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NOV, 2011.


METHODS OF WATER TREATMENT LIME TREATMENT: The addition of lime (Ca) and soda ash (Na2Co3) reduces the level of calcium and magnesium and is referred to as lime softening. The use of this method is to precipitate the calcium and magnesium hydroxide content in water (hardness) thus clarifying it. The process is inexpensive but only marginally effective, usually producing water of 50 to120 ppm, (3 to 7 gpg) hardness. DISINFECTION: Disinfection is one of the most important steps to municipal water treatment. Usually chlorine gas is fed into the water after such water has been clarified or softened. The chlorine kills bacteria. In order to maintain the kill potential , an excess amount of chlorine is fed into the supply to maintain a residual. The chlorine level must be constantly monitored to ensure that no harmful levels of chlorine hydrocarbon develop. PH ADJUSTMENT: Municipal water may be adjusted to a PH of approximately 7.5 or 8.0 to prevent corrosion of the water pipes, particularly to prevent the dissolution of lead into the water supply. In the case of excessive alkalinity, the PH may be reduced by the addition of caborn dioxide. CLARIFICATION: This is generally a multi-step process to reduce turbidity and suspended matter from water. The steps include the addition of chemical coagulates or PH adjustment chemicals that react to form the floe. The floe settles by gravity in settling tanks or is removed water percolates through a gravity filter. This process is not 100% efficient. DISTILLATION: Distillation is the collection of condensed steam produced by boiling water. Most contaminants do not vaporize and therefore do not pass to the condensate or distillate water. With a properly designed still, removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants,

including biological impurities and pyrogens, is attained. Distillation involves a phase change which when carried out properly, removes impurities down to the range of 10 parts per trillion, producing water of extremely high purity. NANOFILTRATION: Nanofiltration (NF) equipment removes organic components in the 300 to 1000 molecular weight range, rejecting selected salts (typically divalent) and passing more water at lower pressure operation than R.O systems. NF economically softens water without polluting the regenerated salts. The system provides unique organic desalting capabilities. CARBON FILTRATION: This method requires a piece of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, utilising chemical absorption. Each piece of carbon is designated to provide large sections of surface area, in other to allow contaminants the most possible exposure to the filter media. One pound (45g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approx. 100 acres. Carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine sediments and volatile organic components from water. They are not effective at removing mineral salts and dissolved inorganic components. Typical particle sizes that can be removed by carbon filters, range from 0.5 to 50 micrometers. REVERSE OSMOSIS: This is a membrane technical filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent which in this case is water, is pass to the other side.