on,
connecting the current source to the loop filter. Since the current source can be made insensitive
to supply variation, modulation of VCO control voltage is absent. In order to adjust the delay
between QA and QB, a complimentary pass gate is added into the circuit between QB and the
upper NMOS. The UP and DOWN switches, M4 and M3, operate in the triode region and they
act like resistors (thermal noise occurs). They should have a large W/L ratio for faster switching
time and wider voltage range. When the W/L ratio (transistor size) is large, the on resistance will
be small. As the resistance is smaller, the voltage across the resistor will be small, that will allow
for a wider voltage range at the output. The transistors M2 and M1 are current mirror sources and
sinks.

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Figure 23.Charge Pump Configuration


Figure 24. Charge Pump Simulation

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In this section, I describes about the VDD variation of charge pump. By comparing with the tri-
state configuration we can conclude that the charge pump configuration is less affected by the
VDD variation. So the charge pump configuration is used in the PLL.


Figure 25.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic

Figure 26.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic
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3.3 Modified Charge Pump

In this section, I am changing the current source in the default charge pump to another
current source for better operation. That means to ensure that mosfets are in saturation.


Figure 27.Modified Charge Pump Schematic

The charge pump consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out
of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The circuit has three states. If QA=0, QB=0,
then both switches are off and output voltage remains constant. If QA=1, QB=0, then current
through the PMOS branch charges the capacitor. Conversely if QA=0, QB=1, then current
through the PMOS branch discharges the capacitor. If for example, A leads B, then QA
continues to produce pulses and output rises steadily. Conversely B leads A, then QB continues
to produce pulses and output falls steadily. The currents through the PMOS branch and NMOS
branch are nominally equal.


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Figure 28.Modified Charge Pump Simulation with NMOS on

Figure 29.Modified Charge Pump Simulation with PMOS on
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CHAPTER 4







LOOP FILTER






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4.1 Introduction

The loop filter is the brain of PLL. If the loop filter values are not
selected correctly, it may take the loop too long to lock, or once locked small variations in the
input data may cause the loop to unlock. The PFD/CP/LP combination contains a pole at the
origin and VCO also contains a pole at the origin. So the instability arises because the loop gain
has two poles at the origin. In order to stabilize the system, we must modify the phase
characteristics by adding a resistor in series with the loop filter capacitor. The compensated PLL
also suffers from a critical drawback. Since the charge pump drives the series combination of R1
and C1, each time a current is injected into the loop filter, the control voltage experiences a large
jump. To relax this issue, a second capacitor is usually added in parallel with R1 and C1.


Figure 30.Loop Filter Schematic



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4.2 Transfer Function of PFD/CP/LPF

In order to quantify the behavior of charge pump PLLs, we must develop a linear model for the
combination of the PFD, the charge pump and the low pass filter, thereby obtaining the transfer
function. We therefore raise two questions: (1) Is the PFD/CP/LPF combination is a linear
system? (2). If so, how can the transfer function can be computed?
To answer the first question, we test the system for linearity. For example, if we double
the input phase difference and see if
out
V exactly doubles.



Figure 31.Test of Linearity of PFD/CP/LPF Combination
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The flat sections of
out
V double, but not the ramp sections. After all, the current charging or
discharging C1 is constant, yielding a constant slope for the ramp. Thus the system is not linear
in the strict sense. To overcome this problem, we approximate the output waveform by a ramp
arriving at a linear relationship between
out
V and | A . In a sense, we approximate a discrete time
system by a continuous time model.
To answer the second question, we recall that the
transfer function is the Laplace transform of the impulse response, requiring that we apply a
phase difference impulse and compute
out
V in the time domain. Since a phase difference impulse
is difficult to visualize, we apply a phase difference step, obtain
out
V , and difference the result
with respect to time.


Figure 32.Ramp Approximation of the Response
To answer the second question, we recall that the transfer function is the Laplace
transform of the impulse response, requiring that we apply a phase difference impulse and
compute
out
V in the time domain. Since a phase difference impulse is difficult to visualize, we
apply a phase difference step, obtain
out
V , and difference the result with respect to time.
Let us assume the input period is
in
T and the charge pump provides a current of
P
I to
the capacitor. We begin with a zero phase difference and at t=0, step the phase of B by
0
| , | A =
0
| u(t). As a result, QA or QB continues to produce pulses that are
H 2
0 in
T |
seconds wide,
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raising the output voltage by
H
u
2
0 in
P
P
T
C
I
in every period. Approximated by a ramp,
out
V thus
exhibits a slope of
H
u
2
0
P
P
C
I
and can be expressed as
out
V (t)= t
C
I
P
P
H 2

0
| u (t)
The impulse response is therefore given by
= ) (t h
P
P
C
I
H 2
U (t)
Yielding the transfer function




Figure 33.Step Response of PFD/CP/LPF Combination

S C
I
s
V
P
P out
1
2
) (
H
=
Au
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Consequently, the PFD/CP/LPF combination contains a pole at the origin, a point of contrast to
the PD/LPF circuit used in the type I PLL. In analogy with the expression
S
K
VCO
, we call
P
P
C
I
H 2

the gain of the PFD and denote it by
PFD
K . Figure 34 represents the linear model of simple
charge pump PLL. After constructing a linear model of PLL, the open loop transfer function is



Figure 34.Linear Model of Simple Charge Pump PLL

4.3 Addition of Resistance into the Loop Filter

Since the loop gain has two poles at origin, this topology is called a type II PLL. The
closed loop transfer function denoted by
p
C
vco
K
p
I
S
p
C
vco
K
p
I
s H
H
+
H
=
2
2
2
) (
The result is alarming because the closed loop system contains two imaginary poles at
p
C
vco
K
p
I
j S
H
± =
2
2 , 1

2
2 S
K
ΠC
I
(S)|open
Φ
Φ
VCO
P
P
IN
OUT
=
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So the system is unstable. The instability arises because the loop gain has only two poles at the
origin (Two ideal integrators). Each integrator contributes a constant phase shift of 90º, allowing
the system to oscillate at gain cross over frequency.
In order to stabilize the system, we must modify the phase characteristic such that the phase shift
is less than 180º at the gain cross over. This is accomplished by introducing a zero in to the loop
gain. That is by adding a resistor in series with the loop filter capacitor.
Now the transfer function becomes




Figure 35.Loop Gain Characteristics of Simple Charge Pump PLL and after the addition of
zero into the loop gain

S
K
S C
R
I
open S
VCO
P
P
P
IN
OUT
)
1
(
2
| ) ( +
H
=
|
|
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Figure 36.Schematic of Loop Filter with R1 and C1


Figure 37.Simulation of Loop Filter with R1 and C1


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4.4 Addition of Second Capacitor into the Loop Filter

This circuit also suffers from a critical drawback. Since the charge pump drives the series
combination of R1 and C1, each time a current is injected into the loop filter, the control voltage
experience a large jump. To relax this issue, a second capacitor is added in parallel with R1 and
C1. The value of C2 is about one-fifth to one tenth of C1.

Figure 38.Schematic of Loop Filter with R1, C1 and C2

Figure 39. Simulation of Loop Filter with R1, C1 and C2
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CHAPTER 5





VOLTAGE CONTROLLED
OSCILLATOR & DIVIDE BY
COUNTER




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5.1 Introduction
An oscillator is an autonomous system that generates a periodic output without any input. A
CMOS ring oscillator shown in Figure 40 is an example of an oscillator. So that the phase of a
PLL is adjustable, the frequency of oscillation must be tunable. In the example of an inverter ring
oscillator, the frequency could easily be adjusted with controlling the supply (voltage or current)
of inverters. The slope of frequency versus control signal curve at the oscillation frequency is
called voltage-to-frequency (or current to- frequency) conversion gain. Ideally, for the linear
analysis to apply over a large frequency range, the voltage gain of the VCO needs to be relatively
constant. The purpose of the VCO is to vary an output frequency proportional to the control
voltage input.

Figure 40.A Five Stage Ring Oscillator
There were two types of VCO architectures considered in this design. The first was a single-
ended ring oscillator, as shown in Figure 33. This design can be only by an odd number of
inverters.
delay
N
osc
f
t 2
1
=
As Equation states, the oscillation frequency of this configuration is proportional to the number
of stages and the delay of each cell. While the single-ended ring oscillator is very simple in
design, it does have some major drawbacks. First, it requires the use of an odd number of
inverters in order for the circuit to not latch up. The main difficulty for using submicron CMOS
ring oscillators in wireless communication systems is their relatively poor phase noise response.
Due to these drawbacks, a differential ring oscillator was then considered. The main reason for
choosing a differential architecture was because it offered better noise rejection.
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Figure 41.Differential Ring Oscillator

As shown, there is an inversion between the third and fourth stages due to an even number of
stages being used. The oscillation frequency equation of the differential ring oscillator is the
same as the single-ended configuration shown in the previous Equation. The difference between
the two designs is that the differential architecture offers more flexibility in changing the
oscillation frequency because it is not restricted to having an odd number of stages. This is also
another advantage over using a single-ended architecture.
An oscillator is a circuit that produces a periodic signal, without any specific input signal except
internal noise. An oscillator can be viewed as a feedback system, figure 35 with a transfer
function of
) ( 1
) (
s H
s H
in
V
out
V
+
=
If H(s) = -1 then the gain would approach infinity, which results in infinity amplification of the
noise component at the oscillation frequency. For oscillation at one specific frequency two
criteria are stated. The first criterion is that the total phase shift around the loop is 180°. The
second criterion is that the feedback system amplifies its own noise at the frequency of
oscillation. These criteria mean that the returning signal is a negative replica of the input signal,
which will give a larger difference between the input signal and the feedback signal when
subtracting. The circuit is said to regenerate. At some point the amplitude of the regenerating
feedback system will be limited and the Barkhausen criteria of a gain=1 is fulfilled and gives a
stable oscillation.

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Figure 42.Regenerative Feedback System

In many applications it is desirable to have the ability to tune the oscillator to different
frequencies. The required VCO tuning range is mainly due to two factors. First, the tuning range
must be large enough to compensate for the change in VCO centre frequency due to process and
temperature variations. Second, any additional tuning required by the intended application must
be added.
5.2 Current Starved VCO

Most applications require that oscillators be ―tunable. i.e., their output frequency be a
function of a control input, usually a voltage. An ideal voltage-controlled oscillator is a circuit
whose output frequency is a linear function of its control voltage. There are different types of
voltage controlled oscillators used in PLL. Here I am discussing about 2 types of VCOs. Source
coupled VCO and Current starved VCO. The source coupled VCO can be designed to dissipate
less power than the current starved VCO. The major disadvantage of this configuration is the
need of a capacitor. However this configuration is useful when the VCO center frequency is set
by an external capacitor. The operation of current starved VCO is similar to the ring oscillator.
Middle PMOS and NMOS operate as inverter, while upper PMOS and lower NMOS operate as
current sources. The current sources limit the current available to the inverter. In other words, the
inverter is starved for current. The current in the first NMOS and PMOS are mirrored in each
inverter/current source stage. Since the propagation delay of the inverters is proportional to the
current each inverter supplies to the output, we can effectively control the frequency. The
oscillation frequency of current starved VCO for ‗N‘ no of stages is


D
OSC
NT
F
1
=
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Where
D
T represents the total time taken by the capacitance (
total
C ) to charge and discharge.


Where
total
C represents the total capacitance on the drains of PMOS and NMOS of the inverter.





Figure 43.Current Starved VCO

The following table gives the characteristics of the current starved VCO. That is control
voltage Vs Frequency (MHz). The graph shows that the relationship between control
voltage and frequency is linear.


D
DD total
D
I
V C
T =
in out total
C C C + =
) (
2
3
) (
n n p p ox n n p p ox total
L W L W C L W L W C C +
'
+ +
'
=
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Table 2: Control Voltage Vs Frequency

Control Voltage(v) Frequency(MHz)
0.1 19.78
0.2 110.26
0.3 384.83
0.4 1173.11
0.5 1798.83
0.6 2518.72
0.7 3240.99
0.8 3922.11
0.9 4530.80
1.0 5048.33
1.1 5469.25
1.2 5803.51
1.3 6066.67
1.4 6273.01
1.5 6434.12
1.6 6558.61
1.7 6653.53
1.8 6725.32


Figure 44.Frequency Vs Control Voltage of Current Starved VCO
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5.3 PLL Specifications



Take Lock range as 1MHz. That is

Take


Lock Time =








[N=64]



R=153.2 Ω

Loop Bandwidth = 2.06
=.359Mrad/s
Charge Pump Current = 100µA



M F
ref
10 =
M F
out
640 =
M
n
1 2 = çe
7 . 0 = ç
K
n
285 . 714 = e
n
L
T
e
H
=
2
1
NC
K K
VCO PDI
n
= e
rad A K
PDI
µ
H
=
2
100
min max
min max
2
V V
f f
K
VCO
÷
÷
H =
MHz 3 . 4179 * 2H =
nf C 79 . 12
1
=
1
2
RC
n
e
ç =
n
e
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5.4 Divide by Counter

We design the VCO in such a way that the output of VCO is ‗N‘ times the reference
frequency. So the output o the VCO is passed through a divide by ‗N‘ counter and feedback
to the input. Here the D Flip-flop‘s QBAR is connected to the D input. It will work as a T
flip-flop with input connected to logic ‗1‘.The figure 45 shows the schematic of a divide by
64 counter.


Figure 45.Schematic of Divide by 64 Counter


Figure 46.Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter
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5.5 Phase Locked Loop

The phase frequency detector (comparator) produces an error output signal based on the
phase difference between the phase of the feedback clock and the phase of the reference clock.
Over time, small frequency differences accumulate as an increasing phase error. The difference
or error signal is low-pass filtered and drives the voltage controlled oscillator. The filtered error
signal acts as a control signal (Voltage or current) of the oscillator and adjusts the frequency of
oscillation to align
feedback
u with
ref
u .The frequency of oscillation is divided down to the
feedback clock by a frequency divider. The phase is locked when the feedback clock has a
constant phase error and the same frequency as the reference clock. Because the feedback clock
is a divided version of the oscillator‘s clock frequency, the frequency of oscillation is N times the
reference clock.


Figure 47.Phase Locked Loop Schematic

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Figure 48.Simulation of 8.8 MHz


Figure 49.Simulation of 11.5 MHz
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CHAPTER 6







APPLICATIONS OF PLL &
CONCLUSIONS





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Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes; in space communications
for coherent carrier tracking and threshold extension, bi synchronization, and symbol
synchronization. Phase-locked loops can also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated
signals. In radio transmitters, a PLL is used to synthesize new frequencies which are a
multiple of a reference frequency, with the same stability as the reference frequency.

6.1 Clock Recovery
Some data streams, especially high-speed serial data streams (such as the raw stream of data
from the magnetic head of a disk drive), are sent without an accompanying clock. The receiver
generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns to the
transitions in the data stream with a PLL. This process is referred to as clock recovery. In order
for this scheme to work, the data stream must have a transition frequently enough to correct any
drift in the PLL's oscillator.
6.2 Clock Generation
Many electronic systems include processors of various sorts that operate at hundreds of
megahertz. Typically, the clocks supplied to these processors come from clock generator PLLs,
which multiply a lower-frequency reference clock (usually 50 or 100 MHz) up to the operating
frequency of the processor. The multiplication factor can be quite large in cases where the
operating frequency is multiple gigahertz and the reference crystal is just tens or hundreds of
megahertz.
6.3 Frequency Synthesis
A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating a range of frequencies from a
single fixed time base or oscillator. Frequency Synthesizer manufacturers include Analog
Devices, National Semiconductor and Texas Instruments. VCO manufacturers include Sirenza,
Z-Communications.

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6.4 Conclusions


 Phase Locked Loop is designed for a frequency multiplying factor of 64 and
verified.

 The layouts of all the five blocks are drawn, extracted each block, performed the
post layout simulation and finally cross check with the functionality of the
schematic simulation.

 A new high speed low glitch CMOS PFD is proposed. In the charge pump
configuration, a new current source is replaced.

 In order to achieve the stability in the loop filter, a resistor is added in series with
the loop filter capacitor. Since the charge pump drives the series combination of
R1 and C1, each time a current is injected into the loop filter, the control voltage
experience a large jump. To relax this issue, a second capacitor is added in
parallel with R1 and C1.

 Current starved VCO is selected as the voltage controlled oscillator in the design
of PLL.

 A divide by 64 counters is used for the synchronization with the input frequency.

 640 MHz is used in CMOS continuous-time sigma delta ADC, which can be
achieved with this PLL design.



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25. B. Razavi, Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communication, McGraw-
Hill, 1st ed. 2003, ch. 8.
26. J. Lee, M. Keel, S. Lim and S. Kim, ―Charge pump with perfect current matching
characteristics in phase-locked loops,‖ Electronics Letters, vol. 36, issue 23, pp.
1907-1908, Nov. 2000.
27. D. Armaroli, V. Liberali, and C. Vacchi, ―Behavioral analysis of charge pump
PLLs,‖ in Proc. Midwest Symp. Circuits Systems, Aug. 1995, pp. 893–896.
28. K.S. Lee, B.H. Park, H. Lee, and M. J. Yoh, ―Phase frequency detectors for fast
frequency acquisition in zero-dead-zone CPPLLs for mobile communication
systems.‖ ESSCIRC '03. Proceedings of the 29th European, pp. 525-528,
September 2003.
29. M. Soyuer, and R. G. Meyer, ―Frequency limitations of a conventional phase-
frequency detector,‖ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, pp. 1019-1022,
August 1990.
30. W.H. Lee and J.D. Cho, ―A High Speed and Low Power Phase- Frequency
Detector and Charge-Pump,‖ IEEE ASP-DAC‘99. Asia and South Pacific, vol. 1,
pp.269-272, 1999.
31. R. C. Chang, and L.C.Kuo, ―A differential type CMOS phase frequency
detector,‖ Proceedings of the Second IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on 28-30, pp.
61-64, August 2000.
32. M. Mansuri, D. Liu, and C.-K.K. Yang, ―Fast frequency acquisition phase-
frequency detectors for Gsamples/s phase-locked loops,‖ IEEE Journal of Solid-
State Circuits, vol. 37, pp. 1375 - 1382 November 2002.








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NIT ROURKELA 54

LAYOUTS

Layout of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD


Av_Extracted view of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Post Layout Simulation of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD

Layout of the Charge Pump
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Av_extracted view of the Charge Pump

Layout of 13.57nf Capacitor
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Av_extracted view of 13.57nf Capacitor

Layout of 2.71nf Capacitor


PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Av_extracted view of 2.71nf Capacitor

Layout of resistor

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Layout of Voltage Controlled Oscillator

Av_extracted view of Voltage Controlled Oscillator
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

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Layout of Divide by 64 Counter

Av_extracted view of Divide by 64 Counter
PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

NIT ROURKELA 61


Post Layout Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter

Complete PLL Layout

Phase Locked Loop Design as a Frequency Multiplier
A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
Master of Technology in VLSI Design and Embedded System

By

GEORGE TOM VARGHESE ROLL No: 207EC204

Under the Guidance of Prof. KAMALAKANTA MAHAPATRA

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute Of Technology Rourkela 2007-2009

National Institute Of Technology Rourkela
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “Phase Locked Loop Design As A Frequency Multiplier” submitted by George Tom Varghese in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering with specialization in “VLSI Design and Embedded System” at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Date:

Prof. K. K. Mahapatra Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg. National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project is by far the most significant accomplishment in my life and it would be impossible without people (especially my family) who supported me and believed in me. NIT Rourkela for giving me the opportunity to work under him and lending every support at every stage of this project work. I truly appreciate and value him esteemed guidance and encouragement from the beginning to the end of this thesis.K. and Prof. Mahapatra. His trust and support inspired me in the most important moments of making right decisions and I am glad to work with him. G. I also very thankful to all my class mates and seniors of VLSI lab-I especially Sushant Pattnaik. Professor in the department of Electronics and Communication Engineering.Panda. Rath. Prof. K.P. Prof. Dr. Meher. GEORGE TOM VARGHESE ROLL No: 207EC204 i .Acharya for providing a solid background for my studies and research thereafter. Patra. Swain Ayas Kanta and K Sudeendra Kumar who always encouraged me in the successful completion of my thesis work. K. Jitendra K Das. I want to thank all my teachers Prof. I am indebted to his for having helped me shape the problem and providing insights towards the solution. G.S. S. D. I am thankful to Dr. Prof. S.

..................................................... 4 1.......................................................................... 2 1..VII INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 34 4........................................1 1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 31 4..........................1 MOTIVATION ...............1 INTRODUCTION .......................................2 TRANSFER FUNCTION OF PFD/CP/LPF................ 12 2...................................................................................................................................................................4 ADDITION OF SECOND CAPACITOR INTO THE LOOP FILTER........................... 7 2....................................... 30 4..................................................... 21 3............ 29 4..................3 LOW GLITCH HIGH SPEED CMOS PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR ............................................1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................3 APPLICATIONS .......2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW .....................................................................................................................................................CONTENTS ABSTRACT............................................. 4 PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR ..................................................................................................................................................................................3 ADDITION OF RESISTANCE INTO THE LOOP FILTER .............................................2 CHARGE PUMP CONFIGURATION .......................................................................................................................................... 22 3................... 24 3......................................................4 CHARACTERISTICS OF PFD ......... 27 LOOP FILTER ....... 17 CHARGE PUMP ...............................IV LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................................................................6 2....................................................................................... 38 ii .............................................................................................3 MODIFIED CHARGE PUMP ... 37 VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR & DIVIDE BY COUNTER .....1 INTRODUCTION ........................... 7 2................................................................. V ABBREVIATIONS USED ......2 PHASE DETECTOR AND PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR . 2 1.......4 LITERATURE REVIEW ............

.........3 FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS ............................................................................................ 49 6.............. 39 5...........................1 CLOCK RECOVERY ....... 54 iii .................................................................................................................................................................. 45 5................................................. 44 5.................................................................................................................................................................5.............................5 PHASE LOCKED LOOP ..........................................................................4 DIVIDE BY COUNTER... 46 APPLICATIONS OF PLL & CONCLUSIONS ..................... 51 LAYOUTS .............................2 CURRENT STARVED VCO ..........................................................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION .......4 CONCLUSIONS ................... 49 6.................................................................................................................................. 50 REFERENCES................................ 41 5........................................3 PLL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 6...............2 CLOCK GENERATION ........................ 48 6.........................................................................

the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and divide by counter. After the loop has attained a locked status. The PFD detects any phase differences in f D and f IN and then generates an error signal. Clock frequencies and data rates have been increasing with each generation of processing technology and processor architecture. A frequency synthesizer generates a frequency that can have a different frequency from the original reference signal. and the signal is sent to each component in the loop to correct the phase difference. If the phase is unmatched. the loop still continues in the process but the output of each component is constant. the low pass filter (LPF). the charge pump (CP). The loop continues in this process until the phase difference between f D and f IN is zero or constant—this is the locked mode. The output signal f D has the same phase and/or frequency as f IN . These components consist of the Phase Frequency Detector (PFD). The signal from the feedback path f D is compared to the input reference signal. radio. iv . According to that error signal the CP either increases or decreases the amount of charge to the LPF. PLL‘s are widely used in computer. and telecommunications systems where it is necessary to stabilize a generated signal or to detect signals.A divider can be used in the feedback path to synthesize a frequency different than that of the reference signal. Phase locked-loops (PLLs) are widely used to generate well-timed on-chip clocks in high-performance digital systems. f IN until the two signals are locked. This amount of charge either speeds up or slows down the VCO. The application I chose in designing the PLL was a frequency synthesizer. The term ―lock‖ refers to a constant or zero phase difference between two signals. A PLL is a closed loop frequency system that locks the phase of an output signal to an input reference signal. this is called the unlocked state.ABSTRACT High-performance digital systems use clocks to sequence operations and synchronize between functional units and between ICs.

.... XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = 0 ......................................Basic block diagram of a PLL ............................................................................... 15 Figure 14........ 22 Figure 20......................... 18 Figure 18...................Tristate Output Schematic ..................................... 14 Figure 11........................................Negative Logic Resettable D flip-flop ..9 Figure 6....................................PFD Implementation ........................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.................................................Zoomed view of CMOS PFD........ 27 v ...... 16 Figure 15....................... XOR Phase Detector ........ 13 Figure 12................ 19 Figure 19........................... 23 Figure 21......................................06 ns to 25..........................................................Proposed PFD‘s 2 GHz Operation ......................................... 17 Figure 17...........Charge Pump Configuration ....................................................................................................................................... when ―NAND‖ gate is used [glitch is from 25.......................................................Modified Charge Pump Schematic ....Tristate Output VDD Variation Schematic...................................4 Figure2.................................26 ns]...........................7 Figure 3...............................................................................Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic .................................... 10 Figure 7................ 11 Figure 8.....................XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π ...........................................................................XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π/2 .................................. 26 Figure 26...............Positive Logic Resettable D flip-flop .....................AND Gate implementation using Pass Transistor Logic ............................................................................. 25 Figure 24...........PFD Simulation I (A Leads B) .............................................................9 Figure 5........Simulation of Proposed PFD with 1ns Phase Difference .......... ..................................................................................................................................................................PD Characteristics Graph of Phase Difference ranging from 0 to 2Π .... 16 Figure 16.... 25 Figure 25................. Charge Pump Simulation ................................................................................Tristate Output VDD Variation Simulation......... 14 Figure 13.................PFD Simulation II (B Leads A) ..........Generation of Coincident Pulses when the Phase Difference is Zero ...................Proposed PFD Implementation ............................................ 23 Figure 22.....................................................Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic ..........................Zoomed View of Simulation of Proposed PFD ........................ 12 Figure 10....................................................................................................... 24 Figure 23......Tristate Output Simulation .....................8 Figure 4.. 26 Figure 27.................... 11 Figure 9............

........................ 31 Figure 32...... 35 Figure 36................................................................................... C1 and C2 .......Test of Linearity of PFD/CP/LPF Combination ....................................................................................................................... 32 Figure 33............................................................Loop Filter Schematic .......................... 43 Figure 45....................................Figure 28.................................................. C1 and C2 .........Simulation of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 ........... 47 Figure 49.......Ramp Approximation of the Response ........................ 39 Figure 41......................................................Loop Gain Characteristics of Simple Charge Pump PLL and after the addition of zero into the loop gain ............................................... 37 Figure 40.......................................... 34 Figure 35................................Current Starved VCO ................................Regenerative Feedback System ................................ 45 Figure 46...................................................A Five Stage Ring Oscillator ... 36 Figure 37..................................... 40 Figure 42................... Simulation of Loop Filter with R1....................................................................................................................... 47 vi ...................... 45 Figure 47.......................... 46 Figure 48.......................Modified Charge Pump Simulation with PMOS on ......................................................5 MHz ............................. 41 Figure 43.................................Schematic of Divide by 64 Counter ............Linear Model of Simple Charge Pump PLL ...........Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter ...................................................... 28 Figure 30.......................................... 30 Figure 31............ 36 Figure 38.................Schematic of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 ..............................Differential Ring Oscillator .................Simulation of 11..................Frequency Vs Control Voltage of Current Starved VCO ........ 37 Figure 39..................................................................................................... 42 Figure 44..........................8 MHz .Phase Locked Loop Schematic .... 28 Figure 29.................................... 33 Figure 34.........Simulation of 8......Step Response of PFD/CP/LPF Combination ......................................................Modified Charge Pump Simulation with NMOS on .......................Schematic of Loop Filter with R1....................................................

ABBREVIATIONS USED PLL PFD CP LPF VCO Vcontrol Phase Locked Loop Phase Frequency Detector Charge Pump Loop Filter Voltage Controlled Oscillator Control Voltage Exclusive OR Damping Factor Lock Time Natural Frequency Charge Pump Gain VCO Gain XOR  TL n K PDI KVCO vii .

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION NIT ROURKELA 1 .

High-performance PLLs and clock buffers are widely used within a digital system for two purposes: clock generation. To reliably receive the high-speed data.1. This section briefly discusses the basic concept of phase locking. However. microprocessor clock generation and frequency synthesizer. well-timed clocks are generated with phase-locked loops (PLLs). As data rates increase to satisfy the increase in on-chip processing rate. Timing recovery pertains to the data communication between chips. The basic concept of phase locking has remained the same since its invention in the 1930s. Within the digital systems. A PLL is a closed-loop feedback system that sets fixed phase relationship between its output clock phase and the phase of a reference clock.1 Motivation A PLL is essentially a feedback loop that locks the on-chip clock phase to that of an input clock or signal. design and implementation of PLLs continue to be challenging as design requirements of a PLL such as clock timing uncertainty. For clock generation. The high-frequency clock is then driven to all parts of the chip. and timing recovery. power consumption and area become more stringent. Phase locked loop is closed loop control system that compares the output phase with the input phase. the phase relationship between the input data and the on-chip clock is not fixed. 1. A PLL tracks the phase changes that are within the bandwidth of the PLL. NIT ROURKELA 2 .2 System Overview Phase-locked loops (PLLs) generate well-timed on-chip clocks for various applications such as clock-and-data recovery. Clock frequencies and data rates have been increasing with each generation of processing technology and processor architecture. since offchip reference frequencies are limited by the maximum frequency of a crystal frequency reference. High-performance digital systems use clocks to sequence operations and synchronize between functional units and between ICs. The rapid increase of the system‘s clock frequency possesses challenges in generating and distributing the clock with low uncertainty. (Typically in the range of 10 MHz) a PLL receives the reference clock and multiplies the frequency to the multi-gigahertz operating frequency. a PLL locks the clock phase that samples the data to the phase of the input data.

small frequency differences accumulate as an increasing phase error. Phase Detector or Phase Frequency Detector (PD or PFD) 2. As the name implies. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 5. After this. On the contrary. if a ―down‖ signal is generated. Low Pass Filter (LPF) 4. NIT ROURKELA 3 . this is the lock mode. if the error signal from the PFD is a ―down‖ signal. The purpose of the VCO is to either speed up or slow down the feedback signal according to the error generated by the PFD. the PLL output is constant. it generates ―up‖ or ―down‖ synchronized signals to the charge pump/ low pass filter. to produce a high-frequency clock CK OUT . Vcontrol is the input to the VCO. the VCO slows down. the frequency of oscillation is N times the reference clock. then the charge pump pumps charge onto the LPF capacitor which increases the control voltage Vcontrol . the PLL continues to compare the two signals but since they are in lock mode. the charge pump removes charge from the LPF capacitor. The overall goal of the PLL is to match the reference and feedback signals in phase. the VCO speeds up. Over time. If the error signal from the PFD is an ―up‖ signal.A PLL also multiplies a low-frequency reference clock CK REF . which decreases Vcontrol . If there is a phase difference between the two signals. The frequency of oscillation is divided down to the feedback clock by a frequency divider. Charge Pump (CP) 3. On the contrary. the LPF is necessary to only allow DC signals into the VCO and is also necessary to store the charge from the CP. Thus. Divide by ‗N‘ Counter The phase frequency detector (comparator) produces an error output signal based on the phase difference between the phase of the feedback clock and the phase of the reference clock. If the PFD generates an ―up‖ signal. A PLL is a negative feedback control system circuit. The phase is locked when the feedback clock has a constant phase error and the same frequency as the reference clock. A basic form of a PLL consists of five main blocks: 1. Because the feedback clock is a divided version of the oscillator‘s clock frequency. the purpose of a PLL is to generate a signal in which the phase is the same as the phase of a reference signal. This is done after many iterations of comparing the reference and feedback signals.

the output is also a clock signal—thus a clock generator. The VCO sends another input frequency. or to be in the lock mode.Basic block diagram of a PLL 1. Therefore. a frequency is synthesized. 1. f IN from the user. 1) XOR phase detector 2) Phase frequency detector NIT ROURKELA 4 . Furthermore. The tuning range is the range in which the VCO functions properly. f D .Figure 1.3 Applications The input of the PLL is a reference frequency.4 Literature Review There are mainly two types of phase detectors are used in PLL. A divider can be used in the feedback path to synthesize a frequency different than that of the reference signal. If f IN isn‘t within this tuning range. a divider is necessary). (Note: Constraints on the input frequency f IN must be within the tuning range of the VCO and the PLL as a whole system. f D into the PFD to compare the reference frequency with the VCO frequency. since the reference signal is a clock signal. the frequency is taken as an output at the VCO. After the PLL corrects the frequency to have zero offset phase.

The average phase detector output contains little frequency information and no valuable phase information. generating a proportional output. Since the phase detector is insensitive to frequency difference at the input. So the output of the VCO is passed through a divide by ‗N‘ counter and feedback to the input. or once locked small variations in the input data may cause the loop to unlock. The loop filter is the brain of PLL. The problem is known as an inadequate acquisition range of the PLL. upon start-up when the oscillator‘s frequency divided by N is far from the reference frequency. it may take the loop too long to lock. If the loop filter values are not selected correctly. We design the VCO in such a way that the output of VCO is ‗N‘ times the reference frequency. There are mainly two types of voltage controlled oscillators used in PLL. The first method is called tri-state output. The output of the PFD should be combined into a single output for driving the loop filter. While the XOR circuit produces error pulses on both rising and falling edges (The phase frequency detector will respond only to positive or negative transitions).The XOR phase detector is simply exclusive OR gate. so width of the output pulses. To remedy the problem. Depending upon the phase difference between the inputs varies. a phase-frequency detector (PFD) is used that can detect both phase and frequency differences. The source coupled VCO can be designed to dissipate less power than the current starved VCO. The operation of phase detectors is similar to that of differential amplifiers in that both sense the difference between the inputs. The second configuration is charge pump. thereby providing a dc level proportional to the phase difference between the inputs. The major disadvantage of this configuration is the need of a capacitor. NIT ROURKELA 5 . There are two methods of doing this. However this configuration is useful when the VCO center frequency is set by an external capacitor. The operation of current starved VCO is similar to the ring oscillator. the PLL may fail to lock.

CHAPTER 2 PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR NIT ROURKELA 6 .

which decreases Vcontrol . XOR Phase Detector NIT ROURKELA 7 .1 Introduction The phase frequency detector. the VCO speeds up. The output of the VCO is then fed back to the PFD in order to recalculate the phase difference. 2. The purpose of the VCO is to either speed up or slow down the feedback signal according to the error generated by the PFD. If there is a phase difference between the two signals. Thus. then the charge pump pumps charge onto the LPF capacitor which increases the control voltage Vcontrol . a detailed analysis of the XOR PD when the reference and feedback signals are out of phase by zero. the VCO slows down. the LPF is necessary to only allow DC signals into the VCO and is also necessary to store the charge from the CP. if a ―down‖ signal is generated. and Π respectively. the charge pump removes charge from the LPF capacitor. If the PFD generates an ―up‖ signal. It produces error pulses on both falling and rising edges. measures the difference in phase between the reference and feedback signals. if the error signal from the PFD is a ―down‖ signal. If the error signal from the PFD is an ―up‖ signal. thus creating a closed loop frequency control system.  ref  ref  vco Vavg Figure2. Vcontrol is the input to the VCO.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 2. On the contrary.2 Phase Detector and Phase Frequency Detector A phase detector is a circuit that detects the difference in phase between its two input signals. On the contrary. it generates ―up‖ or ―down‖ synchronized signals to the charge pump/ low pass filter. An example of a basic phase detector is the XOR gate. Π/2. PFD.

The XOR PD characteristic plot is shown in figure 6. XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = 0 In Figure 3. The average output Vavg . The XOR input/output characteristic graph is a plot of Vavg versus the phase difference. Figures 4 and 5 represent the phase difference for Π/2. NIT ROURKELA 8 . from the XOR gate is zero for this case. the phase difference between the two signals is zero—locked phase.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 3. and Π.

XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π/2 Figure 5.XOR Phase Detector with Phase Difference = Π NIT ROURKELA 9 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 4.

These outputs are both connected to an AND gate to the reset of the D-FF‘s. Thus both signals cannot be high at the same time. Furthermore. which resets the flip flops. it responds to only rising edges of the two inputs and it is free from false locking to harmonics. The outputs are either ―QA‖ or ―QB‖ pulses. its major disadvantage is that it can lock onto harmonics of the reference signal and most importantly it cannot detect a difference in frequency. This means that the output of the PFD is either an up or down pulse—but not both. The PFD design uses two flip flops with reset features. NIT ROURKELA 10 . The inputs to the two clocks are the reference and feedback signals. The D inputs are connected to VDD— always remaining high. The difference in phase is measured by whichever rising edge occurs first. which can detect a difference in phase and frequency between the reference and feedback signals.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 6. the PFD outputs either an ―QA‖ or a ―QB‖ to the CP. Also. To take care of these disadvantages. we implemented the Phase Frequency Detector. the output through the AND gate is high. unlike the XOR gate PD. however. When both QA and QB are high.PD Characteristics Graph of Phase Difference ranging from 0 to 2Π The XOR PD as shown above in Figure is a very simple implementation of a PD.

PFD Implementation The PFD circuit can be analyzed in two different ways. One way in which A leads B and the other in which B leads A.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 7.PFD Simulation I (A Leads B) NIT ROURKELA 11 . Figure 8.

In this QB pulse represents the difference between the phases of the two clock signals. the charge pump is used. Figure 9. Figure 9 represents B leads A simulation results.3 Low Glitch High Speed CMOS Phase Frequency Detector The phase frequency detector generates the error signal corresponding to the difference between phase or frequency of the reference input and the feedback output. The function of the loop filter NIT ROURKELA 12 . The PFD has two outputs. In order to combine two outputs into a single output. This QA pulse indicates to the rest of the circuit that the feedback signal needs to speed up or ―catch up‖ with the reference signal.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER The QA pulse is the difference between the phases of the two clock signals.PFD Simulation II (B Leads A) 2. In the second case B is leading A. The output of the charge pump is directly connected to the loop filter.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER is to filter out the high frequency components from the PFD output. Effectively the duration of glitch is a factor which determines the speed of the PFD. The voltage controlled oscillator accepts the control voltage from the loop filter and generates the oscillating output. but with more power dissipation. NIT ROURKELA 13 . The process is continued until both the input signals are synchronized or locked.8 V. In order to reduce the glitch as well as increase the speed of PFD. Since CMOS logic consumes very low power. With the usage of negative logic resettable D flip-flop in the design. the PFD having a power dissipation of 2.26 ns]. QA Clock QA' D Reset Figure 10. If the glitch is more at the output of PFD. The duration of glitch in the PFD is 200 ps [25.089 µW in 90 nm technology with Vdd=1.Negative Logic Resettable D flip-flop The inputs to the PFD are two signals which are having a period of 100 ns and with a phase difference of 90º (25 ns).06 ns to 25. In this we introduce a new CMOS PFD with low glitch. The VCO output is feedback to the input through a divide by counter. the functionality of PFD can be achieved with the help of ―NAND‖ gate instead of ―AND‖ gate [Fig 10]. The low glitch is achieved by using a pass transistor ―AND‖ gate instead of CMOS gate. the reset time of the flip-flop is also more. a new low glitch CMOS PFD is proposed. The glitch at the output of PFD is more is the disadvantage of this circuit [Fig 11].

26 ns].06 ns to 25. For the reduction of glitch at the output of PFD. pass transistor ―AND‖ gate is used in the implementation.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 11. This is achieved with the addition of a single inverter at the ―reset‖ terminal of the implementation [Fig 12]. For that purpose. when “NAND” gate is used [glitch is from 25. Clock QA QA' D Reset Figure 12. conversion of negative resettable D flip-flop to positive resettable D flip-flop is required.Positive Logic Resettable D flip-flop NIT ROURKELA 14 .Zoomed view of CMOS PFD.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Since normal and inverted outputs are available in the D flip-flop. The NMOS device is effective at passing a zero logic. The inputs to the proposed PFD are the same signals that applied to the prior circuit. The zoomed view establishes the advantage of the proposed PFD over the prior circuit. Whenever a pass transistor pulls a node high. if the B input is high. effectively only two extra transistors are required for implementing ―and‖ gate using pass transistor logic [Fig 13]. When B is low. Totally the proposed PFD [Fig 14] having a power dissipation of 3.047 µW in 90 nm technology with Vdd=1. So functionality is achieved correctly. the bottom pass transistor is turned on and passes a logic zero.8 V with a reduced glitch. B A B' F=A. the output only charges up to Vdd-threshold voltage of NMOS.20 ns] Fig 15. The presence of switch B' is essential to ensure a low impedance path to the supply rails under all circumstances. The outputs of the two PFD‘s are similar without zooming.06 ns to 25. The gate delay in the feedback path is reduced by a factor of two in the proposed PFD as compared to the previous circuit. [Total number of gates in the feedback path is four [CMOS ―NAND‖] in the previous PFD].AND Gate implementation using Pass Transistor Logic But in the proposed PFD. this voltage is sufficient to enable the reset pin of the flip-flop. In this gate. [25. the top transistor is turned on and copies the input A to the output F. The duration of glitch is only 140 ps. NIT ROURKELA 15 .B Figure 13. but it is poor at pulling a node to logic one.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Vdd D A Clock QA QA' RESET Vdd Pass Transistor ―And‖ Gate QA' D B Clock QB RESET Figure 14.Zoomed View of Simulation of Proposed PFD NIT ROURKELA 16 .Proposed PFD Implementation Figure 15.

This definition is most suitable for flip-flop based PFD where this frequency can be easily identified. Figure 16. The proposed PFD is sensitive to even very small phase differences [Upto1 ns] [Fig 16].Simulation of Proposed PFD with 1ns Phase Difference The definition of maximum operating frequency is defined as one over the shortest period with correct PFD output signals when the inputs have the same frequency and 90º phase difference. maximum operating frequency and dead zone region are the characteristics of any PFD. speed of PFD will increase. Since reset time of the proposed PFD is less. this leads to a conclusion that the higher the sensitivity. Sensitivity of PFD means the smallest difference the PFD can detect and produce corresponding correct output signals. the better the PFD. As the reset time decreases. the speed of the PFD increases. The maximum operating frequency is inversely proportional to the reset pulse NIT ROURKELA 17 . The reset time is one of the factors which determine the speed of the PFD.4 Characteristics of PFD Phase sensitivity.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER The reduction in the duration of the glitch will reduce the reset time of the flip-flops also. 2.

the output of PFD pulse may not find enough time to reach a logical high level. The dead zone is highly undesirable because it allows the VCO to accumulate random phase error with respect to the input while receiving no corrective feedback. due to finite rise time and fall time. The proposed PFD can operate up to 2 GHz [Fig 17]. the control system does not change the control voltage. Whenever a small phase error comes. In other words. coincident pulses on both QA and QB even when the phase difference is zero [Fig 18]. the output voltage of the PFD is no longer a function of phase difference. Figure 17. Since reset pulse width is less in the proposed PFD. if the input phase difference falls below a certain value. When the phase error is within the dead zone. If the phase difference is below the threshold level. it can be operated over a higher range than the prior PFD.Proposed PFD’s 2 GHz Operation A hypothetical PFD produces no pulses for a zero input phase difference.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER width of the circuit. The proposed PFD generates narrow. the charge pump injects no current. Effectively the coincident pulses on QA and QB can eliminate the dead zone. NIT ROURKELA 18 .

The proposed PFD is having a better phase sensitivity.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 18. no dead zone and a higher frequency of operation. Simulation results shows that the proposed PFD has low glitch as compared to conventional PFD. NIT ROURKELA 19 . Proposed new circuit uses ―AND‖ gate using pass transistor logic rather than conventional CMOS logic. The usage of pass transistor reduces the glitch at the output of the PFD. So the speed of the proposed PFD is also high. .Generation of Coincident Pulses when the Phase Difference is Zero A high speed low glitch CMOS phase frequency detector is proposed in 90 nm technology with Vdd=1.8 V in Cadence tool. The proposed PFD can be used in PLL applications such as frequency multiplier. clock recovery purposes.

8 V 1.06 ns to 25.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Table I Comparison Conventional PFD Proposed PFD Technology Vdd Current Power Dissipation Dead Zone Reset Time Glitch 90 nm 1.160 µA 2.8 V 1.26 ns 90 nm 1.693 µA 3.20 ns NIT ROURKELA 20 .06 ns to 25.089 µW Zero 200 ps 25.047 µW Zero 140 ps 25.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER CHAPTER 3 CHARGE PUMP NIT ROURKELA 21 .

the output is pulled low through NMOS. NIT ROURKELA 22 . The first method is called tri-state output. Then figure 22 represents how the circuit will behave to this condition and figure 21 represents the corresponding schematic diagram. There are two methods of doing this. both mosfets are off and the output is in a high impedance state. The main problem that exists with this configuration is that the power supply variation can significantly affect the output voltage when PMOS is on. If the QA signal goes high. When both signals are low. Figure 19 and 20 represents tri-state output configuration and simulation.75 instead of 1.8.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 3. Suppose VDD changes to 1. PMOS turns on and pulls the output to VDD while if the QB is high.1 Introduction The output of the PFD should be combined into a single output for driving the loop filter.Tristate Output Schematic Next I am discussing about the VDD variation in the tri-state output. Figure 19.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 20.Tristate Output VDD Variation Schematic NIT ROURKELA 23 .Tristate Output Simulation Figure 21.

Since the current source can be made insensitive to supply variation. In order to adjust the delay between QA and QB. that will allow for a wider voltage range at the output. a complimentary pass gate is added into the circuit between QB and the upper NMOS. operate in the triode region and they act like resistors (thermal noise occurs).Tristate Output VDD Variation Simulation 3. They should have a large W/L ratio for faster switching time and wider voltage range. modulation of VCO control voltage is absent.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 22. NMOS turns on. the voltage across the resistor will be small. NIT ROURKELA 24 . The UP and DOWN switches. connecting the current source to the loop filter. As the resistance is smaller. the on resistance will be small.2 Charge Pump Configuration The second configuration is charge pump. When the W/L ratio (transistor size) is large. The transistors M2 and M1 are current mirror sources and sinks. M4 and M3. When the PFD QA signal goes high.

Charge Pump Simulation NIT ROURKELA 25 .Charge Pump Configuration Figure 24.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 23.

I describes about the VDD variation of charge pump. Figure 25.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic NIT ROURKELA 26 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER In this section.Charge Pump VDD Variation Schematic Figure 26. By comparing with the tristate configuration we can conclude that the charge pump configuration is less affected by the VDD variation. So the charge pump configuration is used in the PLL.

I am changing the current source in the default charge pump to another current source for better operation. Figure 27.Modified Charge Pump Schematic The charge pump consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. A leads B. then QB continues to produce pulses and output falls steadily. If QA=1. QB=0. Conversely if QA=0. If QA=0. Conversely B leads A. The circuit has three states. then current through the PMOS branch charges the capacitor. then both switches are off and output voltage remains constant. NIT ROURKELA 27 . QB=0.3 Modified Charge Pump In this section. QB=1. then current through the PMOS branch discharges the capacitor. That means to ensure that mosfets are in saturation.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 3. The currents through the PMOS branch and NMOS branch are nominally equal. then QA continues to produce pulses and output rises steadily. If for example.

Modified Charge Pump Simulation with PMOS on NIT ROURKELA 28 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 28.Modified Charge Pump Simulation with NMOS on Figure 29.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER CHAPTER 4 LOOP FILTER NIT ROURKELA 29 .

In order to stabilize the system. or once locked small variations in the input data may cause the loop to unlock. Figure 30.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 4. Since the charge pump drives the series combination of R1 and C1.1 Introduction The loop filter is the brain of PLL. each time a current is injected into the loop filter. The compensated PLL also suffers from a critical drawback. The PFD/CP/LP combination contains a pole at the origin and VCO also contains a pole at the origin. we must modify the phase characteristics by adding a resistor in series with the loop filter capacitor. If the loop filter values are not selected correctly.Loop Filter Schematic NIT ROURKELA 30 . the control voltage experiences a large jump. So the instability arises because the loop gain has two poles at the origin. a second capacitor is usually added in parallel with R1 and C1. it may take the loop too long to lock. To relax this issue.

how can the transfer function can be computed? To answer the first question. For example.2 Transfer Function of PFD/CP/LPF In order to quantify the behavior of charge pump PLLs. if we double the input phase difference and see if Vout exactly doubles.Test of Linearity of PFD/CP/LPF Combination NIT ROURKELA 31 . Figure 31. thereby obtaining the transfer function.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 4. the charge pump and the low pass filter. we test the system for linearity. If so. we must develop a linear model for the combination of the PFD. We therefore raise two questions: (1) Is the PFD/CP/LPF combination is a linear system? (2).

NIT ROURKELA 32 . Since a phase difference impulse is difficult to visualize. Since a phase difference impulse is difficult to visualize. In a sense. we apply a phase difference step. we recall that the transfer function is the Laplace transform of the impulse response. As a result. yielding a constant slope for the ramp. obtain Vout .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER The flat sections of Vout double. requiring that we apply a phase difference impulse and compute Vout in the time domain. step the phase of B by  0 . we approximate the output waveform by a ramp arriving at a linear relationship between Vout and  . Figure 32. Let us assume the input period is Tin and the charge pump provides a current of I P to the capacitor.  =  0 u(t). QA or QB continues to produce pulses that are  0Tin 2 seconds wide. the current charging or discharging C1 is constant. requiring that we apply a phase difference impulse and compute Vout in the time domain. obtain Vout . We begin with a zero phase difference and at t=0. To overcome this problem. After all. we apply a phase difference step. we approximate a discrete time system by a continuous time model. and difference the result with respect to time. To answer the second question.Ramp Approximation of the Response To answer the second question. Thus the system is not linear in the strict sense. and difference the result with respect to time. we recall that the transfer function is the Laplace transform of the impulse response. but not the ramp sections.

Approximated by a ramp.Step Response of PFD/CP/LPF Combination NIT ROURKELA 33 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER raising the output voltage by I P  0Tin in every period. Vout thus C P 2 exhibits a slope of IP 0 and can be expressed as C P 2 Vout (t)= IP t  0 u (t) 2 C P The impulse response is therefore given by h(t )  IP U (t) 2 C P Yielding the transfer function Vout IP 1 (s)   2 C P S Figure 33.

the PFD/CP/LPF combination contains a pole at the origin. a point of contrast to the PD/LPF circuit used in the type I PLL. The closed loop transfer function denoted by I p K vco H ( s)  2C p S2  I p K vco 2C p The result is alarming because the closed loop system contains two imaginary poles at S1. After constructing a linear model of PLL.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Consequently.2   j I p K vco 2C p NIT ROURKELA 34 . In analogy with the expression K VCO IP . the open loop transfer function is ΦOUT I P KVCO (S)|open  ΦIN 2 ΠC P S 2 Figure 34. this topology is called a type II PLL.3 Addition of Resistance into the Loop Filter Since the loop gain has two poles at origin.Linear Model of Simple Charge Pump PLL 4. we call 2 C P S the gain of the PFD and denote it by K PFD . Figure 34 represents the linear model of simple charge pump PLL.

Loop Gain Characteristics of Simple Charge Pump PLL and after the addition of zero into the loop gain NIT ROURKELA 35 . we must modify the phase characteristic such that the phase shift is less than 180º at the gain cross over. allowing the system to oscillate at gain cross over frequency. That is by adding a resistor in series with the loop filter capacitor.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER So the system is unstable. This is accomplished by introducing a zero in to the loop gain. Each integrator contributes a constant phase shift of 90º. Now the transfer function becomes OUT I 1 KVCO ( S ) | open  P ( RP  )  IN 2 C PS S Figure 35. The instability arises because the loop gain has only two poles at the origin (Two ideal integrators). In order to stabilize the system.

Simulation of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 NIT ROURKELA 36 .Schematic of Loop Filter with R1 and C1 Figure 37.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 36.

The value of C2 is about one-fifth to one tenth of C1. C1 and C2 Figure 39. the control voltage experience a large jump. each time a current is injected into the loop filter.Schematic of Loop Filter with R1. Simulation of Loop Filter with R1. Since the charge pump drives the series combination of R1 and C1.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 4. To relax this issue. a second capacitor is added in parallel with R1 and C1. C1 and C2 NIT ROURKELA 37 .4 Addition of Second Capacitor into the Loop Filter This circuit also suffers from a critical drawback. Figure 38.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER CHAPTER 5 VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR & DIVIDE BY COUNTER NIT ROURKELA 38 .

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

5.1 Introduction
An oscillator is an autonomous system that generates a periodic output without any input. A CMOS ring oscillator shown in Figure 40 is an example of an oscillator. So that the phase of a PLL is adjustable, the frequency of oscillation must be tunable. In the example of an inverter ring oscillator, the frequency could easily be adjusted with controlling the supply (voltage or current) of inverters. The slope of frequency versus control signal curve at the oscillation frequency is called voltage-to-frequency (or current to- frequency) conversion gain. Ideally, for the linear analysis to apply over a large frequency range, the voltage gain of the VCO needs to be relatively constant. The purpose of the VCO is to vary an output frequency proportional to the control voltage input.

Figure 40.A Five Stage Ring Oscillator There were two types of VCO architectures considered in this design. The first was a singleended ring oscillator, as shown in Figure 33. This design can be only by an odd number of inverters.

f osc 

1 2 N delay

As Equation states, the oscillation frequency of this configuration is proportional to the number of stages and the delay of each cell. While the single-ended ring oscillator is very simple in design, it does have some major drawbacks. First, it requires the use of an odd number of inverters in order for the circuit to not latch up. The main difficulty for using submicron CMOS ring oscillators in wireless communication systems is their relatively poor phase noise response. Due to these drawbacks, a differential ring oscillator was then considered. The main reason for choosing a differential architecture was because it offered better noise rejection.
NIT ROURKELA 39

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

Figure 41.Differential Ring Oscillator

As shown, there is an inversion between the third and fourth stages due to an even number of stages being used. The oscillation frequency equation of the differential ring oscillator is the same as the single-ended configuration shown in the previous Equation. The difference between the two designs is that the differential architecture offers more flexibility in changing the oscillation frequency because it is not restricted to having an odd number of stages. This is also another advantage over using a single-ended architecture. An oscillator is a circuit that produces a periodic signal, without any specific input signal except internal noise. An oscillator can be viewed as a feedback system, figure 35 with a transfer function of

Vout H ( s)  Vin 1  H ( s)
If H(s) = -1 then the gain would approach infinity, which results in infinity amplification of the noise component at the oscillation frequency. For oscillation at one specific frequency two criteria are stated. The first criterion is that the total phase shift around the loop is 180°. The second criterion is that the feedback system amplifies its own noise at the frequency of oscillation. These criteria mean that the returning signal is a negative replica of the input signal, which will give a larger difference between the input signal and the feedback signal when subtracting. The circuit is said to regenerate. At some point the amplitude of the regenerating feedback system will be limited and the Barkhausen criteria of a gain=1 is fulfilled and gives a stable oscillation.

NIT ROURKELA

40

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER

Figure 42.Regenerative Feedback System

In many applications it is desirable to have the ability to tune the oscillator to different frequencies. The required VCO tuning range is mainly due to two factors. First, the tuning range must be large enough to compensate for the change in VCO centre frequency due to process and temperature variations. Second, any additional tuning required by the intended application must be added.

5.2 Current Starved VCO
Most applications require that oscillators be ―tunable. i.e., their output frequency be a function of a control input, usually a voltage. An ideal voltage-controlled oscillator is a circuit whose output frequency is a linear function of its control voltage. There are different types of voltage controlled oscillators used in PLL. Here I am discussing about 2 types of VCOs. Source coupled VCO and Current starved VCO. The source coupled VCO can be designed to dissipate less power than the current starved VCO. The major disadvantage of this configuration is the need of a capacitor. However this configuration is useful when the VCO center frequency is set by an external capacitor. The operation of current starved VCO is similar to the ring oscillator. Middle PMOS and NMOS operate as inverter, while upper PMOS and lower NMOS operate as current sources. The current sources limit the current available to the inverter. In other words, the inverter is starved for current. The current in the first NMOS and PMOS are mirrored in each inverter/current source stage. Since the propagation delay of the inverters is proportional to the current each inverter supplies to the output, we can effectively control the frequency. The oscillation frequency of current starved VCO for ‗N‘ no of stages is

FOSC 
NIT ROURKELA

1 NTD
41

Current Starved VCO The following table gives the characteristics of the current starved VCO. Ctotal  Cout  Cin 3   Ctotal  Cox (Wp Lp  Wn Ln )  Cox (Wp Lp  Wn Ln ) 2 Figure 43. NIT ROURKELA 42 . That is control voltage Vs Frequency (MHz). The graph shows that the relationship between control voltage and frequency is linear. TD  CtotalVDD ID Where C total represents the total capacitance on the drains of PMOS and NMOS of the inverter.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Where TD represents the total time taken by the capacitance ( C total ) to charge and discharge.

5 1.2 1.5 0.9 1.1 0.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Table 2: Control Voltage Vs Frequency Control Voltage(v) 0.4 0.80 5048.26 384.83 2518.8 Frequency(MHz) 19.3 1.78 110.7 1.2 0.7 0.67 6273.6 1.01 6434.32 Figure 44.72 3240.99 3922.6 0.3 0.Frequency Vs Control Voltage of Current Starved VCO NIT ROURKELA 43 .51 6066.0 1.33 5469.8 0.4 1.11 4530.83 1173.1 1.53 6725.61 6653.12 6558.11 1798.25 5803.

06  n =. That is 2n  1M Take   0.285K Lock Time = TL  2 n n  K PDI  K PDI KVCO NC1 100 A rad 2 f max  f min Vmax  Vmin KVCO  2  2 * 4179.79nf [N=64]  n 2 RC1 R=153.359Mrad/s Charge Pump Current = 100µA NIT ROURKELA 44 .3 PLL Specifications Fref  10M Fout  640M Take Lock range as 1MHz.7 n  714.3MHz C1  12.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 5.2 Ω Loop Bandwidth = 2.

4 Divide by Counter We design the VCO in such a way that the output of VCO is ‗N‘ times the reference frequency. So the output o the VCO is passed through a divide by ‗N‘ counter and feedback to the input. Figure 45.Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter NIT ROURKELA 45 .Schematic of Divide by 64 Counter Figure 46.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 5.The figure 45 shows the schematic of a divide by 64 counter. It will work as a T flip-flop with input connected to logic ‗1‘. Here the D Flip-flop‘s QBAR is connected to the D input.

Over time.The frequency of oscillation is divided down to the feedback clock by a frequency divider. The phase is locked when the feedback clock has a constant phase error and the same frequency as the reference clock. The difference or error signal is low-pass filtered and drives the voltage controlled oscillator. Figure 47. the frequency of oscillation is N times the reference clock. The filtered error signal acts as a control signal (Voltage or current) of the oscillator and adjusts the frequency of oscillation to align  feedback with  ref .5 Phase Locked Loop The phase frequency detector (comparator) produces an error output signal based on the phase difference between the phase of the feedback clock and the phase of the reference clock. small frequency differences accumulate as an increasing phase error. Because the feedback clock is a divided version of the oscillator‘s clock frequency.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 5.Phase Locked Loop Schematic NIT ROURKELA 46 .

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Figure 48.8 MHz Figure 49.Simulation of 8.5 MHz NIT ROURKELA 47 .Simulation of 11.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER CHAPTER 6 APPLICATIONS OF PLL & CONCLUSIONS NIT ROURKELA 48 .

especially high-speed serial data streams (such as the raw stream of data from the magnetic head of a disk drive). bi synchronization. Phase-locked loops can also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated signals. in space communications for coherent carrier tracking and threshold extension. Frequency Synthesizer manufacturers include Analog Devices. the clocks supplied to these processors come from clock generator PLLs. NIT ROURKELA 49 . The receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference. 6. Z-Communications. 6. with the same stability as the reference frequency. Typically. the data stream must have a transition frequently enough to correct any drift in the PLL's oscillator. VCO manufacturers include Sirenza. which multiply a lower-frequency reference clock (usually 50 or 100 MHz) up to the operating frequency of the processor. and then phase-aligns to the transitions in the data stream with a PLL.1 Clock Recovery Some data streams. This process is referred to as clock recovery.2 Clock Generation Many electronic systems include processors of various sorts that operate at hundreds of megahertz. The multiplication factor can be quite large in cases where the operating frequency is multiple gigahertz and the reference crystal is just tens or hundreds of megahertz.3 Frequency Synthesis A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating a range of frequencies from a single fixed time base or oscillator. a PLL is used to synthesize new frequencies which are a multiple of a reference frequency. In radio transmitters. In order for this scheme to work. 6.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes. and symbol synchronization. National Semiconductor and Texas Instruments. are sent without an accompanying clock.

the control voltage experience a large jump.  A new high speed low glitch CMOS PFD is proposed.4 Conclusions  Phase Locked Loop is designed for a frequency multiplying factor of 64 and verified. a resistor is added in series with the loop filter capacitor. each time a current is injected into the loop filter. performed the post layout simulation and finally cross check with the functionality of the schematic simulation. In the charge pump configuration. NIT ROURKELA 50 .  The layouts of all the five blocks are drawn. a second capacitor is added in parallel with R1 and C1. which can be achieved with this PLL design. extracted each block. a new current source is replaced.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 6.  A divide by 64 counters is used for the synchronization with the input frequency. Since the charge pump drives the series combination of R1 and C1. To relax this issue.  In order to achieve the stability in the loop filter.  640 MHz is used in CMOS continuous-time sigma delta ADC.  Current starved VCO is selected as the voltage controlled oscillator in the design of PLL.

NIT ROURKELA 51 . no 2. 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ―A Lock-in Enhanced Phase Locked Loop with High Speed Phase Frequency Detector‖. 4. volume 2. 2002. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2008. ―A CMOS Phase Frequency Detector with A High Speed Low Power D Type Master Slave Flip-flop‖. 6.M. G. 5.B. Nan-Liang Yeh. Milicevic S. Behzad Razavi. 10. Page 488-491. P. ―Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits‖. Hong-Yu Huang. 2006. Haripriya janardhan. R. Proceedings to the International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems 2005.Lee. Dec 13-16. Johansson. "Phase-Locked Loops: Design. 1997. Aug 4-7. Hong Kong. 2. 2002.18μm CMOS Technology‖. 7. Aug 8-11. Volume 3.E. Chih Ho Tu. 9.O. ―A CMOS Phase Frequency Detector for Charge Pump Phase Locked Loop‖. Feb 1998.Chan and L. 45th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. ―Design of a 1GHz Digital PLL Using 0. New York: McGraw-Hill. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits. Borivoje Nikolic.K. ―A Fast Acquisition CMOS Phase Frequency Detector‖. Jein WI. Pages 1532-1535. May 18-21.Rabaey. H. and Applications‖. May 7-10. Jan. Hwang-Cherg Chow. Tata McGrawHill Edition.Best. 3rd edition. Mac Eachern L.Siek. pp 295-299.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER REFERENCES 1. 1999. Pearson education. 8. ―Digital Integrated Circuits A design Perspective‖. Volume 33. Yubtzuan Chen. Simulation. 3. Yubtzuan Chen. ―A Simple precharged CMOS Phase Frequency Detector‖. 5th Indian Reprint 2005. IEEE International conference 2006. Page 389-392. Page 601-604. IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology. MSEE Mahmud Fawzy Wagdy . Anantha Chandrakasan. ―A Phase Frequency Detector and A Charge Pump Design For PLL Applications‖.

―Analog Integrated Circuit Design‖.‖ IEEE ASP-DAC '99. R. 15. ―Design of High Performance CMOS Charge Pumps in Phase Locked Loops‖. 1998. 20. 24. Brennan. W. 17. Hwang. and S. 880-882. IEEE Transaction on Communication. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. 1980. 1988. F. von Kaenel. vol. John Wiley & Sons.M. 1574. 36. 24. 1.‖ 2nd ed. ―Digital Design‖. Low-Power Clock Generator for a Microprocessor Application‖.W. IEEE journal of Solid. 1849-1858. Asia and South Pacific. IEEE Journal on Solid State Circuits. vol.D.-D.1581. Song. Wolaver. IEEE Transactions on Communication. ―Principles of CMOS VLSI Design. Kim. R. ―Digital PLL Lock Detection Circuit‖. 269-272. 19. ―Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops and Clock Recovery Circuits”. M.: ―Charge-pump phase-lack loops‖. 2490-3498. NIT ROURKELA 52 .V. Aug 2002. pp. 21. V. May 1999. N.C. Reading.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 11. M. B. 16. Martin. 4th edition. Inc. Ken.Ciletti. V. IEEE Press.H. Prentice Hall. Den Dulk. 2001. Weste and K. no 8. David A . 42.-C. Lee. Cardner. Morris Mano. 12. Prentice Hall. ―Phase-locked loops. Electronic Letters. 1634. pp. D. E. MA Addison Wesley. Eshragrian. 1997. Cho. pp. Woogeun Rhee. "A High-speed. October. ―A digitally controlled phase-locked loop with a digital phase-frequency detector for fast acquisition.1639. vol.-H. Michael. 33. 22. 2006.-H. McGraw-Hill 1996 23.State Circuits. P. 2003. and J. vol 38. ―Analysis of a charge-pump PLL: a new model‖. 18. I. 13.‖ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. vol. Paemel. 14. Johns. 28 pp. Vol. pp 10281038. pp. ― A PLL Clock Generator with 5 to 110 MHz of lock range for microprocessors‖. 1999. ―Phase Locked Loop Circuit Design ―. H. July 1994. 1993. L. S. Principles and practice‖. pp 545548. Razavi. 1991. ―A High Speed and Low Power Phase-Frequency Detector and Charge-Pump.Young et al.

Lim and S.269-272. Liberali. issue 23. Liu. and C. pp. 525-528.Frequency Detector and Charge-Pump. V. M. Kim.H. D. 893–896.1382 November 2002. 1. 61-64. 32.‖ Electronics Letters. B. Keel. Lee. NIT ROURKELA 53 . S. ―A differential type CMOS phase frequency detector. September 2003.‖ in Proc.D. 1st ed. M. Meyer.K.Kuo.H. pp.‖ IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. pp. Lee. ch. 2000.S. 25. 1995. R. Aug. 2003. and R. 37. 26. ―Fast frequency acquisition phasefrequency detectors for Gsamples/s phase-locked loops. vol. 1375 .‖ ESSCIRC '03. and M. Mansuri. Yoh. Yang.‖ IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. Armaroli. 31.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER 25. August 1990. ―A High Speed and Low Power Phase.C. 27. McGrawHill. ―Charge pump with perfect current matching characteristics in phase-locked loops. pp. J. Soyuer. Chang. K.‖ IEEE ASP-DAC‘99.-K. pp. M. H. W. C. pp. G. 8. B. 29. Vacchi. ―Frequency limitations of a conventional phasefrequency detector. 30. J.‖ Proceedings of the Second IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on 28-30. 1999. Lee. ―Behavioral analysis of charge pump PLLs. 1019-1022. 1907-1908. pp. Circuits Systems. Midwest Symp. Park. 36. Lee and J. ―Phase frequency detectors for fast frequency acquisition in zero-dead-zone CPPLLs for mobile communication systems. and C. 28. Asia and South Pacific. Razavi. vol. D. Proceedings of the 29th European. vol. vol. Nov. Cho. August 2000. and L. Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communication.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER LAYOUTS Layout of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD Av_Extracted view of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD NIT ROURKELA 54 .

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Post Layout Simulation of Low Glitch High Speed CMOS PFD Layout of the Charge Pump NIT ROURKELA 55 .

57nf Capacitor NIT ROURKELA 56 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Av_extracted view of the Charge Pump Layout of 13.

57nf Capacitor Layout of 2.PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Av_extracted view of 13.71nf Capacitor NIT ROURKELA 57 .

71nf Capacitor Layout of resistor NIT ROURKELA 58 .PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Av_extracted view of 2.

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Layout of Voltage Controlled Oscillator Av_extracted view of Voltage Controlled Oscillator NIT ROURKELA 59 .

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Layout of Divide by 64 Counter Av_extracted view of Divide by 64 Counter NIT ROURKELA 60 .

PHASE LOCKED LOOP DESIGN AS A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER Post Layout Simulation of Divide by 64 Counter Complete PLL Layout NIT ROURKELA 61 .