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Some Protocols used in GPRS.

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) is a group of IP-based communications protocols used to carry General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) within GSM and UMTS networks. GTP can be decomposed into separate protocols, GTP-C, GTP-U and GTP'. GTP-C is used within the GPRS core network for signaling between Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) and Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN). This allows the SGSN to activate a session on a user's behalf (PDP context activation), to deactivate the same session, to adjust quality of service parameters, or to update a session for a subscriber who has just arrived from another SGSN. GTP-U is used for carrying user data within the GPRS Core Network and between the Radio Access Network and the core network. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats. GTP' (GTP prime) uses the same message structure as GTP-C and GTP-U, but has an independent function. It can be used for carrying charging data from the Charging Data Function (CDF) of the GSM or UMTS network to the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). In most cases, this should mean from many individual network elements such as the GGSNs to a centralized computer that delivers the charging data more conveniently to the network operator's billing center. Different GTP variants are implemented by RNCs, SGSNs, GGSNs and CGFs within 3GPP networks. GPRS mobile stations (MSs) are connected to a SGSN without being aware of GTP. GTP can be used with UDP or TCP. GTP version one is used only on UDP. GTP is the primary protocol used in the GPRS core network. It is the protocol which allows end users of a GSM or UMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connect to the Internet as if from one location at the GGSN. It does this by carrying the subscriber's data from the subscriber's current SGSN to the GGSN which is handling the subscriber's session. Three forms of GTP are used by the GPRS core network.
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GTP-U for transfer of user data in separated tunnels for each PDP context GTP-C for control reasons including: o setup and deletion of PDP contexts o verification of GSN reachability o updates; e.g., as subscribers move from one SGSN to another. GTP' for transfer of charging data from GSNs to the charging function.

RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part)[1] protocol is used in UMTS signaling between the Core Network. and the UTRAN. Authentication Centre. Facilities provided The primary facilities provided by MAP are: • • • • • • • Mobility Services: location management (roaming). fault recovery. retrieving a subscriber's IMSI Call Handling: routing. managing calls whilst roaming. Short message service center and Serving GPRS Support Node. RANAP is used for the following tasks: • • • • Relocation Radio Access Bearer Management Paging Transport of signalling between a UE and the Core Network (non-access stratum signalling) The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol which provides an application layer for the various nodes in GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and GPRS core networks to communicate with each other in order to provide services to mobile phone users. managing service subscription information. Visitor Location Register. Operation and Maintenance: subscriber tracing. checking that a subscriber is available to receive calls Supplementary Services Short Message Service Packet Data Protocol (PDP) services for GPRS: providing routing information for GPRS connections Location Service Management Services: obtaining the location of subscribers . The Mobile Application Part is the application-layer protocol used to access the Home Location Register. Mobile Switching Center. which can be a MSC or SGSN. Iu interface is the interface between RNC (Radio Network Controller) and CN (Core Network). RANAP signalling protocol resides in the control plane of Radio network layer of Iu interface in the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) protocol stack. RANAP is carried over Iu-interface. Equipment Identity Register. authentication.

from ITU-T recommendations Q. A TCAP primitive is made up of one or more TCAP components.775 or ANSI T1. TCAP primitives are sent between the application and the local TCAP stack. i. some are only transferred inside the local machine. TCAP is used to transport INAP in Intelligent Networks and MAP in mobile phone networks. Its primary purpose is to facilitate multiple concurrent dialogs between the same sub-systems on the same machines. As the TCAP dialog goes on each Continue message includes the Transaction ID of the destination machine as the Destination Transaction ID and the Transaction ID of the originating machine as the Originating Transaction ID. When the machine B replies to A with a Continue message it includes A's Transaction ID as the Destination Transaction ID. This Begin message contains an Originating Transaction ID. When machine A starts a TCAP dialog with another machine B.Transaction Capabilities Application Part. TCAP messages are sent over the wire between machines. Furthermore B includes its own Transaction ID as the Originating Transaction ID. When any of the machines wants to close the dialog it sends an End message or an Abort message to the other machine. . which is the Transaction ID reference for A.114 is a protocol for Signalling System 7 networks. similar to the way TCP ports facilitate multiplexing connections between the same IP addresses on the Internet.e. using Transaction IDs to differentiate these. Transaction ID The transaction ID is a TCAP reference for a set of TCAP operations that are performed within a single dialog. This message contains the Destination Transaction ID only.771Q. the machine A sends a Begin message to machine B. all TCAP messages are primitives but there are primitives that are not messages.

Start of Tcap begin message | '--> 48|04:00 02 00 30 <. this can be decoded as below.Operation Code | '--> 30|46 <.Transaction ID | '--> 6B|1A <.Start of component portion | '--> A1|4E | '--> 02|01:01 <.Component Id (invoke id) | '--> 02|01:2E <. | '--> 62|74 <.Application context | '--> 6C|50 <.Start of Dialog portion | '--> 28|18 | '--> 06|07:00 11 86 05 01 01 01 | '--> A0|0D | '--> 60|0B | '--> A1|09 | '--> 06|07:04 00 00 01 00 19 02 <.Decoded TCAP Message This is a MO-SMS sent by a MAP layer and the hex stream is taken from TCAP layer.Start of parameter buffer | '--> 80|05:70 31 42 44 44 <SM-RP-DA(BCD) | '--> 84|06:A1 70 91 92 55 55 <SM-RP-OA(BCD) | '--> 04|35:2F 09 00 70 97 92 62 23 04 00 90 20 11 80 01 24 00 27 4 . 62744804000200306b1a2818060700118605010101a00d600ba109060704000001001902 6c50a14e02010102012e3046800570314244448406a1709192555504352f090070979262 230400902011800124002743507a0ea2a3cb2071794e07b1c3ee733d7c2e83d22074d85e0 695ed6539685e2ebb0100 According to tag length values.

781 for MTP2 and in Q. Different countries use different variants of the MTP protocols.[2] MTP and SCCP are together referred to as the Network Service Part (NSP). These tests are used to validate the correct implementation of the MTP protocol. and provides the Signalling Data Link functional level for narrowband signalling links. the formal standard followed is ANSI T1. TUP.2110 or Q.702. the layer that is responsible for the connection of SS7 Signaling Points into the transmission network over which they communicate with each other. MTP1 normally uses a timeslot in an E-carrier or T-carrier. unduplicated and in-sequence transport of SS7 messages between communication partners. That is.701.705. Level 1 through Level 3 comprise the MTP.703. In North America. is provided by SCCP or other Level 4 parts (MTP users). For broadband signalling links. 2 and part of Layer 3 in the OSI model. Level 3 is the Signalling Network Functional Level (Network Level). MTP Level 2. Level 4 is the MTP User and consists of SCCP.111. this involves the conversion of messaging into electrical signal and the maintenance of the physical links through which these pass. MTP is responsible for reliable.[4] Instead.704 and Q. Q. Level 2 is the Signalling Link Functional Level (Link Level). MTP2.2111 describe the signalling data link function. protocols. In this way. . Q. Tests for the MTP are specified in the ITU-T Recommendations Q.[3] There is no one-to-one mapping of MTP Levels 1 through 3 onto the OSI model. perhaps more familiar.[5] The part of Layer 3 of the OSI model that MTP does not provide. Primarily. MTP Level 3 is sometimes abbreviated MTP3.[6][7] [edit] Signalling Data Link Functional Level MTP Level 1 is described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. it is analogous to the Layer 1 of ISDN or other. ITU-T Recommendation Q. and Level 4 the MTP user. MTP1 represents the physical layer. MTP provides the functionality of Layers 1. MTP is formally defined primarily in ITU-T Recommendations Q. Regional Bell Operating Companies The SS7 stack can be separated into four functional levels:[1] • • • • Level 1 is the Signalling Data Link Functional Level (Data Link Level). or any other MTP User. ISDN.782 for MTP3.702.The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is part of the Signaling System 7 (SS7) used for communication in Public Switched Telephone Networks. Q.

MTP Level 2 is tested using the protocol tester and test specifications described in Q.2150. Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU). telecom switches).755.703. MTP Level 3 is tested using the protocol tester and test specifications described in Q.0 as provided by MTP3b (Q. Q. Q. Access to the signalling network functional level's service interface (as described in Q.2150. when the availability of MTP2 data links changes. for broadband signalling links. MTP3 provides routing functionality to transport signaling messages through the SS7 network to the requested endpoint.782. described in RFC 3331.1. Each network element in the SS7 network has a unique address.2210 describe the signalling link function referred to as MTP3b. Access to the signalling link functional level's service interface can be provided over SCTP by the SIGTRAN protocol M2UA. For broadband signalling links.755.781.780 and Q. SSCOP or SSCOPMCE (Q. The functions of MTP Level 3 may also be replaced with the Generic Signalling Transport Service described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. [edit] Signalling Network Functional Level MTP Level 3 is described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. A distinction is made between a Signaling Transfer Point (STP) which only performs MTP message routing functionalities and a Signaling End Point (SEP) which uses MTP to communicate with other SEPs (that is.1. The signalling link functional level may also be provided using the SIGTRAN protocol M2PA described in RFC 4165. Q.704.780 and Q.1). MTP3 establishes alternative links as required and propagates information about route availability through the network.2150.2) or SCTP (Q. described in RFC 4666. and provides the Signalling Network functional level for narrowband signalling links and. with only minor modifications described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. and retransmits unacknowledged messages. There are three types of signal units: Fill-in Signal Unit (FISU). Q. MTP3 is also responsible for network management. MTP Level 3 functions can also be provided by using the IETF SIGTRAN M3UA protocol. and provides the Signalling Link functional level for narrowband signalling links.2140 and Q. the Point Code (PC). Message routing is performed according to this address. MTP2 provides error detection and sequence checking.[edit] Signalling Link Functional Level MTP Level 2 is described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. .755.755.2210. described in RFC 4666.2150. MTP2 uses packets called signal units to transmit SS7 messages. in IPSP mode. ITU-T Recommendation Q.3). Message Signal Unit (MSU).701) can be provided over SCTP by the SIGTRAN protocol M3UA.

If an NSDU is longer than 255 octets. Some examples of parts at Level 4 are SCCP. and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks. connection-orientation. SCCP provides 5 classes of protocol to its applications: • • • • • Class 0: Basic connectionless Class 1: Sequenced connectionless Class 2: Basic connection-oriented Class 3: Flow control connection oriented Class 4: Error recovery and flow control connection oriented The connectionless protocol classes provide the capabilities needed to transfer one Network Service Data Unit (NSDU) in the "data" field of an XUDT.[edit] MTP Users Level 4 consists of MTP Users. MTP Users.701. segmentation. ISUP and TUP. At the destination node.[7] The services provided to MTP Level 4 by the MTP (that is. In this case. MTP to MTP Users) is described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. The remaining components of the SS7 stack are all directly. the NSDU is reassembled. Network Service Data Units passed by higher layers to the SCCP in the originating node are . or indirectly. flow control. a segmenting/reassembly function for protocol classes 0 and 1 is provided.[3] [edit] Class 0: Basic connectionless The SCCP Class 0 protocol class is the most basic of the SCCP protocol classes. LUDT or UDT message. Each segment is less than or equal to 255 octets. The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a network layer[1] protocol that provides extended routing. the SCCP at the originating node or in a relay node provides segmentation of the information into multiple segments prior to transfer in the "data" field of XUDT (or as a network option LUDT) messages. The connection-oriented protocol classes also provide a segmenting and reassembling capability. it is split into multiple segments at the originating node. the NSDU is reassembled. prior to transfer in the "data" field of DT messages. SCCP relies on the services of MTP for basic routing and error detection. When one connectionless message is not sufficient to convey the user data contained in one NSDU. The connection-oriented protocol classes (protocol classes 2 and 3) provide the means to set up signalling connections in order to exchange a number of related NSDUs. At the destination node.

Therefore. but also allows for expedited (urgent) messages to be sent and received. SCCP applications can operate directly over the SCCP User Adaptation protocol (SUA) which is a form of modified SCCP designed specifically for use in IP networking. or adapted for SSCOP or SSCOPMCE as described in Q. and for errors in sequencing (segment re-assembly) to be detected and for SCCP to restart a connection should this occur.2150.delivered by the SCCP to higher layers in the destination node. a protocol which provides support for users of MTP-3—including SCCP. When the station is attached to the GPRS network.2150. but also allows for an entity to establish a two-way dialog with another entity using SCCP.3 and a specialized Transport-Independent Signalling Connection Control Part (TI-SCCP) specified in T-REC-Q. Thus. [edit] Class 1: Sequenced connectionless SCCP Class 1 builds on the capabilities of Class 0. They are transferred independently of each other.2150.2150. Alternatively. This interface allows paging and station availability when it performs data transfer. [edit] Class 3: Flow control connection oriented Class 3 service builds upon Class 2. there are two primary methods of transporting SCCP applications across Internet Protocol networks: SCCP can be transported indirectly using the MTP level 3 User Adaptation protocol (M3UA). ITU-T also provides for the transport of SCCP users over Internet Protocol using the Generic Signalling Transport service specified in Q. this protocol class corresponds to a pure connectionless network service. no network connection is established between the sender and the receiver.0. the . [edit] Transport over IP Networks In the SIGTRAN suite of protocols. Protocol Class 1 corresponds to an enhanced connectionless protocol with assurances of in-sequence delivery. the signalling transport converter for SCTP specified in Q. they may be delivered to the SCCP user out-ofsequence.2220.2.1. with the addition of a sequence control parameter in the NSDU which allows the SCCP User to instruct the SCCP that a given stream of messages should be delivered in sequence. Therefore. As a connectionless protocol. BSSAP+ protocol : Gs: Interface between the SGSN and the MSC (VLR). Uses the BSSAP+ protocol. TI-SCCP can also be used with the Generic Signalling Transport adapted for MTP3 and MTP3b as described in Q. [edit] Class 2: Basic connection-oriented SCCP Class 2 provides the facilities of Class 1.

GPRS Mobility Management. together with Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol support the mobility of user terminal so that the SGSN can know the location of a mobile station (MS) at any time and to activate. An RA is a part of a larger location area (LA). GMM : Protocols to manage and support the transmission of voice.SGSN keeps track of which routing area (RA) the station is attached to. RANAP is used as a control protocol and establishes GTP-U tunnels between the SGSN and the radio network controller (RNC). When a station is paged this information is used to conserve network resources. Iu-CS Interface (Circuit Switched) This is the interface in UMTS which links the RNC with a 3G MSC (3G Mobile Switching Centre). the SGSN has the exact BTS the station is using. GTP-U is used on the IuPS between the GPRS core network and the RAN. When the station performs a PDP context. however the GTP-C protocol is not used. (Radio Network Controller) ------------------------------------------xxx------------------------------------------------------ . GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) is a GPRS signaling protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming. IuPS interface This is the interface in UMTS which links the RNC (Radio Network Controller) with a 3G SGSN (3G Serving GPRS Support Node). modify and deactivate the PDP sessions required by the MS for the user data transfer. and selection of encryption algorithms. authentication. data and video over wireless networks. In this case.