F. H.


U. S. A.


on mechanisms and mechanical movements


intended for designers of machinery and for all interested in originating new mechanical devices or in deyeloping and perIn view of the fact that there is an fecting those now in use.

almost endless variety of mechanisms, it might seem impracticable to deal with such a broad subject in a single volume
of this size.


the classes of mechanisms, however, which

differ radically in principle, are few in comparison with those which simply vary in form, it was considered not only practi-

cable, but very desirable, to present in one volume a variety of mechanical devices representing different types of mechanisms and selected especially to illustrate important fundamental


designers of machines or mechanisms in general are constantly engaged in the solution of problems pertaining to


motion and



The motion

derived from some

source of power must be modified to produce certain effects, and various changes in regard to velocity, direction, and time
of action


be necessary.

Frequently, the same result


be obtained by forms of mechanisms which

differ entirely in




essential to

employ an

approved method.

The purpose

of this treatise is not only to

various mechanical motions may be produced and but to show the relation between the theoretical controlled,


The examples include many mechanical combinations and are practical designs ingenious which not only illustrate the principles involved, but indicate
practical sides of the subject.

exactly how those principles are applied. An understanding of these concrete examples will prove much more beneficial

than a study of abstract theories, which only give an inadequate




conception of their application in the design of mechanisms of various types.




graduates and draftsmen understand the parts to safely withstand certain stresses
of different combinations

more thoroughly than they do the use

of parts either for transmitting, reversing, or otherwise modifying motion to secure whatever action or effect may be required.

Frequently, the stress involved or the strength of the parts is of little importance, and the principal problem is one pertaining to motion, especially in the development of new forms of mechanisms. While a general knowledge of mechanisms
their possibilities could be obtained by studying miscellaneous designs, this would involve considerable duplication of effort, because so many mechanical devices which vary as


to form and purpose are identical in principle. The different forms of mechanisms described in this volume represent many distinct types, and they have been classified and arranged so

that various modifications of the same general type



be compared. The columns of


of valuable assistance in

supplying information and illustrations regarding various types of mechanisms, especially of the classes common to the machinebuilding and machine-tool fields. Special mention should be made of the excellent examples of mechanisms obtained from

the contributions of G.

W. Armstrong and


M. Meyncke.

The study

of mechanical

of especial

at the present time, owing to the increasing use of automatic machines in almost every branch of manufacture, and this treatise is


published in the belief that it will be of practical value many designers, draftsmen, mechanical engineers, and in-

ventors engaged in originating and planning

new developments.

YORK, January,



Velocity and Acceleration Velocity Ratio Link Mechanisms Universal Angular Velocity Joint Straight-line Motions Toggle Joint Pantograph Mechanisms Transmission by Frictional and Toothed GearClasses of


Trains of Mechanism

Transmission by Flexible Bands, Ropes, and Chains Analyzing Action of Epicyclic Gearing.




ArTypes of Mechanical Speed-changing Mechanisms Combination of Conerangement of Cone-pulley Drives Geared Speed-changing Mechanisms pulley and Gearing
Frictional Speed-changing Devices Multiple-disk Type of Friction Disk and Epicyclic Speed-changing Mechanism Gear Combination Governors of Centrifugal and Inertia





Crank and Connecting-rod
pin and Cross-head Cross-head or Scotch
Relative Motions of Crankthe Crank and Slotted the Eccentric


a Stationary Crank

Cylinders which Revolve about Cylinders which Revolve within an Ec-


Rack and Gear Combination





Doubling Stroke Single- and Double-stroke Toggle Mechanisms Press-bed Motions for Flat or Cylinder Presses the
Napier Motion

Reciprocating Motion from Epicyclic Gear-



Gear Type
Intermediate Spur Gears for Reversing Motion Bevel of Reversing Mechanism Reversal of Motion

with Friction Disks

Operation of Reversing Clutches

Controlling Point of Reversal by Special or Auxiliary Mechanism Planer Reversing Mechanism Reversal of Motion

Automatic Ratchet Reversing through Epicyclic Gearing Mechanism Automatic Control of Spindle Reversal Automatic Variation in Point of Reversal Reversal of





of Revolutions



Quick-return Motion from Crank and Oscillating Link Whitworth Quick-return Motion Modification of Whitworth Motion Quick-return Motion from Elliptical Gearing Eccentric Pinion and Elliptical Gearing for Quick-return Motion 1 24-133


Ratchet Mechanisms for Releasing Automatic Disengagement of Ratchet Gearing Automatic Reduction of Intermittent MoveEscapements ment Gearing for Uniform and Variable Intermittent Motion High-speed Intermittent Gearing of Moving Picture
the Geneva Type of Intermittent Gearing InProjector termittent Gears for Shafts at Right Angles Adjustable Intermittent Motion Automatic Variation of Intermittent



Automatic Indexing Adding Mechanism


Action of an





Motion Cams Return Cam for Follower to Secure Positive Motion Yoke Type of Cam Follower Inverse Cams Wiper and Involute Cams Automatic Variation of Cam Cylinder or Barrel Cam Motion Automatic VariaVarying Dwell of Cam Follower tion of Cam Rise and Drop Sectional Interchangeable Cams for Varying Motion Mechanism for Engaging Cams in a Group Successively Obtaining Resultant Motion of Several






Differential Screw Chinese Windlass Differential Motions from Epicyclic Gearing Compound Differential Gears for Varying Speeds Differential Motion between ReDifferential Feeding Mechanism for volving Screw and Nut

Revolving Spindle

for Controlling Mechanisms Substitute for Floating Lever

Application of Floating Lever Principle Steam Steering Gears
Differential Governors for

Water Turbines





Differential Speed Regulation through Differential Gearing Differential MechAction through a Cam-controlled Gear anism of a Gear-cutting Machine Differential Hoisting



Speed Indicator



Positive and Controlling Motion by Means of Clutches Friction Clutches RapidMultiple-disk Friction Clutches

Magnetic acting Multiple-disk Clutch equipped with Brake Clutches that Automatically Disand Induction Clutches Automatic Tripping Mechanisms for Stopping a engage Breakable Pins to Prevent Machine or some Moving Part Overload Automatic Clutch Control to Prevent Overload

X CONTENTS PAGES Pressure of Frictional Gearing varied according to Load AutoTripping Automatic Relief Mechanisms matic Devices Speed-limiting for Forging Machines Devices Electromagnetic 230-280 CHAPTER X AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISM? Automatic Feeding Attachments having Inclined Chutes Attachment for Automatically Feeding Pinion Staffs Magazine Attachment for Narrow Bushings Revolving Magazine Attachment Hopper Feeding Mechanism for Screw Blanks Simple Arrangement for Feeding Shells with Closed Ends Foremost Feeding Bullets with Pointed Ends Foremost Feeding Shells Successively and in any Position Feeding Shells Successively and Gaging the Diameters 281-297 .

This volume deals principally with various well-known mechanical movements and contains illustrated descriptions of mechanisms which have been applied of machinery. In the design of any machine.MECHANISMS AND MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS CHAPTER I MOTIONS AND GENERAL METHODS OF TRANSMISSION IN MACHINES MACHINES and adapt it of various classes are designed to modify energy to useful work. when the direc- motion reverses. and. second. the formation and proportioning of these parts so that the required amount of energy may be involves. distinct branches of work. first. it is intermittent. to many different types Classes of Motion. etc. the means it for obtaining the right kind of motion and of to suit specific purposes may be studied without modifying the forces which are to act upon the machine parts considering or the proportioning of these parts with reference to stresses. A and when there are in motion may be free body . it periods of rest. The construction of any machine or mechanism a combination of parts which will produce the necessary motion. When motion it is is of a machine part does not vary in direction. is The energy is derived from some natural source and transmitted through the members com- posing the mechanical device to the place where work is to be performed. reciprocating. tion of said to be continuous. transmitted. then. there are two One branch pertains to motion and the other to the magnitude of the forces involved and the mechanical means for transmitting them without breakage or excessive distortion of the different machine members. Evidently.

as it depends upon the dimensions.l 2 MECHAtflCAt MOVEMENTS or constrained. Fig. the cross-head of an engine is constrained and caused to move in a straight path by a guide or guides. A shaft which revolves in fixed bearings is another simple example of constrained motion. Referring to diagram B. the cross-head is subjected would cause it to move laterally were it not for the straight guiding surfaces that are strong enough to resist the opposing force. i). Plane motion may be either rotation. For instance. because the fixed members are deformed somewhat under stress. or a spherical motion. a helical motion. the path or orbit of a planet being determined of all the forces acting upon it. moves in a plane yy parallel to xx. as at c and d. as at A part which moves 6. form. and any other point. Practically all of the movable parts of machines have either a plane motion. or a combination of these . in parallel planes. teristic feature of The charac- constrained motion is that all points in a body having such motion follow definite paths when the action of any In ordinary machine construction. move in parallel straight lines. The planets in their flight through space are examples of free motion. translation. Nearly all movable machine For instance. and physical characteristics of the parts stresses. the force produces motion. Fig. as at a (diagram A. forces tending to move a constrained part from the desired path are not absolutely counteracted. moves in a plane xx perpendicular to the axis of rotation. any point in the rim of a flywheel. the degree of such deflection may readily be reduced to practicable limits. along a straight path also has plane motion. or cross-head of a steam engine are simple examples. piston-rod. to thrusts which Owing to the angu- lar positions of the connecting-rod. may move upon it. The motion is said to be free when the body any direction in accordance with the forces acting whereas the term constrained motion means that the in direction of movement is confined to a restricted path. it will be seen that all points. The piston. i. which oppose the Plane Motion. by the The moving parts resultant of every machine represent examples of constrained motion. body has a plane motion when all points in that A body move parts have plane motion.

the motion or intermittent. a lathe. When all points of a body move in concentric circles about a fixed axis or at constant distances from a line perpendicular to the planes in which the various points move. the motion is known as rectilinear transThe piston or cross-head of an engine. the motion of the entire rod for the period is also known." when used alone. is generally understood to mean In plane motion. i. etc. if the motions of any two points of a connectingrod are known for any period. For instance. the body has a plane motion of rotation. as various points in the body of the rod follow curved paths which lie in parallel planes. the carriage of lation. and the table of a planer are all examples of this motion. of rotation all points in a about a fixed axis. the motion of any rectilinear translation. i. Diagrams illustrating Different Kinds of Motion vilinear translation.. shafts. Revolving pulleys. gears. two points of a body determine the motion of the entire body. body have a motion combined with a translation . The side rod of a locomotive represents an example of cur- Fig. When Helical Motion. The word " translation. a plane motion of rotation. as illustrated by diagram A. cranks.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION movements. all have may be either continuous When all points move with equal velocities along parallel paths. Fig.

any point. i)." are comparatively few examples of spherical motion in machine " " construction. Variations in the speed of the engine cause the balls to swing about the fixed point or center / as they revolve. thus following a helical path. however. The ball-andis another illustration of spherical motion. the lead / or pitch of the helix. so that the movements socket joint Velocity coincide with a spherical surface. as indicated by the arrows. Fig. is constant in a regular helical motion." The movement of a nut along a screw is a common example of helical motion. Fig. The relation between the rotation about axis zz and the translation parallel to this axis is constant in nearly all applications of helical motion to machines. referred to as linear velocity. this is " same time advances. as at e (see diagram C. the rate of motion is is . miles per hour. within a period of two seconds.4 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS known as helical motion. the acceleration would be constant. the acceleration will be 5 feet per second. if the change of velocity were not uniform. As a nut is screwed onto a bolt. the mean acceleration in the preceding example would be 5 feet per second. moves around the axis zz and at the parallel to the axis. surfaces of imaginary spheres and at constant distances from a " fixed point or common center. and numerically represents rate the units of distance traversed in a unit of time. When all points in a body move in the Spherical Motion. Thus the motion or the distance traversed divided by the time required may be expressed in feet per second or minute. this does not necessarily . i. The steam engine governor. the rate at If the which it changes is known as acceleration speed of a wheel having a peripheral velocity of 20 feet per second is increased to 30 feet per second. which corresponds to the translation for one complete rotation. Velocity is the rate at which it a moving part changes of its position. etc. the motion is There spherical. but. If the change of velocity were at a uniform rate. and Acceleration. When velocity variable. illusfly-ball trated by diagram D. is an example of spherical motion. When the distance traversed is a given time by a point along its path in expressed in linear measure.

the driven gear would also rotate twice as fast and the ratio would still be 2 or expressed. For instance. . the velocity ratio would be either 2 or depending upon whether the gear having the higher were mentioned first. If the driving gear had a velocity speed . and it is generally expressed in radians. In the design of various classes of machines. the angular velocity of which is required.1416 x 60 i i -^ MI . the rate of of 50 revolutions per minute and the driven gear 25 revolutions per minute. relate either to actual velocity. the angular velocity will equal stance. The term " velocity ratio " relates to the Velocity Ratio. the problem may change or acceleration. divided by the radius in feet. or to the ratio of the velocities of different parts.296 degrees. The angular velocity of a rotating body to the angle through which any radius of the body equivalent turns in one second. Angular Velocity.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION 5 represent the actual rate of increase during any one second.2832 radians. The actual velocity of these gears might be changed. in equal to the radius of the circle forming the path of the point = A motion. in- a flywheel 12 feet in diameter revolves at 60 revolu2 x 3. but the velocity ratio would be the same. " radian is the angle subtended by an arc 6. if two gear wheels are so proportioned that one rotates twice as fast as the other. of the point on the revolving body.1410 = 57. If D equals the velocity of a point on and feet per second. comparative velocities of driving and driven members. Thus. The angular velocity in radians is equal to the linear velocity in feet per second. R equals the radius of the periphery of a the revolving body body For in in then the angular velocity in radians equals if K . owing importance to the necessity of obtaining the proper relative motions between 2 to i. as commonly movable is parts. feet. The velocity ratio is of especial in the design of various classes of mechanisms. the velocity ratio of the driving to the driven gear would equal f^ == 2. tions per minute. if the speed of the driving gear were doubled. One radian equals 3.

With this arrangement. When the operation of a mechanism depends upon the action of a spring or a weight (gravity). in the case of a steam engine. the mechanical construction when of a driving drical parts and driven member such that the velocity ratio remains constant. The terms " are preferable and accurate. a very small resistance would prevent the driver and follower If it from rotating in unison. A although this is not invariably the case.6 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS Cycle of Motions. and there would be no positive assurance that slippage between the driver and follower would not occur. after passing through a series of motions. The period of a cycle is the time elapsing while the motions constituting the cycle take place. If two cylinis having parallel axes are in contact. the resistance against which motion could be transmitted would depend upon the amount of friction. Machines and mechanisms of practically have moving parts which. mechanically. because slipping could not occur unless the teeth were broken. however. The completion of the entire all classes series of movements constitutes a cycle. it is a non-positive or force-closed mechanism. one can only transmit motion to the other through frictional resistance at the line of contact. The cycle of a planer or shaper corresponds to a forward and return stroke. and is generally considered inferior. teeth were provided. While gas and gasoline engines are commonly classified " " is as two-cycle and four-cycle. although. Motion is said to be transmitted positively Positive Driving. If instead of smooth cylinders. to the positive type. positive drive has been defined as one so arranged that there is an increasing contact radius of the driver. this use of the word cycle " " " and two-stroke cycle four-stroke erroneous. the non-positive entirely satisfactory method of transmitand comparatively inex- pensive. since two strokes complete cycle a single cycle in one case and four strokes. one revolution of the crank represents a cycle. the drive would be positive or compulsory. in ting motion many is cases. a single cycle in the other. as in gearing. . all occupy the same relative positions as at the beginning of the movements. were possible to produce surfaces that were perfectly smooth.

r A plain shaft which is used as a connecting link between the shaft of one machine or mechanism and the shaft of another represents an efficient method form of transmission. motion actual contact of parts forming the mechanism. These diagrams represent methods of transmitting motion from some form of driving member or " driver " to a driven member or follower. movement. as it is merely a rigid shaft and not a form of transmission which. although this is not invariably the case. Direct Transmission by Shafting. in this case. by varying the proportions or design.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION 7 The method of General Methods of Transmitting Motion. as may be done with the different forms of transmission to be described. the amount of energy or power to be transmitted. and. of Link Mechanisms. transmitting motion from one movable member of a machine or mechanism to another part or combination of parts depends upon the motion of the driving member and the kind of motion required for the driven member. the shafting rotates as a unit. Ordinarily. or for transmitting motion. The general methods of transmitting motion from one part to another. as the transmission may be electrical and not mechanical or by physical is transmitted by an connection. the relation of one part to the other as to the distance and position. although. and other factors. a different relation between the speed of the driver and While the flexible shaft is also used extensively to transmit motion. of transmission to it is not possible by this direct the velocity ratio of the driving change and driven members. will first be illustrated by simple diagrams which merely show the principles involved. especially free or universal when rotate as a unit. A link is a rigid body for connecting parts of a mechanism. and this method the driven part must have a the driving shaft and follower also of transmission does not afford means changing the velocity ratio. The practical application of these principles to various designs in actual use will be considered in chapters to follow. and it may be used for holding or guiding some other member or combination of parts. which are commonly employed in different kinds of mechanisms. therefore. will give follower. There are many parts of machines which belong to .

the whereas. When the engine is running. as. if the link fied as a crank. when one rod moves left. cillates this center-line of motion. to the right. On a steam engine. or lines of motion which intersect. representing the general direction of the arcs. When a link names lever and rocker are commonly applied. and for guiding movable parts. Diagram A. thus. as indicated by the A line aa or bb. it is usually called a connecting-rod or pitman. the center-line of motion is a line passing through the center of the cylinder and the center of the crankshaft. the fulcrum. A lever for reversing the direction of motion is shown at C. 2. for example. A lever for reversing the ." as in the case of the well-known Stephenson motion for steam engines. Levers which have an oscillating movement about a pin or fulcrum may have parallel lines of motion.and reverse-motion eccentric rods. in this case. lines of as in this case. which is another example of the special names applied to links. the connecting-rod joins the cross-head with the crank on the main shaft. motion. when a link has an oscillating movement about some axis or fulcrum. it may be classiis used to transmit motion from a rotating crank to a part having a reciprocating movement. Levers. is called the center-line of motion. the connecting-rod os- an equal distance each side of Diagram B shows a lever having When the bb. the other rod moves to the and vice versa. as applied to different kinds of mechanisms. this is " as a link. are commonly used to transmit motion from one line or plane to another. the pins by which the two rods are connected to the lever have a circular motion. Applications of Levers. makes complete revolutions. instance. the end of a rod having a reciprocating motion. If a slotted member is used to connect known link the ends of forward. In the case of a steam engine of the reciprocating type. the lever is known as a bellcrank lever. Fig. which are not parallel. The motion of the eccentric is transmitted to the valve by the eccentric rod. being between the driving and driven connecting links. As the lever oscillates about pin c. lines of motion aa and motion intersect.8 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS For the general class of links but which have special names. shows a lever which trans- mits motion from one line aa to another parallel line bb.

Diagram F illustrates one of the many ways in which levers may be ap- arm. parts and the lever has elongated slots in which the pins slide. 2. Such a lever or " rocker used on locomotives equipped with the motion to transmit motion from the eccentric rods inside the frame to the valve rod on the outside. Various Applications of Levers plied to obtain different results. The part e represents the cross-head and / a sliding bar which is mits the motion of part e to . These two are mounted in guides and move in straight parallel lines. and is sometimes applied to steam engines when taking indicator cards.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION motion and changing its direction is shown at D. is Stephenson link Fig. The form of lever shown at E is used for transmitting motion from one line to another that is not in the same plane." as it is called. In this case. This arrangement is shown as a reducing motion. the lever trans- f on a reduced scale.

Fig. when center-line kk (see diagram Z>. a line passing through the center of the fulcrum and the center of the connecting pin should be at right angles to the center-line of position. it should be perpendicular to the motion aa so that the upper lever arm will move an equal distance each way from this central position. however. A second point of importance its to so locate the connecting side of the pin that center moves an equal distance each that is. design of levers. in mid-position. there are certain points that should be observed Fig. Methods of Applying Links First. center-line of motion. such as the reducing wheel. 3. line nn should be perpendicular is to bb when the lower lever arm is in mid-position." Motion is transmitted from the cross-head to the indicator by cords that wind about drums which vary reduction of motion. Position of in diameter and give the required In the : Levers Relative to Lines of Motion. 2) is motion when the lever or lever arm is in its central For instance. the center of this pin should be . Levers be arranged in other ways for reducing motion. but on a reduced scale. Simicenter-line of larly. The lever method of reducing motion.10 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS connected by a cord to the indicator drum. the motion of which must correspond to that of the cross-head. has been re- may placed quite extensively by more compact and accurate forms " of mechanisms.

The axes of each shaft same plane and. the horizontal distance x (see diagram C) traversed by : the upper connecting pin for a given movement y depends upon the relative lengths of arms c and d\ thus x c y d. The lengths of these arms must be proportional to the extent of their motion. and. parts.5 inches. Fig. and at D. When the axes of the driver and follower are not parallel. and y = 5 inches. link b between them receives a spherical motion. so that the of this kind. with the design of joint shown. This is known as a universal joint or Hooke's coupling. As the shafts revolve. when at the end of its moveThe third point to consider is the relative lengths of the lever arms or the distance from the fulcrum to each connecting pin. For instance. links may also is be used to transmit motion. The axes of the two shafts and of the pivots intersect. d = 12 inches. A link may be used to transmit motion from one oscillating rigid or rotating part to another. Link Connection between Oscillating or Rotating Parts. or. Diagram A. x = 12 * = 2.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION as far from the center-line of motion II ment as when in mid-position. although such an arrange- ment common except in universal joints. three wheels are shown connected. This method of transmitting motion may also be employed for a series of rotating At C. With a transmission dimensions ab and cd must be equal and also ac and bd so that the four center-lines form a parallelogram. 4. The are connected by side rods or links. wheels rotate in unison. 3. Fig. not for transmitting motion between two shafts which are at an angle to each other is shown at A. if the ing are in the driving shaft rotates at a uniform speed. three wheels which are not arranged in a straight line. if c = 6 : : : inches. a variable speed will . as driving wheels of a locomotive shown at B. the connectas the illustration shows. the link is of triangular form and its bearings must be spaced to correspond with the distance between the fixed centers. In the latter case. they have forked ends which are pivoted to some form of connecting link b. A' form of link work Universal Joint or Hooke's Coupling. illustrates how two oscillating levers are connected by a link which simply ties both levers together.

Universal Joints which operate on the same general principle as the designs illustrated in Fig. Mechanisms of this type were used on steam engines and pumps of early designs to guide the piston-rods. Uni- Fig.12 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS be imparted to the driven shaft. 4. impart a rectilinear motion to a rod or other part independently of guides or ways is known either as a straight-line motion or a parallel motion. the connecting pins of many universal joints are offset as shown at B\ when the axes of the pins do not intersect. and greater than the speed of the driving The variations in angular velocity between the driver and follower can be eliminated by using a double joint. In order to simplify the construction. the former term being more appropriate. because machine tools had not been developed for planing accurate guides. The . The speed of the driven shaft alternately less shaft. versal joints A combination of links arranged to Straight-line Motions. and an intermediate shaft between the two main shafts which has the same inclination relative to each shaft. although it will make the same number of revolutions in a given time. as at C. 4 are made in many different forms. the variation in the angular velocity of the driven shaft is is somewhat increased.

5. is illustrated by the diagram. Scott Russell Straight-line Motion. line of link C. moves from its central position. it moves very nearly in a straight line. but it necessary to have an accurate plane surface upon which . Very few straightmechanisms produce a motion which is absolutely straight. Links A and B are free to oscillate about fixed pins at their outer ends. provided D is correctly located and the angular motion of the pin F moves to the right. The mechanism illu- is trated in Fig. because. A point D may be located on the center- A when A links which follows approximately a straight line when and B are given an oscillating movement. The principle of the well-known parallel motion. Fig. 6 will give an exact straight-line motion. links does not exceed line about 20 degrees. invented by James Watt in 1784. 5. the center of pin E moves to the left along its circular path while the center of Fig. The Watt Straight-line Motion As the motion of point D is affected by both links A and B. and are con- nected by link C.OF MOTION 13 straight-line motions at the present imparting a rectilinear time is on steam engine indicators for movement to the pencil or tracing point.TRANSMISSION principal application of . and the general practice is to so design them that the guided part will be on the line when at the center and extreme ends of the stroke.

Since AB. The Scott Russell Straight-line Motion dicular to the line this link CD. is This modification of the Scott Russell straight- sometimes called the grasshopper motion. The longer and the greater the radius of the arc described by the connecting point at C. The shorter link oscillates about a stationary pivot at D as end A is moved up or down along the straight line AD. line motion is necessary on a steam engine indicator in order that the motion of the indicator piston will produce a parallel movement of the tracer point or pencil. when in its mid-position. The link DB is one-half the length and the sh6rter link is connected at a point B midway A and C. In addition to this sliding block. since ADC is always AC a right angle.14 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS block C can slide. so that the under side of the indicator piston is subjected to the varying pressure . which draws a diagram motion on the paper or indicator card. the less point A deviates from a straight line line. 6. the mechanism is sometimes modified by attaching the block end of link late to another link which is free to oscil- about a fixed pivot so located that the link will be perpen- Fig. a circle with B between as the center will intersect points A. the longer this link. the line AD. traced by point A to AC any angle is DC A] perpendicular DC. there are two of links AC and DB. Instead of having guides or a plane surface for the sliding block C. the more nearly will C move in a straight line. hence. and BC are equal. DB. Some form of straightStraight-line Motions for Indicators. D. The cylinder of the indicator is open at the bottom and is connected by suitable pipes with each end of the steam engine cylinder. C for consequently.

The upward movement of the indicator piston resulting from the steam pressure is resisted by a spiral spring of known resilience. 7. of the indicator. variations of pressure will Fig. in turn. This mechanism. which oscillates about a guided along This mechanism fixed pivot and is connected to arm A at F. is so arranged that the fulcrum A of the entire mechstraight-line The . motion one indicator shown The arm A which carries the pencil at its outer is end is pivoted to link B which. and a rod extending above the piston connects with some form of link work designed to give a straight-line motion to the tracer point. When the communication with the be recorded by the steam vertical movement of the pencil or tracer which is brought into contact with paper wound about a cylindrical drum that is rotated by the reciprocating motion of the engine cross-head. 8. is As arm A at which link to so proportioned that a line from is attached to the piston. Straight-line Motion of Thompson of Indicator is The in Fig. engine is is running and the indicator in cylinder. the outer end is a straight line by link C.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION acting upon the engine piston. like the one previously described. straight-line or parallel 7. pivoted to the top moves upward. A E intersects the point D motion of another steam engine indicator is shown in Fig.

E a convenient location for the point at which link is to connect with link BG. The Crosby Straight-line or Parallel Motion of the linkage within the required range of path will be approximately the arc of some circle. the connection B. The path followed by point as end C is moved D H along a straight line is plotted on a large scale for all positions Fig. this would result in a well-known form of pantograph is D mechanism. C are always The fundamental principle of this mecha- nism that of the pantograph. .i6 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS anism. The length of link D mined as follows: The procedure is to replace may be deterto first ascertain. which is especially troublesome when taking cards from engines operating at high speed. It is also essential to have the parts as light as possible in order to minimize the inertia and the effect of mostraight-line motion. If link were removed and another link at E. both parallel and equal in length replaced by to FG. a straight-line motion at C could be obtained. 8. providing the pivot B had a D of guide intended to insure a would be objectionable. If a pivot for link link at E were actually used in place of link D. movement. This and the fixed is located at the center of this circle. by trial. Any form movement at B mentum. and the pencil point in a straight line. since it is straight desirable to reduce the friction of mechanisms of this type to a minimum.

8 engages a curved slot in a stationary plate which is secured to the indicator in a vertical position. Fig. If the point D be moved in the direction of the arrows. the links F are equal. Arrangement of Peaucellier Linkage for Straight-line Motion mechanism was invented by Peaucellier. which perpendicular to the line of centers A BCD. This curved slot takes the place of a link. of motion. The link mechanism This shown in Fig. a pin on the pencil arm corresponding to the one shown at F in Fig. and the center B is midway between A and C. 9 will give an exact straight-line motion. 9. a French army officer. it will is be constrained to move in the straight path D'D".TRANSMISSION OF MOTION With the parallel motion of another indicator. and its curvature is such as to compensate for the tendency of the pencil to move in an arc. It is composed of seven links moving about two fixed centers The four equal links E form a rhombus. This may be . Peaucellier Straight-line Motion. A and B.

securing The principle of the toggle joint is shown by . stone crushers. E takes the In Fig. A mechanism commonly known as a machines of different types. The corresponding links in the figures are labeled Fig.i8 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS tested experimentally. 10. such as etc. link Toggle Joint. great pressure. The links F are B equal. 10. 9. for toggle joint is applied to drawing and embossing presses.. A variation of the linkage is shown in Fig. The path of the point C is the circumference ACC\ and the path of GG' is the arc described with the radius F. If the center-line of the links and F be assumed E in any position such as AC'D'. it may to the line of centers CBAD. Modification of Peaucellier Straight-line Mechanism with the same the point D is be shown experimentally that compelled to move in a straight line perpendicular letters. and center B is midway between A and and points C. as in Fig. the centers A and B are external to the links E. 9. it will be found that the rhombus the sides of which represent the length of the links position shown in the drawing. in which the centers A and are within the rhombus.

of links is a combination Pantograph which are so connected and proportioned as to length that any motion of one point in a plane parallel to that of the R s na = Pcos a A pantograph Mechanisms. ii. then 2 { the applied power or force. There are two links. and a = the line xx passing through the axes . motion at e decreases and the force increases until the links are in line. Such a mechanism may be used as a reducing motion for operating a steam engine indicator. As the angle a becomes less. b and c. Rod / force is joins links b and c at the central connection. along e moves. When applied to rod / in a direction at right angles to center-line xx. n.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION the diagrams A and B. If R = the Fig. link mechanism will cause another point to follow a similar path either on an enlarged or a reduced scale. because a move- ment at the joint g produces a relatively slight movement at e. as at . this force is which the driven member greatly multiplied at e. Fig. or to control the movements of a metal cutting . Link b is free to swivel about a fixed pin or bearing at sliding d. and link c is connected to a member e. which are connected at the center. Diagram illustrating Action of Toggle Joint resistance at e.B. P= : angle between each link and a of the pins.

Pantograph for Reproducing Motion on a Reduced or Enlarged Scale movement cause a point g (which coincides with a straight line passing through / and h) to describe a path similar to that followed by h. and d. 13. Fig. For will of h about / instance. line. A fifth connecting link e is parallel to links c and d. the tool follows a similar scale. but on a reduced scale. as are links c shown by the diagram. the dotted to k following the path indicated by would also trace a similar path. Links a and b are c. This mechanism is free to swivel about a fixed center /. Any Fig.20 tool. MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS For instance. " when taking indicator cards. most engraving machines have a pantograph mechanism interposed between the tool and a tracing point which is guided along lines or grooves of a model or pattern. As the tracing point moves. The pantograph is pivoted at b by a stud which may be secured to a block of wood or angle . 12. a. simple form of pantograph There are four links. equal in length. 6. thus forming a parallelis ogram. point g Another form of pantograph mechanism is shown at A in if h were moved This pantograph. path. but to a reduced design on the work. and d. which is sometimes called lazy is used to some extent for obtaining the reduction of tongs." motion between an engine cross-head and the indicator drum Fig. and cuts the required pattern or A 12.

TRANSMISSION OF MOTION iron attached to a post or in 21 place. The position of the crossbar in relation to pivot b determines the length of the travel of cord-pin e and. any convenient The end a has a pin which is connected to the cross-head of the engine. 13. and one of the links is extended and pivoted to the engine cross-head. 13. consequently. Pantograph Mechanisms applied to Engine Cross-head to Reduce Motion when Taking Indicator Cards indicator the length of the diagram which the pencil traces upon the indicator card. In this case. must always be in with the fixed pivot b and pin a. however. by changing screws at c and J. Another form of pantograph reducing mechanism is shown at B in Fig. the rotary movement of the line Fig. This cross-bar may be placed in different positions relative to the pivot b. there are four links joined together in the form of a parallelogram. The swivel- . the cord-pin e. The objection to this reducing mechanism is the liability of lost motion resulting from wear in the drum and numerous joints. The cord which transmits motion to the indicator drum is attached to the cord-pin e on a cross-bar.

cam is applied to various forms of or sliding machine members which have revolving. this point of attachment g coin- cides with a line passing through the pivots/ and h. pantograph shown at A If F = F:L~fk:fg. the length required for the indicator diagram. When a screw is used primarily to its is transmit rectilinear motion to a nut or follower. quite complex. is The acting surface of the cam in direct contact either with the follower or with a roller attached to the follower to reduce friction. oscillating. if the screw has . which used in so many different machine construction. of necessity. is The Screw. or |=^. One important difference between a cam and a screw is in the follower which encircles the screw and is in contact with the groove or thread throughout several turns. unless provision rotation for made disengaging the follower and returning it by other means. edges or grooves so shaped as to impart to a follower a motion The name which " " Cams usually variable and. since the thread groove or grooves wind about the screw only in one direction. of Different types cams are described in Chapter VII. may be considered as a type of cam having one or more grooves of helical form. must. The lead-screw of a lathe split may rotate continuously when cutting a thread. in many cases. Cams. As the for the illustration indicates. Most cams revolve and the follower or driven member may have either a rectilinear or oscillating motion. . The lead is equivalent to the pitch or distance between the centers of adjacent threads.22 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS ing movement of the pantograph is about the fixed pivot /. ways in The screw. are generally used to obtain a motion which could not be is derived from any other form of mechanism. the same as the length of the engine stroke and L. and the cord which operates the indicator drum is attached at g. The axial movement of the follower or nut for each revolution of the screw will equal the lead of the thread. because a nut on the carriage is may be disengaged from the lead-screw when the carriage to be returned to the starting position. be reversed.

straw some other material which is a high coefficient of friction is compressed. This form of transmission will of a nut. does not need to be transmitted positively. The object of using multiple-threaded screws is to increase the lead and resulting axial motion of the nut or screw per revolution. be referred to later in connection with gearing. When rotary motion Transmission by Friction Gearing.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION a single thread. driving and driven members which are in contact and simply roll against each other Transmissions of are used for some classes of mechanisms. The action as the pinion This pinion may purely frictional and wheel revolve together and the velocity ratio remains constant. three times the The lead then equals the distance that any one of the pitch. and also to avoid using a single-threaded screw of larger diameter. or consist of flanges between will give which paper. the wheel may be given a rotary motion. a screw imparts motion to a follower. If brush wheel c is cylindrical. the latter does not always move parallel to the axis of the screw. there is the disadvan- tage that its surface (which has a uniform peripheral velocity) is in contact with plate d the surface velocity of which varies . as in the case When For instance. threads of a multiple-threaded screw advances in one complete turn and also the distance that a nut would advance if given one complete turn. without weakening the screw by cutting a single thread of coarser pitch into it. and the relative speeds are varied by changing the radial position of wheel c. 23 The lead of a double-threaded screw equals twice the pitch. unless the resistance to motion exceeds the frictional resistance." this kind are commonly classified as diagram A. if a screw is in mesh with a wheel having teeth which successively engage the screw threads. Fig. etc. 14. illustrates the principle of a friction drive for parallel shafts. The pinion a may fiber. Diagram B shows a form of friction gearing which has been used quite extensively for varying the feeding movements of " " brush wheel c in this metal-cutting tools. and for a triple-threaded screw. bear against a cast-iron wheel. " The friction gearing. The small case bears against the flat face of a cast-iron disk d.

For instance.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS according to the radius at any point. Leather fiber wheels are recommended for friction gear- Fig. the wheel should is be as narrow as is prac- and the edge sometimes rounded to reduce the contact area. therefore. Factional Spur and Bevel Gearing for Transmitting Motion ing when cessive. the velocity of d is greater at the outer corner of wheel c than at the inner corner of ticable. c. 14. members and are separated somewhat driving and driven so that motion . small and the contact pressure exFriction gearing of the bevel type is illustrated at C. the face width is Diagram D illustrates in principle a type of friction gearing used The are conical for varying the speed of parallel shafts.

and the friction material should be of a very firm texture to enable it to endure high pressure without a re- duction of the frictional coefficient. control. Friction materials are now avail- able which combine the essential qualities of durability and a paper wheel is in driving power very satisfactorily. more elaborate devices be positively applied and it may be made to vary automatically as the load increases or decreases. of paper For instance. As friction is essential to the operation of this type of gearing. When starting from rest. The pressure may In some cases. This pressure must not be great enough to injure the paper. if one wheel is formed and the other of iron.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION is 25 the form of a wheel or the speed. the former should preferably be the driving member. as When when load. because it is made of softer material and its surface would be injured and eventually ruined by even occasional and momentary rotation of an iron wheel against it under pressure. of applying contact pressure is The method adapted to con- ditions. it is a simple method for giving hand or power are used. care should be taken to prevent any great reduction of the driving power by the accumulation of grease or other foreign . in general. transmitted through an intermediate part which may be in band that may be shifted for varying that can be transmitted through friction gearing depends upon the physical character of the materials forming the surfaces in contact and also upon the normal pressure be- The power tween these two surfaces. but. the coefficient of friction of the paper wheel against the iron wheel in conjunction with the pressure with which they are held in contact will determine the driving value. the lever-operated eccentric box or thrust box is commonly used. if the resist- ance to motion exceeds the frictional resistance so that slipping occurs. contact with a cast-iron wheel. especially with an excessive the softer paper wheel is the driver. as a small reduction of the latter factor would offset the effect of a relatively large gain in pressure-enduring qualities. as would be the case if it were the driven member and remained stationary. the tendency is to wear off the edge of the rotating driver evenly instead of forming a flat spot upon it.

parallel shafts as to so shape the contact surfaces that the be equivalent to friction gearing when no Toothed gears for transmitting motion beis This is the most in all classes of Fig. a transmission whi^ is not positive is preferit constitutes a safety device and prevents the transmission of shocks or an excessive amount of power to parts of cases. latter a straight-line When toothed gearing has pitch surfaces which correspond to the frustums of rolling cones.26 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS matter on the friction surfaces. as shown at F. This form of gearing is applied in many different ways. is Friction gearing quietly. 14. The slipping that often occurs when motion is transmitted by cylinders or cones which roll in contact may be avoided by employing wheels or gearing having teeth or projections which intermesh and insure a positive drive and a constant velocity ratio. also very simple in design. Rigid support for the friction wheels and the maintenance of a good contact between the workFriction gearing it is essential is ing surfaces are also of importance. this lines. will slipping occurs. The pitch circles e and / corre- shown at E. able in that a mechanism which might thereby be injured. In some however. and operates smoothly and Transmission by Toothed Gearing. transmit a continuous and unvarying motion between the driving and driven gears. and the teeth. suitable form of transmission where not a to maintain a prescribed relation between driving and driven parts of a mechanism throughout an entire cycle of operations. and it is found mechanisms. This type of gearing is usually employed to connect shafts which are at right angles. until the pitch circle is as a rack. it is known as bevel gearing. when it is the driving member. When the shafts are at right angles and the pitch diameter of both gears is equal. they are . are known as spur common type of gearing. as indicated by the dotted g. will spond to cylinders in contact. In designing the teeth of gearing. If one of the spur gears could be straightened out. if correctly formed. and receive rotary motion when the rack is the driver. the object motion obtained tween gears. changed to a straight line would be known A spur gear meshing with a rack will transmit to the movement. although the angle a may be greater or less than 90 degrees.

the same as with spur gears. it may Helical gearing is sometimes used for connecting parallel gears. as If shown in the illustration. surfaces are cylindrical. especially when smoothness of action not great enough to permit be necessary to resort to skew bevel and high speed are essential. plane. same The axes of ordinary bevel gears lie in The skew bevel gear is a special form for con- necting shafts which are at an angle to each other and not in the same plane. 15. more properly. instead or being parallel to the axes. but pitch . helical gearing.and left-hand teeth A herringbone gear on one . having right. The axes of the shafts may be at right angles. helical gears are sometimes called screw gears. shafts instead of spur gears. the distance between the shafts using helical gears. follow helical Fig. This form of gearing has been used very little. the teeth. in order to eliminate end-thrust. for this reason. The general practice is to use a double helical or herringbone gear which corresponds to two helical gears placed together. or at is some other angle.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION '27 known the as miter gears. 15. Another type of gearing for shafts which are not parallel and which do not lie in the same plane is shown at A Fig. This is The called spiral gearing or. Spiral and Worm Gearing for Transmitting Motion curves like screw threads.

if the worm-wheel has 40 teeth. provided the factional . 16.28 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS shaft meshes with a herringbone gear on another shaft and. 1 6. Fig. 40 revolutions of a single-threaded worm will be required for one Fig. the end-thrust resulting from the angularity of the teeth is neutralized. A pulley or wheel is attached to each shaft and a continuous band or belt extends around both pulleys so that they rotate in unison. and Band revolution of the worm-wheel. Chain. For instance. or Chains. 15. gearing shown at J5. the worm usually has either a single or a double thread which meshes with the teeth of the worm-wheel. is similar in principle to spiral gearing. having one forms of gearing. Ropes. as the teeth are of right. A single-threaded of worm is.and left-hand obliquity. A very common method of transmitting motion from one shaft to another is shown at A. Transmission of Motion by Flexible Means of a Belt. a spiral gear continuous tooth. in reality. There are be described many later. The worm The worm is the driver and the velocity ratio depends upon the number of teeth in the worm-wheel and the number of threads on the worm. Fig. special some which will Transmission by Flexible Bands. whereas a double-threaded worm would revolve 20 times for one revolution of the worm-wheel.

especially when it is mission is applicable require necessary to transmit considerable power from one shaft to another and the distance between the shafts is comparatively classes of Many mechanisms to which the Belts composed of chain links which engage teeth small. and frequently the belt is guided by idler pulleys in its passage from one pulley to another. each rope forms a continuous belt. back to the first one by an idler pulley. formed on the sprockets are extensively used. a number of parallel ropes are used. one long rope winds the driving and driven pulleys. The connecting form shown may be of leather. For drives of the type illustrated at A. The shafts may be parallel or at an angle. (See diagram B. Manila ropes have been used in many transmitting power from the power plant shafting. The chain transmission is often applied where the Fig. Canvas stitched belting saturated with oil is also fre- quently used in preference to either leather or rubber (cotton duck and rubber) belting. and is guided from the last groove and driven sheaves or pulleys. although this Cotton and factories and mills for to different lines of type of transmission has been replaced to a considerable extent by electrical equipment.) center-to-center distance between shafts is too short for leather or similar belting and too long for transmitting motion by gearing. belt type of transa positive drive. . 1 6. Belts are usually flat bands. as they do not absorb moisture or stretch as readily as do leather belts. especially where the belts are exposed to the weather or to the action of steam. and rubber composition. especially upon smaller classes of machinery. Thin steel bands smooth rimmed pulleys have also been used to a operating upon limited extent.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION resistance 29 to trans- between the belt and pulley rims of for pulleys of the is sufficient mit the required amount belt or band energy or power. although round belts operating upon grooved pulleys are often used. and the required number are placed side by side in grooves formed in the rims of the driving With the continuous or American around and fills all the grooves of system. leather cotton. With the English or multiple system. or cotton belts are generally used. although belts made of cotton duck impregnated with rubber are extensively used.

and the ends of The outer ends of the bands are also attached to some stationary member. or a single pair of meshing gears. Diagram C. Mechanisms operated in this reciprocating motion. are wrapped about these bands are attached to the drum. shaft carrying When the given a reciprocating movement in a plane xx. This particular form of used for generating involute curves on the teeth of gear-cutters. it is often desirable or necessary to use a series of pulleys or gears . A hoisting mechanism of the type which has a drum and an attached rope that is wound and unwound for raising and lowering a load is another example of transmission by a flexible connector. The steel bands drum c. in lowering. as illustrated by the dotted lines. a and 6. In many cases. the pull on the shaft bearings and the resulting friction is reduced. since the rotary way necessarily have a movement reverses as the band is wrapped and unwrapped around the drum. As there is no initial tension on the chain. the velocity ratio or sprockets. or ribbons. relative speed of the driving and driven pulleys or sprockets depends upon their respective diameters. the drum on the is driven in a reverse direction by the action of gravity load. Trains of Mechanisms. While a single pair of pulleys and a connecting belt. by holding the hardened cutter on the arbor of drum c and rolling it in contact with the plane face of a grinding is mechanism wheel. The belts. whereas. the drum to which one end of the rope is attached is the driver while hoisting the load. may be em- ployed for transmitting motion from one shaft to another. The chains used for this purpose vary in regard to the form and accuracy of the links and For either belt or chain drives. ropes. or chains previously referred to are for trans- mitting rotary motion continuously. the drum is caused to revolve in conjunction with the traversing movement. 16. Fig. the wheel face representing the side of an involute rack tooth. Flexible bands are sometimes used to impart rotary motion to a reciprocating shaft.30 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS The teeth of the sprockets engage the spaces between the link blocks or rollers. first in c is drum one direction and then in the other. illustrates one application. and a positive drive is thus obtained.

. pulleys. cams. the speed pulley d may be found as follows: Find the product of the . etc. cams.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION between the driving and driven shafts. shows a train d. links. In general. Pulleys a and c are If the speed of pulley of a and the diameters of all the pulleys are known. the combination of gears Trains of gears. may also be used to connect driving and driven members. followers. Train of Pulleys and Trains of Gearing velocity ratio or for transmitting motion when the driving and driven members are so located that a more direct method of transmission is not practicable. gears. Various combinations of links. Motion is often transmitted through trains of gearing specially arranged so that speed changes may readily be obtained by manipulating suitable controlling levers. is as a train of mechanism. etc. The diagram A. Fig. known transmitted entirely is called a gear train. 17. 17. through gearing.. are common to all classes of mechis motion anisms and may be necessary either for obtaining a required Fig.. of pulleys for trans- mitting motion from pulley a to pulley drivers and pulleys b and d. regardless of their order or combination. any If series of pulleys. etc.

and by the second driver^' of the train. Fig. attached to the same shaft or stud. 17. divide by the product of the diameters of the driven pulleys. but. proceed as follows: Find the speed by placing the number of revolutions of the driving pulley as the numerator and the number of revolutions of the driven pulley as the denominator of a fraction. by an adjustable arm or plate. it does ratio. The number and arrangement of gears in a train vary considerably. and the train of gearing may serve other purposes than merely transmitting motion from one shaft to driver e transmits motion to gear g through an " " intermediate gear / called an idler gear. speeds for pulleys a and d are given and it is desired to find the diameters of all the pulleys. and multiply each pair ratio ber until pulleys with suitable diameters are found. " Trains of Spur Gears. applied of gearing in the train. A train of four spur gears is shown at B. The idler stud is carried position gears. to driven gear k. and multiply the quotient by If the the revolutions per minute of the first driving pulley a. and reduce this fraction to its lowest terms. not affect the velocity lathes for connecting Idler gears are used the " " on many engine change-gears is of different sizes used for screw cutting. While the idler another. The shafts may all lie in the same plane or be in different planes. The affects the direction of rotation. there an odd number of axes. especially when the required velocity ratio is high. Then divide both the numerator and denominator of the fraction. The arrangement shown this The will direction of rotation of the first if and last gears in if a train is be opposite the number of axes be even. to avoid using one very large pulley and one very small one.") Sometimes motion is transmitted through more than one pair of pulleys. Assuming that h is the driver. the first and last gears will revolve in the . and its varied to suit the diameters of the driving and driven term is at C is known as compound whenever there is one or more pairs gearing.32 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS diameters of the driving pulleys. thus expressing the ratio as two " " of factors by the same numfactors. (One factor in the numerator and one in the denominator are considered as one pair. motion is transmitted to driven gear i.

and multiply the quotient by the revoThis rule may also lutions per minute of the first driving gear. three revolutions of the driver will revolution of the driven gear. or the pitch diameter of a divided by the pitch diameter of b. and another gear (or gears) revolves about the stationary gear in addition to rotating relative to its own axis. If one of the gears in a train is fixed Epicyclic Gear Trains.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION 33 two gears running in For are inversely as their diameters or numbers of teeth. With such combination. The relative speeds of teeth. If gear a axis of is held stationary and link c is given one turn about the the revolutions of gear b. b (see If this link diagram A. Fig. and either the pitch diameters of the gears or the numbers of teeth. find the determine the speed of the last gear of a compound train product of the diameters or numbers of teeth divide by the corresponding product of the driven gears. if a driving gear has 20 teeth and a driven gear. the total . the number bers of teeth. rotation of gear b in the same direction about its axis. To of gearing. the mechanism is known as an epicydic train of gearing. gear. then . the diameters of the pulleys. all of be applied when belt pulleys and gears are combined in one train. will <z. If a and b represent either the pitch diameters of the gears or numrevolution. driving and driven gears will not affect the result. and divide the product by the number An idler gear placed between the of teeth in the driven gear. relative to arm c. 18) are held in mesh by a remains stationary and gear a makes one of revolutions made by gear b will equal the number of teeth in a divided by the number of teeth in b. because points on the revolving gears describe epicycloidal curves. 60 same mesh direction. could be used in making the calculations. the revolutions of b to one turn of a equal . instance. of all the driving gears. multiply the number be required for one obtain the speed of the driven of teeth in the driver by its speed in To revolutions per minute. The two gears a and link c. also equal the j- same as when gear a was revolved once with the arm held Since a rotation of arm c will cause -a stationary. or stationary.

if relative to or i +- . so however. gear a has 60 teeth and Fig. number turn of will equal i (the c. Epicyclic or Planetary Gearing gear b. . gear 6. a. For example. or 3 times about its own axis.34 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of revolutions of gear c. one turn of arm c would cause 60 b to rotate 20 that the total i -f- . 20 teeth. for one turn of c) plus the revolutions of b 6. also makes one turn about the axis of gear number of revolutions relative to a fixed plane equals = 20 4 revolutions. 1 8. relative to a fixed plane.

A simple method of analyzing epicyclic gearing is to consider the actions For instance. separately. the results obtained when link c is fixed and the gear a (which normally would be fixed) is revolved are noted. and vice versa. gear b will revolve counter-clockwise consider all of is (+)$- revolution. Fig. 18. 18. Next bination the gears locked together so that the entire comrevolved one turn in a counter-clockwise (-}-) direc- . with a fixed gear a and also with an outer its internal gear that to revolve. b. and that signs represent counter-clockwise movements and If link c is held signs clockwise movements. is equivalent to an with gear of e for Diagram B. If the speed of the internal gear is required. Assume that gear a has 60 teeth and gear 20 teeth. hence. gear rotation of is held stationary and e arm / is turned about axis is the about its axis will be clockwise when / turned counter-clockwise.TRANSMISSION OF MOTION In order to b illustrate the distinction 35 of between the rotation around its own b is in axis and assume that mesh is free rotation relative to a fixed plane. locked together as a The unit. the internal gear. in order to reproduce the action of the gearing.d and c/ numbers of teeth or pitch diameters of the respective gears. it will be necessary. for each turn of link additional revolution of b. then. the entire mechanism. with the gearing shown at A. to consider not only the rotation of b about its own axis. + stationary and gear a is turned clockwise ( ) one revolution. because the effect of this latter motion on c. the revolutions of gear e. the revolutions e representing the If one turn of d equal . represents If arm/ . if gear a is revolved in a clockwise direction. will equal the difference between revolutions equal to e - i (representing the turn of /) and the Method of Analyzing Epicyclic Gear Trains. results are then tabulated. for one turn of / about g. in calculating this speed. Fig. is assumed to be given one turn counter-clockwise. using plus and minus signs to indicate directions of rotation. but also its motion around a. e on arm/. is an internal gear d in mesh held stationary. relative to a fixed plane. the internal g.

If an idler gear i placed between gears a and b (diagram C. for one turn of link h about the axis of a. when The application of this method to the arrangement of gearing shown at B. an analysis of the will give the following Link/ Gear f e separate motions previously referred to Link Stationary Gears Locked '. 18). held stationary and link c is given one gear b will make 4 revolutions relative -j- to a fixed plane in a counter-clockwise or link c is turned in the same direction. Fig. one turn of h about the axis of a. 30 teeth. and the entire mechanism with the gears locked results: Gearc/ is turned counter-clockwise. Then. tion. are shown by the following analysis: . Assume that gear d has 60 teeth and gear e. Assume that gear a has 60 teeth. when gear a turn about the axis of a. i turn turn o turn turn +i o +1 turn -fi turn 2 Number of Turns + 1 Effect of Idler in Epicyclic is Gear Train. relative to a fixed plane. and gear Then the turns of 6. idler gear i. the motion of each part of the mechanism may readily be determined: Gear a i Link c Gear b Link Stationary Gears Locked turn turn o turn -fi turn -\-i -f-i -ff$ turn +i turn Number of Turns o +4 of The algebraic sums in line is headed " Number Turns " in- dicate that. the latter will rotate about its axis in a direction opposite to that of the link (the same as with the arrangement shown at B) and the t revolutions of gear b. relative to a fixed member for &. By tabulating these results as follows. Fig. will now be considered. 20 teeth. will equal the difference between i (representing the turn of h) and the revolutions equal to - . thus returning gear tical effect of these The prac- c separate motions is the same as though link were revolved once about the axis of a fixed gear a which is the way in which the gearing operates normally. 18. 20 teeth. if gear d is turned clockwise with link / stationary. direction.36 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS a to its original position.

Gear a .

de- pending upon the application of the mechanism. instead of a single set of gears between p and /. gear k. epicyclic gearing may be used for obtaining a very reduction in velocity between the link n and the last gear great b in the train.000 revolutions for of epicyclic gearing 100 An internal gear gear.000 10. and either this or pinion p may be the stationary member. / forms part of the mechanism. In this case. if both gears are of the same diameter. 10. . In applying this mechanism to an engine. Fig. the shaft gear will make two revolutions for one turn of the connecting link between the gears or one revolution for each stroke. Compound The speed of gear b will equal i = 100 X revolu- tion. illustrated A by diagram A. and gear &. suppose gear a has 99 teeth. This mechanism is known as a " sun and planet " motion. as it was attached to the connecting-rod. The member. hence link each revolution of gear shown at D is Diagram E frame q. Sun and Planet Motion. 100 teeth. The arrangement known as a reverted train. there is a double set located diametrically opposite frame q. but without revolving on its own axis. This arrangement internal gear / is and connected by a suitable similar to the mechanism of a central pinion certain type of geared hoist. the planet. 100 teeth. whereas. With this arrangement. The connecting link between the gears was loose on both shafts. 18. shows another arrangement of reverted train. As an extreme example.38 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS if direction as link n. 101 teeth. the fixed gear a representing the sun and the revolving gear b. driven is stationary. A forward and return stroke of the piston caused the connectingrod gear to pass once around the shaft gear. one gear was keyed on the shaft and the other was fixed to the connecting-rod. gear b will revolve in the opposite direction. because the crank motion had been patented previously. mechanism of the general type was employed by Watt for transmitting motion from the connecting-rod to the engine shaft. gear /. n would have to make b. this value is greater than i. p is the driving and the frame q is the member and imparts motion to the hoisting sheave.

the use. Another important use for speedrate of speed may regulating mechanisms is to vary the motion of some operating tool-slide or other part which must move at a rate depending upon conditions that are subject to change. speed variations are essential to the operation of machines such. for example. be limited by the nature of the operation it performs. as are used for some kinds of manu- When facturing work.CHAPTER II SPEED-CHANGING AND CONTROLLING MECHANISMS THE speed at which a machine or mechanism operates may be either uniform or variable. This is frequently the case with machine tools. and be controlled either automatically or by some form of hand-manipulated device. The object in regulating and controlling the speed of a machine depends upon the type of machine and its If it is utilized in manufacturing a certain product. be necessary to stop the machine and make an adjustment. it may 3A 39 . moreover. or replace one or more gears with others of different diameters. the changes are usually obtained by hand-conIf such variations are seldom trolled speed-changing devices. When changes of speed are frequently needed. the speed may need to be varied at times because of changes in operating conditions. the rate of speed may be varied by changing the velocity ratio of the mechanism that transmits the motion. If the motion is transmitted by a combination of gearing or other mechanical means. When the rate of speed depends upon the action of a fluid such as steam. the speed may be regulated by controlling the amount of steam that is used and the resulting pressure against the moving element. The speed regulation of a to insure a prime mover such as an engine or a steam turbine is uniform speed regardless of ordinary variations in the resistance to motion of the driven member or changes in the steam pressure. required.

mechanism to Mechanical devices for varying the speed are of special importance on machine tools. the total number ment by which each step or change tool involves determining that would ordinarily be speeds of variations. the speed of the work is increased as the turning machines. the mechanism of the machine itself. the relation of the speed-controlling other parts of the machine. the amount or increvaries. soft brass may be turned. by simply moving a wheel. of production is increased. These speed-changing devices . In fact. or rod which controls the combi- nation or velocity ratio of the mechanism through which the motion is transmitted. and the correct cutting speeds for is In the case of lathes or other rotating tools of different sizes. in order to maintain a cutting or surface speed which is considered suitable for the kind of metal being machined. and. drilled. The exact of the details depends. or planed at a much higher speed than cast iron or steel. regardless of the diameter. Another important reason for speed variation to secure the proper surface speed for revolving parts. etc. obviously the rate efficient speed. most machine tools are so constructed that the speed of the cutting tool or of the part being operated upon can be varied. and the design of the mechanical device for securing speed changes and transmitting them to the work-spindle or tool. These changes are desirable in order to cut different kinds of metal at the most for example. lever.40 the machine is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS generally equipped with some mechanical device enabling one or more variations to be obtained rapidly. If the machine is of the automatic type. which is constructed by or adjusted beforehand to give the proper changes. upon conditions arrangement such as the speed variation required. the range or extent of the variation depending upon the type of machine. the importance of rapid changes. diameter decreases. in any case. of this part of The design the any machine minimum and maximum required. the speed may be regulated according to varying conditions. by using the fastest speed that is practicable. Similarly. drilling or boring machines are so dethat the speed of the drill or boring bar can be varied in signed accordance with the diameter of the hole being drilled or bored.

Types of Mechanical Speed-changing Mechanisms. or wheels. Stepped Cones and Conical Pulleys for Varying Speeds transmitted through different ratios or combinations of gearing. pulleys. Two cone or stepped pulleys are so located .that the large and small steps of one pulley are opposite the small and large steps of the other . These different types or classes of speed-changing mechanisms are constructed in various ways. Diagram A. i. very simple arrangement for varying speeds. is When a variation of speed obtained by changing the velocity ratio of two or more parts forming a train of mechanism. although belt-driven pulleys and friction gearing are often utilized. (2) by the use of cone-pulleys in conjunction may with one or more sets of gears.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS usually consist of different combinations of gearing. Arrangement illustrates a of Cone-pulley Drives. one of the following methods is generally employed: (i) By means of conical pulleys connected by a belt or cone-pulleys having " " of different diameters upon which a connecting belt steps be shifted. and one which has been extensively employed in connection with tools machine and other classes of machinery. with an arrangement that enables the motion to be Fig. i. so arranged that one member (or an intermediate connecting device) can be shifted relative to the axis of the other for varying the speed. Fig. (3) by means of toothed gears exclusively. (4) by employing a friction transmission consisting of driving and driven disks.

it is desirable to secure very gradual speed changes. which would not be the case with an open belt. is shifted with the driving . i. There is one of these compensating bands or auxiliary belts for each pulley. open belt which. or of conoidal form. since the crossing of it equally tight at corresponding positions on the two cones. compensating for the taper of cone-pulleys is arranged as follows: Instead of connecting the two pulleys directly by one belt. without stopping the driving and driven members for shifting a connecting belt. which belt for obtaining speed changes. and the speed will be gradually diminished as the belt is shifted toward the right.42 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS pulley. when a connecting belt is shifted from one step to another. the driven pulley b will rotate at the fastest speed. belts are traversed with the is these main driving belt when the latter Another patented method of shifted for varying the speed. consequently. One simple way and of securing such changes is illustrated by the diagrams C. of patented cone-pulley drive consists of two conical pulleys of speed changes. When the latter is required. instead of bearing directly these pulleys are connected by an on the pulleys. In the operation of some machines. In designing and the cone-pulleys. the belt tends to shift toward the large end of these pulleys. as at C. two belts are used. passes over inner bands or belts beveled on the inner face to correspond with the taper of the pulleys. it is important to proportion the different steps so that a belt of fixed length will have approximately the same tension for any position on the pulley. If pulley a is the driver belt is in the position shown. Special of means the form illustrated at jB. it is preferable to use the curved cone as illustrated at C. While the conical or conoidal pulleys makes provide very gradual speed changes. the speed is varied. The pulleys in this case are either frustums of B cones. which transmit motion through an inter- mediate double cone-pulley. Fig. as shown at B. The form shown at the belt B is suitable for a crossed-belt. although such action may be prevented by the guide used for moving the belt to obtain compensating for the taper One form of the driving and driven cones have been devised.

is to the spindle by means driving the spindle direct. 2. motion is transmitted from the " from c to d\ in this way. Fig. The sleeve which carries the two back-gears revolves about a shaft having eccentric bear- . there would be four direct speeds and four slower speeds with the back-gears engaged.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 43 Combination of Cone-pulley and Gearing. One method of a cone-pulley in conjunction with gearing is illustrated using by diagram A. For the and the main spindle together. Gear and Cone-pulley Combinations for Varying Speed pulley from gear d so that it rotates freely about the spindle and " cone engaging the back-gears. 2. This particular arrangement is com- monly employed on engine lathes and is known as "back-gearing. the back-gears are disengaged the latter being attached to the spindle. and cone-pulley revolve By disengaging the cone- Fig. the range of speeds gear a to gear b. it is usually locked of a bolt which connects it with the face gear direct drive." When " the pulley " d. the drive being so proportioned that a gradual increase of speeds from the minimum to the maxi- mum. and obtained by the direct drive is doubled. or mce versa. With a four-step conepulley. may be obtained.

Pinion b also meshes with an internal gear forming part of casting e. so that. the internal gear is prevented from rotating and motion is transmitted to the spindle of the machine from the cone-pulley. as pinion a causes pinion b to re- . the pinion of the second shaft being engaged directly with a large internal gear on the faceplate. one arrangement being shown at B. with a three-step cone. but plate c is keyed to it. and a third range by transmitting the motion through the other combination. which meshes with pinion b. Fig. there would be a total of nine speeds." applied to the same form of drive alalthough machine-tool builders. A changing their position modification of the double back- geared drive is so arranged that the two gears on the rear shaft are connected by a friction clutch controlled by a conveniently located lever. in addition to variations secured with the direct drive thus. for The gears c and d are shifted along the rear shaft relative to the cone gears. The mounted on a stud cone-pulley has a pinion a. This casting and the cone-pulley are both loose upon the shaft. 2. the gears are locked together and the shaft entire mechanism revolving driven directly by the cone. When lock-pin d is enis gaged with a stationary arm g. by is term not Ordinarily. Many modern engine lathes have double back-gears. a lathe is said to be triple-geared when there are two gear shafts. so that a double range of geared speeds may be obtained. Cone-pulley and Epicyclic Gearing.44 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS by turning this shaft ings at the ends. however. When lock-pin d engages a notch in plate c. such as is required for taking heavy cuts on castings or forgings of large diameter. the back-gears are engaged or disengaged. The cone-pulley speeds are doubled by of speeds is obtained driving through one combination of gears. Another design as " of lathe headstock gearing is this com- monly known ways triple gearing. pulley. with a lever. There are two cone gears a and b and two mating gears c and d on the rear shaft. the as a unit. carried by plate c. Triple gearing is used on large lathes and the direct drive to the faceplate provides a very powerful turning movement. pulley and planetary or epicyclic gearing is The use of a coneshown at C.

is sometimes known as a differential back-gear. and the combination is known as case. 2. whereas. This gear is locked to pinion c." by the diagram D. there is another arm which carries gears corresponding to b and c. except when a direct drive is employed. thus forming a double gear that is free to turn about arm d.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 45 volve about the stationary internal gear and carry with it plate c. and. The gear e is keyed to the spindle. When used in conjunction with Humpage's gear. This design. revolving. which has been applied to " some upright drilling machines. This additional gearing is included because of its balancing effect and need not be considered in is also loosely mounted on the spindle or shaft. gear / is With the fulcrum gear / stationary and gear a stationary. i. and speed. instead of spur gears. but it has been applied to various classes of machinery. gear e and the spindle are rotated at a much slower arm d and the intermediate connecting gears roll around gear /. will revolve in opposite directions." a cone-pulley. " Another cone-pulley containing epicyclic gearing is shown Bevel gears are employed in this Fig. Diametri/. in which the letters represent the . When the ratio O X X than 6 if gears a and e will revolve in the same direction. which transmits a slower speed to the spindle than is obtained with the direct drive. the arrangement loosely is as follows: The cone-pulley is mounted on its shaft and carries a pinion a which meshes with gear b. with gear whereas pinion c studying the action of the gearing. This gearing was designed originally to replace the back-gearing of a lathe. may be reversed f J - by changing c is less the relative sizes of i. the hub of which Gear b meshes meshes with gear e. this ratio is greater than they pact form of gearing and the velocity ratio may siderably by a slight change in the relative sizes of the gears. cally opposite arm d. This a very combe varied conis The velocity ratio when by f J - X c is less than i may be determined num- the following formula. as the the direction the gears. The direction in which gear e rotates for a given movement of gear a depends upon the ratio of the gearing.

Geared Speed-changing Mechanisms. speeds. a and c\ the gears b and d on the other shaft are free to slide axially so that motion may be trans- mitted either through gears a and b or c and d.53 times while gear e is making i. formula If the X c is expression 7 greater than the may be changed as follows: Ratio = a /X b X e When toothed gearused exclusively in a speed-changing mechanism. illustrates the use of a clutch for controlling speed changes. The first combination gives a faster speed than the latter. gear a will revolve 10. 40 teeth. and 46 teeth. Diagram B. 16 teeth. c. the principle of the sliding-gear design. One of the parallel shafts carries two fixed gears. e. because driving gear a is larger than gear c. gear and shifting-pinion type. Therefore.46 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS marked with corresponding reference bers of teeth in the gears letters in the illustration: Ratio = If /. 3. the most ing common arrangements may be defined as the(i) sliding-gear type. 6. 34 teeth. Clutch Method of Control. and (6) the multiple crownFig. 3. Ratio = z T! + I = L= 39 85 X 16 40 X 34 46 f I0 S3 . (3) the gear-cone and slidingkey type. (4) the gear-cone and expanding-clutch type. two or more sets of sliding gears are For obtaining a greater range of used in many cases. This clutch is located between the two driven gears and it can be engaged . Fig. gear a has 12 teeth. illustrates Diagram A. one revolution. (5) the (2) gear-cone and tumbler-gear type. is the clutch-controlled type. then.

single-belt pulleys are shown upon the driving shafts. A positive clutch is shown in the diagram. This is a common method of rotating the initial driving shaft of speed-changing mechanisms of the allgeared type. however. turn freely about the shaft unless engaged by the clutch. in the Fig.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 47 with either of these gears by a lengthwise movement effected usually by a lever. are of the friction type. the single constant-speed belt replaced either by a motor of the constant-speed type . On many pulley is or one of the variable-speed type. 3. however. While this clutch is free to slide axially. machines. Diagrams illustrating Different Types of All-geared Speed- changing Mechanisms In the diagrams A and 5. The driven gears. it is prevented from revolving about the shaft by a spline or key. or one having teeth which engage corresponding notches hubs of the gears. however. the shaft rotating at a constant speed and all of the changes being obtained by the shifting of gears or clutches. many of the clutches for speed-changing mechanisms.

the drive would be through gears g and e\ if a were the driving free to revolve speed of shaft b could be increased by engaging the with gears to the left. whereas those on shaft b are around the shaft. the driven member. by means of the tumbler gear c. 3. the key is completely disengaged from one gear before meshing with the next one. which is essential with a drive of upward into engagement with the keyways of the different gears. intermeshing gear cones and a sliding key for changing speeds is represented by diagram C. If the key were in the position shown by the diagram. A modification of the mechanism just described is so arranged that. Gear-cone and Tumbler-gear Mechanism. by means of a spring beneath it. mechanism applied to many machine although this re- form of mechanism usually installed either for transmitting feeding motion or in connection with spindle drives which quire a relatively small amount of power. Fig. except when engaged by the which can be shifted from one gear to another by moving key c. of a wedge. one shaft being the driver and the other. 3.48 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS The use of Intermeshing Gear Cones and Sliding Key. the number of speed key shaft. and tumbler-gear mechanism There is represented by diagram Fig. each gear is fitted with a ring which is may be ex- panded by means suitable means. The is arrange- ment of a gear-cone Z>. it will be depressed by the action of the beveled edge against a steel washer or guard n placed between each pair of gears. Obviously. the action of which controlled by is The gear-cone and different types of is sliding-key tools. as the key is moved in a lengthwise direction. With this arrangement. Two cones of gears are mounted upon parallel shafts so that they intermesh. a pinion b which is free to slide nected with cone gears of different diameters. All of the gears on shaft a are attached to it. rod d. the changes corresponds to the number of gears in the cone. The driving end of the key projects through a slot in the shaft and the edges are beveled to an angle of about 45 degrees. is The key forced a sliding key. instead of locking the gears in the upper cone by means of this kind. so that. The tumbler gear is carried by an arm which a cone of gears on shaft a and on a splined shaft and is con- .

must be maintained between the driving and driven members. the which is different cone gears. 3. in some cases. or the tumbler gear may be carried by a frame for instance. although the other types of speed- Frictional Speed-changing Devices. adjusted to bring the tumbler gear into mesh with the Another modification consists of a cone of gears which are adjusted axially for alignment with the tumbler is gear which only moved in a radial direction. Mechanisms of the same general type are often constructed along different lines. may mesh with a long pinion. This mechanism has been applied to drilling machines for varying the feeding movements of the drill. the fact that it is . The crown gear g has several concentric rows of teeth. Friction changing mechanisms previously referred to are much more type simple in design extensively employed. instead of engaging diagram D\ with a pinion mounted upon a splined shaft. The design and application of the various kinds of speedchanging mechanisms previously described. and provision is made for locking the is Cone-and-tumbler gearing in its different positions. If a definite relation. and the speed is varied by shifting the pinion h so that it engages a row of larger or smaller diameter.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 49 can be shifted parallel to the axis of the gear cone for aligning the tumbler gear with any one of the cone gears. this arm can be moved at right angles to the axis of the gear cone for bringing the tumbler gear into mesh with the various sizes of also gears composing the cone (as shown by the dotted circles). however. Fig. and the exact arrangement of the gears or other parts are governed very largely by the type of machine and the general nature of the work which it does. not always arranged as shown by arm tumbler gear. the frictional transmission is not suitable. but. and in many cases various combinations are employed. of speed-changing mechanism is represented crown-gear type by diagram E. gearing of various forms is applied to some classes of machinery as a means of obtaining speed changes. The multiple Multiple Crown-gear and Shifting Pinion. and has the further advantage of providing very gradual speed frictional is The changes.

revolves whatever part is to be tested for running balance. The wheel held . the details of construction being modified somewhat. owing to variations in the amount of power to be transmitted and other factors affecting the design.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS not positive and tends to slip when subjected to excessive loads is a good feature. Variations in the speed of the work are obtained by changing the posi- tion of wheel B relative to the axis of the driving disk A . Fig. The vertical shaft passing through the driven wheel transmits motion to a horizontal shaft (not shown) at the top of the machine. as it serves to protect the driven mechanism against excessive stresses. A reversal of motion is obtained by simply shifting wheel B to the is opposite side of the axis of the driving disk. The particular arrangement referred to is running-balance indicating machine. This hand lever is connected with the slide of wheel B by link C. 4 shows a type of frictional speed-changing mechanism which has been quite generally used. in turn. Speed-changing Mechanism of Friction Disk and Wheel Type in contact with a steel wheel B. The motor which applied to a Norton drives the machine revolves the leather-faced driving disk A which is in* Fig. which. 4. The adjustments of wheel B are controlled by a hand lever provided with a notched quadrant for holding it in a given position.

This particular mechanism is used for varying the feeding movement of a cold-metal saw. The handle connecting with a screw is used D for controlling the position of the intermediate wheel and the shows the rate of feed per minute. If the leather disk B may With a mechanism of this kind. The leather disk is held in place by a retaining ring H. pression.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS against the leather-faced disk with sufficient pressure by means of springs F which are provided with screws for varying the com- becomes flattened out or thin from be adjusted inward by means of stopwear. the wheel screws G. shows an arrangement for regulating the speed of a driven shaft. may be adjusted the vary The use of an ordinary belt has already been 5 referred to. mechanisms of the friction type have speed-changing made when opposing cones which are connected by some intermediate that to member speed. 5. Fig. bearing surface of the intermediate wheel is Friction for Varying Cones and Intermediate Wheel Speeds formed of leather disks held in place between two flanges or collars. the adjustments for changing the speed should only be Many the driving disk is running. by changing the position of a wheel A placed between the driving cone B and the driven cone C. rate of speed. dial at A E . These of cast iron two cones are made and the Fig. so that any change The lower in the position of the wheel is indicated by the dial. this dial being connected through shaft F and a gear at the lower end with a rack on the adjustable member.

is This mechanism to increase the diameter of the driving pulley. The two cone-pulleys are not directly in contact with each other. This lever is provided with graduations so that the same tension as well as the rate of feed per minute may be duplicated.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS friction cone is held in contact with the wheel by means of a spring G. since the practical effect of this shifting varied shifting this leather ring so that it bears against movement shaft. 6. the speed of cone B would be gradually increased if belt C were shifted toward the right. but bear against a band or ring of leather which Fig. and others are so designed that one cone is engaging . Some friction cones are so arranged that the leather ring is shifted to a parallel part of the cones for disthe drive. is used ordinarily as a variable-speed counter- There are two general methods of starting or stopping the driven members. 6. The speed of the driven cone is by simply a larger or smaller part of the cones. which illustrates the Evans friction cones. the tension of which may be regulated by lever H. If cone A is the driver. Friction Cones which transmit Motion through Adjustable Leather Ring or Belt serves to transmit the motion. driven cone Another method of transmitting motion from a driving to a is shown in Fig.

7 is an ingenious design variable-speed that is applied to some of the Brown & Sharpe cylindrical grind- Multiple-disk Type ing machines for changing the rotary speed of the part being ground and also the rate of the table traverse.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS raised 53 ping at the and lowered by the same speed. thus starting and stop- of Speed-changing Mechanism. and table traverse are entirely independent. 7. shifting lever. Multiple Friction Disk Type of Speed-changing Mechanism controlling the mechanism. The mechanism shown in Fig. The mechanism is driven from a driving shaft which runs at a constant . The long lever is used for starting and stopping the rotation of the work and the R traversing movement of the table simultaneously. The rotary speed of the work. dial (not and another position of lever A governs the lever in front of the circular shown in the illustration) serves to change the rate of These changes of work speed the table traversing movement. Three levers grouped around a dial at the front of the machine are used for Fig.

54 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS speed and connects with coupling B. If the convex disks / are swung towards the recessed disks L. silent chains Another sprocket (not shown) is connected by a pair of and a splined shaft. These disks are ground slightly convex and each group of disks intermeshes with another group or series of hardened steel / and K disks L and M . When the lever is raised for starting the mechanism. plunger pump at V A from the bottom of the case to a distributor at the top pumps which lubricates the entire mechanism. both of which pivot on shaft F. the surfaces of disks /. Motion is trans- mitted to these brackets through bevel pinions meshing with With this mechanism. with a driving member for operates as follows: The shaft F carrying at a constant speed through drives shafts G and the heads tock. The sprocket C is connected to the reversing mechanism and drives the table traverse. When lever R S is machine. Each of these driven disks has a rim at the periphery so that the point of contact with the driving disk is are mounted in always at the outer edge. slight variations in speed is may be obshifted tained while the machine for stopping the in motion. of the table. the disks L and grip the intermeshing disks / and K. oil . which actually do the driving. swinging brackets thus allowing the position of disks J and to be varied relative N K to the disks L and M. This lever also applies brakes M which quickly stop the table and headstock. the action being very similar to the wellknown multiple-disk friction clutch. consequently. The lever A controls the and the speed of the headstock. steel disks The shafts G and H carry a mounted on square portions of series of hardened the shafts. decrease in radius and. The mechanism coupling B H spur gearing. a cam at the end of shaft operates a lever which relieves the pressure applied to disks L and by the springs shown at T and U. and the driven members are M started without shock. The shafts G and H and P. whereas the position of bracket lever at the front of the dial (not shown) controls bracket P N and the feeding movements segment gears on the brackets. the speed of disks L and their shaft also decreases.

the contact surface at E will speed. is The principle upon which the device by the diagram at the left. and shaft A will be given a rotary motion. The two disks operates annular concave surfaces are rotated from some source of having power and run loose on shaft A which is driven at a variable illustrated is pivoted at to arm B.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 55 Concave Friction Disks and Inclined Wheel. consequently. the rate of which depends upon the angu- F on larity of wheel D. When wheel Fig. 8. pivot 0. the greater will . D A B D will simply revolve about pivot 0. 8 is an example of variable-speed the type having annular concave frictional surfaces engaged by an intermediate wheel the inclination of which is varied for changing the speed. If wheel D is inclined. The greater the angularity. however. as indicated by the dotted line EF. Variable-speed Transmission having Annular Concave Surfaces and Inclinable Friction Wheel is parallel to shaft as shown in the illustration. and the two disks and C are revolving in opposite directions at the same . The frictional transmission shown in Fig. and arm B and shaft A will remain stationary. arm B. The D drive to shaft A is transmitted through arm B. so The intermediate wheel speed. wheel be revolving at a higher circumferential speed than the surface disk C. that it can be inclined as indicated by the dotted lines.

disks D and E are free to revolve upon the vertical and the hubs of these disks form the bevel gears F and G. is of great importance. 9) is a combination of friction disks and a train of epicyclic or differential gearing. Friction Disk and Epicyclic Gear Combination. An objection to variable-speed mechanisms based on this principle is that the variation of speed does not change the torque. A very high velocity ratio or great reductions of speed. may be obtained by the mechanism This mechanism (see Fig. while variable-speed devices in general are of such construction that the torque increases when the speed decreases. consequently. the objection referred to is one mains constant. the rotation of shaft can A be reversed. By inclining in the opposite direction. These bevel gears J and K have annular concave surfaces which engage the cork surface of wheel D. the torque will not be proportionally greater. The angular posi. The two shaft C. M tion of wheel D is controlled by a lever L integral with the pivoted is ring M. Between these two bevel gears are the additional gears T and .56 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS be the difference in the diameter of the contact surfaces of disks G and C and wheel D the higher the speed of shaft A. the inner race of which is attached to ring pivoted on a stud carried by arm B. in the present case the speed is variable. A bevel gear H mounted on the end of the driving shaft revolves the two bevel gears / and K mounted on shaft A which is the driven member. so that. This wheel revolves on an annular ball bearing. while the torque re- As the main feature of variable-speed devices often not the variation of speed as much as the increased torque obtained by a decrease in speed. even though there is considerable speed reduction. and this frictional resistance is independent of the speed at which the shaft A is running. This lever connected with ring Q which is engaged by a forked lever similar to the form used for shifting clutches. A variable-speed mechanism designed on this principle is shown at the right of the diagram in Fig. because the limiting factor for the torque is the frictional adherence between the driving and driven contact surfaces. as well as extremely small variations of speed. 8. to be described.

the intermediate gears T and / merely revolve idly upon pin H. remains in one in Any change relative the position of disks D the and E to wheels N and O will re- sult in reducing the speed of one disk and increas- ing the speed of the other one. and by screw K. some form of governing mechanism of the centrifugal type is commonly employed. i. Epicyclic Gear Train for Obtaining Great Reduction of Speed amount from the central position. The disks D and E are in frictional contact with wheels N and 0. direction the rapidly revolving If disks and E D Combination of Friction Disks and Fig. 9. are only moved a small differential action in the gearing action on steam engines depend for their the effect of centrifugal force on a rotating element. both disks will revolve at the same speed. but in opposite directions. which is rotated through disks R. gears T and / begin or to advance around whichever gear F G has the slower mo- tion. so shaft C that pin and revolve in the as H same more gear. When the regulation of Centrifugal and Inertia Governors. which position. The direction of rotation may be changed by moving the disks upward or downward. As gears F and G also rotate at the same their position is regulated L and speed. the and the motion of shaft C will be at a very slow rate. Many of the governors used . consequently. which is attached to shaft C. upon In the case of a " fly-ball " governor (see diagram D. Fig.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS 57 J mounted on pin H. speed is automatically controlled. If wheel N is revolved and disks D and E are equidistant from the axes of wheels N and O (as shown in the illustration).

type of governor operates is 10. The eccentric C is bearing to reduce the fricattached to the inertia bar and it has an elongated hole or opening to permit movements relative to the crankshaft. Centrifugal-inertia Type of Engine Governor regulates the speed by varying the position of the eccentric or crankpin that operates the valve. This particular governor has an inertia bar A with ends to increase the weight at the ends. the balls or weighted levers move outward from the axis of Chapter I) rotation. This bar is enlarged pivoted at general principle upon which this illustrated by the design shown in B where there is a roller tional resistance. The Fig. A F is is attached to the inertia spring pivoted to the bar on the opposite side of E . 10. inertia or cen- trifugal-inertia gover- which is now used so extensively. which balances the coil Directly opposite the eccentric is effect of gravity on the A rod heavy bar. When a governor of this type is applied to a Corliss engine. in owing to the increase of in centrifugal force.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS weights or balls attached to pivoted levers are revolved by the engine and if the speed increases above normal. balls the position the revolving may This change be transmitted through suitable connecting levers and rods to a valve which partly closes. Z). Most governors of the fly-ball type are equipped with one or more springs which tend to resist the outward movement volving of the re- balls. the release of the steam valves and the point of cut-off is controlled directly by the governor. is attached to the fly- wheel and Fig. The nor. a third weight eccentric. thus reducing the steam supply.

type vary in regard to the form of the weighted lever and the arrangement The inertia type is preferable to the purely centrifugal design for engines subjected to sudden and decided load changes. which would swing the lever forward about bearing B in the direction of rotation.SPEED-CHANGING MECHANISMS bearing 59 oil B and is connected to a loose-fitting piston in the dashpot G. while the actual movement of the governor parts is effected by the inertia of the weighted end of the bar. would tend to continue running . lever a sudden increase of load should cause the engine to run slower. Other governors of of springs or other details. . the inertia bar lags behind momentarily The and the steam If is eccentric swings inward cut off earlier during the stroke because the and shortens the travel of the valve. flywheel revolves in the direction shown by the arrow and speed variations cause a slight movement of the inertia bar about its bearing in one direction or another. A as a result of its inertia. which changes the point of cut-off. The adjusting a by-pass valve this general sensitiveness of the governor may be varied by upon cylinder G. thus increasing the valve travel and admitting more steam to the cylinder by delaying the The spring end of the inertia bar is the heavier point of cut-off. thus changing the If position of the eccentric. the speed increases. and the speed of rotation depends entirely upon the equilibrium between the centrifugal force acting upon the inertia bar and the tension of the spring. at the faster speed.

and this distance is known as the stroke. To avoid difficulty in starting engines of the duplex type. and a force or pressure applied to the piston or cross-head will not cause the crank to revolve. at either When A or B (Fig. mechanism is also used frequently on machines of This crank many differ- ent types. In this chapter. in this case. the chanism may depend upon the mechanism amount of power to be transmitted. Crank and Connecting-rod. such 60 as locomotives.CHAPTER III CONVERSION OF ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS MACHINES form of of many for different types are equipped with some changing a rotary motion to a rectilinear The design of such a meor straight-line motion. Dead-center Position. and also a number of special mechanisms. i is The crank and connecting-rod which. it is said to be the center of the crankpin is on the " dead center. The distance traversed by the part moving diameter of the circle described in a straight line is equal to the by the center of the crankpin. The air compressor is an example of the latter application. or other considerations. the crankpins are located 90 degrees . kind of motion required. or vice versa." because the crank and connecting-rod are then in line. i). when applied tilinear movement of to a a very simple and common arrangement steam or gas engine. so long as it remains on the dead center or in line with the direction in which the force is applied. and there are many other examples to be found in practice. for instance. the common or standard methods are described. being changed to a rectilinear motion for the compressor piston. the rotation of the crank. illustrated in Fig. but to secure a rectilinear movement from a driving member which revolves. changes the rec- the piston and cross-head to a rotary mo- tion for revolving the crankshaft of the engine. not only to transform rectilinear to rotary motion.

has a variable velocity. which in the case of a steam engine consists of the crosshead and piston. mid-position (as for instance. the other in position for transmitting the maximum amount of power. Relative Motions of Crankpin and Cross-head. the cross-head is a distance . or whatever part has a straight-line movement.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS apart. i. i). it starts from a state of rest and the velocity increases during approximately one-half of its stroke and then decreases until the cross-head again comes to a The relative state of rest at the opposite end of the stroke. but the sliding Fig. so that. Each time the crosshead reaches the end of its stroke. The crankpin has a practically uniform velocity. 6l when one engine is on the dead center. Diagrams showing Relative Motions head of Crankpin and Cross- member. especially in connection with steam engine work. it is important to note the relative motions of the crankpin and crosshead. In some crankpin is cases. when the crankpin is in the shown in Fig. positions of the crankpin and cross-head also vary at every point of the stroke. thus there is never any difficulty in starting.

in order to magnify the effects of angularity. but the crank is placed on the opposite dead center and then moved through an arc J. to bring the cross-head to its mid-position. whereas the other half curves away from it. on steam engines. x away from the center The when by the cross-head has traversed one-half its position of the crank stroke is indicated the lower diagram. (The connecting-rod shown in Fig. which is equal to c. in the This variation the distances of the crank. movement if is further illustrated that the cross-head for example. and it is objectionable in some types of mechanisms. and for many other purposes.62 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of its stroke. and through a greater arc of the cross-head. The eccentric may be considered as a crankpin which is so enlarged that it surrounds the main shaft. b for the It will thus remaining half of the stroke be seen that the relative motion first half of between the cross-head and crank during the stroke is different from that of the second half. and it is not practicable to obtain it by a crank located at the end of the shaft. the eccentric g (see Fig. and produces a motion similar to that of an ordinary crank and connecting-rod. the center of the eccentric to the center of the shaft upon which . In reality. c. the distance y. This is due to the fact that one-half of the crankpin circle curves toward the cross-head. i was drawn somewhat shorter than it should be. This variation of motion has an important effect on the design of steam-engine valve-gears.) The eccentric is a modified form of crank The Eccentric. which is less than y. relatively small movement The is eccentric is very useful required. If the crank were rotating in the direction indicated by the arrow. the cross-head will if moved through an cross-head will move a arc from the move a distance z. The length of the connecting-rod from the center of the cross- head wrist-pin to the center of the crankpin is usually equal to from 4! to 6j times the crank radius. moves is for equal by locating movements the crank dead-center position. it would turn through some arc a less than 90 degrees. 1 1 Chapter I) is mounted on the shaft and is surrounded by an eccentric strap h to which . Eccentrics have been extensively used for operating steam engine The distance from valve-gears. when a the connecting-rod is attached.

obviously there will be less irregularity in the motion. to the radius of an equivalent crank. rod of very great length. the horizontal same as If the movement of the movement the cross-head would be practically the of the crankpin measured horizontally. If an arc is center. in this slot. but. 2. " crank and slotted cross-head " This mechanism is known as a The cross-head a has a slot which is at or the Scotch yoke. The terms corresponds " " " and " eccentricity are sometimes used interchangethrow ably. if E were taken as a center and represented the length of the connecting-rod. the displacement of the cross-head from mid-position would be Therefore. will be the same as the move- . connecting-rod. As the radius CD representing the length of the connecting-rod is increased. the distance which the crankpin moves. the distance e will represent the displacement of the cross-head from its mid-position when the crank has turned depends upon the length of the struck from point D with C as a i through 90 degrees. As the crank revolves. theoretically the of the cross-head and crankpin in a horizontal direc- would be alike. For instance. an arc intersecting point and the D horizontal center-line would only be a very slight distance from the center of the main shaft. Crank and Slotted Cross-head. movement tion connecting-rod were of infinite length. as indicated by dimension/. right angles to the center-line xx representing the direction of rectilinear movement. the less the irregIf it were practicable to use a connectingularity of motion. The irregularity in the mo- tion of a cross-head relative to the crank with the form of crank mechanism illustrated in Fig. With such an arrangement. as measured in a horizontal direction. The crankpin and is carries a block. which is a sliding fit free to revolve about the pin. and it is equivalent to twice the eccentricity.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS it is 63 The eccentricity is known as the eccentricity. A simple form of mechanism for eliminating the irregularity of motion previously referred to is illustrated at A in Fig. it will be seen that less. the throw is equal to the mounted diameter of the circle described by the eccentric center. ED the greater the length of the connecting-rod. according to general usage.

because if the crank rotates uniformly. and its water piston. moves with uniform velocity along a circular path. and used expansively. When a point. steam may be cut off before the end of the stroke wheel. One of the rods extending to some from the Fig. although the sliding motion of the block in the slotted member causes more friction and wear than the or- . Slotted Cross-head or Scotch Yoke slotted cross-head carries the steam piston and the other. which is projected from a point moving with uniform velocity along the circumference.64 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of the cross-head. point have a harmonic motion along the center-line xx\ hence. as at 6. 2. The crank is radius regulates the length of the stroke. c will The crank and types of slotted cross-head has been applied steam pumps. the cross-head will be given a harmonic motion. ment This mechanism is sometimes called a harmonic motion. harmonic motion may be denned as the movement of a point along the diameter of a circle. By mounting a flywheel on the crankshaft. the a driven member. because of the energy stored in the flyThe crank and slotted cross-head is a very compact form of mechanism.

therefore. which is connected to a piston or other reciprocating part orvertical slot is not continuous. Stationary Crank and Revolving Cylinders anywhere on a continuous shaft. whereas the horizontal slot forms a clearance space for the shaft. The latter is also simpler in construction and is. as form Aj and the which is an objectionable feature. the crank could be placed at any intermediate point on the shaft without using a center crank. The vertical slot is for the sliding crank block. With this design. however. 2. so that it can be placed slotted cross-head or Scotch yoke. A crank Cylinders which Revolve about a Stationary Crank. Fig. Fig. as well as for other classes of machinery. many and The diagram B. . It is not as compact. shows a modification of the crank This mechanism gives the same motion as the one illustrated at A. but the cross-head has two slots at right angles to each other.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS 65 dinary crank and connecting-rod of the type shown in Fig. used almost exclusively as an engine connection. 3. i.

connecting-rod. 3. With this form of motor. it the pistons and the ball bearings. the greater the centrifugal force and also the greater the necessity for a rapid closing of the valves. as the cylinders revolve about the stationary crank. which illustrates the general arrangement of a type of aeroplane motor that is extensively used. The cylinders form the flywheel and drive the propeller and. the same as though the latter were stationary and the crank revolved. nions supported The by A. by the outward movements resultThe higher the speed of the motor. may relative to a cylinder is shown by the diagram. and they are run on the annular carries of tracks tracks it is with A cylinder casting revolves. MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS but a piston be given a rectilinear motion the crank in a fixed position by holding and revolving the cylinder. Fig.66 dinarily revolves. The Cylinders which Revolve Within an Eccentric Track. These guide shoes are intended to steady the action of the piston and reduce wear on the cylinders. design of the aeroplane motor shown in Fig. as they revolve rapidly. the temperature is reduced sufficiently by air cooling and without any auxiliary cooling device. The six cylinders are formed in one solid casting and rotate within eccentric annular tracks A which extend around both side walls of the casing. pistons are carried by trunThere are two of these free to ball bearings for each piston. 4 illustrates another method of obtaining a rectilinear motion of a piston relative to a cylinder. the pistons move in and out relative to the cylinders. The the cylinder walls for about half the length of the cylinder. The action of the motor will be more apparent by noting the . the pistons are given an inward and outward motion pins upon which the pistons are mounted carry guide shoes that reciprocate in slots formed in relative to the cylinders. and piston about the An example illustrating this method of utilizing the crank crank. ball bearings B. the admission of the gas and the exhaust are actuated controlling by a single cam and are closed ing from centrifugal force. as the center offset relative to the axis about which the cylinder When the rotates. The gyroscopic effect of the rotating cylinders The valves for also serves to steady the aeroplane in its flight.

When the motor is in the charge of compressed gas is fired at approximately operation. direction. this position. which imparts a Reciprocating Motion to Pistons ignited charge of gas is expanding. as indicated Rack and Gear Combination. the piston and then. the piston shown at C is at the inner end of its stroke as it is opposite that part of the annular tracks which is nearest to the axis about which the cylinders revolve. as the cylinders revolve in a clockwise moves outward from this point while the Fig.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS 67 For instance. position of each piston relative to its cylinder. as indicated by the arrow extending between radial lines 2 and 3. i and 2. 4- Cylinders revolving within an Eccentric Track. spur gear or pinion is A rack connecting with a used to change rotary motion commonly . This charge is then exhausted and a new charge is drawn in and compressed as the cylinder and piston pass between radial lines in the illustration.

IV.68 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS Ordinarily. Chap. the spur gear is to rectilinear motion. Crank Mechanism for Doubling the Stroke. The point of reversal is controlled table for varying the length of the stroke. These pulleys are driven by open and cross belts which are alternately shifted from loose pulleys to a central pulley which is keyed to the shaft. represents a typical example of a rack and gear combination. 5. 5 which makes A it crank and possible to . is the driver. The driving mechanism of a planer. The rack L is attached to the bed or platen of the planer. but this order is sometimes reversed and a rack given a reciprocating movement for revolving a pinion. and " bullmeshing with this rack is a large gear M." which receives its rotary motion through a train of gearing connecting with a shaft upon which the driving pulleys B Fig. known as a wheel. rests in V-shaped ways or guiding surfaces by dogs K which may be adjusted along the side of the The planer table which cause it to move link in a straight line. or vice versa. shown in Fig. 5. mechanism is shown in Fig. Crank Mechanism for Doubling the Stroke are mounted.

in order to obtain a compact design. The connecting-rod is attached to the yoke A which is mounted on the main crankpin. modification of the plain gear-driven crank 6 is shown in Fig. The advantage of this crank mechanism is that it enables a comparatively large capacity to be obtained from a small compact pump. in turn. Crank-driven Pinion Engaging Upper and Lower Racks. The pinion is pivoted to the end of the crank connectingrod so that crank revolves. The opposite end of this yoke is pivoted to link B which is suspended from a pin attached to the compressor casing. The driven gear crank which. is by means of a fixed and a movable rack having a crank-driven pinion interposed between them. this link oscillates As the crankshaft roand so controls the position of yoke A view to the that the stroke of the piston is approximately doubled. or twice the diameter of the path described by the crankpin. The crank proper is of the center type with a bearing on each side. as indicated by the right-hand illustration which shows the piston at the top of its stroke.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS 69 obtain a rectilinear motion approximately equal to twice the throw of the driving crank. transmits motion to pinion B revolves the of C by means . in a counter-clockwise direction. This mechanism has been used for driving the beds of cylinder presses. tates. The driving and driven gears A and B are of the elliptical form in order to compensate for the motion derived from a crank ro- tating at uniform velocity. owing to a limited space. A which illustrates the bed motion of a two-revolution pony press. Another method of doubling the stroke when a crank of relatively small size is necessary. This mechanism is shown applied to an air pump for use on automobiles. to roll along the stationary rack when the As the result of this rolling movement of the the movable rack is given a rectilinear motion equal to it is free twice the stroke of the crank. As the crank turns link B swings to the right so that the right-hand end of yoke A is forced downward and the left-hand end upward. or desirable. either for the inflation of tires or in connection with engine starting apparatus requiring compressed air. The left shows the piston at the lower end of its stroke. pinion.

and also the velocity of the crank. the long side or radius of the driving comes into engagement with the driven gear and increases gear its velocity.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the connecting-rod shown. 6. whatever part rest. Crank-driven Pinion engaging Stationary and Movable Rack for Doubling Stroke With the elliptical gearing shown. the speed of the crank is slowest. the velocity of decreases. when the crank is at right angles to the line along which the axis of pinion C moves and is in a position to impart the maximum velocity to pinion C. the result is that. crank. because it is then driven by the shortest radius of the driving gear. is With an ordinary motion until it starts given a rectilinear increases toward the center of the stroke and the velocity gradually and then decreases becomes zero at the opposite end of the stroke. again from a state of Fig. As the crank moves . The that the press bed moves a distance equal to twice the distance axis of gear C moves. as the pinion C approaches either end of its stroke and the crank advances toward the " " dead-center position. and imparts a rectilinear motion to rack E and the press bed. The located relative to elliptical gears are so proportioned and the crank as to give a more uniform motion to the press bed than could be obtained with a crank rotating at uniform velocity. This pinion is rolled in first one direction and then the other along the stationary rack D. because the radius of the working side of the driving As the return and crank gradually the driven gear gear gradually diminishes. or four times the radius of the driving crank. stroke begins.

and it is then withdrawn as the crank makes another half revolution. as indicated by the heavy lines. Chapter I. the speed is gradually accelerated again so that pinion down as it would with a crank rotating at uniThe reversal of the heavy press bed is assisted by " means of " air springs or cushions. n. This form of drive as applied to a cold-header is known as the " two-cycle type. the same as on cylinder in general.and Double-stroke Toggle Mechanism. This mechanism is intended for small presses. is Fig.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS away from this central position at right angles to the center-line of motion. 7. such as are employed used on some cold-heading mafor forming heads on bolts. the punch which forms the head on the work is at the end of its stroke. illustrates a crank-driven toggle mechanism which gives a forward and return stroke for each revolution of the crank. When the links of the toggle are straightened. The diagram A. rivets. especially when a powerful squeezing action is required. of Single- and Double-stroke Toggle Mechanism An arrangement of this kind chines. often utilized for changing a rotary to a rectilinear motion. presses The toggle Single. mechanism previously described in connection with Fig. Diagrams showing Action ." because two revolutions of the crankshaft . Fig. does not slow C form speed. 7. is etc.

completed. A cold-header having this " form of drive shaft. the sheet of metal pressed firmly down upon the die face by a blankholder. The two strokes which are obtained for each revolution of the crank be of unequal length. A design of toggle mechanism which is extensively used on double-stroke machines is illustrated by the diagram J?. two blows are obtained for each revolution Many classes of of the the crank crank connecting with the toggle. With this arrangement. When a press of this kind is in operation. The location of is such that the links of the toggle are straightened before the crank has made is when the half revolution one-half revolution. is known as a " one-cycle machine. Fig. Toggle mechanisms are employed on it and large drawing presses to operate the blank-holder. the lower end of which is attached to yoke B. work cannot be done satisfactorily with a single stroke.72 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS are necessary to complete a rivet or bolt requiring two blows of the punch. As the crank continues to re- volve and the toggle is again straightened. The upper end of . owing to the amount of metal that must be upset in order to form the head of a bolt or rivet. since it will impart two blows to the work for each revolution of the crank- One way of arranging Toggle Mechanism of Drawing Press. or of equal length. The toggle mechanism illustrated in Fig. which causes the ram and die to be withdrawn preparatory to making a second stroke. while the drawing punch forces the metal into or through the die. The blank-holder prevents the sheet stock from buckto be drawn is ling. consequently. this cycle of operations is repeated for each revolution of the crank. This crank connects with link A. as shown by the diagram. the toggle mechanism of a drawing press is illustrated in Fig. should remain in the downward position while the drawing punch is at work. 7. 8 is operated from crank H on the main crankshaft. depending upon the position of the crank relative may to the line of the straightened toggle. a second working stroke is made and then the ram and die are withdrawn. 8. as indicated by the diagram. the links of the toggle are carried beyond the center-line.

by means of arms L and links M The dotted lines on one and its side indicate the action of the rockshaft connecting link when in the extreme and G. in turn. motion transmitted to the blank. and the lower end is guided by another link C pivoted at D. The which. are pivoted to the side outer arms of these bellcranks are connected by long links or rods with cranks on the ends of two Fig. Application of Toggle Mechanism to a Drawing Press rockshafts J and K. is From holder these rockshafts.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS guided by link E. respectively. These two links C and D compel the yoke to move in prac- yoke B is tically crank H. a vertical straight line when it is traversed by the action of Attached to the yoke are two other links connecting with bellcranks F and G of the press frame. at the front and rear of the press. The bellcrank levers F with the links connecting them with the rock- . 8. together shafts / and K form a toggle mechanism which is straightened out at the same time that the driving crank H is passing its y upper position. which is pivoted to the frame of the press.

has been applied to a limited extent to planers for transmitting motion from the driving shaft to the . The slide to which the drawing punch is attached receives its motion from the main crankshaft. and are alternately engaged with a central clutch work have which transmits motion to the draw nut on the screw. the drawis given a rectilinear movement by means of a screw which does not revolve but is moved in a lengthwise direction by a nut. cutting hard tough metal.74 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS center and the arms L and links M are in line. and. design." " " or Sellers drive. changing rotary motion to rectilinear motion. Worm and Rack Drive.. This gearing is so proportioned that a comparatively slow motion this nut which is is faster imparted to the nut and screw for the cutting stroke and a movement for the return or idle stroke. This central or straight-line position for the toggles occurs while the blank is being held for the drawing operations. Therefore. The nut which is alternately connected with these two combinations of gearing by means of a clutch that is shifted by adjustable tappets or dogs that control the length of the stroke. As the broaching is done by a series of cutting teeth which gradually increase in size in order to produce a hole of the required shape progressively. are equipped with the reversing screw type of drive. The screw passes through head to which the broach attached is is held against endwise movement. which operate by pulling long broaches through holes in castings and forgings. the blank-holder dwells or remains down long enough to enable the drawing punch to complete its work before the sheet metal stock is released by the blank-holder. movement When a relatively slow but powerful a reversing screw may be employed for required.with one rotated from the driving shaft through suitable gearing. engages the screw Some of the smaller broaching machines intended for lighter belt pulleys that revolve about the screw in opposite "directions. considerable power is especially when required for pulling the broach through the work. A worm or short screw which meshes with a rack represents another form of reversing screw drive. which is often referred to as the " spiral gear. Broaching maReversing Screw. is chines of the horizontal type. This arrangement.

For instance. In order to avoid contact between the cylinder and the bed or form during the return stroke. An ingenious Crank Type of Reversal for Press Bed Motion. are equipped with this double-rack and shiftprinting presses ing-gear mechanism for driving the bed in first one direction and then the other. the cylinder is raised slightly by . at the time when the driving gear and rack are disengaged. The diagonal position of the worm-shaft or its angle relative to the rack is such that the meshing or working side of the worm will be in alignment with the rack teeth. the sheets to be printed are carried around by a general type.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS 75 planer table. if the top side of the gear moves one rack to the right. Smoothness of action is the principal advantage claimed for the worm and rack drive. through bevel gears to a shaft which extends under the bed diagonally and carries the spiral pinion or worm that meshes with a rack attached to the under side of the table. 9. This cylinder makes one revolution during the printing stroke K and a second revolution while the press bed is being returned. and it is reversed by some auxiliary mechanism which moves it far enough to bring the other rack into engagement with the driving gear. Motion is transmitted from the driving shaft. While this shifting movement takes place. one rack is first traversed past the gear. the lower Some flat-bed side will move the other rack toward the left. If a gear rotating continuDouble Rack and Shifting Gear. so that ously it can be engaged with first one rack and then the other. when the gear and rack are entirely disengaged. these racks will be moved in opposite directions. the of the bed is arrested. This design is applied to Miehle In the operation of presses of this flat-bed or cylinder presses. With mechanisms of this class. the gear is shifted axially far enough to align it with the other rack. mechanism of the double-rack and shifting-gear type is shown motion diagrammatically in Fig. so that contact is made with a flat form on revolving cylinder the press bed which moves horizontally beneath the cylinder. Press bed motions of this general type differ principally in regard to the method of moving the press bed at the ends of the stroke. in one direction is located between parallel racks.

in one direction and it is bed move exactly in unison. since this gear rotates in unison with the cylinder or continuously in one direction. Double-rack Shifting-gear and Crank Combination for Traversing Bed of a Printing Press erly time the motion of the cylinder and bed. which must be designed transmits motion to the bed. The distance between the pitch lines of these racks corresponds to the pitch diameter of the driving gear A. As the cylinder revolves at a uniform speed. obviously the mechanism for driving the bed must be designed to give a uniform motion while the impression is being made. 9. both of which are attached to and travel with the bed. This driving gear A is mounted between parallel racks B and C. In order to propit Fig. therefore. the press bed motion to reverse the movement of the bed without reversing the motion of gear A. The circumferential velocity of the cylinder should equal the linear velocity of the bed.76 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS The rotation of the cylinder is continuous imperative that the cylinder and press a suitable mechanism. The racks are not . because any relative motion would cause slurring on the printed sheet and would be impossible to obtain sharp clean-cut impressions. the cylinder is connected by gearing and suitable shafts with gear A.

directly in line,

so that,

but are

offset as

shown by the end view,
it will clear

when the gear is The lateral movement
and C means of a by

in mesh with one rack,

the other one.



of gear A for aligning it alternately with derived from cam Z), which transmits motion

and yoke engaging the gear hub. When the press is in operation, the bed is moved in one direction by the engagement of gear A with rack B and in the opposite


by meshing gear


with rack C.

in a clockwise direction while in

mesh with rack

and the press bed (the motion of which is When the press is in motion, this will move toward the left. movement toward the left continues until the rack is entirely

revolving C, the latter constrained by guides)

If gear



out of mesh with gear A just before the disengagement of gear A and rack C, the crankpin E, which is provided with rollers, comes around and enters between the parallel faces of a fixed


reversing shoe F and a swinging or movable reversing shoe G. fixed shoe is rigidly attached to the press bed and rack

frame, whereas the movable shoe is pivoted and free to swivel. This swinging reversing shoe has a pin on its lower side (not shown) which engages a slot or cam that controls its swinging

for shoe

As soon

as rack




to clear the crankpin,

moved far enough to the left the cam swings the shoe inward

so that crankpin



confined temporarily between the faces of


G and F, which form a vertical guide or slot. As the crankits

pin passes



lowest position and begins to move upward, the " " bears against the face of G and the load picks up

as gear


moves out

mesh with rack





arrives at the position


in the illus-

tration, the motion of the press bed is reversed, because a roller on the crankpin then engages the face of shoe F thus moving the driven member toward the right. The motion continues to

be derived from the crank independently of the disengaged gear and rack, until the crankpin has passed the top quarter or

and the highest position; then gear A enters the upper rack motion is transmitted entirely through the gear and rack until


the crank again comes into action at the opposite end of the At this end, the crankpin is again confined between a




and a fixed shoe /. After rack B has moved swinging shoe out of engagement with gear A crankpin E, which is now in its and continues highest position, comes into contact with shoe




movement toward


the right while making a quarter turn, then reverses the motion as it swings downward against

While crankpin E is controlling the motion and gear A is entirely out of mesh, this gear is shifted by cam D out of line with the rack B which it just left, and into line with
the face of shoe /.

rack C.
ingenious feature of this mechanism lies in the provision and locating the fixed and swinging of two rollers for crankpin shoes in different vertical planes. With this arrangement, each



roller is free to revolve in opposite directions as the


moves along the vertical faces of the shoes. The momentum of the bed is gradually checked at the points of reversal, by air
cushions or
air springs." air is


plunger enters a cylinder at each

end of the stroke and
and, by when its motion

expanding, this air assists in accelerating the

compressed to arrest the movement, heavy bed

is reversed. Provision is made for regulating the air cushion or pressure according to the speed of the press. The air cushion is a feature common to flat-bed or cylinder presses

in general.

Reversal of Motion by Reciprocating Pinions. The mechanism illustrated in Fig. 10 is similar, in some respects, to the press bed motion just described, in that the parallel-rack and shiftinggear construction is employed. The method of operating the press bed at the ends of the stroke, however, is entirely different

from that shown in Fig. 9, as reciprocating pinions are used to pick up the load and reverse the motion. The uniform motion of the bed is derived from pinion A which is constantly in mesh with gear D carried on the main driving shaft. Pinion A is located between parallel racks B and C which are attached to the These racks are offset, as in the design shown in press bed. so that the pinion will clear one rack while in engagement Fig. 9,
with the other one.


shifting of the pinion is controlled



which transmits motion to the pinion by means of lever The pinions for reversing the motion of the bed are located




G and



are connected to

upon which these pinions are mounted a heavy yoke / which has a vertical slot or

groove in which a swiveling block attached to the crank This crank is rotated by the main driving shaft, and operates.
a rectilinear motion transmits to yoke J and pinions G and to the throw of the crank. This is a harmonic motion, as equal




/ and

ciple as the

well-known Scotch yoke.

the sliding crank-block operate on the same prinThe outer ends of yoke J

are supported by horizontal guides, and the pinions G and are constantly in mesh with short racks and L along which



the pinions roll as the crank moves them to and fro. The action of the mechanism will be apparent by considering

the various

movements which occur during a forward and return The side view of the assembled mechanism shows the



bed in the position where the driving pinion A has just into engagement with the lower rack C. As this pinion rotates in a clockwise direction, the bed will be driven to the
with a uniform motion.

(The relative positions of pinion

A and racks B and C are clearly shown by the end view.) When the bed has moved so far to the left that pinion A is about to
out of mesh at the right-hand end of rack C, pinion (7, which, meanwhile, has been moving along its rack M, comes into enroll

gagement with another short rack
to the bed.


(see also

end view) attached

insure the proper engagement of pinion G with rack P, the action of crank relative to the motion of the bed is so timed that pinion G is rolling to the left when rack which




comes into engagement with it. As moving pinion A leaves rack C, pinion G, which is then in mesh with P, continues the movement of the bed toward the left until crank is in the position shown by the diagram in the lower left-hand corner of the illustration, which represents the end of the printing


to the left



Further rotation of crank

K in

the direction indicated

by the arrow causes a reversal of the and starts the press bed toward the
mitted from


motion of pinion G motion being trans-

G to pinion A is

rack P.


this reversal of


being shifted by



into alignment with

the upper rack B.



has moved a quarter revolution from the position it occupies at the extreme end of the stroke, pinion A comes into mesh with the upper rack B and the short rack P




The view at the lower right-hand corner of 10 shows pinion A about to enter rack B and pinion G leaving Fig. rack P. As the rectilinear motion of yoke / is harmonic, the
leaves pinion G.


of the

point of reversal
its rack,

bed is uniformly retarded as it approaches the and is then accelerated until pinion A enthe motion






derived from crank

enters at the end of either rack, the velocity of the movement and the reciprocating pinion corresponds



from the driving pinion A so that there no abrupt change of motion as the load is being transferred from the reversing pinion to the driving pinion A As the press
to the velocity obtained

bed approaches the opposite end of its stroke, pinion comes into engagement with rack Q and continues the movement for
a short distance each side of the point of reversal or while pinion A is out of mesh with either rack and is Being shifted, the action being the same as previously described. When a gear or pinion is Napier Motion for Press Beds. in mesh with a single rack and rotates in one position, obviously


both the gear and rack must reverse their direction of motion at the end of each stroke. The gear, however, may rotate
continuously in one direction if it is arranged to engage the upper and lower sides of a rack designed especially to permit such engagement. A mechanism of this type, known as the Napier

motion and also as " mangle gearing," has been extensively used for imparting a rectilinear motion to the tables of flat-bed printing presses. The principle of the Napier motion will be
apparent by referring to Fig. n. The rack A is attached to a frame B which is secured to the table of the printing press.

The rack

teeth are of such a form that the gear

C may mesh

with the rack on either the upper or lower

upon which the gear C is mounted, is rotated through a universal coupling, which permits it to swing in a vertical plane so that the gear may pass from the upper side of the rack to the lower


vice versa.


gear shaft





in a vertical


by a
stationary slotted guide

E having a vertical slot that a sliding block mounted on the shaft. Sphericalengaged by shaped rollers F are mounted at each end of the rack, and the

gear has a socket or spherical depression formed in it for engaging the rollers, each time the gear moves around the end of the rack when passing from one side to the other. Opposite each


of the rack, there are guide plates


which are concentric with the

rollers at the

having curved surfaces ends of the rack.

Fig. ii.

The Napier Motion

for Flat-bed Printing Press

The gear C

also carries a roller


which engages these curved

guides as the gear

moves upward



at the points of


action of the

side of the rack, as

mechanism is as follows: If the gear is on the shown in the illustration, and it is re-

volving to the left or counter-clockwise, the rack will be driven to the right with a velocity equal to the motion at the pitch circle of the gear. As soon as the gear engages the roller F on
the end of the rack,
plane, because


begins to move downward in a vertical is constrained by guide E. When

the gear


in mid-position so that its axis coincides with the

gear downward causes the rack to reverse and move toward the left. of and gives a gradual reversal of motion at the ends the stroke. to obtain a full con- The gear also has a plain cylindrical tact of the gear teeth. If a gear is used having two roller spaces located 180 degrees apart. this reciprocating or traversing . which is used to the rovings more slender and give them a twist. manufacture of cotton goods are equipped with a mechanism is for traversing the rovings or slightly twisted slivers of cotton make as they pass between the rolls of the fly frame. The fly frames used in the Variable Reciprocating Motion. which rolls upon a plane surface / at the base of the rack. On some center distance between the rollers may be some multiple of half the pitch circumference. thus the center of roller F farther to the right. The teeth on each side of the rack incline from the horizontal at the same angle as the gear axis when in its upper and lower positions. The Napier motion may be designed for any length of stroke. The length of the rack must equal the pitch circumference of the gear or some multiple of it. shoulder on the inner side. the length of the rack or the center.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS center-line of the rack. the gear then operates on the under side of the rack until the roller at the right-hand end of the rack is engaged. although the stroke remains constant. so that the rollers at the end will engage the socket or depression in the gear at the points of reversal. The total length of the stroke is equal to the distance between the centers of the rollers on the rack. a distance equal moving Farther movement of the to the radius of the pitch circle. The reason for traversing the roving as it passes between a steel and a leather-covered roll is to prevent wearing the leather covering at one place. excepting any variable movement resulting from a universal joint. as there no way of making an adjustment. when the upward movement of the gear takes place and there is another reversal of motion. it will 83 have made a quarter turn. This arrangement of gearing imparts a uniform motion to the press table. plus the pitch diameter of the gear. to give a smoother action than would be obtained from a gear supported entirely by tooth contact.

the mechanism shown in Fig. the tendency This simple arthe length of traverse for the leather covering to wear the if most at the points of reversal. With this arrangement. C. These eccentrics are formed on the hubs of gears F and G. 12. the gradual increasing and decreasing of the stroke are then repeated. guide-bar which receives the reciprocating motion. which extends the posite each is this The guide-bar and it full length of the rolls. The automatic variation of the traversing movement is derived from two eccentrics D and E. which revolve at different rates of speed. and diagram B illustrates the variable stroke Fig. uniform. which are adjacent to each other. has small holes op- roll section through which the rovings pass. The diagram A illustrates graphically the action obtained with a crank motion. 12 was designed. In order to distribute the wear more evenly. and are both driven by one worm H as shown by the end view. The motion of the . distributes the is rangement wear but. Double Gear and Shifting Eccentric Combination matically varying Traversing for Auto- Movements derived from the mechanism to be described. the length of traverse gradually increases until it reaches a maximum and then decreases until the shortest length of traverse is obtained.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS motion is is obtained from a crank or a cam.

an adjustment is also provided where the bracket traversing is attached to the guide-bar. Consequently. therefore. For instance. if has forty-eight teeth and gear B. " " as a wabble gear is used on mowing machines for im- parting a rapid reciprocating motion to the cutter bar.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS eccentrics 85 transmitted to guide-bar C through rods and the bracket L. This circular motion causes the teeth of gear C to mesh with those of gear B all around the circumference for turns on a fixed shaft each rotation of the part H. which automatically varies the length of traverse for guide-bar C. so that the entire gear 'describes or follows a circular path. thus reducing the stroke of the guide-bar. so that the maximum movement may be varied. which causes the gears to rotate at a varying speed. The result is that the eccentrics formed on the two gear hubs are continually changing their position relative to each other. is The internal gear C is so mounted that on a universal gimbal D. at another period. The gear B which meshes with one side of C is mounted joint on the main shaft which connects with the driving wheels. it would C be displaced two teeth for each rotation of part H or each time gear C completed a circular movement. gear teeth. Tracing H . and. The frame / is rigidly connected to gear C and is pivoted in the revolving part H. 13. gear C is given an oscillating or cannot rotate but free to oscillate wabbling movement. This part E and acts somewhat as a flywheel to maintain steadiness of action besides constraining gear C to follow a circular path. H In this case. forty-six gear B were free to turn on its shaft. One of the gears meshing with is / and worm K H has one more tooth than the other. The arrangement of this gearing and the other parts of the mecha- nism it is shown in Fig. one ec- K centric rod will be moving backward while the other is moving forward. known What is Reciprocating Motion from Epicyclic Gearing. By this means. twentyand a like number of oscillations of three revolutions of part frame / would be required to turn B one revolution. both eccentrics will move rods in the same direction. at one period / and during the cycle of movements. The connections between the eccentric rods and the bracket are adjustable.

86 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the motion in the opposite direction. The mechanism Epicyclic Gear and Crank Combination. This combination of gearing makes it possible to use a gear B having only two teeth less than the number in gear C. the efficiency illustrated in Fig. has been in changing the rotation of the motor into a reciprocating motion for the drill. One of the difficulties encountered in designing coal-punchers. 13. Epicyclic or "Wabble" Gearing for Producing a Rapid Reciprocating Motion the shaft. With the usual forms of epicyclic gearing. If the blow is . but. which would be practically impossible with gears having teeth parallel to the axis of Fig. it will be noted that one rotation of gear B. excepting the solenoid type. so that one turn of the driving wheels which are mounted on shaft A will traverse the cutter bar twenty-three times. in this case. will cause twenty-three oscillations or wabbling movements of gear C and a like number of rotations for part H. The frame / is connected to the cutter bar by the ball joint at K. is said to be nearly as high as that obtained with a train of spur gears having the same velocity ratio. which acts as the driver when the mechanism is in operation. the efficiency of transmission is low on account of the excessive tooth friction. 14 is applied to an electric coal-puncher. in which a high velocity ratio is obtained.

if owing and to the vibrations and strains incident to the blows of the plications were introduced which at least partially offset the benefits derived. the internal gear. Power for operating the coal-puncher is obtained from a motor and the compressed air gives the blow. The pitch diameter of the crank pinion e is just one-half that of the internal gear/ which has 66 teeth. This crank pinion has 33 teeth and meshes with internal gear / which is rigidly fastened to the frame of the machine and is concentric with the main driving gear which surrounds it. the crank pinion stud d describes a circular path. 14 forms a part uses both compressed air and electricity. A small pinion attached to the armature shaft engages a large driving gear (not shown) which has a solid web carrying the stud d upon which the crank pinion e is mounted. but compick. there and receives a rectilinear around the internal gear. thus causing pinion e to revolve about the stud and around When the pin d has moved one-quarter of a be in the position shown by the illustration to revolution. The crankpin g is attached to the pinion e and engages cross-head h which is mounted is motion as pinion e revolves to the cross-head. so that the vibrations are cushioned. When the main driving gear is revolved by the motor. Types having separate motors and flexible shaft connections have also been tried in order to avoid some of these difficulties. at three-quarters of a 6A . as indicated by the arrows. springs are utilized they are liable to break.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS directly 87 dependent upon the motor. There is no direct connection between the motor and striking pick. Similarly. it will pin g will have moved in a straight line a distance equal to the pitch diameter of the internal gear. The coal-puncher of which the mechanism shown in Fig. of the internal gear. Attached a piston-rod a which enters the airin guides compressing cylinder and has a piston secured to its forward end. the latter causes trouble. the right. and will be at the righthand end of its stroke. The illustration shows the mechanical means by which the rotation of the motor armature ciprocating motion is changed to a re- for driving the air-compressing piston. and pin g attached to cross-head h will be in the center At the completion of one-half a revolution.

Fig. and the attached cross-head h a rectilinear forward and pin g backward movement. the pin will again be in mid-position. The front piston k has no connection withy. transmits to pinion. . Epicyclic Gear and Crank Combination from which Reciprocating Motion is derived line but pin g would follow a straight not used. the crank revolves around the internal gear. all in one cylinder. and at the completion of a full revolution. it will be at the starting point. 14. 14. as shown by the view as it to the left. but it is attached to Fig. The rear piston j is attached to rod a connecting with the cross-head. even though guides were compressed and utilized to impel the pick-carrying piston forward. In this way. will be described. The cross-head is mounted in guides. A sectional view of the air cylinder is shown at C in in The way which the air is The air cylinder contains two pistons j and k.88 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS revolution.

During this stroke. were it not for the so-called vacuum valve s which allows all air between the pistons above a certain pressure to escape to the atmosphere. the first real stroke of the machine is the mechanical stroke previously mentioned is or On the forward starting from rest. closed this made only once when port. or pick socket is On the return stroke. When the return stroke is completed. A mechanism operating on the same general principle as the one shown in Fig. air being admitted in front of k through a port p. the rear piston follows. this air is compressed and at the same time the front piston k is drawn back by the partial vacuum created by the piston j. air is drawn into the cylinder behind the piston j. but after the piston has passed and. a sufficient amount of air remains to cushion the blow and prevent damage air to the front cylinder head. This allows the compressed air to force the front piston forward. faces This mechanism has the advantage of giving a long. that any compressed way. the rear piston has passed the by-pass opening q in the cylinder. it can be applied to some classes of mechanisms when there would . which opening is between the two pistons at the time. 14 has been applied to printing presses of the flat-bed type. stroke of the piston k. When made its forward stroke. for imparting a rectilinear motion to the bed. made. the air in front escapes through the port p. The rear piston j moves forward. and to prevent an remaining. This cushion of insufficient supply may leak somewhat. and would compress the which has just made the stroke of the front piston. therefore. pushing purely the front piston k. The first stroke of the pick mechanical. which would have the effect of creating a partial vacuum in this space and holding the piston on the return stroke. exactly as in air drill. therefore. mechanically driven as before. under these conditions before the open the front piston k has air passed. gradually increasing and decreasing motion with a short crank and without the use of a connecting-rod or a slotted cross-head. through the main inlet valve o.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS the drill 89 by the rod /. This action prevents the two piston from coming together. a small inlet valve r is This allows port is air to flow in placed in the forward part of the cylinder. In this is.

because of mechanical objections to the latter. The . which is afterwards withdrawn to the " open position " shown at the right. to allow the removal and insertion of the work. branch The of the leather business to press a leather product between a pair of dies A by a series of reciprocating motions given to the lower die. if the internal gear has twice as many teeth as the revolving gear. Shifting Reciprocating Part is machine shown in Fig. 15 is used in a certain from Working Position. the WORKING POSITION OPEN POSITION Fig. even though its motion not constrained by means of guides. the center of pin g should exactly coincide with the pitch circle of the internal gear. In designing this mechanism.9o MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS not be sufficient room for a connecting-rod or in preference to the slotted yoke. then. IS- Mechanism for Shifting Reciprocating Part from Working Position Automatically center of g will move in a straight line.

As the shaft continues to turn. If the machine is started by throwing the belt onto the tight pulley. the pawl is raised by cam C and the next pawl repeats the oper- .ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS mechanism 91 to be described serves to automatically locate the lower die in the open position when the driving belt is shifted to " " the loose pulley. and shown in dotted lines behind the eccentric strap. this position. Each pawl. by a system of rotating pawls which receive their motion from a large gear D. A finger screwed to the lower half of the strap and projecting between the lugs serves to keep the brake in position. When the operation is completed. and into the working position as eccentric. in turn. D the spring would evidently tend to pull the joint In over. where buffer E has reached its seat on the connecting-rod. bearing on an extension of the eccentric surface. which imparts motion to ram G. to the tight pulley. with the belt on the loose pulley. The lugs K are attached to a leather band friction. ram lowered for driving a sists of to allow a change of work. so that they are kept in an upright position by gravity. Rectilinear Motion from Revolving Pawls. the machine is to prevent D ready to receive the work. eccentric. after having pushed the conveyor ahead. the brake slips on its seat and the eccentric gives the desired movement to the grips the eccentric with sufficient force to tension of spring B. If it. 16. The chains and buckets are propelled along the tracks as indicated by the arrow. as shown by the right-hand view. ram. the belt is shifted to the and spring B turns the shaft. engages one of a series of pins on the chain and. These buckets are hung on pivots./. The chains are equipped with wheels which run on tracks. the brake overcome the slight and joint D is moved back to the central working position. The upper half of is the eccentric strap carries an arm there were nothing H to which and pivoted to the connecting-rod at is attached the long spring B. shown in Fig. turns in the is rotated by shifting the belt The shaft to which this eccentric is keyed direction shown by the arrow. is The mechanism This conveyor con- conveyor a pair of endless chains between which the conveyor buckets are carried. and strap backward until the machine is again in the open position with the loose pulley.

thus necessary to provide the table. so that the end of the pawl is readily lifted out of ation.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS as at A is passing through the lowest arc of the conveyor is propelled forward. This machine. . Arrangement for Obtaining Rectilinear Motion from Revolving Pawls bed. its travel. The pawl shown at B has passed the lowest point. As will be seen. This cam engages a roll attached to the lower side of an oscillating arm A having on its upper side another roll B which can be adjusted relative to the . The mechanism shown in Fig. any variation of in stroke can be obtained from zero to the maximum while the machine is operating. The motion for the table is derived from a heart-shaped cam C mounted on a vertical shaft which is driven through a speed-changing mechanism. intended for internal and external grinding operations. and it gradually lags behind the conveyor. Adjustable Rectilinear Motion. which is of a comparatively small size. 1 6. is it is means for readily changing the stroke With the mechanism illustrated. the inner end of pawl -B is in contact with the cam surface which controls its position. When a pawl. engagement without interference. 17 is for traversing the table of a grinding machine along the Fig.

Cam and Slotted Cross-head Combination with Adjustment for Varying Stroke roller B. transmits a rectilinear motion to yoke Z>. rod E. no movement will be imparted to yoke D or the table.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS pivot 93 P about which the arm oscillates. this block which fits into the dovetailed slide-way. The length of this movement or stroke governed by the position of roll B relative to pivot P. hammers used for making drop-forgings are so designed that the hammer head is raised by rolls which run in opposite directions . with a shaft upon which handwheel When roll B is moved inward until it is directly over pivot P. arm A oscillates about pivot P and. and the latter is attached to a rod E located beneath the table of the machine. through Fig. which may be varied by means of a screw that is connected through a universal joint is mounted. This upper roll operates between the parallel faces of yoke D. H The dropMotion of Drop-hammer Lifting Mechanism. 17. By means of a suitable lever. to can be clamped in various positions for changing the location of the table. and the is table. On the under side of the table and extending throughout its entire length is a dovetailed slide-way in which is fitted a block that is attached and moves with the reciprocating rod E. The action of the mechanism is as follows : When the cam C is rotating.

is D controlled by a foot-treadle. The hammer will then fall and repeat the cycle of movements and will continue to run automatically. 18. when the hammer is in operation. 18.94 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS and bear against opposite sides of a board attached to the hammer head. One movable is roll is it released for allowing applied for raising the hammer head and to drop upon the work. The board A passes between the rolls other one drawn of the a fixed position and the the board and then withalternately pressed against from it. the eccentric roll is again automatically withdrawn. provided the board clamps at The position of these clamps are not allowed to grip the board. against the board . thus stopping any further upward movement. The roll that is usually the front one which has an eccentric bearing so that a slight rotary movement will cause the roll to release withdrawn Fig. the hammer is then immediately elevated pre- paratory to striking another blow. When this treadle is released. it engages some form of trip or latch which holds the eccentric roll in the outward position so that the roll moves in the board. . As the hammer approaches the top of its stroke. Board Drop-hammer Lifting Mechanism As the hammer drops and approaches the bottom of its stroke. Front and side elevations of a drop-hammer lifting mechanism are shown in Fig. The pressure roll rotates in is B and C.

This mechanism for transmitting the rotary motion of the rolls to board A. is similar in principle to the rack and is transmitted entirely by frictional means of teeth which give a positive drive. by The piston Combined Rectilinear and Rotary Movements. paper. etc. the piston. which might enter the Fig. so that the hammering action discontinues until the foot.treadle is again depressed. as the piston is moved in and out. Piston having Combined Rectilinear and Rotary Movements pump cylinder. 19. except that motion contact instead of pumping water or other liquids containing foreign materials. of the pump shown in Fig. in addition to a rectilinear movement. The head end at the left of the partition contains a port which alit is . with an opening at both ends and a partition in the center. sheared off The piston is of the trunk type also given a rotary motion. a rotary motion. such as weeds. pieces of rope. which has a rectilinear movement. 19 has.. The rectilinear motion of the piston is obtained from a crank. Instead of using suction or discharge valves is which would become clogged and cause trouble. so that. This pump was designed for pinion. A miter gear keyed to the end of the crankpin meshes with a mating gear keyed to the end of the connecting-rod.ROTARY AND RECTILINEAR MOTIONS 95 starts to the clamps grip the board as it reaches the top of its stroke and move downward. the opening and closing of the ports controlled by the rotary movement of and any foreign materials of the kinds mentioned are by the edges of the ports.

the suction port begins to open. both ports are closed. the piston port will be exactly over the suction port and. as soon as the pump rotates in the direction indicated by the arrow. both ports When the crank is on the bottom quarter or at the center of the return stroke. the opposite dead center is reached. will again when be closed. but. When the crank has moved 90 degrees. When the piston is in the position shown. . the piston port will be opposite the delivery port.96 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS ternately registers with the suction and delivery ports.

with other designs. The reversal in some cases is applied to a single shaft or slide and. 97 . of necessity. method of obtaining a reversal of motion by means of spur gears is shown at A and B in Fig. in other instances. Some are so arranged that the reversal of ferent forms of mechanism. reversing mechanism illustrated In this chapter. the forms of and described will be those intended primarily for reversing motion. reverse their motion occurs at a fixed point in the cycle of movements. The types of reversing mechanisms vary considerably. Reversing mechanisms also differ in that some are hand-controlled crank-driven slide and others are operated automatically. whereas. a swiveling arm which can be adjusted for engaging either one When the gears of the intermediate gears with the spindle gear. i. or straight-line motion must. both as to principle of operation and as to form or design. required on machine tools for varying the A might be regarded as a form of reversing mechanism. however. and many rotating parts also revolve first in one direction and then the other. the point of reversal may be changed by means of adjustable dogs or tappets which are attached to the movable part and control the action of the reversing mechanism. an entire train of mechanism is given a reversal of motion. A simple Intermediate Spur Gears for Reversing Motion. since the member having a rectilinear movement reverses its motion at the end of each stroke. where the reversing gears used on some designs of lathe heads tocks are illustrated diagramThe two intermediate gears b and c are mounted on matically.CHAPTER IV REVERSING MECHANISMS A REVERSAL of motion is essential to the operation of many difMachine parts having a rectilinear movement. is The adjustable type length of the stroke made by a cutting tool or machine table so that the stroke will conform to the length of the work.

the arm carrying the intermediate gears is shifted as . there are two sets of gearing between the driving and Fig. Fig. the drive the rotation of the driven shaft is from gear When is to be reversed. This general arrangement for obgear e gear shifted to the left g. is by diagram D. Bevel-gear Type of Reversing Mechanism. as taining a reversal of rotation is applied extensively to the transmission gearing of automobiles. Common Methods of Obtaining a Reversal of Motion is driven shafts.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS are in the position shown at A the drive is from a through c to d. so that motion is transmitted through e. z. In this case. When indicated at Bj the motion is transmitted through both intermediate gears or from a through b and c to d. g. of three bevel gears. applied to many different classes of mechanisms for obtaining a reversal . e to /. is used for reversing the rotation of the lead-screw when cutting left-hand threads. and into mesh with the intermediate shown by the dotted lines. as applied to a lathe. in order to make the tool carriage travel from left to right. direction of rotation. i. For the forward motion. as illustrated A combination i. thus reversing the This mechanism. Fig. and h. Another method of obtaining a reversal of rotation by means of an intermediate gear is illustrated by diagram C.

" neutral " position. This clutch is free to move endwise along the shaft. there are two driving as well as two driven gears. Some of these auxiliary On Two-speed Reversing Mechanism of Bevel-gear Type. i. Reversing mechanisms of this general type are not adapted for reversing the motion of heavy slides or work because of the excessive tables nor for fast-running machinery. especially 99 when the reversing action is automatically With the usual arrangement. the when the clutch engages gear q the y speed of the driven shaft is reduced an amount depending upon the ratio of the slow-speed gearing. gear j is the driver and it is constantly in mesh with the bevel pinions / and k. In this case. it is desirable to have a relatively slow motion in one direction followed by a rapid return movement. the rotation of the driven shaft is reversed as clutch is m shifted from one gear to the other. as indicated by the arrows. Each bevel pinion has teeth corresponding to the clutch teeth. it When the clutch is in the central or does not engage either gear. some classes of machinery. When fast speed is obtained. Many of the reversing mechanisms which are equipped with this bevel gear combination differ in regard to the method of operating the For instance. but it slides along a key or feather which compels it to revolve with the shaft. Since these bevel pinions revolve in opposite directions. One design of reversing mechanism of the bevel-gear type. so that the engagement of the clutch with either pinion locks it to the shaft. and no motion is transmitted to the driven shaft. action of a slide or table having a rectilinear motion. clutch m might be shifted by the direct clutch. is illustrated at E in Fig. the clutch engages the smaller driven gear p. in order to reduce the idle or non-productive period. features will be referred to later. a clutch m interposed between them.REVERSING MECHANISMS of motion. These bevel pinions are loose upon the driven shaft and have controlled. or an auxiliary mechanism might be utilized to give the clutch a more rapid movement at the point of reversal. by means of which a slow forward speed and a rapid return speed may be obtained. The larger driver n is made cup-shaped so that a smaller driver o can be placed inside. and. shocks and stresses incident to a .

when the clutch is engaged with the pulley connecting with the open belt. Reversal from Open and Crossed Belts. speed-changing. and reversing functions. and ease of operation and control are esOne method of arranging this form of drive. a reversal of rotation is easily obtained. as member on a applied to an automobile transmission. the direction of rotation is reversed.100 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of high velocities or sudden reversal of movement in case loads. whereas the outer pulleys s and u are loose and free to revolve upon the shaft. is This form of drive Thus. heavy is Reversal of Motion with Friction Disks. so that either of them may be made the driven member. This form of transmission has been applied to the feeding mechanisms of certain types of machine tools. the velocity ratio gradually reduced. As disk c is shifted inward along the face of disk J. tools when the clutch engages the pulley driven by the crossed The countershafts for engine lathes and other machine which may require a reversal of movement are commonly Open and crossed belts are also apmotion of the platen arranged in this manner. i. The shaft. the driven shaft revolves in one direction and its rotation is re- versed when the crossed belt w replaces the open belt on the tight pulley. sometimes modified by having two pulleys on the driven shaft and a clutch interposed between the pulleys. especially where simplicity of design sential factors. and to other classes of machinery. 14. When motion by is transmitted between shafts located at right angles to each other the type of frictional transmission shown at B in Fig. When the " open " belt r is shifted onto the tight pulley /. and when disk c passes the axis of disk d. The arrangement is illustrated central pulley There are three pulleys / is keyed or attached to the by the diagram F on the driven shaft. thus combining in one simple mech- anism the clutching. Chapter I. is to mount the driving sliding shaft which enables the driving and driven disk to be readily disengaged. plied to belt-driven planers for reversing the . the rotation is the reverse of that which is obtained belt. Shafts are often connected with open and crossed belts for permitting a reversal of rotation. in Fig.

a spring is compressed. When a reversal of motion Operation of Reversing Clutches. approaches the stroke. . with the bevel-gear i One form . belt drives of the type referred to are often used heavy or fast running parts. " " nisms of this general design are often called the load-and-fire type. depends upon the action of a clutch which is shifted from one gear to another revolving in an opposite direction. not used and the momentum which might occur if a spring were of the part to be reversed were insufficient to carry the clutch across the space intervening be- tween the two reversing gears. in place of gearing. is to place a central or tight pulley on the driven arrangement shaft which has is two steps or diameters. and then a latch or trip allows this compressed spring to suddenly and rapidly throw the Reversing mechareversing clutch from one gear to the other. The general principle of operation is the same in each case. There are two common methods of controlling the clutches used in connection the clutch teeth. . for reversing Incidentally. or of its whatever part is to be reversed. ^ - ^ ^> A : IO I work table. slip because the belts somewhat if the load becomes excessive. it is essential to operate the clutch rapidly and to secure a full engagement of against disengagement of the clutch as the result of vibrations incident to the operation of the machine. and is as follows: When the work end table. or ^OTAN^SM. and this slipping action automatically protects the mechanism from injurious shocks or stresses. Many planer drives have pulleys which are so common proportioned as to give a rapid return movement. the smaller one of which for obtaining a fast return motion. Provision should also be made type of reversing mechanism illustrated at D in Fig. of control may be defined as the swinging-latch type and the other as the beveled-plunger type. due to the stopping and starting at the points of reversal. because the spring is first loaded or compressed and then of tripped to secure a rapid movement of the clutch and a reversal motion at a predetermined point within close limits.REVERSING. The action of the compressed spring also insures a full engagement of the clutch teeth and prevents the clutch from stopping in the central or neutral position.

by means of link /. Spring and Latch Type of Reversing Clutch Control and has attached to it a lever which is engaged by dogs on the work table. and is located at the rear of the machine. connected to link /. mechanism illustrated in Fig. transmits motion to the reversing mechanism. At the rear end of rockshaft H there is a lever G which. 2 is a bevel-gear type equipped with the swinging latch form of clutch control. right or left as the case may be. lever G swings either to the If the motion is to the left.IO2 . As the work table approaches the end of its stroke. 2. This mechanism is applied to a cylindrical grinding machine for reversing the motion of the work table. The rockshaft H extends through to the front of the machine Fig. compresses spring L on rod M . the distance between these dogs being varied according to the length of stroke required.MOVEMENTS The reversing Latch Type of Reversing Clutch Control. tappet A.

by spring S. transmits a rectilinear motion to the work table of the grinding to the machine. with rod M. thus compressing spring 5*. When the work table approaches the end of its stroke in the other direction. The shaft connecting with bevel gear R extends position. to the left C The fork N M throws shaft M . Beveled Plunger Control for Reversing Clutch. The point of reversal is controlled by the tappets 7A A which are adjusted along the work table to vary . by pressing the knob. through suitable gearing. 3. thus holding it in the central or neutral the end of the stroke either The knob previously referred to may be set at any part of the stroke to stop the traversing movement at the end of that The withdrawal of the knob again starts the traversing stroke. plunger T drops into a groove in clutch F. This knob is connected with a plunger which. and drops in behind block E. thus releasing block D. tappet A is moved to the right. thrown rapidly to the latch B. the shoulder on on rod also and with it the reversing clutch F which is keyed to this shaft. Continued movement against a square shoulder on the lower side of tappet A to the left causes the beveled side of A is to lift which. Then latch C is lifted by the beveled edge on A and the parts are quickly shifted to the right N. When this clutch is shifted at T by springs L or S. The motion which prior to reversal was transmitted through bevel pinion P to the main gear R is now from pinion Q to R so that the movement of the work table is reversed. movement without requiring any further action on the part of the operator.REVERSING MECHANISMS and forces block 103 D of latch B. After the movement of shaft latch M to the left. left under the im- pulse of the compressed spring L. front of the machine and. This design is also intended for a cylindrical grinding machine. thus again reversing the motion. may be held under pressure against the reversing clutch F. If the operator desires to stop the traversing movement at the end of the stroke. this may be done by the movement of a knob located in the center of the table-traversing handwheel at the front of the machine. An example of the beveled plunger type of clutch control for a reversing mechanism is shown in Fig.

and the reversing clutch are shifted rapidly. by swinging this lever about its pivot. As the result of this lost motion. When the point of the V-shaped end of lever B has passed the point of end of its stroke. If the work table is moving toward the right. rod C. the latter is suddenly forced upward by the com- A ^iiiiiiiiyiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiyiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiyiiiiiiiiiiii C/ Fig. the . The movements left forces lever B towards the D plunger D. the reversing clutch is withdrawn slowly from the bevel pinion which it to shift rapidly into The clutch is held in engages until the sudden action of plunger D causes it engagement with the opposite bevel pinion. lever B at the ends of the stroke and. the clutch is not entirely disengaged until the V-shaped point of the reversing lever has passed the point of plunger D. There is a certain amount of lost motion between the studs E on bar C and the reversing lever B. 3. by engagement until the next reversal of motion upward pressure of the plunger against the beveled end of the reversing lever B. thus compressing a spring that is located beneath it. Spring and Beveled Plunger Control for Reversing Clutch pressed spring and lever B. With the particular design illustrated.IO4 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS These tappets alternately engage the length of the stroke. the tappet at the left engages lever B as the table approaches the of the lower end of reversing the beveled plunger downward. shift bar C which transmits motion to the reversing clutch.

The trip dogs attached to the rack. the other. The wheel at the rear of the machine and the length along ways regulated in accordance with the length of the work machine by two trip of the machine. so that it has an oscilmovement in first one direction and then the which movements correspond to. The dogs alternately strike a tappet or lever which controls the movements of the reversing clutch. The Controlling Point of Reversal by Special Mechanisms. cause a reversal of motion by means of a clutch-and-gear type of reversing mechanism. by engaging a lever. some form of mechanism which operates in unison with the slide may be used to per- mit locating the simple trip dogs at the front of the machine. dogs mounted on a wheel or circular rack at the front The shaft carrying this wheel extends through is the machine and lating or turning other. however. It is not always conFor venient. by instance. Worm teeth are formed of the trip-dog wheel and the dogs are held in position by worms which may be lifted out of engagement when the dogs are to be adjusted considerably. with a sliding rack carrying the it As the rear slide turns the pinion shaft in first one direction and then operates. and are in unison with on the periphery those of the wheel carriage at the rear. connected by gearing. points of reversal for a reciprocating slide are usually controlled trip dogs mounted directly on the slide and adjusted to give the required length of travel or stroke. Another method slide is of controlling the reversing points of a rear by means of a shaft reciprocating slide connected through gearing with the and having at the front end a pinion meshing trip dogs. if the operating slide is at the rear of a machine where the trip dogs cannot be adjusted readily. which imparts a reciprocating motion to the rack. by placing this lever in a central position. to control the reversal in this way. . the clutch is shifted to neutral and the movement of the work table discontinued. A method of controlling the points of reversal is from the front of the slide travels of stroke is applied to Landis grinders.REVERSING MECHANISMS 105 the point of reversal can also be controlled by hand lever F which is connected to rod C.

4. a sliding directly to this slide. Independent Method of Controlling Reversal of an Adjustable Slide on a Bevel Gear Cutting Machine pinion and the slide derive their motion from the same shaft. On the other hand. travel of the cutter-slide. since this Fig. controls the action of the reversing With this be made less than the by means of the adjustable dogs E. so that it would be difficult to have the trip dogs attached To avoid such an arrangement. As pinion C rotates in first one direction and then the other. which. rack B is employed.io6 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS indirect or independent An chine method of controlling the points of reversal is Sharpe automatic bevel gear cutting maThe cutter-slide A must be set at illustrated in Fig. if the traversing essential to of movement reverse it of the slide is to be very short and it is at a given point within close limits. on a Brown & an angle corresponding to the inclination of the gear teeth to be cut. mechanism enclosed at F. 4. This rack meshes with a pinion C which rotates in unison with the feeding of the cutter-slide. the movements . if this is desirable because of limited space. the traversing movement of the rack can arrangement. it traverses the rack B.

are mounted shaft on which the belt pulleys transmits motion to the planer table A through The B a train of gearing which gives a suitable speed reduction. 5. i. In order to reverse the motion of the work table. Reversing Mechanism of a Belt-driven Planer and plan is of the automatic belt-shifting device used on a planer illustrated in Fig. this entire train of gearing is reversed by alternately shifting the open and crossed belts onto the central pulley. when used to drive such machines as planers. which is attached to the shaft. The length of the stroke is governed by the distance . Belts. A side elevation Fig. automatically for obtaining a reversal of motion. 5. Mechanism and crossed for Shifting belts illustrated Open and Crossed by diagram F. or other classes of ation mechanisms which are designed for continuous operand equipped with this form of drive.REVERSING MECHANISMS 107 compared with the motion the reverse controlling rack can be increased considerably as of the cutter-slide. The open are shifted Fig. broaching machines.

thus imparting a swinging movement to the cam-plate D. position of each belt is controlled at the end through which the These two guides or shifters. The groove in this cam-plate is so formed that the belt on the tight pulley is shifted to the loose pulley and the other belt is moved over to the driving position on the tight pulley. Diagram showing Arrangement of Epicyclic Gearing Obtaining Forward and Reverse Motions for into contact with arm G. train Reversal of Motion through Epicyclic Gearing.io8 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS between the two dogs K which may be adjusted The along a groove at the side of the table. the latter is pushed over about its pivot. the table is When the planer is depending upon which belt movement has continued far moves in a direction on the tight pulley. At the end of the return stroke. of epicyclic or differential gearing may be designed to give a This form of transmission has been applied reversal of motion. in operation. the other dog engages arm G. This campivoted at E and is connected by a link F with the arm G which is pivoted at H. When this enough to bring one of the dogs K Fig. A . form of bellcranks. which are in the belt passes. thus swinging the cam-plate in the opposite direction and again reversing the motion. are pivoted and the inner ends carry small rollers that by a guide C having an opening plate or lever is engage a groove in the cam-plate D. 6.

of the smaller sizes. The slow forward speed is obtained To obtain a reduction of with the combination illustrated at A . or they may be locked together so as to revolve as a unit with the crankshaft for obtaining the direct highis speed drive. are mounted inside of drums. Fig. Another Arrangement of Epicyclic Gearing which gives Forward and Reverse Motions of a speed. the pinions c carried by the driven member are then forced by the driving gear a to roll around inside of the internal gear.REVERSING MECHANISMS to I0 9 principle governis some automobiles 6. Fig. and keyed to the crankshaft. Two sets of differential gears. In order to obtain a reversal of motion through the combination of gear- ing illustrated at B. These drums may be revolved independently for obtaining the slow forward speed and a reverse motion. the disk carrying the pinions is prevented from rotating by the gripping action of another brake-band. indicated at A and B. thus transmitting a slow rotary motion to the driven member attached to the pinions. The central gear a is the driver in each case. so that the pinions merely revolve on their studs and rotate the . the internal gear b is held stationary by the application brake-band to its periphery. The ing the operation of one of the earlier designs shown by the diagram. 7.

B. . . m. . Gear A is mounted on the sleeve of sprocket Ai gear D is keyed to shaft K. gears D and A revolving in the same direction. 8 enables sign quently. . gear is A forced to follow in the a ratchet wheel to be automatically reversed after making a predetermined number of revolutions. oscillating The double pawl A carried by an ratchet B. there is no interepicyclic gearing shown in Fig. When this drum is held stationary gear A by a brake-band. Fig. . C. The three gears. The direct high-speed drive IS ob-. mechanism then revolvWhen drum H is held stationary by tained A . and the arrangement is such that the time of reversal or the number of revolutions made will by the driven ratchet prior to reversal may be varied at is throughout a wide range.110 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS In this case. the internal internal gear in a reverse direction. gear causes gear to revolve about the stationF in a direction opposite to the rotation of D\ conseary gear when clutch J is engaged. and E are moving. . 8. arm (not shown). . C. -\ -\ i_ ing as a unit with shaft K. nal gear. and sprocket A\ are driven at a slow forward speed through gears D. 7. A duplicate set is also located on the opposite y side of the drum. and E are locked together and revolve upon a pin carried by drum G. The larger diameter of ratchet . .. the whole D E same direction in which drum G and the planetary gears B. C. Automatic Ratchet Reversing Mechanism. and gear F is attached to the extended hub of drum H. will Ratchet Mechanism which Automatically Reverse after making a Predetermined Number of Revolutions and B. a brake-band. gear is the driven member and transmits motion to the driving sprocket. The simple deof ratchet reversing mechanism illustrated in Fig. as the illustra- tion shows. reversal of motion A may also be obtained with the train of In this case. .. . thus reversing the motion of gear A and the sprocket. and this pawl engages the driven Mounted concentrically with B there is a smaller controlling ratchet C which is normally restrained from rotating by suitable frictional resistance.

one of the trip dogs latter is E into contact with the projection its on the pawl. The saddle A is traversed along the bed B by means of a screw. projecting arms C which are bolted to A strike dogs D its mounted on rod E.REVERSING MECHANISMS III B prevents pawl A from engaging the smaller ratchet C. the opposite end engages ratchet B the direction of rotation is reversed. 9. When rod E is is shifted in a also given a rotary motion in the a bushing Within the bearing cut into it. an amount depending upon the motion ling ratchet is C engaged. A reversing device of this kind. ac- tuates the belt-shifting mechanism. except when the deep notch D is reached by the pawl which then drops down into engagement with C. of revolutions made by r "tenet B prior to reversal depends upon the number of deep notches D and the position of the trip dogs E. by lengthwise direction. When this mechanism is in operation. which. F there having cam grooves as These grooves receive shown by the enlarged derollers carried by a pin that . is illustrated in Fig. Combined Reversing and Feeding Movements. The and. Controlthen remains stationary until another deep notch The repeated movements of ratchet C each time the finally bring pawl drops into a deep notch. as applied to a Richards' sideplaning machine. of the pawl. it is longitudinal movement. ratchet B receives an intermittent motion from the oscillating pawl A and the controlling ratchet C remains stationary until one of the deep notches then ratchets B and C rotate together is engaged by pawl A D . following manner: tailed view. consequently. Some re- versing mechanisms are so designed that the longitudinal movement of a reversing rod is accompanied by a rotary motion for imparting a feeding movement at the time reversal occurs. time of reversal may be controlled by varying the distance be- then swung around so that tween the trip dogs and by having one or more deep notches in the driven ratchet. The reversal of motion is effected by the engagement of the The number extension on pawl A with one of the trip dogs E. the rotation of which is reversed by open and crossed belts that are alternately shifted The two from loose pulleys to a tight pulley attached to the screw.

This machine stant speed. 10 represents a sectional view through the bed of an automatic screw ma- from the engagement of the downward chine. Fig. are derived from a shaft at the rear which rotates at a constant speed. the reversing of the main spindle and the changing of the speed from fast to slow. any endwise resulting movement of rod E is accompanied by a rotary motion rollers with the helical grooves in the fixed bushings of bearings F. through the medium of ratchet gearing. beneath the headstock. or vice versa. This back-shaft is connected by change-gearing through a worm H . On this shaft is mounted a H series of automatically-controlled clutches which are similar in action to those used on punch-presses. the opening and closing of the chuck. Automatic Control of Spindle Reversal. and illustrates the mechanism Fig. 9. other than revolving the spindle. the revolving of the turret.112 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS With this passes through the rod E. This rotary movement is transmitted through bevel gears to a rod G which imparts a feeding movement to the feed-screw of the toolslide. These clutches control the feeding of the stock. ing Reverse Controlling Mechanism so arranged that Motion of ReversRod is accompanied by a Rotary Movement for Feeding Tool for automatically controlling the reversal of the spindle rotation. arrangement. is driven The various by a single belt pulley rotating at conmovements of the machine.

10. A shown in detail above the end view. The main spindle is reversed by a clutch located between two clutch members revolving in opposite directions. the length of time it takes to make a given piece of work. These dogs engage a tappet D E. the clutch being arranged to engage each half revolution and then automatically disengage. The ratio of the change-gears previously referred to determines the du- ration of the cycle of operations and. with a slow moving camshaft for the turret A at the front on which are mounted the cams and cross-slide movements and a series of dog carriers B carrying tappets or dogs which control the action of the different clutches on the back-shaft. exactly the same on the other side as on the shown. This clutch is mounted loosely on shaft is is plan view of the cam The cam groove side H which revolves continuously.REVERSING MECHANISMS drive. The normal position . consequently. Arrangement for Automatically Controlling Spindle Reversal B shown at C has an annular T-slot in which adjustable dogs like the one on lever are mounted. the cylindrical point of which enters a cam groove in clutch G. The carrier Fig. the rear end of which carries a screw F.

another is controlling the position of the is time to again reverse the dog C is set in the proper position. When it spindle. This represents change the normal procedure in cases where the time taken to make K one piece is is is short enough so that the rotation of dog carrier B reasonably rapid.114 of the pin MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of the groove F is in the recess at a. and begins to revolve. When it is lowered entirely out by the action of dog C on tappet D against the pressure of spring /. as it revolves. and the continued revolution of G. through the action of this inclination on the pin. This spring is of such strength as / that the first effect of dog C. and is forced back a shoulder to the position indicated. brings in- clined face b of the groove (or a similar incline on the opposite side) into contact with F. this releases clutch G. This cam engages a roll Q on the end of lever K. until it engages a N mating member O. stopping G again with the pin in position a as at the start. and the clutch tripped. A cam P. thus operating lever the direction of the spindle rotation. which operates a clutch fork. revolution instead of a half revolution. when it strikes compared with spring D. is keyed to G. furlatter . revolving for a second time a half revolution and and the spindle clutch to stopping. fastened to shaft H. In such cases. Meanwhile dog C has passed tappet D. which is forced forward by a spring coiled about the shaft. this movement so slow that dog C does not come out from under tappet in D tune to allow pin F to drop into the cam groove before the clutch has made the required half revolution. hence the clutch would be stopped at the end of one This difficulty has been very simply overcome by the following means: is pivoted to lever E as shown. is to move the backward without raising lever E. incline b would pass without disengaging the clutch and pin F could not enter until the next recess came around and the next incline ft. When D has been pressed so far back that it strikes the shoulder at the left. however. forces the clutch teeth out of engagement. also loose on the shaft H. by a spring against located in a drilled hole and pressing against a plunger bearing Tappet D M on D. allowing pin F to drop into the cam groove again. The clutch G. For many pieces. main spindle clutch.

This winding of the roving illustration. in order to wind the roving onto them in successive helical layers. and starts to revolve. in addition to decreasing the speed as the diameter increases. so that the half revolution G occupies but one-fourth second. Chapter VIII. 13. As soon as the end of cam projection c passes. it is also necesfore. engage fixed member A cam surface c is provided on G which. as required. thererelative to the flyer as the bobbin speed gradually diminishes. from the cam slot in the clutch G. The way the bobbins are driven at a decreasing rate of speed as the diameter increases is explained in connection with Fig. shoulder at the right under the influence of spring M. The bobbin should move a distance equal to the diameter of the roving while it rotates " " a distance equal to one revolution. Automatic Variation in Point of Reversal. sary to decrease the rate of traverse. As mentioned in connection with that bobbins not only revolve but are given a vertical reciprocating motion. Lever is then ready to drop instantly. it will be seen that the device has a difficult duty to perform. When it is known that shaft H of revolves at 120 revolutions per minute. but operates in a very satisfactory manner. E is raised. thus raising tappet D clear above the point of dog C. and allowing it to swing back to its normal position against the movement being impossible. immediately after the clutch begins to rotate. as and C are entirely clear of E D each other.REVERSING MECHANISMS ther 115 pin F is withdrawn and the latter is allowed to on the shaft H. interesting One of the many mechanisms found on textile machinery is the one on fly frames for controlling the winding of the roving employed on the bobbin. F into the groove and the rotation of the cam is arrested after drops a half revolution. so that each layer of the roving will be coiled closely. strikes pin F and depresses it still further. a decrease in the traversing speed of the bobbin and a gradual shortening of the bobbin travel as one layer of roving is wound upon another. The change in the point of reversal in order to shorten the stroke as the bobbin increases in diameter is required in order to form conical ends on the wound bobbin . the onto the bobbin involves. which shows diagrammatically the relation of the different parts.

The ries vertical shaft D car- having two arms located 180 degrees a dog apart. engage a screw A. although they " will be referred to separately in describing the illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. Varying Point of Reversal and Speed of Rotation for Mechanism Prior to the disengage- ment of the dog with one of the plates. builder motion " n. for shifting the cone belt slightly in decrease the also for short- order to speed. The B and C These plates and the screw are traversed vertically with the bobbin carriage. slides off at one end.n6 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS and a firm winding that will not unravel and cause trouble. one end of the tumbling dog E bears against them until it Fig. One of the projecting pins on the disk H at the lower end of shaft it D is in engagement with a lever slides off / which has attached to a spring that holds the lever against a pin and tends to turn shaft D. such as would be the result of attempting to wind each layer the These changes occur simultaneously. E At each end of the stroke. There are two of these spaces located 180 degrees apart. ii. As the plates B and C move vertically. which has a right-hand plates thread extending along one-half its length and a left-hand thread. and ening the stroke of the bobbin. as the illustration indicates. gear F a space on the rim of gear on the cone-pulley shaft revolves idly in G where the teeth are omitted. full length of the bobbin. When dog E one end . along the remaining half. shaft makes a half turn which motion is D utilized for reversing the motion.

belt. This rotation of the screw is effected by pinion P which engages rack and transmits motion through the other gears shown to the extension Q on the screw. . 12. shaft 1 17 D is spring and lever / to bring gear turned far enough by the action of the G into mesh with pinion F\ con- sequently. the tumbling gear it is E has a shorter sur- face to traverse before disengaged. As the plates B and C are M moved toward each move other. the same distance.REVERSING MECHANISMS of a plate. so that the point of reversal decreases at each end and the bobbin is wound conical at both ends. duction in the length of the carriage traverse is obtained by revolving screw A at each reversal and thus shortening the distance between the plates B and C. which is made square and is free to slide through the gear hub as the carriage moves vertically. M D M N and it is traversed slightly each time dog E slides off a The replate and allows shaft D to turn one-half revolution. Number of Revolua driven With the mechanism illustrated in Fig. it engages one of the B E plates and again causes a reversal of motion as it slides off of the opposite end. may be reversed after making any predetermined number of revolutions from i to 100. This through rack has a fork attached to it that connects with the cone- creases its diameter. gradually decreasing the speed as the bobbin winding inshifting of the belt is obtained by connecting rack with shaft the pinion and the train of gearing shown.000 and the motion may be disconshaft tinued entirely after the shaft has made any given number of This mechanism was applied to a textile reversals up to 10. The for on the cone-pulley at each reversal.000. These two plates both The roving delivered by the slackened by engaging pinion shown. As the opposite end plates of the tumbling dog swings around. gear G is revolved one-half turn or until pinion F engages the space on the opposite side where there are no teeth. The shifts the reversing gears through partial rotation of shaft a connection at the lower end and starts the bobbin carriage and D and C in the opposite direction. front roll R is either tightened or with one of the three gears Reversal of Motion after Predetermined tions.

A) -*- 3 C/) - I .n8 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS I 1 2 . o fe fe 11 s >.

number of revolutions made by shaft A in one direction. working There are four pairs of ratchets #1. The teeth of each pair of z z . as shown in the illustration. which number is regulated by the ratchets before the mechanism is put into operation. equivalent to 400 revolutions. mined number of revolutions. The reversal of rotation after a predetermined number of revolutions of ratchets is and pawls. adjusting This system of cam disks and ratchets will be referred to as the " combination. and ratchets are cut oppositely and the four pawls on one side of the ratchet shaft are for engaging the ratchets which control the H H H. G\ and G2 The . /8 and 74 These disks have projections or cam surfaces /. The mechanism is set for a given number of revolutions by turning each ratchet so that the deep tooth is away from the operating pawl a certain number number 8A of teeth.REVERSING MECHANISMS machine. at the left is in the operating or position. which serve to shift the reversing clutch C after shaft A has made a predeter. to set the combination for a reversal of motion . whereas the four pawls on the other side of the shaft are for operating the reverse motion ratchets. each 20 revolutions. upon the For after of revolutions of A represented by each tooth." Each tooth of ratchet ratchet has 20 teeth with one deep cut or tooth. and each tooth of ratchet HI HZ is equivalent to one revolution of shaft A. is controlled by a system Another ratchet-and-pawl mechanism also utilized for stopping the rotation of A after a given number of reversals. The lower miter D set of four pawls d . each tooth of ratchet tooth of ratchet is H 2. /2. has a cam which engages the rollers on gear the upper ends of bars E. These ratchets operate progressively and transmit motion to disks /i. instance. in each case. The lower ends of these bars oscillate the rockers F which carry two sets of pawls. Each 4 is equivalent to 8000 revolutions of shaft A # . shaft 1 19 The reversing shaft shown through either one A is driven from the vertical of the miter gears B which re- volve in opposite directions and are alternately engaged with the shaft by the sliding clutch C. by placing the shifting clutch C in the central or neutral position. . the number depending.

As soon as this deep tooth is engaged by the pawl. Ratchet all. by the continued action of HI. ratchet Hz then remains station- ary until HI has made a complete turn and its pawl again drops into the deep tooth. has 20 teeth. 1 60 Ratchet HZ is then set at four teeth. Ratchet Hs now remains stationary until Hz. HI is set at three is The mechanism now set for a total of 48. finally. in this particular instance. equivalent to revolutions of A. in this case. drops into the deep notch. The pawls are so located that the first one must engage the deep notch before the next successive pawl can engage its ratchet at is the same. the ratchet HZ is turned a distance equivalent to one tooth. ratchet teeth. drops into the deep tooth or notch of ratchet HI after engaging three teeth on HI. After the mechanism has been set in the action is manner is as follows: The pawl G\ which actuated once for every revolution of gear D.000 -f 1600 + 160 +3 = 49. in this particular case. and the relation between the other pawls Hz continues revolution of to be moved a single tooth for each complete HI until it has moved eight teeth. This result will be verified in order to more clearly show the acAs previously mentioned. in turn. its pawl. makes a complete After H3 has revolution. this ratchet was adjusted so that there were three teeth between the pawl and the deep tooth. A T4 another tooth and. moved a distance equivalent to four teeth. representing 1600 revolutions of A .763 revolutions. since. when complete revolution of HZ turns HI has moved six teeth. its lutions. when HZ is moved another tooth. representing three revolutions of A. and ratchet H* is turned one tooth. Each tooth of HI represents one revolution of shaft A and the movement of three teeth prior to engagement . when Hz is again moved one tooth.120 shaft MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS A makes 49. and. these six teeth are equivalent to 48. the shaft A will have made a total of 49.000 revolutions of A. each ratchet tion of the mechanism. The pawl of Hz then drops into a deep tooth and ratchet HZ is moved one tooth.763 revolutions. ratchet H* is so located that there are six teeth between the operating pawl and the deep tooth.763 revodescribed. ratchet H 2 is set at eight teeth.

for a 121 Since H 2 is set movement of eight teeth. the cam on Just as the clutch starts this rapid shifting movement. Z) and part L are contained in a car- K riage M. the movement of six teeth requires 6 X 20 X 20 X 20 = 48. when the ratchet mechanism is The progressive action of the ratchets gradually revolves the cam disks preparatory to shifting the reversing clutch. This results in breaking the combination. because of the action of the screw threads on clutch C. set as previously described. all are constrained to move parallel to the axis of shaft A . threaded and two threads are also formed on the upper side As levers KI. much.REVERSING MECHANISMS with the deep notch equals three revolutions.000 additional turns of A. shaft A . other disks act is cam of part L. When the upon KI and 2 these levers. Now H^ giving a total of 1763 revolutions. The cam / on disk /4 first engages and lifts the floating lever KI at the left-hand end and the lever L one-half as Jf . A . is completed. together with are lifted the full amount and spring balls in L cause it part L. HI will have to make eight com- plete turns. that is. thereby reversing the rotation of . the latter is constrained to act along the threads on L while making one revolution. and the idle set of pawls GI comes into action. so that the total number of revolutions made by A prior to reversal equals 49.763. which requires As soon as the travel of carriage are all M i^ revolution of the clutch. until feathers atthe tached to the clutch over-ride the spring balls in shaft A out of mesh with one bevel gear clutch is then instantly thrown and into mesh with the other. the four pawls G\ are disengaged from their ratchets. which will be equivalent to 160 additional turns of the four complete turns of HI necessary for moving H$ four teeth require 4 X 20 X 20 or 1600 additional turns of A. This clutch to be thrown quickly into mesh with the clutch C. Finally. the floating levers removed from the cams. all down and the threads on L out of mesh with The rotation of shaft A is stopped after a predetermined number of reversals by means of a separate mechanism which . thereby reversing the rotation of the controlling mechanism. on part L and engages one of the rollers gear D N throws the levers the clutch.

and withdraw out of engagement on one side and cannot is stopped by a pin which Carriage then act upon part C L M These ratchets are operated consecutively by a stepped four-fingered pawl on R through the medium of a pin connecting three diagrams in the lower part of Fig. are properly aligned as regards a deep notch in each ratchet. a resistance should be inserted in the armature circuit before reversing the current flowing through the armature. The worm threads on clutch the clutch until engage on the other. The The requirements. That a reversing gear shall drive one gear continuously in the two others alternately in the arrows and the full circles on these diagrams belong together. The full lines connecting the centers indicate that those gears are linked. whereas the broken lines denote spring connections. and likewise the broken or dotted lines and arrows. and the speed of the motor should preferably be reduced considerably before reversing the current. the direction of rotation may be reversed in the case of a direct-current motor by reversing the current in either the armature or the field. That a reversing gear shall directions re|ative to each other. The full the friction of the links swing the idler gears. foregoing. 3. the flow of the field current remaining the same. 12 illustrate the systems of gearing controlled by the mechanism described in the with If. having ten teeth. The movement of the reversing driver and same same direction and shall drive direction as itself. Some motor-driven of motion for the work planers are so arranged that the reversal table is obtained by reversing the motor . drops into a groove m'M after the four ratchets P.122 arrests the MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS movement it is of carriage M midway of its travel. are as follows: i. drive one of the two gears continuously in the same direction and the other in the same direction as that of the reversing gear. as illustrated by these three diagrams. electric is driven by an motor. If a motor is running. That a reversing gear shall drive two others continuously in the same direction but in opposite 2. When a machine Reversing Motor Drives. The motors used for street railway work are usually reversed by changing the direction of the current flowing through the armature.

When motion is derived from an induction motor. thus causing the motor to act as a generator. The pilot switch takes the place of the mechanism on belt-driven planers. consequently. As soon as the speed of the motor has been reduced a predetermined amount. the current in either one of the phases may be re- movement versed to change the direction of rotation. is two-phase. a change the direction of involves reversing the rotation of the If the motor revolving magnetism set up by the field windings. the armature current is reversed and with it the rotation of the motor and the move- ments of the belt-shifting work table. . which is accomplished by interchanging the connections of one of the phases with its terminals on the motor. a reversal of rotation is obtained by interchanging the connections of any two of the line wires with the motor terminals. For a three-phase motor. When the planer is in operation. and. the point of reversal is controlled by dogs similar to those on a belt-driven planer. With one type of equipment. as a powerful electric brake for arresting the motion of the planer table.REVERSING MECHANISMS 123 instead of employing shifting belts. The reversal of in motion at the end of each stroke is entirely automatic. at the instant of reversal a pilot switch is thrown by one of the dogs and the controller short-circuits the armature through suitable resistance.

especially of For instance. the speed. is In some cases." however. are equipped with a driving mechanism which gives a rapid return movement after a working or cutting stroke. A simple form of quick-return Crank and Oscillating Link. i. mechanism which has been applied extensively to shapers is shown diagrammatically in Fig. after making the cutting planers stroke. thus increasing the reduce the idle period. and are so arranged that the tool. some other types of machines The increased rate of speed for the return movement is obtained through the same combination of parts which actuate the driven member during the forward or working stroke. and this gear carries a swiveling block which engages slotted link L. belt for the return movement of the table connecting with pulleys is This method rapid return movement for is obtained by transmitting motion a different combination of gearing which is automatithrough The term cally engaged at the end of the working stroke. As the crankpin or swiveling block B revolves with gear C. is returned at a greater velocity. " as applied to machine tools. slotters. efficiency and productive capacity of the machine. motion for the obtained by using two belts which alternately come into the The method mareturn movement at two rates of driving position and rotate the driven member employed with belt-driven planers. The lower end of this link is pivoted at D and the upper end connects by means of a link with the ram of the shaper. generally relates to a driving mechanism so designed that the having a higher speed ratio. it slides up and down in the slot of link 124 B . shapers. of obtaining this rapid return varies with different types of chine tools. quick-return motion.CHAPTER V QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS the type used for cutting metals. The pinion A drives gear C at a uniform speed. in order to MANY machines.

i. This mechanism imparts a variable speed to the ram. whereas. obviously the time required for the return stroke. the crankpin moves through an angle equal the angular movement 6 of the slotted link. the distance from pivot D . to 1 80 degrees + The by sine of one-half angle B equals the radius of the crank divided to the center of the gear C. it moves through a much shorter arc b. The ram of the shaper is mounted in guides or it is D given a rectilinear movement. The radial position of block Fig. is in the same proportion as the lengths of the arcs a and b. is obtained with this form of drive quick-return to the fact that the crankpin B moves through an arc a owing ways so that A movement during the cutting stroke. as compared with the cutting stroke. Quick-return Motion from a Revolving Crank and Oscillating Slotted Lever B may be varied in order to change the length S of the stroke.QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS 125 L and its causes the latter to oscillate about the fixed pivot at lower end. The 1 80 angle made by the crankpin for the forward stroke equals the angle degrees through which slotted link L moves. As gear C rotates at a uniform speed. for the return stroke. for the return stroke. the speed increasing toward the center of the stroke and then diminishing.

and is offset the center about which D rotates with relation to the center of driving gear C. consequently. which is known as the " Whitworth quick-return. 2." is similar in principle to the crank and oscillating link combination previously referred to. Fig. with .126 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS Whitworth Quick-return Motion. motion that has been widely used in A type of quick-return il- slotter construction is lustrated in Fig. the bearing for the slotted is or driven member inside of the crankpin circle. which is connected by a The line xx represents link E with the tool-slide of the machine. The pinion A drives gear C at a uniform velocity. although the construction is entirely different. in the former case. within F. This mechanism. So far as the principle of operation is concerned. whereas. and this gear carries a block B which engages a slot or groove in part D. The gear C revolves tool-slide. the chief difference between the Whitworth motion and the crank and is slotted link that. 2. so that the latter requires less time in proportion to the respective lengths of arcs a and b. the crankpin or block B moves through an arc a during the cutting stroke and through a shorter arc b for the return stroke. the center-line of motion for the upon a large bearing F which is a part of the machine frame. The which stroke is varied by changing the radial position of the pin connects with link E. Whitworth Quick-return Motion The slotted member D has a bearing G.

swings through a definite angle. 3. the ratio of the time required ment. Modification of Whitworth Motion. With the crank and oscillating link. With the Whitworth quick-return. in Fig. As the result of this difference in arrangein Fig.QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS 127 the crank and slotted link combination. nism that is a modification of mechathe Whitworth motion combined is A quick-return with the slotted link and rotating crank illustrated by the . a change of stroke does affect this ratio. the pivot is outside of the crankpin circle. whereas the slotted link L. Crank-operated Quick-return Motion designed to give a Uniform Forward Speed length of the stroke. 2 has a continuous rotary motion. the latter increasing as the length of the stroke is increased. i. part D for the forward and return strokes is not varied by changing the Fig.

and. because that side of the driver having the shortest radius is in contact with it. Elliptical gearing has been used to obtain a quick-return motion. In other words. on which is mounted E rotary movement through a which turns about an eccentric C. H offset with relation to the center of the driving gear F t and it remains permanently in a fixed position. and each gear revolves about one of its foci as a fixed center.128 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS This form of drive has been applied to a sectional view. is engaging the vibrating arm or link connected with the ram. shaper in order to secure in addition to a quick return a cutting speed that is practically constant throughout the working stroke. as lution. its the main crankpin block L that. and comparatively few mechanisms requiring a quick-return motion have this type of drive. the angular velocity of the driven shaft B is minimum. and then decrease during the remaining half revo- the gears are in the position shown. the radius at the point of contact gradually increases. The distance between the shaft centers common major axis. consequently. Fig. The driving and driven gears are of the same proportions and size as shown in Fig. the angular velocity of shaft B will increase during the first half revolution from the position shown in the illustration. therefore. point of contact. which compensates for the irregularity of speed obtained by a plain slotted link. When the driver revolves. The driving gear F transmits swiveling block A to a ring On the opposite side of this ring there is a second swiveling block Bj which drives the crank-disk G. The eccentric C is . the circular path of the eccentric ring blocks A and B is not concentric with the path described by the main crankpin H. 3. Quick Return from Elliptical Gearing. 4. in turn. the circle which these blocks describe as they are driven around by gear F has a constantly varying radius from the center of the gear. If is made equal to the length of the The angular velocity ratio varies according to the respective radii of the driving A is and driven gears at the the driving shaft and it rotates at a uniform speed. and gives a practically constant movement during the working stroke. although such gearing is difficult to cut without special attachments. the angular velocity increases until .

gears both require the same time to complete the half revolution between the two positions representing the minimum and maxigiven time of course. but. such as is used for crushing rock. The connected to the ram by a link. when has been determined. may be utilized to give a quick-return movement to a driven tool-slide or other part. the variable motion obtained from the gearing is utilized to so control the motion of the valve as to admit steam above the . the driver is asone sumed in all cases to have a constant or uniform angular velocity. mum angular velocities. the other is fixed. Elliptical Gearing arranged to Return Driven Part quickly minimum angular velocities may be selected at will. The bolt or crankpin on the gear which connects with the link may be adjusted along a groove for varying the distance from the center driven gear is of the driven shaft and the length of the stroke. either be connected by the maximum or the Fig. however. The variable motion of the driven gear. Elliptical gearing has also been used for operating the slide valve of a steam stamp. when diminishes until it is again at a minimum. 4. the angular velocity gradually is C in mesh.QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS tooth 129 the angular velocity is maximum. In this case. This type of quick-return motion has been applied to shapers in order to return the tool quickly after the cutting stroke. of revolutions The actual number made by each shaft in a and the driving and driven is. When two shafts are to elliptical gearing. the same. When point C representing the longest radius of the driving gear has passed the point of contact.

The combination of eccentric and elliptical gearing. in order to reduce steam consumption. the two gear segments on the driven shaft being offset as shown by the end and plan views. just enough steam is used to return the stamp shaft. The elliptical gear makes one-half revolution to each complete revolution of its eccentric driving pinion. as illustrated in Fig. on the upward stroke. The larger pinion B is eccentrically mounted on the shaft and is in line with a half elliptical gear H. is A concentric with the shaft In the operation of this gearing. 5. Eccentric Pinion and Elliptical Gearing for Quick Return. the semi -circular gear F is driven by the small pinion A and the elliptical gear by the eccentric pinion B. whereas. .130 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS piston throughout almost the entire downward stroke. Eccentric Pinion and Elliptical Gear for Accelerating Return Movement pinion and meshes with a half spur gear F. 5. The pinions A and B are keyed to the driving shaft. has been utilized to secure a quick-return motion. The smaller Fig. in conjunction with gears mounted concentrically.

so that the tool-slide is rapidly As returned to the starting position ready for the next cutting stroke. is reduced to the cutting speed. two revolutions of the concentric pinion A being required for a half revolution. . the latter must make two revolutions before the ec- centric pinion can again engage the teeth of the elliptical gear. as the movement continues. the speed of the driven shaft is gradually accelerated and. the speed gradually decreases until the load is transferred to the concentric pinion A which imparts a uniform velocity to the driven member. the eccentric pinion starts the drive. The then at maximum and. the elliptical gear segment leaves the eccentric pinion and the smaller pinion A comes into mesh with the half spur gear and continues to be the driver through the remaining half revolution of the driven shaft. It has been found. the speed of the driven shaft is increased until the maximum radius of the eccentric for the driven pinion is is speed opposite the minor axis of the elliptical gear. because a relaIf this is mechanism tively slow and uniform speed is imparted to the driven shaft. the radius of pinions of the load from A to A and B is equal. the cutting stroke will occur while pinion A is the driver. At the point C where the eccentric pinion again becomes the driver. after reaching the maximum. one revolution of the driven shaft gearing just obtained for every three revolutions of the pinion driving shaft. or until the elliptical gear again conies around into mesh with the eccentric pinion. The ratio of the quick return to the cutting speed should not be too great. As the eccentric pinion. At the latter point.QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS If the 131 driven shaft is revolving in a counter-clockwise direction. Owing to the difference in the diameters of the half spur gear and its pinion A. begins to swing the elliptical gear around. With the eccentric-elliptical combination of is described. and one revolution of the eccentric pinion B for the remaining half revolution. and the transfer B does not cause an abrupt change of speed member. however. the eccentric pinion will be the driver from C to D. because a jerky motion and excessive vibrations in the machine will result. by experiment. applied to a slotter or other machine requiring a similar movement.

This type of gearing . 6. 4. Independent Quick-return Movement Turret-slide for Screw Machine should equal twice the distance between the shaft centers. or twice the distance EG. about the highest that will give satisfac- When laying out gearing of this kind. should have twice the number of teeth that there are in its eccentric driving pinion. there are a few funda- mental points which must be observed in all cases: i. minus twice the short radius AC of the eccentric pinion. The short radius of the driving and driven shafts. and the number of teeth in both the elliptical gear and eccentric pinion should be even. The shaft hole for the elliptical gear should always be located at the intersection of the major and minor axes. The minor axis of the elliptical gear. or in the center of the gear. of the AC eccentric pinion should equal one-half the diameter of the conof the elliptical gear centric pinion. The ellip- assuming that it were complete.132 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS i is that a ratio of 2 to tory operation. The long radius AB of the eccentric pinion from the shaft center to the pitch line should equal one-half the distance between the centers 2. should equal 5. 3. the distance between the centers of the shafts. The major axis CD Fig. 6. tical gear.

is When the turret tools are at work. it is withdrawn rapidly and then quickly advanced to the working position again. The turret A (Fig. lever B. and then advance it during the remaining half turn. it is first withdrawn far enough for the tool to clear the work. Sharpe automatic screw machine. The rack transmits motion to the turret-slide through connecting-rod is F. When the crank revolves. while the is on the tools are cutting. which is pivoted to crank E on the turret-slide. when the turret is to be indexed to bring the next successive tool in position. This crank " dead center. This quick-acting crank operates while the roll on the lower end of lever B is passing from the highest point of the cam lobe to the point for starting the next cut. the quick-return and advance movements of the turret-slide are controlled independently of cam by means of a crank. 6) is carried by a slide that moves horizontally along the machine bed. On the Brown & Independent Quick-return Movement." as shown in the illustration. is While the turret being indexed. by the engagement of a clutch the action of which is controlled by a is E trip dog. the rate of movement being increased by the motion derived from cam Aj which is laid out to suit the work. and then the shaft carrying crank turned one revolution.QUICK-RETURN MOTIONS is 133 employed when it is especially desirable to secure a uniform motion during the entire cutting stroke. by the action of crank E which C revolved once for each indexing movement. while making one-half turn. operated by a lead cam through which has teeth at its upper end meshing with rack C. The movements of the turret-slide are derived the turret-slide feed from two the slide different sources. through suitable gearing. . it allows spring D to draw back the turret-slide without rack C.

The arm tional part of a revolution. a definite part of a revolution. Automatic indexing mechanisms which serve to rotate some slide which is member. When the machine part which is traversed intermittently must be located in a certain position with considerable accuracy. represent other apThe usual requirements plications of intermittent movements. it consists of a ratchet wheel a (see diagram A). and then it is accurately with the cutting tools by some form of locating device.CHAPTER VI INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS frequently necessary for machine parts to operate intermittently instead of continuously. some auxiliary locating device may be utilized in conjunction with the mechanism from which the The spindle carriers of intermittent motion is obtained. IT is given a feeding movement at regular intervals is an example of a part requiring an intermittent movement. when automatic in its action. and an arm or c lever c to which the pawl is attached. i. as indicated by the diagrams in Fig. through a fracby the full and dotted . This type of gearing is arranged in various ways. In its simplest form. multiple-spindle automatic screw machines are so arranged that the carrier is first rotated to approximately the required position by an intermittent motion. and there are various forms A toolof mechanisms for obtaining these intermittent motions. after the machine completes a cycle of operations. are that the motion be properly timed relative to the movement of parts operating continuously and that the member receiving the intermittent motion be traversed a predetermined amount each time it is moved. of an intermittent motion. as indicated 134 swings about the center of the ratchet wheel. a pawl &. periodically. aligned Ratchet Gearing. One of the simplest and most common of obtaining intermittent methods movements is by means of ratchet gearing.

When the moveis toward the left. the teeth should be so inclined that a line at right angles to the face of applied. the faces of the ratchet teeth against which the end of the pawl bears should be so formed that the pawl will not tend to fly out of mesh when a load is In order to prevent such disengagement. With gearing of this general type.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS lines 135 ment which represent its extreme positions. of the ratchet the tooth in contact with the pawl will pass between the center wheel and the pivot of the pawl. the pawl engages the teeth of the ratchet wheel so that the latter turns with the arm. When the arm swings in the opposite direction. the pawl simply lifts and slides over the points of the teeth without transmitting motion to the ratchet wheel. If a load must be sustained by the Fig. as indicated at used to prevent any backward rotation of the ratchet wheel. a fixed pawl located at some point. If the face of 9A . Different Arrangements of Ratchet Gearing d. is ratchet gearing. i.

. as indicated by the full and . dotted lines. i the arm which carries it must swing through . pressure against the end of the pawl would tend to force it upward out of engagement with the ratchet wheel. When a single pawl is used as Multiple Pawls for Ratchets. of obtaining a reversal of shown at pawl is The pawl. hence the pitch of the teeth represents the minimum movement for the wheel. One side of the beveled so that the pawl merely slides over the teeth on the backward movement of the arm. in order to reverse the motion of the ratchet wheel. one pawl is longer than the other one-half the pitch of the ratchet teeth.136 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS such an angle that a line at right this tooth should incline at angles to it were above the pawl pivot. is in this case. least one tooth of the ratchet wheel. By using three pawls. i A double-ended pawl is used and. . the pawl is lifted and turned half way around. When a reversal of movement is required. If two or more pawls are used. A simple method Reversal of Motion with Ratchet Gearing. the effect being the same as though a single pawl were applied to a wheel having teeth re- duced one-half in pitch. this pawl is simply swung from one side of the arm to the other. Fig. shown at A Fig. Reversible ratchet wheels must have motion teeth with bearing faces for the pawl on each is side. each varying in length by an amount equal to one-third of the tooth pitch. is Another method D. of obtaining a reversal of motion is illustrated by diagram C. illustrated The principle is instead of which shows two pawls in position by diagram one. the movement of the arm may equal B by an amount equal to With this arrangement. As will be seen. only one-half the pitch. a still finer feeding movement could be obtained without actually decreasing the pitch of the teeth and thus weakening them. or until the small pin / drops into the cross-slot provided for it. if desired. thus reversing the position of the working face of the pawl. a relatively small motion of the arm will enable successive teeth to be engaged without an arc equal to at decreasing the pitch of the ratchet wheel. in the form of a small plunger which backed up by a spiral spring.

and this angle represents the maximum movement is for the ratchet wheel. the backward motion of the rollers releases them. Variable Motion from Ratchet Gearing. It is sometimes desirable motion to the ratchet wheel during both the forward of the ratchet and backward motions arm or lever. the rollers move along the inclined cam surfaces until they are wedged tightly enough to lock the driven part and cause it to turn with the operating lever. oscillates constantly through an arc a. the shield b is moved around so . This general principle has been applied in various ways. One method of adjusting the motion irrespective of the movement of the operating pawl is illustrated at F in Fig. i The pawl the . These pawls are so located relative to the pivot of the arm that.E. while one pawl is advancing the ratchet wheel. the driving member encircles the driven part which has cam surfaces that are engaged by rollers. The types ing previously referred to all operate by a positive engagement of the pawl with the teeth of the ratchet wheel. which is so arranged that the pivot for the rod can be adjusted relative to the center of rotation for changing movement of the operating pawl and the rate of feed. to impart a Double-action Ratchet Gearing. Ratchet gearing. the other is returning for engagement with the next successive tooth. When the driver is moved in the opposite direction. This result may be obtained by using two pawls arranged as illustrated by diagram . When a re- duction of motion desired. When the outer driving member is revolved in one direction.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS Frictional Ratchet 137 of ratchet gear- Mechanisms. Some ratchet mechanisms are constructed on a different principle in that motion is transmitted from the driving to the driven member by frictional contact. Fig. In many cases the link which operates the pawl arm receives its motion either from a crank or a vibrating lever. especially when applied to machine tools for imparting feeding movements to tool-slides. A common method of obtaining such variations is by changing the swinging movement of the arm that carries the operating pawl. with one form. i. must be so arranged that the feeding motion can be varied. For instance.

Some inratchet mechanisms have been applied to the sprocket genious wheels of bicycles to permit the pedals to remain stationary while coasting down a grade in Fig. which illustrate its mechanism designed for shown by diagrams B to F. all of if the outer sprocket is revolved in a clockwise direction. slightly. the rollers are immediately released. but motion is transmitted from one part to the other through frictional contact. the shield is held in any position by of a small spring plunger c that engages holes in a stationary plate d. the action depending upon the direction of the relative movement. A view at A to the inner 2. The depth of the recess is .138 that the pawl MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS is lifted out of engagement with the ratchet wheel and simply slides over it during part of the stroke. The exterior sprocket recessed on the inner side for the reception of a crescentshaped piece a. For instance. Any reland outer members of the sprocket causes these steel rollers to either roll up the inclined surfaces and lock the two parts together or to move in the other direction and release the driving and driven members. The sprocket wheel is not attached directly member which is shown in section. Each of these recesses contains a hardened and the bottoms of the recesses are inclined pushed up these inclined sur- The rollers are lightly faces ative motion of the inner by blocks behind which are small spiral springs. Ratchet Mechanisms for Releasing Sprockets. An entirely different type of ratchet use on the sprockets of bicycles is inclusive. The inner ring has a series of recesses equally spaced about the circumference. which acts as the pawl. the rollers are immediately wedged in their recesses. sively used is design that has been extenillustrated in principle by the detailed sectional or hill. method of operation. If the motion of the outer sprocket is suddenly arrested and the inner member continues to revolve. when the shield covers three of the teeth as shown in the illustration the motion of the ratchet wheel is reduced the same as though the swinging action of the pawl lever had been diminished an amount corresponding to three of the teeth. Thus. With the particular means arrangement illustrated. steel roller or ball.

until it is finally wedged firmly between the two parts as shown " " mechanisms were subsefree-wheel at F. by equipping the wheel with an adjustable shield which serves to disengage the pawl after the required motion has been completed. The action Automatic Disengagement of Ratchet Gearing. Ratchet Mechanisms for Releasing Sprockets general principle so far as the releasing mechanism was concerned. as applied to the cross-feeding mechanism of a cylindrical grinding machine. 3. part a simply is given a rocking movement in its recess to allow the successive teeth to is in the opposite direction. and it is essential . but so designed that a backward movement of the pedal also applied a brake. When the relative motion indicated quently replaced by an arrangement operating on the same Fig. This mechanism is used to automatically feed the grinding wheel in toward the work for taking successive cuts. 139 of part a are such that the teeth on the inner ring can pass freely when moving in the direction indicated by the arrow at B with motion in this direction. as C. the teeth on the inner member swing by diagram part a around in its seat. of ratchet gearing can be stopped automatically after the ratchet wheel has been turned a predetermined amount. as shown by the successive diagrams. is shown in Fig. These so-called pass. This form of disengaging device.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS and the shape b . 2.

intercepts the pawl from engaging with the ratchet wheel.140 to MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS it have the mechanism so arranged that feeding movement when the diameter of the can be set to stop the work has been re- duced a predetermined amount. When the pawl A is in mesh with the ratchet wheel B. Each time this thumb-latch is . The automatic feeding movement continues at each reversal of the machine table. Ratchet Gearing arranged to Disengage Automatically after a Predetermined Movement wheel turned before the pawl is disengaged from it.00025 inch. a movement of one tooth represents a diameter reduction of 0. the grinding wheel is fed forward an amount depending upon the position of screws (not shown) which control the stroke of pawl A. so that the amount that the wheel moves inward before the feeding motion is automatically disengaged can be changed by simply varying the distance between the shield and the pawl. The arc through which the ratchet the shield C. until is attached to head D. which it and prevents Fig. or the extent of the inward feeding movement of the grinding wheel. To facilitate setting the shield. a thumb-latch E is provided. is depends upon the distance between the tooth of the pawl and the end of the disengaging shield. thus stopping the feeding movement. With the particular mechanism illustrated. 3.

004 inch will be ob- tained before the pawl is automatically disengaged. This mechanism prevents grinding parts below the required size. 4. An escapement should be so arranged that the pendulum part of curs.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 141 pressed. for its outward and return movement will be approxinecessary mately constant regardless of the impulse and arc of swing. Escapements. of ratchet for An escapement may be considered as a form mechanism having an oscillating double-ended pawl controlling the motion of the ratchet wheel by engaging suc- cessive teeth. As applied to a pendulum clock the escapement serves two purposes. if the impulse is of considerable magnitude. pendulum that is swinging freely will adapt the length of its swing to the impulse it receives. but the distance that it travels counteracts the increase of speed so that the time remains practically constant for any impulse or arc of swing. is held in The pawl is kept in contact with the ratchet wheel the disengaged position by a small spring-operated plunger F. The escapement of is illustrated in Fig. a feeding movement of 0. For instance.00025 inch. Escapements are designed to allow intermittent motion to occur at regular intervals of time. As each tooth represents 0. in that it governs the movement of the scape wheel for each swing of the pendulum and also a clock gives the pendulum an impulse each time a tooth will receive of the scape wheel is released. if the shield is at the point of disengagement and the latch will move is pressed sixteen times. For a stationary pendulum receives an impulse. and any interference which might be caused by the locking or unlocking of A . and makes it unnecessary for the operator to be continually measuring the diameter of the work. its an impulse for a short period at the lowest swing and then be left free until the next impulse ocrequired for a The time is if pendulum to swing through small arcs practically independent of the length of the arc. the time instance. within ordinary limits. Thus. the pendulum starts with a relatively high velocity. It is located back of a handwheel (which is partly shown in the illustration) that is used for hand and adjustment. the shield moves a distance equal to one tooth on the ratchet wheel. the shield a distance equal to sixteen teeth.

D J5. the escapement is in action. B which revolves intermittently in indicated the direction by the arrow. the mechanism in position illustrated.third of the circumference of the scape wheel. 4. therefore. which may be from a spring or weight. To avoid this effect. As the arc of swing increases. One " of the earlier forms of escapements was known as the anchor " or " recoil " escapement. the pallets A and alternately engage the teeth of the scape wheel. In designing an escapement of this type. With the Fig.142 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the escapement will affect the regularity of movement less if it occurs at the center of the swing rather than at the ends. and. Escapement for Controlling Action of Clockwork the point of tooth C is about to slide across the inclined impulse face " " as pendulum an impulse strikes the or end of the pallet A. the pen- dulum was never free. as the point of slides past' the inclined end of B. 4. and this intermittent action continues indefinitely or until the force propelling the scape wheel around. is no longer great enough to operate the mech- D anism. With this type. illustrated in Fig. it is desirable that the impulses given to a pendulum should always be equal. One of the features of the dead-beat escape- . the motion of the scape wheel will be arrested until the pendulum reverses its movement and dead face " of pallet swings far enough to the right to release tooth Z>. there is a very slight increase in the time required for the movement. the Gra- ham " dead-beat " escapement. the pallets are so located as to embrace about one. thus giving the When tooth it swings to the left. but was controlled by the escapement throughout the swing. the pendulum receives another impulse. was designed and has been When extensively used.

the time of vibration of the pendulum diminishes. there is a rubbing action between the points of the scape wheel teeth and the surfaces of the pallets. the velocity of the is pendulum tends to increase. but all of these escapements operate on the same general principle. which engages the film rate of sixteen a second. instead of being a defect.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS ment is 143 the effect which friction has on its operation. This mechanism is used on moving picture cameras and also for feeding films through " " claw printing machines. up to a certain point. because. . It is commonly referred to as a mechanism or movement. a decided advantage. the film is drawn. When this device is applied to a moving picture camera. The escapements of watches and of some clocks and portable timekeeping devices have a balance wheel instead of a pendulum to lum. it is that it desirable to have a driving power of such magnitude neither accelerates nor retards the motion of the pendu- modifications of the escapement previously rehave been devised to meet special requirements. pendulum This is friction. The film remains stationary during each exposure and is drawn downward between successive exposures which are made at the The hook A. Many ferred to regulate the period of the intermittent action. the fractional retardation in- creases relatively in a greater proportion than the driving effect and. In the design of clock mechais nism nisms. so that the of friction. if the driving force of the clock increased so that the impulse on the pallets becomes greater. but this effect counteracted by the f rictional retardation caused by a greater pressure of the teeth of the scape wheel on the faces of the pallet. beyond which a greater force causes the time "of vibration to increase instead of to diminish. If the force or weight propelling the clock mecha- continually increased. ratchet mechanism is illustrated in Fig. a neutral point is finally reached. If the driving force be increased. During each swing of the pendulum. The claw or hook A is double and engages evenly spaced perforations that are along each edge of the film. is is retarded constantly by a slight amount however. An interesting form of Crank and Ratchet Combination. from a roll in the film box. down in front of the lens and then passes to a reel in the receiving box. 5.

144 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS and moves it along intermittently and with such rapidity. in some cases. Crank and Cam of Combination for Operating Claw Mechanism Moving Picture Camera For instance. anism to be described for applied to a Bryant chucking grinder automatically reducing the cross-feeding movement and depth of cut. An extension of this hook has a curved cam slot that engages a pin on gear C. Some of the other claw mechanisms in use differ from the one shown in regard to the arrangement of the operating crank and the cam or curved slot Fig. as the diameter of the part being ground approaches is the finished size. While this mechanism is shown in a horizontal position in the illustration. The two B and C revolve in opposite directions. The mechfor modifying the crank motion. Gear intermeshing gears B has a crankpin upon which the hook is pivoted. As the two gears revolve. and the work-spindle cating (three or four wheels are used . the hook is given a movement corresponding approximately to the D -shaped path indicated by the dotted lines. when in operation. it would normally be vertical with the hook uppermost. the cam. a pin on the hook lever engaging the cam slot. 5. Automatic Reduction of Intermittent Movement. receives its motion from a crank and cam combination. Another type of claw mechanism derives both the downward motion for moving the film and the in and out movements of the film hook from separate cam surfaces. is a separate part that is placed between the crank and the film hook. The head which on this carries the grinding wheels machine) is given a recipromotion on the bed of the machine.

6 derives its member of the wheel-head reversing motion from a cam surface on a swinging mechanism. which is of the 1 uH l jlr^n^r - 1 -. The transmits motion to the cross-feed mechanism shown in Fig.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS head is 145 mounted on a bracket that can be set at an angle relative to the motion shaft which of the wheel-carrying slide for taper grinding. The motion to screw load-and-fire shifting 2 transmits universally jointed telescopic shaft the cross-feed mechanism at whatever angle the by a F swiveling bracket and work-spindle M may be set.-ft -_ Fig. 2 The cross-feed 2 has mounted on it a handwheel K and a spur gear N 2. 6. Ratchet Feeding Mechanism arranged to Automatically Diminish the Feeding Movement bevel gear and clutch type controlled device. .

146 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS is This spur gear reversing ratchet wheel for connected with ratchet wheel lever . thus stopping the cross feed. the . tends to improve the work in regard to accuracy and finish. tinuously is to transmit determined intervals. the lower edge of V2 comes into contact with the left-hand end of stop T2 gradually limiting its move. The . U It will be noted in the plan view that there are three stop cams T"2 . is 2 U governed by two furnishes a check of cross it backward movement. as the desired finished diameter is approached. the swinging of lever G2 is stopped altoThe diminishing depth gether. gear arrangement controlled /2 which . position of stop T2 and the amount of feed. receives its movement from rockshaft F2 movement is positive in the direction which operates the ratchet wheel H2j and through it the cross feed. . T G 2 2. thus giving a separate cross-feed stop and rate of feed for each of three operations. in turn. H . of cut thus provided for. motion is derived from a spring R2 until the point of plunger S2 As the position of brings up against the adjustable stop T2 . . such as the necessity for locking the driven member while idle. In the second place. Gearing of this type is made in many different designs. In the first place. to its feed. . F 2. motion to another shaft only at preintermittent gearing is sometimes used. . and thus regulates the rate Screwing this nut out increases the feed screwing back decreases it. the feed is controlled by cam V2 which is adjustably clamped on the shaft of ratchet and revolves with it in the direction of the arrow. In the other direction. ment from that permitted by the adjustment of 2 until finally. three stops and three feed adjusting nuts latter U 2 and plungers S2 Any one of these three may be pressed down into working position. which may be modified to suit the conditions governing their operation. The is operated by a pawl 2 pivoted to lever G2 This which. When a shaft which rotates conIntermittent Gearing. the knurled nut things. governs the extent of the movement of the swinging of lever a greater or less cross feed is effected at each stroke. H 2 by a tumbler thus provides by and disengaging the feeding movement. in the position shown. wheel 2 As the feeding progresses.

INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS inertia of the driven part. which has only one tooth. 7. With the driven gear rotates through a fractional part of a revolution once for each revolution of the driver. Gears for Uniformly Intermittent Motion in each case according to the requirements. 7. with other designs. driven gear stops before it is The number turned completely around varied Fig. Gears for Uniformly Intermittent Motion. is so arranged that the driving gear. driven gear. The driven gear is locked against rotation when the driving tooth is not in mesh. some forms of intermittent gearing. Fig. Each time the tooth of the driver engages one of the tooth spaces in the also be uniform or vary considerably. whereas. the periods of rest may The design of intermittent gearing illustrated by diagram A. revolves fourteen times for each revolution of the driven gear. the driving gear transmits motion to the driven gear two or more times while of times that the is making a single revolution. because the circular part of the driver fits closely into the concave surfaces between the tooth spaces as they are successively . the latter is turned through an arc a. or the speed of rotation.

but not so small that sharp weak points will be formed at the edges of the tooth spaces. With this gearing. slots in the its circle of .148 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS The radius of the driver should be turned to this position. the driven gear has a smaller number of rest periods. 8. The tooth spaces on the driven gear are laid out type. if a second tooth were added to the driver on the opposite side as indicated by the dotted lines. shows an example of the variable motion intermittent t The driving gear has four driving points around its circumference with numbers of teeth at each place varying from one to four. Gearing of this general type may be arranged in many different of ways and it suit the particular mechanism which is designed to forms a part. In this case. 8. In order to vary the relative movements of the driving and driven gears. the driven gear would receive motion for each half revolution of the driver. where the driving member revolves at a comparatively high speed. small enough to insure adequate locking surfaces between the tooth spaces. For instance. Counting mechanisms are often equipped with gearing of this general type. the motion being variable instead of uniform or equal. it is often advisable to templets in order to ascertain by actual experiment are properly formed and give the required motion. to correspond so that the motion received by the driven gear is either increased or decreased progressively depending upon'the direction of rotation of the driver. The diagram A Fig. Fig. illustrated make if brass the gears Intermittent Gearing for High Speeds. After laying out gears of this kind. and it is turned farther for each revolution of the driver. as the latter has three successive teeth. the driven gear does not move the same amount each time it is engaged by the driver. The dia- gram at B illustrates another modification. the driven member is stationary during one-half revolution of The latter has a stud a or roller which engages radial driven gear while passing through the inner half of the driver. With some forms of intermittent gearing. the meshing teeth may be arranged in various ways. The design of gearing diagram B. is considered preferable to the by forms previously described. Variable Intermittent Motion from Gearing.

or 90 degrees. 8. The driver A has a cam 4 to groove motion of the driven wheel and retarded at the beginning and end of its movement. may If the semi-circular be concentric as indicated by the dotted line at ends are not provided.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS travel. should also be rounded to facilitate engagement of the roller. each revolution of the driver turning the driven wheel one-quarter revolution. is of intermittent gearing designed to eliminate when operating at relatively high speeds is illustrated in The speed ratio between the driving and driven members i. there should be some form of positive locking device to insure alignment between The corners the radial slots and the driving pin or roller. 149 The flat spring illustrated at c is used to hold the driven wheel in position so that the driving roller will enter the next successive slot without interference. 9. Fig. (A) Gearing for Variable Intermittent Motion. Intermittent Gearing (B) High-speed Another form shocks Fig. The rollers enter and leave the cam groove is C which so shaped that the B is gradually accelerated . The projections or teeth on the driven gear may have semi-circular ends as shown. or all of the ends b. This groove is engaged by rollers D on the driven wheel.

150 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS through the open spaces at E. 9. The on is film is not moved continuously. As the roller at revolved 45 degrees from the position shown. in effect. D Intermittent Motion of rapid intermittent motion is Moving Picture Projector. in reality. a series of stationary pictures thrown upon the screen in such rapid succession that they are. while the shutter is again closed. required on moving picture A very project- Fig. blended together and any action or movement apIt is important to give the film a very rapid . and the film remains stationary for a fractional part of a second while the picture is exposed on the screen. two of the rollers are in engagement with this groove. the following roller enters the cam groove through the left-hand space E. The illustration at the left shows the driven wheel at the center of its movement. pears continuous. but each view or posi- tive it is shutter drawn down to the projecting position while the closed. that moving pictures are. thus effectually locking the driven member. It is apparent. and the view to the right shows the relative positions of the two is parts after the movement is completed. and when the driven wheel is stationary. the next successive view is moved to the projecting position. then. therefore. Another Form of Gearing designed to Eliminate Shocks at High Speeds ors.

because. the shutter has shifted. the flicker that would be visible and annoying film is the shutter were only closed while moving the multiplied to such an extent that it becomes almost conif tinuous and is practically eliminated as far as the observer is concerned. There is an important relation between this shutter wheel and the intermittent motion or gearing of the projector. but twice between each at uniform intervals. assuming that the projector is operated at the proper The width and area of that section of the shutter which is speed. the follower H is turned onequarter revolution and in the same direction. and two additional fan-shaped sections. imparts an intermittent motion to the follower H. the film movement is very rapid so that the shutter blades may be proportionately reduced in area. thus leaving more open space for the The intermittent motion referred to is shown in Fig. as indicated by . the two extra sections are made of somewhat though. which is the driver. 10 A .INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 151 intermittent motion. This is due to the fact that the shutter must be closed while the film is being shifted. alin practice. which carries four equally spaced pins or rollers that engage the ring B on wheel A. the light is not only shut off these three equally from the screen movement during each successive film movement. Theoretically. it is necessary to have the shutter closed when this movement occurs. mechanism is composed of a disk or wheel A having an annular flange or ring B. in the form of a wheel or disk. This and is used on the Power moving picture projector. passing the lens when the film is being moved is governed by the time required for the film movement. the area segment of the shutter should be equal. should be reduced to a minimum. With spaced sections. smaller area than the main one. 10 light. which has two diagonal slots across it as shown. With the mechanism to be described. it This has a fan-shaped section which passes the projector lens while the film is being In order to avoid flicker on the screen. this wheel. Each time this wheel makes one revolution. By closing the shutter twice is while the picture on the screen. and the length of time that the shutter shutter is is closed. in order to increase the open space of each section or and the percentage of area left for the passage of light.

Rapid-acting Intermittent Gearing of Moving Picture Projector outward through the other slot. pin D will first be engaged by cam surface G and. For instance. . two of these pins being on the outside and two on the inside of the ring. quarter-turn movement is obtained in the following manner: When the projection or cam surface G on the revolving wheel A strikes one of the pins. the ring B simply passes between the four pins on the follower. 10. the rotation of the follower begins. The and the pins are so spaced that one on the outside moves through a diagonal slot in ring B while a pin on the inside moves Fig. by the slots The follower is stationary except when it is engaged or cam surfaces formed on one side of ring B. pin C will pass in through one diagonal slot while pin E is moving to the outside of the ring through the other slot. Dur- ing this stationary period. At the completion of the quarter-turn movement. pins C and F will be on the inside and D and to revolve. if the pins C and D are on the outside and E and F on the inside. as the follower revolves. As wheel A continues simply passes between these closely fitting E pins which lock the follower against movement until projection G again comes around and strikes the next successive pin on the follower. ring B on the outside.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the arrows.

Intermittent Gear with Swinging Sector. which equivalent to the length of one view or positive. As the film drawn down rapidly by the intermittent mechanism. The normal speed of wheel A is sixteen revolutions per second. must be of larger. 10 is claimed to be superior to the sixth of the time. the mechanism shown in Fig. but is normally held in the position shown by a spiral spring D. ii operates on a different principle from the gearing previously described. and these are so timed that a loop of film is formed above the intermittent gearing that is is is one film movement. area than when the film movement occurs in one- Notwithstanding this increase of speed. The three holes drilled in the ring B are to compensate for the slots on the opposite side to injurious stresses. especially at the critical time when near the operating point. and to balance the wheel A . when swingthe . 12). The driven gear has one period of rest for each revolution of the driver. Above and below the intermittent gearing there are other sprockets which rotate continuously. a loop is just large enough to provide for is taken up by the lower sprocket as the lower receiving reel.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 153 The follower operates a toothed wheel or sprocket which connects with the film and moves it downward each time the shutter is closed. or motion -^ second. The time required for turning the follower one-quarter revolution is it formed below is which the film wound upon approximately one-sixth of the time for a complete revolution. Geneva motion in that there is less tendency to subject the film The locking of the follower during the stationary period is also more secure. the latter has a sector B which is free to swing in the space provided for it. The driver revolves at a uniform speed in the direction shown by the arrow and. which has been applied to many therefore. the shutter blades projectors. when the sector B comes into engagement with the is driven gear. approximately one-quarter of the time is required for the intermittent action. With the Geneva (illustrated in Fig. when running at normal speed. the latter stops revolving while the sector ing across the open space or until side B strikes side F. The gearing illus- trated in Fig. and it has been operated at two or three times the normal speed.

the spring draws it back to the by position shown in the illustration.154 driven gear released is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS again set in motion. preparatory to again arresting the movement of E. as otherwise the sector would not swing away from the position E In order to avoid shocks. this gearing would have to be revolved quite slowly. Geneva wheels are frequently used on machine tools for indexing or rotating some part of the maas the " chine through a fractional part of a revolution. ii. The general type of intermittent gearing illustrated in Fig. 1 2 is commonly known Fig. shown. The resistance to motion offered by gear should be great enough to overcome the tension of spring Z). music boxes. The driven wheel shown at A in the illustration has four radial slots located 90 degrees apart. b engages the concave surface c The concentric surface of slots before between each pair . etc. Intermittent Motion derived from a Swinging Gear Sector Geneva wheel/' because of the similarity to the wellknown Geneva stop used to prevent the over-winding of springs in watches. for Intermittent Motion. the principle may Geneva Wheel be of some practical value. thus turning the driven wheel one-quarter revolution. while the design is not to be recommended. As soon as the sector is the driven gear. and the driver carries a roller k which engages one of these slots each time it makes a revolution.

The circular boss b on the driver is cut away at d to provide a clearance space for the projecting arms of the driven wheel. the two rollers on the center illustration line xx are engaged by the locking groove. which prevents the latter from rotating while the roller is moving around to engage the next successive slot. The Geneva wheel illustrated by diagram B differs from the one just described principally in regard to the method of locking the driven wheel during the idle period. as measured on the center line xx. 12. on the driver having a radius equal to the center-to-center distance between two of the rollers This circular groove eng. There is a large circular groove e gages one of the rollers as soon as the driving roller h has passed out of one of the grooves or radial slots.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 155 the driving roller is disengaged from the driven wheel. The shows the . Geneva Wheels which vary Driven Member in regard to Method of Locking during Idle Period four rollers g located 90 degrees apart and midway between the radial grooves which are engaged by the roller of the driver. Each time the driver makes one revolution. The driven wheel has Fig.

Intermittent Gearing for Shafts at Right Angles wheel is started gradually from a state of rest and the motion is also gradually checked. but constructed on the same general principle as the spur gearing illustrated in Fig. 13. When 12. the driven Fig. 7. advisable to so proportion the driving and driven mem- bers that the angle a will be approximately 90 degrees. the roller which is now at the lowest position will have moved around to the lefthand side so that it enters the locking groove as the driving roller leaves the radial slot. . When the gearing is designed in this way. may be employed. When and driven shafts are at right angles to each other. indriving termittent gears which are similar to bevel gears in form. Intermittent Gearing for Shafts at Right Angles. it is designing gearing of the general type illustrated in Fig. such gearing is more difficult to construct than the spur-gear type. Owing to the conical shape. When the driven wheel has been moved 90 degrees from the position shown.156 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS driving roller about to enter a slot and the locking roller at the point of disengagement. The smooth or blank member space on the driving gear for arresting the motion of the driven corresponds to the pitch cone and engages concave locking surfaces formed on the driven gear. The radial slots in the driven part will then be tangent to the circular path of the driving roller at the time the roller enters and leaves the slot.

The locking action is obtained by parallel faces on the cam which fit closely between the rollers and are located in planes at right angles to the axis of rotation.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 157 of intermittent gearing for shafts at right angles to each other but not lying in the same plane is illustrated in Fig. A Modification of the Type of Gearing shown in Fig. and at B the driven wheel is shown locked against rotation during the period of rest. after the speed is accelerated. 14. Another form of intermittent drive for shafts located at right angles but not lying in the same plane is illustrated in Fig. 13. Fig. Diagram A shows the cam in the driving or operating position. The curvature of the operating groove on the driving cam is such that the driven wheel is started slowly and. 14. This mechanism operates on the same general principle as the tion . and is practically noiseless. the rollers on the driven wheel. there is a gradual reduction The driven wheel has no lost motion for any posiof velocity. and was used in preference to the Geneva-wheel type of gearing previously described. 13 The gearing operated per minute. successively. A form The driving member is in the form of a cylindrical cam and has a groove which engages. This mechanism was designed for a high-speed automatic machine requiring an accurate indexing movement and a positive locking of the driven member during the stationary period. successfully at a speed of 350 revolutions it was because of the speed that this design and the mechanism operates without appreciable shock or vibration.

When the cam revolves in the direction indicated by the arrow. This cam B is attached to the end of the ing driving shaft carried A width to the diameter of the and has an annular groove corresponding rollers on the driven wheel This annular groove is in D by shaft C. Intermittent Bevel Gears provided with Auxiliary Locking Device turn. roller EI enters the opening on the opand is pushed over to the central position by cam This roller surface G. the inclined surface F pushes roller E over to the left. but differs in regard to the form of the drivmember or cam. the driven wheel. 15. side revolution. not continuous as there are inclined openings on both sides. thus locking the driven wheel against This locking roller then passes out at the opposite and another roller is engaged by the groove. thus causing disk D to SHAFT A TO REVOLVE CONTINOUSLY. EI remains in the groove until the cam has made one rotation. INTERMITTENTLY.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS one just described. . Fig. SHAFT B TO MAKE ONE-THIRD REVOLUTION. The ratio of which was used to provide a feeding movement on an automatic machine. TO ONE REVOLUTION OF SHAFT A . depends upon the number of rollers on this gearing. at the posite side same time.

16. motion of the pattern cylinder of a certain type of loom is derived from the reversible intermittent gearing shown in Fig. The and motion either through the segment gear and crank combination B or through a similar combination C. during the idle period. which caused them to break. Formerly the gearing was used without the locking device to be described. This mechanism is used to actuate feeding rolls requiring an intermittent motion. the flat side of the plate on shaft B. The intermittent bevel gearing illustrated in Fig. The driving gear is on shaft A and revolves continu- ously. is intercepted by the plate on A so that the driven shaft is not only locked but its motion is limited to one-third revolution for each complete turn of the driving shaft. and also interfered with the timing of the feeding movement. An interis obtained with either combination. but there were slight variations in the movements of the driven shaft so that the gears did not always mesh correctly. the pattern rotated at a relatively slow speed when the segment When key F wheel is . As the plan view shows. two combinations being used to reverse the direction of rotation. Gear D is the driver for this train of mechanism. locks the crank and gear B to the shaft. Whether the motion is transmitted from gear D to the pattern gear A through the crank and segment gear combination B or through combination C mittent fast and slow motion depends upon the position of a sliding key F. These defects were eliminated by applying locking plates to the shafts A and #.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 159 Auxiliary Locking Device for Intermittent Bevel Gears. one plate being located plate on shaft B has three equally spaced flat sides or edges and the plate on shaft A is cut away to provide a clearance space for the protruding sections of the just back of each gear. The plate on shaft B when this shaft is in motion. these large gear receives its A is mounted on the pattern cylinder shaft. The fast and slow Two-speed Intermittent Rotary Motion. It is only provided with enough teeth to rotate the driven gear and shaft B one-third revolution to one complete revolution of the driver. 15 is provided with auxiliary locking plates which regulate the motion of the driven gear and hold it stationary while disengaged from the driver.

G and H combination C. revolve idly with the upper crank and gear When a reversal of motion is required. This pinion is carried by a double arm B which . is loosely 96-tooth gear . is prevented from rotating is by lever E'. Intermittent Feed Mechanism. 17. A D mounted on eccentric bushing C. the pitch-line of gear however.twelfth revoluAn eccentric bushing C tion or through an angle of 30 degrees.i6o pinion is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS acting as the driver. Two-speed Reversing Intermittent Gearing a continuously rotating shaft A a second shaft L in alignment with the driving shaft must rotate intermittently. The requirements were that for every one and one-quarter revolution of Fig. and at a faster speed when the crankpin the gears E comes around into engagement with one of the radial When this direct drive is slots in the pattern gear. which then drives gear G and the combination at C. The solution of an interesting problem in design is indicated in Fig. to the pitch-line of the i2o-tooth gear F and to always tangent that of the plan- etary pinion G. with equal velocity and in the same direction as shaft A one. 1 6. sliding key F is pushed in to engage gear H. is keyed to the driving shaft A. employed. but Z>.

is first one direction and then the other. regardless of the number of revolutions made by the shaft which drives the feeding mechanism.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS is 161 keyed to the driving shaft A. Constant Intermittent Motion feeding movement of a planer tool. the end of which occurs at derived from a shaft which revolves in depending upon the length of the stroke which is adjusted to The simple mechanism to be described makes it suit the work. . or to 29 J degrees. pawl carries a link H each time the pawl engages the ratchet wheel. the latter is turned forward until roll 7 runs up on top of the flange again.25 to i. gear F is revolved on shaft A in the ratio of 1 20 to 96 or 1. the Fig. each return stroke. Mechanism for Rotating Driven Shaft Intermittently and at same Velocity as Driver opening or depression for the roll must be shortened X of 30 degrees. the number of revolutions The from Variable Motion. The end of arm B opposite the pinion also and roller / which runs on a flange of gear F until a depression in the periphery allows the roller to drop and permits to engage ratchet wheel / which is keyed to shaft L. As gear F advances one-fifth revolution for each revolution of the arm and pawl. As arm B traverses the pinion around gear Z). possible to obtain the same rotary movement for operating the feed-screw of the tool-slide. and since 30 degrees equals one-twelfth revolution. 17.

end the cup-shaped casting a. Mechanisms for Deriving an Unvarying Rotary Movement from a Driving Shaft regardless of the Number of Revolutions made by the Shaft a hub other c. through suitable gearing. This reversal of motion disengages the tapering surface d or di. transmits motion to the feedscrew. of securing this fractional part of a turn and then the motion of the feed disk is illustrated at A in Fig. thus forcing part c out of engagement with a against the tension of spring e. the crank disk b revolves until one of the tapered projections d strikes a stationary taper lug. The crank disk b has Fig.l62 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS is The arrangement such that a feed disk or crank at the end of the driving shaft turns part of a revolution and then remains stationary while the shaft continues to revolve. 18. The main pinion shaft of the gear train for driving the planer table has attached to its which forms one part of a friction clutch. and allows the friction clutch to reengage. 18. which fits member into the tapering seat in part a and forms the of the clutch. stopping The link / connects the crankpin of the feed disk with a rack One method which. as the case may be. the crank disk is then turned in the opposite direction. until the other tapering projection strikes a second lug which . The crank disk then remains stationary until part a and the driving shaft reverse their direction of rotation at the end of the stroke. If this friction clutch is engaged is when the planer started.

19 is so arranged that the intermittent be varied according to requirements by means of a " " device. The intermittent feed mechanism shown in Fig. is fitted a pawl of such shape that. A pitman connecting with skipping simple form of crank B transmits an oscillating movement to lever A. The hub g is surrounded by a band which is split on the lower side and has lugs n into which when it strikes the hub. causes the projecting sides C to frictionally . In this case. unless the engagement of the pawl prevented by the mechanism to be described. as there are leather washers on each side as indicated by the heavy black lines. 18. flange formed on this hub is between plates h and j. This intermittent action in first one direction and then the other is continued as long as the planer is in operation. the hub g is keyed to the shaft and the Fig. by the friction washers previously referred of the stroke. and the feed disk oscillates through the same arc regardless of the length of stroke or the number of revolutions made by the driving shaft. disk lever is D A on its force or upper end upon which is pivoted This pawl engages the smooth periphery of and turns the latter a fractional part of a revolution when is moving to the left. Another planer feed mechanism which operates on the same general principle as the one just described is illustrated at B. This may lever carries a stud a fiber pawl C. The crank is held in position while the driving shaft continues to revolve.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 163 again stops the motion of the feed disk. the between plates h and j and the leather to. being slightly thinner than the bar. This flange does not come directly into contact with the plates. This block is within the slot and. the band is opened and released from This releasing of the band occurs after the crank disk has turned far enough to give the necessary feeding movement. The plates h and j are held in contact with these washers by three bolts / having springs under the heads. When reversal occurs at the end hub g it the band again grips revolves in the opposite direction and until the pawl of lug n strikes the oppo- site stop. The pawl is formed of two pieces attached to opposite sides of a diamond- shaped block F. a fixed stop. Adjustable action Intermittent Motion.

The skipping of the feed is accomplished by a train of change-gears lever A and a cam G. the result that the pawl not Fig. nism described in the following is somewhat complicated as it is designed to turn a driven shaft through a small arc for every . is so that the bar carrying pawl C is free to slide horizontally as A moves to the left. The number of feeding strokes before an idle stroke are governed by the ratio of the change-gears. Any motion of lever A towards the right causes the pawl to turn to the position shown so that it dears the disk D for the return stroke. lever This cam serves to lift the pin is H clear of its seat.164 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS engage the lower side of the bar. The reverse motion of changes the position of block F so that the ends C grip the disk Dj which is given the required feeding movement. Feed Mechanism with Skipping Device Intermittent Motion for Varying the turned by frictional resistance to the gripping position. The cam G is pushed in when it strikes dog K and is suddenly thrown outward by a spring after passing the dog. and it simply makes an idle stroke. this it sudden release disengages pin H from drops again upon the return of bar E. its seat. 19. into which The mechaAutomatic Variation of Intermittent Motion.

20. On the upper end of C are two intermittent mo- D and G. wheel G and screw one-sixth revolution. if the tooth on F has no Conversely. is shown carries The arm C a sliding block which is connected to lever L by a pitman K. of six teeth each. This is done only when the slide is at the upper end of its travel. on two successive revolutions before it is retracted. projecting pin. F is by the straight lines) If that tooth is rotated one tooth (denoted one of the three with the will be rotated projecting pins on the side. line. F black dots. A pin (not shown) upon the caused to engage two teeth of Z7. engage point Suppose it is or that engage with F. working in a divided nut. and F3 placed on alternate teeth and denoted in the illustration by tion star-wheels . Block D is fed to or from the center of B by screw E. Then. the feed then decreases to a minimum. and G is fastened onto E. Wheel F is pivoted on the side of C. If a line is drawn representing these movements shaft is to increase graphically. K and L.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 165 other revolution of the driving shaft and according to the following requirements: The feeding movement of the driven by small amounts until a maximum feed is obtained. The principle upon which this mechanism operates partly in diagrammatical form. E . star-wheel F must operates star F. Wheel F has three projecting pins FI. it will readily be seen that there are two periods of increasing feed and one period of decreasing feed for every cycle of movements. G will not rotate. and at this point instantly begins at the minimum again. as the arm C revolves about the center F revolves about B in a path as shown by the which passes midway between the two circles at H. with their planes at right angles. again increases to a maximum. in Fig. Suppose star-wheel . by reason of s projections HI their being on the outer side of the center of F. This method gives the alternating E feed through of B. F%. Star-wheel merely D is H Three projecting points (denoted by black dots) after point of F as it comes around. It was necessary to derive the feeding motion from a shaft running at twice the desired speed. These circles represent the controlling star with six teeth or The center of broken points (denoted block by straight lines).

i66 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS it volve revolve in an opposite direction to that in which if HI were the projection engaging F. It is now apparent that block H 2 is would reon the D moves up the action of H upon F and F upon G. and returning D toward the center. thus completing one cycle. revolves D Fig. in turn. D } . Diagram of Mechanism for Automatically Increasing and Decreasing Intermittent Motion of Driven Shaft of engaging the opposite side of F. H (or down) through and the motion takes place reaches only for every other revolution of B. the pin upon the block is released as mentioned. Pin H$ is now brought into action and goes outward again to the extreme is rotated as before. and pawl M. ratchet A is roA star N is carried by L which is operated by the hinge tated. Through link K. which allows a spiral spring in / to return the block D The controlling star H and pitman K instantly to the center. into action to open the split nut HI to position and bringing at screw E. returning position. 20. two teeth before it is retracted. thereby which. reversing the direction of rotation F and G. When block the outer limit. lever L. because inner side of the center path of F.

The pressure of spring H forces rod to the left. is then arrested and the worm. The indexing movement con- K M K tinues until bolt B The movement of worm-wheel enters one of the succeeding holes in plate C. of lock-bolt B and the extent this of the The table of the milling machine on which mechanism is used should be arranged to return automatically. of circular The indexing or dividing work requiring equally spaced grooves milled across the periphery may be controlled automatically by the dividinghead illustrated in Fig. 21. When this bolt is disengaged from dividing-plate C. finger /. (see detail view) The clutch on spindle L locks worm K when by a spring pressed against the clutch H. As worm and worm-wheel E revolve. the worm engaging clutch /. lock-bolt B is withdrawn by a suitable mechanism (not shown in the illustration). and worm on spindle L which is constantly revolving. rotary motion is transmitted to dividingplate C. when near the end of the return stroke. E . acting through rod / and finger /. The movement of plate C at each indexing controlled by a counter mechanism con- sisting of a dividing-plate C having teeth on the periphery which which engage the teeth of disk N. thus rotating stop-plate controls the engagement indexing movement. there are three detail views which illustrate important features. In addition to the transverse and longitudinal sections shown. The mechanism for controlling the indexing automatically derives its motion from a spindle L from a special pulley carried on a driven through coupling W M bracket attached to the bed of the milling machine.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 167 and which is provided with three projecting pins to tappet lift the eccentric pawl from the ratchet every alternate stroke of L. the wormwheel E is free to revolve. This engagement with clutch occurs when lock-bolt B is withdrawn from plate C. and also to spindle G through epicyclic gearing consisting of bevel pinions T mounted on pins U attached to part V which is keyed to the spindle G. When one groove has been milled across the work. the table returns and. Automatic Indexing Mechanism. so the is worm M to the spindle M that worm-wheel E is free is to revolve.

21. the number corresponding to the number of its holes. Automatic Indexing or Dividing Mechanism the counter 0. The C has a number of teeth Whenever motion. The . disengages itself from clutch dividing-plate stops rotating. which prevents the bolt from reengaging with plate C until a rotation equal to the required number of One of the concave notches in holes has been completed. A solid portion of this counter is thus placed in front of lock-bolt 5. counter O then releases bolt B which engages plate C.i68 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS as it continues to revolve. these teeth engage disk N and turn Fig. this plate is set in M and c.

are transmitted to spindle G through the train of epicyclic gearing previously referred to. connected with the main driving pulley through change gearing so that the rate of operation may be varied to suit the size of the work. which. these parts are shown by dotted lines. The lever D receives its motion from cam E on a camshaft at the rear of the machine. it strikes it L and revolves against one of the teeth of one-sixth revolution. 22 is a plan nism. Indexing Mechanism of Screw-slotting Machine. . beneath the narrow cutter or saw. which mills the screw-driver The work-holding and cutter-feeding movements are derived from a camshaft at the back of the machine which is slot. This dividinghead may be used the same as the hand-operated design. as well as the automatic movements. locking lever H again drops into a slot in K. locates each successive screw screws. which is driven through bevel gearing from the This vertical shaft carries shaft on which cam E is mounted. thus locking the turret in position. All of K seated. The hand-operated indexing movements. When this indexing movement has been completed. Fig. view showing the turret operating mechaAfter a screw is released from the chute. which is driven through changeAt F is a vertical shaft extending down through the bed gears. The automatic machine to which the indexing mechanism shown in Fig. 22 is applied mills the screw-driver slots across the heads of The screws to be slotted are placed in a slowly revolving from which they are conveyed by a chute to the workhopper holder or turret M. As arm G continues star-wheel its movement. position B a revolving arm G and raises it from the that strikes locking lever in which it slot in disk H pivoted is at /. it falls into the shown at A where it is held between a seat in bushing and spring C. which is attached to escapement lever D. of the machine.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 169 number of teeth in plates C and N and the notches in counter O depend upon the number of divisions required. in turn. This escapement permits the blank to fall into position in the workholding turret and also holds the screw blank in place in bushing B. as they are located beneath the turret or work-holder of the machine.

As the screw blanks leave position A loosely in place in the bushings by guard N which they are held may be ad- justed in or out to agree with the body diameter of the screw blank. after being placed in the work-holder at A. but acts through the directly intermediate lever Fig. and lever releases the slotted screw If the which drops through a chute and into a receptacle. It is thus possible to regulate the -pressure with which bears against the work.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS turret carries six equally spaced bushings B. After the slot is milled. As each screw arrives at the operat- ing position beneath the slotting saw. not This bear cam does against the end of the lever 0. screw blank . although only one is shown in the illustration. which movement occurs after each screw-head is slotted. are indexed around to the saw by the intermittent action of the indexing mechanism. The slotting saw (not and the screw shown) is located on the side opposite bushing The B blanks. P Automatic Indexing Mechanism of a Screw-slotting Machine which is adjustable by means of the thumb- screw shown. 22. the saw is moved upward rapidly by a spring action. O The slide carrying the slotting saw moves vertically and is fed downward by a cam as each successive blank is located beneath it. receives This lever its motion left-hand from the face of cam E. the adjustment being varied according to the size of the screw blank. it is held firmly against its seat in the bushings by the inner end of lever 0.

INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 171 does not release readily. The sprocket wheel A on the camof this shaft is directly connected by a chain with a sprocket wheel head B. but for the indexing movement. cam E After the indexing disconnects the dog from the sprocket automatically. Sprocket wheel A is normally loose on its seat on cam C. the bushings B are provided with a number of by simply turning these seats the bushings are adapted for holding screws of a number outward. Normally the dog D is out of engagement with the sprocket wheel. seats in their periphery so that. necessary on machines of this class to locate the spindle head very accurately each time it is indexed. The conical point of bolt . Incidentally. in this case. The indexing mechanism is so arranged that any inaccuracy which may occur is in a direction lengthwise of the screw slots and not at right angles to the face of the saw. the continued rotation of the turret brings it into contact with the curved edge of the ejector 5. matic indexing and locking mechanism illustrated in Fig. so that the centering of the slot in the head of the screw is not affected. of different sizes. As there are five spindles in \he head. thus revolving the sprocket and the spindle head to a new position. This cam is as the indexing motion allows the bolt to drop in place as soon completed. 23 was designed for a multiple-spindle automatic screw machine. The autoCombined Indexing and Locking Mechanism. The motions machine are all controlled by cams on a camshaft which transmits motion for indexing by means of a chain and sprocket gearing. but it is engaged with the cam for indexing by means of a dog D contained in a slot in the cam. movement As it is is completed. cam E throws the dog into engagement. One end fast to the spindle of this wheel A dog is arranged to engage a recess inside the hub of sprocket and the outer or projecting end is in position to be acted upon by stationary cam E. the spindle head must be revolved one-fifth revolution at a time. some form of auxiliary locating and locking mechanism is employed. The action of the bolt is controlled by a lever H and cam F. In this case. and is forced into its seat by the spiral spring shown. the locking bolt is at G.

23. With this machine (the Ellis). one being for the debit and the other for the credit column. and the total amount printed beneath each vertical column. debit and credit accounts may be written down indiscriminately. Indexing and Locking Mechanism for Spindle Multiple-spindle Automatic Screw Machine Head of to be described Action of an Adding Mechanism. Fig. the location of the spindle head does not depend upon the closeness of the fit of the cylindrical part of the locking bolt in bushing J. in whichever plug K is in position. The tapered seat for the end of / formed partly in the plug and partly in the bushing through which the plug passes. The adding mechanism is applied to a machine which is a typewriter and adding machine combined. periphery bolt of. These plugs are spaced equidistantly about the the spindle head. The writing is done on the typewriter in the regular way. Two adding mechanisms or " accumulators " are required. a list of items may be printed in a series of vertical . This machine may also be used in various other ways. For instance.172 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS G engages a seat of corresponding form. as indicated by the detailed is G K With this arrangement. each set of items added. and the figures are set up and printed with the adding mechanism at the same time that the reading matter is written. view.

34 is set The length of the is A determined up on the keyboard. 24 and the machine along the 25 show diagrammatical sections through line of any one of the vertical rows of adding keys. may be added together to obtain the grand total. Figs. since the reckoning is usually in dollars and cents. shown at G. will and. and the accumulator wheels B. when is the movement of the rack takes place. and many other operations per- formed in connection with commercial work. for instance. etc. the next. the first row is for cents. of the rack i is . thus gives to rack spring If the figure $476. the rack teeth beneath the accumulator wheel This G is have moved four spaces. or. The adding mechanism is operated by the movement of rack This movement takes place under the influence of spring whenever stop N is swung back as shown in Fig. the next two. these stops come into line with corresponding steps formed at the left-hand end lower end. etc. The lower key of each row is numbered one. and so on up to nine. which are for dollars. operation of the handle of the machine. These steps are so proportioned that when key depressed. of the nine A. and the succeeding rows. amounts may be subtracted from each other. in all. Discounts may also be reckoned. When key 2 is depressed. for instance. These parts. When A. Other important parts of the mechanism are the by means of which the numbers are printed on paper carried by roller K.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 173 columns and these columns added to obtain the total amount in both horizontal and vertical directions. nine sets of accumulator wheels. key " 4 " will be depressed in the cents column. nine type bars. these totals.. the rack is allowed to move one tooth before striking its abutment. the first on the right is for units. 25 by the movement which by keys G. are duplicated for each one rows of keys. where each of the keys shown to be mounted on a stem which carries a stop at the more clearly seen in Fig. the type sector F. 24 H the keys are depressed.. as well as the other moving mechanism shown. both horizontal and vertical. finally. The adding keyboard is composed of nine vertical rows of nine keys each. for dimes. by which the addition is performed. the next. Of the nine vertical rows. there being nine racks. for tens. rack A.


is done on the machine previously referred to. 25). important to remember that rack A and type bar F are posiIt should. on paper. These accumulator t wheels have 20 teeth each. aligning all the figures on type bars F and giving a good. except for the . Just before the printing stroke takes place. of lever L to which the type bar is pivoted " " then prints this figure on paper wrapped about roll K. and the other below it. Only the upper or debit accumulator will now This set of nine accumulator wheels. then a stop is movement of the rack. and the rack is allowed to move four teeth backward under the influence of spring 0. connected by link E with the type bar F having numbers from o to 9. the rack takes the full movement of nine teeth allowed by the striking of the shown by the numbered arrows When no key is depressed. in turn. perhaps. set being above rack is A has two sets of nine wheels each. the type bar The throwing forward It is F is thereby set at the corresponding figure. by means of which the adding The accumulator mechanism.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS it 175 moves two teeth and so on. be tively connected under all conditions. one (see Fig. arm mentioned that the teeth in sector D carrying a plate which enters the corresponding tooth space in each one of the nine sectors D. Whenever a key (key 4. of which only one is shown at B. they could have ten. evenly printed number W swings up. The Accumulator Mechanism. Each rack A has cut in it a slot engaging pin C in sector D. may be swung into and out of engagement with the teeth of racks A at will. This particular machine. There are ordinarily nine accumulator wheels for each of the nine racks. indicating zero. interposed which prevents any projections on the under side of the rack against supporting bar/. When key 9 is depressed. will now be described. as at the lower part of the illustration. Each sector is. the is The upper one debit column credit column. 25. 4 simply provide for more accurate alignment of the type in printing than would otherwise be possible. the debit accumulator for addition in and the other the credit accumulator for the be considered. for instance) is depressed as shown in Fig. however.


Key 4. +4= 13 teeth as shown at H. as at G. as In this position. Figs. and adapted to engage the teeth of ratchet M. leaving the machine ready for the next operation with the 4 added into the accumulator. which means that one tooth of the two-tooth ratchet is up against the hook of the pawl. 26. Then the rack returned to the zero position as at H. The is accumulator wheel next engaged. thing that takes place four teeth to the right. At " A. 26) the mechanism automatically throws the accumulator wheel down into engagement with the rack. is now depressed and the operating handle of the is machine is that the rack pulled over. is The figure 9 is then printed. the method of procedure followed in the simple problem of adding 4 to 9. 27. and the accumulator wheel is disengaged as at I. Then as the operator allows the handle to the zero position again as the accumulator wheel with it a space of carrying four teeth from its zero position. as shown atE. as to the 4. To add 9 handle. with the ac- cumulator wheels at zero. connected with the mechanism by means of which the tens are carried from one column to another (that is. Order of Operations for Adding. Fig. it would make them inconveniently small. one of the teeth of the two-tooth ratchet the pawl as passes under This raising of the pawl operates a spring-loaded mechanism. 26 and 27 show." that is. in diagrammatical form. from one is is Pawl P accumulator wheel to another) as will be described later. lifts In doing it this. into the accumulator wheel. in this case. and obtaining the sum 13. key 9 is depressed and the operator pulls the This results in a movement of nine teeth of the rack shown at F in Fig. Each provided with a two-tooth ratchet positively pinned This ratchet spans ten of the wheel teeth between its M points. The mechanism then disento return. the rack moves back shown at Z). is allowed to shown at is B (see also Fig. This evidently moves the accumulator wheel 9 it. the number " 4 " first The move printed. which shifts the next accumulator wheel (that for the tens col- .INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS fact 177 that is wheel to it. Next (as shown at C in Fig. corresponding to the number to be added. gages the accumulator wheel. the machine is shown clear. 25).

999. This carrying mechanism will not be described in detail as the parts are small and rather complicated. from cents up set at 9 The mechanism may be understood more the actions of the wheels when every one to the millions of dollars. so that the first wheel is that . Diagrams illustrating Principle Governing Action of Adding Mechanism the action clearly of is simple. 26. AND PRINT ENGAGE ACCU1 MULATOR WHEEL RETURN RACK TO ZERO POSITION." B ^ MOVE RACK TO POSITION.99. when the wheels are returned from engagement " This operation corresponds to that of in operation /. by considering them in the accumulator. when they are set up for 9. except that it is done ing automatically. A < ACCUMULATOR IWHEEL AT ZERO u f PRESS KEY "4. suppose that one cent is added. is Now is. carry" when adding with pencil and paper. although [ MACHINE CLEAR.999.i 78 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS iimn) one tooth. AND ADD 4 INTO ACCU- MULATOR WHEEL I DISENGAGE ACCU- 1 MULATOR WHEEL Fig.

INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 179 moved beyond will 9 that is. It ma- might have been desired to print a sub-total instead of a total. and stopping the movement of the racks. leaving the " " chine clear and ready for the next operation. thus arresting their movement teeth. no keys depressed in the keyboard." one tooth beyond the point of the ratchet.000. but each one is dependent upon the preceding one. that in operation move three teeth and the tens rack one tooth." bar at On the return of the handle. When the accumulator wheels return from engagement. The tooth of the ratchet M then pass under the first pawl. M the teeth of the ratchets back against the pawls. and M. . and the accumulator wheels are engaged with the racks as shown at /. This. operations required for finding a total are shown at The first thing the operator does is to Fig.00. to o. This " " and the tens type will evidently set up the unit type bar at 3 " i. the printing mecha" " to the paper. moves the next wheel from 9 to o and so on until each one of the row has been advanced one This operation is tooth. " and the tens wheel. The nism is operated. He then pulls the operating handle. /. so that the racks would move the full distance of nine were it not for the fact that they have to carry the accumulator wheels with them. 27. and the rack will be It is K allowed to This allowed to return to the zero position as shown at leaves all the accumulator wheels back in the zero position. There are. transferring the total 13 accumulator wheel will then be released. with .000. done so rapidly that one cannot distinguish between the successive operations. the sum having been added into the upper or credit accumulator. setting the whole row at 0. a total for the addition as far as it had proceeded. in this case. and the ratchets on these wheels come in contact with the pawls. adding 9 to the 4 in the wheel set " units wheel three teeth beyond the point of the ratchet. L. that is. operation of the " The previous the units rack will be evident. The K. raising it. The next operation is the release of the racks so that the springs move them toward the right. this raising of the first pawl releases a spring-loaded mechanism which moves the next wheel from 9 to o. then. " " the credit total depress key at the left of the keyboard. in turn.


so that the racks. by a simple change in the operation shown at /. therefore. allowing the same number to be repeatedly printed and added as many of the repeat down times as the operating handle is pulled. 27. take the total from either the debit or credit accumulators." "credit sub-total. The use a flexibility to the machine of these keys." debit sub-total. Since there are two independent accumulators." " " " These are named debit add. it is evident that a number can be added into either one or both of them. as required.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS but not to set 181 clear the machine. in Fig. thus leaving the totals still set up in the accumulator. This is useful in additions and for other similar uses. " This adding machine has what are known as controlling keys. as the case clear the may The be. on the other hand. or a total or sub-total can be taken from one of them and added into the other all depending upon the manipulation of the keys and the time of throwing the accumulator wheels into and out of action." " credit total. and wheels to remain in engagement at L." and " ment with the racks." error. even though the carriage is not set in the proper position for that accumulator." "credit add." M "debit total. The debit and credit total keys. this keeps the accumulators permanently out of engage- " repeat. when they return in operation M. Sub. The debit and credit add keys permit a number to be printed and added into the corresponding accumulator. In other key permits words." non-add. The debit and credit subtotal keys take and print a total from either the debit or credit accumulators without clearing the accumulators." The pressing down of the non-adding the printing of a number without adding. multiplying by repeated The pressing of the error key will release every other key on . thus permitting more figures to be and printed and added into the same sum. pressing key holds in the downward position whichever of the number keys have been depressed. and accumulator after the total is printed. will bring the wheels to the same position as they had in J. gives which is necessary for special oper- ations such as horizontal adding. This consists simply in allowing the L.totals up can be printed at any point in the adding up of a line of figures. K.

Member . only shows the connections with the debit acis connected with the debit acFlying lever M cumulator by means of links Oi and bellcrank Q. the pressing of which releases all the keys that may be depressed at the time. among other things. It is provided with connections with both accumulators. Accumulator Controlling Mechanism. prevents the keys from being pressed down or changed after the operating lever movement is started. The keyboard also has a connection with an error key. This mechanism. Means are also Fig. The keyboard is provided with an interlocking mechanism connected with the controlling keys of the machine and with the operating lever. and their release. both of the number keys and of the operating keys as well. 28) is directly connected with K the operating shaft L controlled by the operating handle. is effected as follows: The sector (see Fig. Flying Lever Connection between Operating Shaft and Accumulators of Adding Mechanism provided for automatically releasing and returning the keys after each operation. The engagement of the accumulators with the racks. in the operation of the adding mechanism previously described. 28.182 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the keyboard. although this illustration cumulator.

detent R would have been withdrawn from the position shown. K has gone off far R. The movement has been M however. the lever enough so that the end of the lever has dropped becomes free. and no movement Q would have been would have taken place. making and K solid. starts on its stroke toward the dotted position. the end of the pawl S would have struck stud T. to move accumulator lever Q to position Q\ which throws the wheels into engagement. entirely free of Then flying lever of K. and 6 would have been moved to a posi- M M 1 tion clear of stud T. and moving Q to the position Qi at the end of the If it had been desired to keep the accumulator wheels stroke. Near the end of the stroke of K. M The provisions for throwing the accumulator out of engagement at either the commencement or end of the return stroke are similar to those just described. stroke instead of at the beginning. R would have been lowered out of the position shown. however. As sector K flying lever M is carried with the end of the latter owing to the resistance which meets with against abutment R. When it. out of engagement altogether. leaving flying lever free.INTERMITTENT MOVEMENTS 183 P is simply a spring detent to locate Q for either the engaged or disengaged position of the accumulator wheels. If it had been desired to throw the wheels into engagement at the end of the sufficient. for all practical purposes. 12 ft .



machine parts require either an intermittent or an irregular motion instead of moving continuously or at a uniform The most common method of obtaining an irregular velocity.


is by means of cams which have grooves or surfaces of such shape or form that the required motion is imparted to the driven member when the cam is in motion. The exact move-

ment derived from any cam depends upon
ating groove or edge which


the shape of its operbe designed according to the

motion required. Cams may be classified according to the relative movements of the cam and follower and also according to the motion of the follower itself. In one general class may be included those cams which move or revolve either in the same plane as the follower
or a parallel plane, and in a second general class, those cams which cause the follower to move in a different plane which ordinarily is perpendicular to the plane of the motion of the cam.


belonging to either class may either move in a straight line or receive a swinging motion about a shaft or bearing. The follower may also have either a uniform motion
follower of a


or a uniformly accelerated motion. The working edge or groove of a uniform motion cam is so shaped that the follower moves at

speeds, owing from the sudden movement of the follower at the beginning of the stroke and the abrupt way in which the motion is stopped at the end of the stroke. If the cam is to
to the shock resulting rotate quite rapidly, the speed of the follower should be slow at and be accelerated at a uniform rate until the maximum

same velocity from the beginning to the end Such cams are only adapted to comparatively slow

of the stroke.




attained, after

which the motion

of the follower should

be uniformly decreased until motion ceases, or a reversal takes



such cams are known as


uniformly accelerated motion

Several different forms of cams are shown in Cam. The form illustrated at A is commonly called a " plate Fig. i. cam," because the body of the cam is in the form of a narrow
plate, the

edge of which is shaped to give the required motion to the follower. This follower may be mounted in suitable guides

and have a reciprocating motion (as indicated in the or it may be in the form of an arm or lever which

oscillates as




the follower


in a vertical position

be held in contact with the cam either by the action of gravity alone or a spring may be used to increase the
as shown,


contact pressure, especially if there are rather abrupt changes in the profile of the cam and the speed is comparatively fast.
i, is

Motion Cam.

The cam


by diagram B,

similar to the type just described, except that the roller

of the follower engages a groove instead of

the periphery.


of this general

merely resting against " form are known as face

and their distinctive feature is that the follower is given a positive motion in both directions, instead of relying upon a



spring or the action of gravity to return the follower. The follower, in this particular case, is in the form of a bellcrank lever and is given an oscillating motion. One of the defects of the



that the outer edge of the

cam groove

tends to ro-

the roller in one direction and the inner edge tends to certain amount of clearrotate it in the opposite direction.


ance must be provided in the groove and, as the roll changes its contact from the inner edge to the outer edge, there is an instantaneous reversal of rotation which
inertia of the rapidly revolving roll;


due to the

the resulting friction tends

wear both the cam and the roll. This wearing action, however, may not be serious when the cam rotates at a slow speed. If the speed is high, there is also more or less shock each time the



reversed, owing to the clearance between the roller

and the cam groove.






In order to

avoid the defects referred to in connection with the face cam,



Fig. i.

Different Types of


cam is sometimes equipped with two which operate on opposite sides of the cam, as shown at C, Fig. i. With such an arrangement, the curve of the cam for moving the follower in one direction must be complementary to
the follower of a plate

the curve of the remaining half of the cam, since the distance between the rollers remains constant. In other words, this cam


be designed to give any motion throughout 180 degrees of



movement, but the curvature

of the remaining half of the

cam must correspond

to that of the






out in this way, the distance between the sides as measured along any center line, as at xx or yy, is constant and represents the
distance between the rollers of the follower. the term constant diameter


this reason,

sometimes applied to this class which is adapted for heavier work than the grooved face cam The follower or driven member is slotted to illustrated at B.


receive the camshaft,


this slot acts as a guide

and keeps

the rollers in alignment with the center of the cam. Return Cam for Follower. When the curvature of one-half
of a cam does not correspond to the curvature of the other half, a special return cam is necessary, if the follower is equipped with two rollers in order to secure a positive drive. A main and re-




illustrated at Z), Fig.



The main cam may be


out to give any required motion for a complete revolution of 360 degrees, and the return cam has a curvature which corre-

sponds to the motion of the return roller on the follower. After the main cam is laid out to give whatever motion is required,
points as at a, 6, c, d, etc., are located on the path followed by the center of the roller, and, with these points as centers, the points e, /, g, and h are located diametrically opposite, and at a

distance equal to the center-to-center distance between the rollers. These latter points lie in the path followed by the center of the



and by

striking arcs

from them having a radius

equal to the roller radius, the curvature or working surface of the return cam may be laid out. One method of arranging these

two cams is to place the follower between them and attach the The camshaft, in rollers on opposite sides of the followers. some cases, carries a square block which is fitted to the elongated slot in the follower to serve as a guide and a bearing surface. Another form of positive motion Yoke Type of Follower. cam is shown at E, Fig. i. In this case, the follower has a surface which is straight or tangential to the curvature of the cam.

With a
is flat

follower of this kind, there


a limitation to the motion

which can be imparted to
or plane,
it is

it, because, when the contact surface evident that no part of the cam can be con-



cave since a concave surface could not become tangent to the straight face of the follower, and even though the follower is

curved or convex any concave part of the cam must have a radius which is at least as great as the radius of any part of the follower. The type of cam shown at E, like the one illustrated at C, can
only be laid out for a motion representing 180 degrees of cam rotation; the curvature of the remaining half of the cam must be complementary to the first half or correspond to it. The

has a dwell or period of rest at each end of its stroke, the parts x and y being concentric with the axis of the camshaft. This general type of cam has been
follower of the

cam shown



used for operating light mechanisms and also to actuate the
valves of engines in stern-wheel river steamers. On all of the cams previously referred to, Inverse Cams. the curved surface for controlling the motion has been on the
driving member. shown at F (Fig.

With a cam

of the inverse type,

such as



cam groove

in the follower

and the

which engages this groove is attached to the driving memThe motion of this cam can be laid out for only 180 deber. The inverse type of cam is used chiefly on of movement. grees the particular cam illustrated at F being light mechanisms,
designed to operate a reciprocating bar or slide. The curved part of the slot in the follower has the same radius as the path of
the driving

and serves to

arrest the


of the slide





The well-known Scotch yoke or slotted crossto an inverse cam having a straight slot that is

perpendicular to the center line of the follower. (The motion obtained with the Scotch yoke and its practical application is
referred to in Chapter III.)

The form of cam shown at G, Wiper and Involute Cams. Fig. i, is simply a lever which has a curved surface and operates with an oscillating movement through an arc great enough to
give the required lift to the follower. " " " " or a called a wiper cam, lifting toe



of this



and has been employed

and harbor steamboats for operating the engine valves. Many involute cams are somewhat similar in form to the type illustrated at G, and they are so named because the cam curve



of involute form.




Such cams are used on the ore crushers Several cams are placed on one shaft and as

they revolve the rods carrying the stamps are raised throughout part of the cam revolution. Disengagement of the cam and follower then causes the latter to drop.

Cams having



Some cams

instead of

rotating are simply given a rectilinear or straight-line motion.

upon which such cams operate

shown by


gram H,

The cam

or block k


given a reciprocating

motion in some form

is shaped so as to impart the required motion to the follower /. An automatic screw machine of the multiple-spindle type is equipped with a

of guide,

and one edge


of this general type for operating side-working tools, the tool-slide receiving its motion from the cam which, in turn, is

actuated by the turret-slide.

This type of cam


to an automatic lathe for operating the radial


also applied or tool-holder.

to Plane of Cam. The cams previously referred to all impart motion to a follower which moves in a plane which either coincides with or is parallel to the plane of the motion of the cam. The second general class of cams previously referred to, which cause the follower to move in a plane usually perpendicular to the plane of the motion of the cam, is illustrated by the design shown at /, Fig. i. This form is known as a " cylinder " or " barrel " cam. There are two general methods of making cams of this type. In one case,



Motion Perpendicular

a continuous groove of the required shape is milled in the cam body, as shown in the illustration, and this groove is engaged by a roller attached to the follower. Another very common


of constructing cylinder cams, especially for use

on auto-

matic screw machines, is to attach plates to the body of the cam, which have edges shaped to impart the required motion to the
follower. When a groove is formed in the cam body, it should have tapering sides and be engaged by a tapering roller, rather than by one of cylindrical shape, in order to reduce the friction

and wear.
Automatic Variation of
derived from a



Motion. Ordinarily the motion the same, the cam being designed always


2. when the cycle of variable motions is repeated. which revolves The requirements are that each lever have first a uniform motion and then a variable motion. have cam surfaces on the lower ends. however. and this may be the relative positions of the driving and driven auxiliary device. and vice versa. it is also necessary to have a change in the variable stroke until twelve strokes have been completed. done by changing members by some This variation may be in the extent or magnitude of the movement or a change in the kind of motion derived from the cam. and . which are the followers. The cam mechanism shown at A in Fig.igo MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS especially for a given and constructed movement. 2 is so is arranged that every other movement of each of the two followers The bellcrank levers a and b. varied. It is possible. and they are given a Fig. to vary the motion. the angle of the uniform vibration being the for the variable strokes. For instance. is through a certain and for twelve alternate vibrations the stroke is changed from a maximum to a minimum. Mechanisms for Varying Motion Normally derived from c Cams swinging motion by rolls d and e pivoted to arm with the shaft h seen in the center of the arm. when roll d engages the mean or average movement The uniform vibration is obtained cam surface on either lever a or b. every other vibration of each lever angle.

then the connecting link k thrown out of line with lever q in the opposite direction. which causes spring / to force roll s against the straight return guide r. so that the slotted cross-head n and the bearing are gradually raised and then lowered. 3 is for varying the dwell of a of time it remains stationary. thus varying the angle of vibration away from the accordingly. in Fig. Another mechanism which serves to vary the motion derived from a cam surface is shown at B in Fig. and this is movement represents the is mean of a cycle of twelve movements. the crank j throws connecting link k out of on spring causes with lever q and the follow the outline or travel is curvature / of the cam until the upper end of the is reached. Varying Dwell of Cam Follower. The lever returns to the starting position with a rectilinear or The lever is given a reciprocating movement by crank j and connecting link k. 2. This mechanism used in conjunction with the one previously described. The roll 5 at the lower end of the lever is kept in contact with cam surface / by spring t. the roll is moved either toward or axis of shaft h. which is the fulcrum for lever q. One movement of the rod end is an exact duplicate of the cam curvature. a pawl turns the ratchet wheel p one tooth. each of which a reproduction of the curvature on an increasing or diminishing scale from maximum to minimum. consequently. which is supported by the slotted cross-head n. the motion increased and then diminished the desired amount. mounted eccentrically on bushing / which is rotated in its seat lution of by star-wheel g. one-twelfth revolution for each revoarm c. The lever q is fulcrumed and slides in the oscillating bearing m straight-line motion. or vice versa. A motion represented by the curvature / of a plate cam is reproduced by the upper end of the rod or lever q. This cross-head operated by roll o which is carried by a crankpin on a twelveis tooth ratchet wheel p. For each revolution of the crank. As the result of this upward and downward move- m ment is of bearing m. The mechanism illustrated cam follower or the length The cam A lifts lever B during .IRREGULAR MOTIONS the variable 191 This roll is movement is derived from roll e on the opposite end. resulting tension When / the mechanism line roll s to is in action.

and during the dwell the follower B is held up by the latch C. Twenty-four revolutions are required to complete a cycle of movements. Automatic Variation of Cam Rise and Drop. during the fourth period the rise occurs while the cam makes three-fourths revolution. by the planetary every twenty-four revolutions of cam A. and in its edge spring F. Arrangement for Varying Dwell of Cam Follower it is (which gives 1530 degrees dwell) when the dwell decreases until again 90 degrees. that is. the lever B is given a dwell of 90 360 degrees degrees for the first revolution. and then there is a dwell equivalent to 4^ revolutions. once for With this particular mechanism. The special design of cam illustrated in Fig. until the fourth period 4. When the mechanism is in use. This latch is controlled by pawl D. hub of a twenty-five-tooth stationary gear pinion K. 3. is and four-tooth gear G. latch C is disengaged whenever pawl enters a notch D in thus allowing lever B to drop suddenly. the index-head was arranged for twenty-four divisions. 4 normally has a i2o-degree . thereafter the dwell increases after each rise of the follower.IQ2 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS three-fourths of a revolution. The cam E has ratchet-shaped notches made integral or in one piece with a twentyThe ratchet and gear are revolved upon the H. cam E. cam E. When milling the teeth in cam E. but teeth were cut only at the follow- ing divisions: 1-2-4-7-11-16-20-23. Fig.

Adjacent to these movable cams. for instance. 4. it was necessary to vary the motion derived from the cam in accordance with the pressure exerted upon a certain part of the machine. whereas. and a go-degree dwell. and they are free to slide upon these pins and K is the shaft. the drop must be lengthened to 120 degrees. These cams are driven by pins. a roller L. however. the rise must take place in 90 degrees instead of 120 degrees. Fig. Cam B carries a roller and cam C. parallel to the axis of the shaft. as the illustration indicates. there a disk D M and N. In the operation of the machine to which this cam was applied. having two sets of ratchet teeth and two side cams (The end view of this disk is shown at the lower part . if the pressure exceeds a given limit during a dwell. which pass through them as shown by the sectional view. if the pressure decreases below the desired amount. 193 a 6o-degree dwell. Cam to equipped with Mechanism for Varying Rise and Drop according Predetermined Pressure on another Part of the Machine The mechanism for automatically varying the cam motion is comparatively simple.IRREGULAR MOTIONS rise. a go-degree drop. The main cam A carries two auxiliary cams B and C.

Two distinct methods of obtaining practically indentical results were suc- One mechanism was a rotary type and the cessfully evolved. Both mechanisms might properly be called " magazine " cams. 5. The continuity of the cam sur- The is face obtained by making each semi-circular section in the form of a half turn of a spiral with close-fitting joints. As soon as this engagement occurs. A flexible cam system was required that made it possible to vary the motion relative to the complete cycle of movements by substituting one interchangeable of using a large single cam for section for another. which is fastened to the bearing. the complete cam appearing like a worm. are provided to guide and retain the cams. other involved the use of rectilinear motion for the cam sections. turns pawl F to the neutral position. disk and cams and N come into engagement stops rotating with rollers K and L and force cams B and C over toward cam A so that they engage the wide cam-roller on the follower. and the carrier-slide provide the means for hanging the semi-circular catches each cams upon the magazine bar H. by pushing one. D E feathers extend only to within the width of one cam from the left bearing. The sections are fed longitudinally along the shaft and successively under the lever roller at a rate Four feathers C of advance equaling the lead of the spiral. The cam sections shown at A are semi-circular.IQ4 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of the illustration. The two screws producing the longitudinal movement are driven by pinions meshing with an internal gear F. and give it the required variation of movement. two sections drop from the shaft at every revolution. because the cam sections are continually placed in action and then replaced by others in successive order. instead cam each variation.) A pawl F rests upon the block G until the increase or decrease of pressure interferes with the balance of the spring shown and causes pawl F to drop into engagement with a ratchet tooth. The cam H re- D M . The slide K K piece by the pins L and. rotary design is illustrated in Fig. As the The double cam upon the driving gear 7. causes the further one . the lever 7. Sectional Interchangeable Cams for Varying Motion. the dropping sections being guided by the guides G.

y vided with rack teeth at B. The rollers on P successively engage the steps MI and M z. thus raising the slide which drops back automatically. The cam ducing it between the slide to be removed the dropping cam comes out upon an inclined K runway of the holder. and. grooved hub. the square threads of the latter are V-shaped at the entering ends. pinion E and the frictionally driven pinion F assembles them. 6. it is When any section has passed beneath the roller. to insure locking the cams to the shaft quickly.) Each A section has four lugs C which act as guides in the ways D. and disk P operate a its slide for returning the cams to their shaft. To facilitate engagement between the cam threads and the screws. 5. in the ratio of to 2. Cam Mechanism provided with Interchangeable Sections for Varying Motion of Follower changed by placing the desired section in a holder and introand the magazine bar.IRREGULAR MOTIONS to slide onto the lifting slide 195 M which engages i The gears N and 0. (See also detail sectional view. Any part of the system may be Fig. The alternate design is the rectilinear cam system shown in The mechanism consists of the cam sections A proFig. automatically . the ends of the feathers recede into pockets and fly out by the action of springs. feeds the sections along beneath the lever roller.

according to the relative positions of lever B and cam C. same number of revolutions as its driving shaft. C which it. hung upon the magazine slightly longer The forward lugs C are made than the rear ones. and the replaced sections are lifted from the ways. other The supported upon roll bears upon a lug on the side of gear D which is also free upon the shaft. One roll engages a cam is B which. An unusual In this case. to span the gap G. . Substitute sections are introduced at M. The linked gear meanwhile engages the rack. and as it swings about the center L. but the rear lugs enter the gap just as the forward lugs clear the ways. here the resistance offered to further motion of the links H K causes K to rotate about its own center and slide the cam into Fig. a cam used to impart a variable speed to a shaft which makes the a is cam illustrated in Fig. 7. The sections are taken from the lower part of the ways in the magazine by spring-controlled forks upon the chain / which engage the lugs and lift the cams until the smaller lugs strike at the corner /.196 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS chute. Variable Rotary Motion derived from application of is Cam. it lifts the cam up against the ways. has a roll on each end. The driving shaft carries a casting A to which is fulcrumed the lever in turn. Interchangeable Cam Sections which have a Rectilinear Motion place. 6. but is constrained to revolve with it either the shaft but does not revolve with faster or slower.

are by a roll-key G which is caused to move from end to end. This motion of the roll-key and K\. (See longitudinal section is obtained from ratchets at lower part of illustration.. which is taken at an angle of 90 inside of the shaft in bearings E.IRREGULAR MOTIONS Group of 197 Cams engaged Successively. 7. Application of Cam for Varying Rotary Motion controlling the action of these cams A. The mechanism to be described was designed to engage with the driving shaft first one and then another of the cams in a group of five mounted It was necessary to have these cams opershaft. C. double-ended pawl L (see also engagement with the reWithin the roll-key there is a detail view) which is held into into . it follows the instruction. and while any one cam was in upon the same action the others must remain stationary with their lever rolls Eight revolutions of the shaft were reto complete one cycle of movements. The mounted upon a hollow shaft D carried The engagement of successive cams with the K degrees to upper section in order to show more clearly the conAs the roll-key is moved along. on a po-degree Fig. etc. M. ate their respective levers successively back and forth from one end of the group to the other. B. The device for quired dwell.) clined surfaces H which bring as at it spective cam keyways. hollow shaft is effected cams is shown in Fig. 8.

Obtaining Resultant Motion of Several Cams.198 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS engagement with either ratchet K or K\ by balls and springs. When A the roll-key has engaged the last of the ratchet causes the cam in one direction. Cams it in a Group engaged Successively thereby throwing into mesh with the other ratchet and effect- ing the reversal. A driven member or follower is given a motion corresponding to the re- sultant motion of four other cam-operated followers by the mechanism to be described. opposite end of the ratchet makes the motion positive. which are equally spaced and fulcrumed upon one bar. roll N. independently by four positive- Four of the levers are operated . the return pawl L to rise onto a higher surface. 'AWL L Fig. 8. and roll screw P which causes both similar equipment on the ratchets to reciprocate together. The ratchets are cut oppositely and are given a reciprocating movement by cam O. These followers are in the form of levers.

is. These racks are free to slide up and down independently and are arranged in two pairs. which are mounted on one stud and rotate together. assume that rack A lifts one inch. the forces The fifth lever. As the arrangement of the mechanism is symmetrical it will only be necessary to describe the action of one side. The racks A and B acting upon pinion is E will cause it to rise 2 x (I ~2) = i inch. and rack lifts will cause a movable rack on the opposite side to travel with twice the pitch-line velocity of the pinion. Any movements of the levers connecting Fig. 9. rack B drops one-half inch. In order to illustrate the action of this mechanism. but the ingenious apparatus by means of which the resultant motion is obtained is is shown in horizontal section in Fig. B. The sliding rack with racks A / carries a pinion K L and a sliding rack to M D which. Each of the four levers connected by a knuckle joint to one of the racks A.IRREGULAR MOTIONS motion cams. or levers to illustrate the principle involved. N which is attached the fifth lever previously referred to. C. which is in the center of motion of all the others. and D. A stationary rack H and a sliding rack / engage pinion G. engages a stationary rack is located on sliding bar P Pinion . in turn. The resultant is a three-quarter inch rise. 9. This move- A . which fact and its converse are here applied. 199 the group. rack C is one-quarter inch. In analyzing the motion. it should be remembered that a pinion moving along a stationary rack stationary. One pair meshes with pinion E and the other pair with pinion F. Mechanism for Obtaining Resultant Motion of Several Cams and B will be transmitted to pinions E and G. that receives the resultant acting upon the other four levers are automatically resolved and their resultant in magnitude and direction is transmitted posiIt is not necessary to show the cams tively to the fifth lever.

2OO MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS is ment one-half inch. and rack N. (B) Lever vibrated from Shaft on fulcr timed. C three-fourths inch. To further illustrate the action. If the action of racks and D is analyzed in a similar manner. if all of the cam levers should drop one inch simultaneously. moves pin ^V and the fifth lever slide P one-half inch. in the illustration. One revolution is required for the rise or upward movement of the follower and a second revo" lution for the dwell. it will be found that has a movement of one-half inch. 10 is so arranged that two Fig. The two cam sections are driven by means a member and. travels which and it is again doubled in sliding rack M has a movement of one inch." during which the follower remains stationThe cam sections a and b are fastened together and are ary. therefore. 10. The cam Double Two-revolution Cam of Shifting Type. the result would be a drop of four inches for the middle lever attached to slide P. Rack M. Roll c attached to the follower or driven . one-quarter rack which gives a total rise of the lever attached to slide P of inch. in turn. revolutions of a double free to slide cam upon is their shafts a distance equal to the face width of of one section. The cam b is from which the upward movement is derived. is shown in contact with the spiral cam a. (C) Shaft oscillated by Cam located on it are necessary in order to give the required motion to a follower. which it is (A) Double-shifting Cam. mechanism illustrated at A in Fig. spline. doubled in the sliding rack / which.

. With end/ engages roll h and forces it to the left until spring plunger e comes into action and suddenly throws the lever over the full distance. cam a lifts roll c to its lever d shifts the double cam along the b. leaving roll c upon cam one revolution. 10 shows. a reciprocating motion is imparted chain attached to this slide passes over a sprocket fast to the shaft. The cam r is attached to gear q which is driven from an outside source. Lever Vibrated from Shaft on which it is Fulcrumed. (The load- and-fire principle is IV on " Reversing Mechanisms. A cam which is used for vibrating a lever twice for each revolution clear roll k before this roll is of a shaft on which it is fulcrumed is illustrated at B in Fig. of when is in operation. A gear attached to the shaft drives a pinion which is one-half the size of the gear. thus allowing roller c and the driven member shaft. in the position shown in the illustration. The other end of the chain is fastened to a tension spring beneath the slide. The opposite end of lever / swings far enough to thrown over. and the shaft for / m the pinion and cam has a bearing in the end of lever p. The movement of shifting lever d is derived from the double-ended lever detailed view) which extends through a slot in the cams. The cam revolves in contact with a stationary roll o which causes the lever to vibrate about the shaft as a center twice for every revolution. until the double cam against the sides of the opening.IRREGULAR MOTIONS 2OI simply a circular disk mounted concentric with the shaft. which serves to hold the roll 5 into engagement with the cam. A is u which roll s. The lever d for shifting the double cam is operated by a " loadand-fire " mechanism having a spring plunger at explained in Chapter e. Shaft Oscillated by Cam located on it. / (see This lever is pivoted at the center and it rests is free to swing in one direction or the other. This pinion revolves cam n. at C. 10.") When the mechanism highest position. the cam is to drop instantaneously upon cam section a. As the cam rea volves in contact with to slide t. Fig. where it remains during a dwell then immediately shifted in the opposite direction. how a shaft can be given an oscillating or rocking movement by cam which is mounted on the shaft.

The Chinese another simple windlass shown by the diagram C. one complete turn of 0. it moves screw h back a distance equal to the difference between the = pitches of the fractional two threads.03125 0. i. The screw bushing g is threaded externally through some stationary part and is also threaded internally to receive screw h which is free to move axially but cannot turn. The motion of the movable nut for each revolution of the screw equals the difference between the pitches of the threads at e and /. Both screws in this case are right-hand. as bushing g advances 7V inch. illustrates two screw threads on it at e and /. 202 is . differential This is derived that is screw is a simple example of a motion of this a compound screw from which a movement is equal to the difference between the movements obtained from each screw. Fig. i.CHAPTER WHEN The kind. The diagram A. Differential Motion Chinese Windlass.02777 g will advance screws h only 0.00348).00348 inch (0. Another form of differential screw is shown at B. of part a turn of turning the bushing only a very small adjustments may be By obtained. VIII DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS a motion is the resultant of or difference between two original motions. % inch or 0. respectively. which wind in the same direction but differ in Screw / passes through a fixed nut and screw e through pitch. Fig.03125 inch and screw h a pitch of %$ inch or 0. a nut that is free to move. it is often referred to as a differential motion. but they vary as to If bushing g has a pitch of pitch. the principle.02777 inch. because. which illustrates a stop that enables fine adjustments to be shaft has A obtained readily. This combination makes it possible to obtain a very slight motion without using a screw having an exceptionally fine pitch and a weak thread.

If the upper sheave is revolved by leads to the groove pulling down on the side d of the chain that of smaller diameter. The double sheave a has two chain grooves differing slightly in di- Fig. 203 is The hoisting rope arranged unwind from one part of a drum or pulley onto another part The distance that the load or differing somewhat in diameter. differential chain hoist illustrated at two drum ates The well-known D oper- on the same general principle as the. because.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS example to of a differential motion. hook moves for one revolution of the compound hoisting drum is equal to half the difference between the circumferences of the sections. (C) Chinese Windlass. (D) Differential Hoist ameter. and an endless chain passes over these grooves and around a single pulley b. the loop of chain passing around pulley b will be lengthened. i. a of sheave a greater length of chain passes over the larger part than over the smaller part. . the opposite result will be obtained by pulling down on chain c which leads up to the larger diameter of the sheave. thus lowering the pulley. (A and B) Differential Screws. for a given movement. Chinese windlass. This pulley b and the hook attached to it is raised or lowered.

There are several conditions that can exist with a gear train of this kind. through pinion e. Fig. Second. 2. will be transmitted from the stationary gear b to gear c. Epicyclic Trains of Bevel and Spur Gearing First. With only one gear revolving. opposite direction. motion c loose on the shaft. and gear c will make two turns for every one of arm d and in the same direction as the arm. would the motion of gear c and it would also make a difference modify whether gear b turned in the same direction as the arm or in an stationary. If gear b should rotate instead of being combined with that of the arm. suppose the preceding conditions are reversed and one of the bevel gears b or c is revolved while the other gear remains stationary. and its action under different conditions should be thoroughly understood. The shaft a has mounted on it two bevel gears b and c and an arm d. tions are derived from combinations of bevel or spur gearing.204 Differential MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS Most differential moMotions from Gearing. The arm is attached to the shaft and carries a pinion e which meshes with each gear and is free to revolve upon the arm. 2. this motion. The is epicyclic bevel gear train illustrated by diagram A. and that arm d carrying the bevel pinion constitutes the driven element. . applied to many mechanisms of the differential type. Fig. If the shaft assume that gear b is stationary and and arm d is revolved.

. The addition of other pinions. This combination consists of ordinary spur gear g.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS the 205 arm will and at half its speed. gear g may be stationary and the motion be transmitted in either direction between gear h and arm /. the arm / may be stationgears g ary. does not affect the action of the gearing. Fig. In the application of this gearing. this design. there are ions meshing with the bevel gears. an internal gear h. however. the pinion e will are loose on the shaft. in which case either the internal gear h or gear g may be the driver. and the and k may revolve. there are two intermediate pinions (corresponding to In the first place. the arm will follow e will the more rapidly moving gear. the arm will follow in that direction and with a speed intermediate between the two. shows an arrangement of spur gearing which gives a differential motion. 2. turn in a direction corresponding to that of the gear If both gears rotate in the same direction at different speeds. Third. The arm of this dynamometer which supports the scale pan and weights corresponds to arm d and is pivoted on a shaft carrying two bevel gears. tical application of this last principle is found in the differential A prac- Webber dynamometer. simply the three gears in this case forming a simple train with pinion e acting as the idler. full two pinions located diametrically opposite. assume that arm d remains stationary and gears b and c If gear b is the driver. Second. transmit motion to gear c in the opposite direction. The combination of gearing illustrated by diagram A usually has two or more pinIn many cases. The force tending to rotate arm d will be one-half the force transmitted from gear b to gear c. In 3 shows a practical application of this gear combination. On the arm and meshing with these two bevel gears are bevel pinions and the amount of power transmitted through this train of gearing is measured by the weights in the scale pan. Fig. pinion revolve upon the arm. but the latter will remain stationary. and a pinion k. This pinion is free to turn on a stud that is attached to arm /. The diagram B. there are three possible conditions. as indicated by the and dotted lines. Third. the internal gear h may be stationary. and if the speeds are equal. If the gears are driven in opposite directions at different speeds.

in general. This is a compound or Compound Differential Gears for reverted train and is intended for an automatic screw machine of the heavier class (the Cleveland) in order to provide a slow and powerful movement to the spindle for heavy thread-cutting operations. The Varying Speeds. This arrangement is simply used to obtain a reduction of speed. The large internal gear casing enclosing the gears. however. This arm is keyed to the end of a shaft. and they are often utilized by designers for a variety of Fig. and the slow speed is obtained by shifting the belt to the pulleys . 2) which are mounted on an arm and located diametrically opposite. any other heavy work which requires a powerful is The gearing contained within the spindle driving There are three pulleys on the back shaft of the spindle head. have certain mechanical advantages. or for drive.2O6 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS } k in diagram B Fig. other shaft which is in line with the shaft carrying the pinion arm. compact. 4 has spur gears and pinions but no internal gear. 3- Epicyclic Gearing for Obtaining ential Speed Reduction by Differ- Motion purposes as indicated by the different mechanisms to be described. stationary and forms part of a The central gear is keyed to anis The design is is gearing. gear combinations. although differential or epicyclic Such inefficient as a transmitter of power. differential speed-changing mechanism shown in Fig.

The gear F is keyed to the extension of pinion G which meshes directly with the front spindle gear of the machine.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS center pulley A. the is and reduction of speed of pinions the result of the difference in the diameters D and E and their mating gears. 207 and engaging the sliding clutch B with gear C. the clutch Fig. Two spring plungers (not shown) attached to pulley A engage the rim of pulley L and is free tachment revolve cause both pulleys to revolve together when the slow-speed atis not engaged. upon a square shaft and cannot revolve. differential action With arrangement of gearing. so that the planetary pinions will not upon this their studs at this time. Pinions D rotate around the fixed gear C. as this clutch slides while pinions revolve the driven gear F at a slow speed. The pinions on each stud are locked together but they are free to revolve about the stud. The clutch B is shifted by a cam-operated rod H acting in conjunction with a spring /. the larger pinions D roll around the . There are two sets of planetary gear pinions D and E located diametrically opposite. E When this slow speed is not required. When the slow-speed is attachment operating. the C is held stationary. 4. Compound or Reverted Train of Epicyclic Gearing for ing Speed Reduc- B disengaged. so that the entire train of differential gears is upon the loose center pulley A. but with considerable power.

and they may be locked with teeth formed on pinions L and M. motion between a revolving screw and a nut which is rotating about the screw at a different speed. it is The hole through gear / is threaded to fit screw D so that a nut and gear combined. (See Reversal of Motion Variations of through Epicyclic Gearing. 5. and G. after the operation is completed. to screw Z). which is by a screw D." Chapter IV. The machine table moves rapidly up to the cutting point.) Motion between Screw and Nut. so that the latter must turn with the splined is is E pinion but free to slide in a lengthwise direction. at any time. This mechanism is located beneath the machine table C. One application of this principle movement are sometimes obtained by the differential is by the variable-speed mechanism of a milling machine shown in Fig. mounted upon the V. that passes through the plain bearings E.208 stationary gear direction. mounted upon the base of the machine. shaft. free to slide The sleeves are splined to the shaft. the in contact with gear F force the teeth of the smaller pinion the teeth D E latter to move in the same direction in which the " rolling pinions D and E and pulley A Differential are moving. which are loosely shaft / is rotated continuously from the driving shaft one direction through spiral gears and are clutch sleeves which Within the housings W N encircle the shaft /. This mechanism is designed to increase illustrated the efficiency of a machine by accelerating the speed of the table when the cutters are not at work. This / supported in L and M. is considered as a lever pivoted at the point where This action mesh with the stationary gear. These clutches are controlled by levers T and U at the front of the machine which are connected by the . the table is quickly returned to the loading position. MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS C and force gear will F to follow slowly in the same be more apparent if that part of the larger pinion D which is in engagement with stationary gear C. The auxiliary shaft bearings in practically K carries two pinions. The traversed pinion H and it is confined longitudinally between bearings and F. then the speed is reduced while milling and. but are upon it. F. As the pinion revolves and the imaginary lever swings around its fulcrum.

thus stopping the rotation of gears L and H. lever M. because of the differential action between the sets of gears continue to operate while screw and nut. when the milling operation is completed. another stop engages lever T. The gear nut / is then revolved in the same direction as to turn through the gear nut 7 which time. clutch connecting with gear L is first engaged by hand The table then moves forward rapidly (in the direction indicated by arrow A) as gear H revolves sfcrew D and causes it is held stationary at this before the milling cutter begins to act upon the Just strikes a stop. Both so that the forward movement of D is reduced. the cut is being taken. Differential Feeding Mechanism which is partly controlled by Movement between a Revolving Screw and Nut the gear screw H but at a slower speed. the movement of the machine table is reversed. since in the direction screw D is not rotating. . The action of the clutches is controlled automatically by adjustable stops located on the front of the machine table. 5.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS shafts shown. U Variable Fig. As the gear nut I continues to revolve about the screw. by arrow The motion continues indicated trips the latter. thus engaging the clutch with gear work. with the clutch shifting devices at 209 and Q. B until a third stop to the right of lever U thereby stopping gear 7 and the table movement. R The lever T.

Feeding Mechanism for Revolving Spindle. as shown. in turn. 6) back gearing of the machine. in order to take the end thrust in either direction. Mechanism of Differential Type for Feeding Spindle in Length- wise Direction which engage the splined B on which gear end which mesh with three planetary pinions D that engage one side of the double internal gear E. When nut L rotates at the same speed as the spindle. tapping. and milling replacing Differential given a lengthwise feeding movement by the differential action between the revolving spindle and a revolving nut which engages a helical groove in the spindle. The spindle of a horizontal boring. The other side of this internal gear meshes with pinions N. 6. mesh with gear teeth formed on the rotary nut L which engages directly with a spiral or helical groove cut in the spindle. drilling. These pinions. A flange on this nut rotates spindle. The hub which connects with the of this gear has two keys Fig. the latter . The sleeve A is mounted has gear teeth cut in one between large ball thrust bearings. The spindle machine is is driven by a large gear A (see Fig.210 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS table is The now in position for removing the finished parts and them with others that require milling.

Fig. This connected by rod E with a cross-head attached to the upper end of a piston rod extending through the oil cylinder F and into the steam cylinder G. When gear F which is connected indirectly with the feed change-gears G is revolved revolve and nut these gears. What are known as Application of Floating Lever Principle. and. but is " " float within certain limits and in accordance with the relative forces acting upon the different connections. When steam is admitted beneath lever raised the piston in cylinder G by opening a valve at H. by the application of a small amount by and at a of power or force. if for any reason the steam . the nut L is revolved independently of the spindle different rate of speed. but. a feeding movement in one direction or the other is obtained. does not L rotates with the spindle. therefore. " " " " or differential levers are utilized in some forms of floating mechanisms to control. the weight is and the brake released. 7 illustrates one application of the floating lever. Floating levers are commonly applied to mechanisms controlling the action of parts that require adjustment or changes of position at intervals varying according to the function of the apparatus subject to control. gear F. The rotation of nut is regulated by the gearing at G. or to to fixed pivots free to move and does not have a stationary fulcrum. a much greater force such as would be required for moving or shifting heavy parts. which carries the planetary pinions D. remains in the same longitudinal position. The may be derived from a handand the purpose of the floating lever is to so control the source of power that whatever part is to be shifted or adjusted will follow the hand-controlled movements practically the same as though there were a direct mechanical initial movement or force operated lever or wheel. The diagram at the for a large hoist. A floating lever is so called because it is not attached bodily. When the feeding movement is stopped.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS does not 211 move in a lengthwise direction. connection. which. by revolving nut L L either faster or slower than the spindle. left represents an auxiliary braking apparatus The brake shoe A is applied to the brake drum B whenever the dead weight is C rests upon the lever D.

so that any movement of the lever admits steam to the cylinder. thus lifting rod K and opening valve H\ this valve has no lap. of weight C are controlled by hand lever L through floating lever /. The movements of the piston in cylinder G and. As soon as the piston begins to rise. If the lever L is moved through . as the lever is shifted. the right-hand end of lever / also rises (see diagram Y) and turning about pivot O immediately begins to close the steam valve. Fig.212 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS pressure should be suddenly reduced. and lever L is moved from its central position to the right. weight C would fall and the brake be applied automatically. 7. consequently. in such a manner that the weight rises and falls. practically the same as though the force. for moving the weight were derived directly from the lever by means of a rigid mechanical connection. the left-hand end of lever / will be raised (as shown on an exaggerated scale by diagram X). Diagrams illustrating Application and Action of Floating Lever The action of the mechanism is as follows: If the weight is down and the brake applied.

is moved towards the left. as soon as begins to floating lever and prevent further downward motion. examples of which are found on steamthe of power-driven apparatus movements may ships for controlling the action of the steering engines. the piston and weight must move upward valve is closed quickly If the lever. Engines used for this purpose are commonly equipped with a control valve which distributes steam to the engine valves. cylinder F is prevent overtravel oil The by-pass valve N controls the flow of oil from one end of the cylinder to the other as the piston so that the motion of the weight ceases as oil valves are closed. apparatus of this kind responds so quickly to adjustment that the weight follows the motion of the hand lever almost instantaneously and the end of the floating lever connected to rod An K has very little actual movement. is if governed by the position of the control valve. The practical effect of the floating lever previously described for controlling be obtained by other mechanical devices. which tends to the left-hand end of the close the exhaust port is raised.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS a small arc. this order would be reversed and also the direction in which the engine rotates. steam may be admitted to the ends of the engine valves and be exhausted in the center. the 213 and the weight only rises a short distance. The mechanism which operates this control . valve it H opens the exhaust port and the weight descends. the control valve acting as a reversing gear. The used to stabilize the action of the weight and which would occur if there were only the cushioning effect of steam. therefore. moves up or down. For the control valve is moved in one direction. being thrown to the right. The admission of steam either to the ends or in the center instance. each engine valve requires but one eccentric. move downward. if the lever is thrown over to the extreme position. after a proportionately greater distance before the valve is closed. soon as the steam and Controlling Mechanism of Steering Gear. The latter are generally of the hollow piston type and are arranged to receive steam either at the ends or in the center. on the contrary. the exhaust varying accordingly. If the control valve were moved in the opposite direction.

8. the common form of control depends upon the action (which gearing or of a screw and nut. (B) as Substitute for a Floating Lever Mechanism used the engine. and The rod d serves to operate the free to slide through. when the engine is set in motion to the rudder either to port or starboard. nut on worm-wheel speed as the screw. (A) Controlling Device for Steering Gear. depending upon which way the control valve was moved. is stationary. thus starting the engine in one direction or the other. gear c.214 valve is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS so designed that. the rotation of shaft a will turn screw b in or out of the nut and shift the control valve. utilized to shift the control valve in of the such a way that the move- rudder coincides with the motion of the steering While the floating lever has been used in connection with this controlling mechanism. The action of the mechanism is as follows which meshes with a worm on the steering en- gine crankshaft. this same motion is move ment wheel. The shaft a is connected with the steering wheel b which is splined to. which tends . control valve of the steering engine. is often differential) either of With the arrangement illustrated at A. Any rotary motion of and transmits rotary motion to screw shaft a moves screw b in a lengthwise direction in or out of the e. If unless this nut is revolving at the same : worm-wheel e. worm-wheel e and the nut begin to revolve. and a nut that is revolved by I Fig. Fig. 8. As soon as the engine starts. the control valve of a steering engine is governed by the action of a screw that is operated by the steering wheel.


2I 5

the screw and control lever in the opposite direction. screw b were revolved in the direction shown by the Suppose arrow/, thus moving the screw and control lever to the right;
then, as the engine starts, worm-wheel e and the nut revolve as shown by the arrow g. Now as soon as the rotation of shaft a and screw b is stopped or is reduced until the speed of rotation is less than that of worm-wheel e, the screw is drawn back into the nut and the control valve is closed. If the steering wheel and screw b were turned slightly and then stopped entirely, the rudder would only be moved a corresponding amount, because the


Fig. 9.

Steering Gear Control

Mechanism having

Differential Bevel

control valve would soon be shifted, by the action of wormwheel e, to the closed position. Steering engines, in general,
are equipped with

some form

of stopping device

which auto-

matically limits




the rudder and prevents

overtravel and damaging the mechanism. Control Mechanism having Differential Bevel Gearing.


steering gear controlling


illustrated in Fig. 9

operates on the same general principle as the design previously
described, although the construction is quite different. The control valve, in this case, operates with a rotary motion, instead of

14 A

in a lengthwise direction.




revolved by the

steering wheel and transmits rotary motion to shaft





the gearing shown. The differential action for regulating the position of the control valve is obtained by means of three gears

keyed to shaft B, and gear E on the F is free to revolve about shaft B. Gear D interposed between gears C and E is mounted upon a segment gear G which engages another segment gear on the conC, Dj and E.




extended hub of worm-wheel

valve spindle /. If shaft B is revolved while gear and the worm-wheel are stationary, gear rolls around between the gears and, through the segment gear, turns the control valve,



thus starting the steering engine and with it the worm on the crankshaft which drives worm-wheel F and gear E. As soon as
the rotation of shaft




stopped, gear


which has been


back volving in the opposite direction to that of C rolls gear to the top position, thus closing the control valve and stopping
the engine.





are revolved at the same speed, C and rotates between them and the control valve resimply exceeds that of C, the valve open. If the speed of gear
If gears



begins to close, and if C revolves faster than E, the valve is opened wider and the engine continues to operate. Rolling Worm-wheel Type of Controlling Mechanism.
ingenious substitute for the floating lever illustrated at B in Fig. 8 depends for its action upon a worm-wheel which is interposed between two worms. The handwheel h controls the ro-


worm j, which meshes with the worm-wheel k. The on the opposite side of the worm-wheel is rotated by whatever apparatus is to be controlled. The shaft of the wormwheel is journaled in boxes which are free to slide up and down the vertical slides in the framework shown. Any vertical distation of


placement of the worm-wheel


transmitted to rod n which

operates the valve, clutch, or other mechanical device used for Assume starting, stopping, and reversing the driving machinery.
is at rest with the worm-wheel midway beand lower positions in the vertical slides of the upper housing. When the handwheel h is revolved in a direction corresponding to the motion desired, worm j revolves, and worm I is stationary, since the mechanism is not yet in motion; therefore, the rotation of the handwheel has the effect of rolling the

that the mechanism





worm-wheel k between the two worms either up or down, depending upon the direction in which the handwheel is rotated. Any vertical displacement of the worm-wheel will, through the


of controlling

This motion

rod n, start the power-driven machinery. and worm / immediately transmitted to shaft


which acts to move worm-wheel

k in the opposite direction veris


worm j


stationary or


result is that the power-driven


revolving slower than is moved or ad-

justed proportionately to the rotation of the handwheel k.


handwheel, for instance, might be turned to a position corresponding to a certain required adjustment, which would then be made automatically. This controlling device operates on the

same general

principle as the steering gear controlling

mechaof the

nisms previously described. Differential Governors for Water Turbines.


automatic governing devices used for controlling the speed of water turbines have a differential action. A simple form of

by the diagram A, Fig. 10. An auxiliary water motor drives the bevel gear a by belt d, and bevel gear c is driven by belt e from a shaft operated by the turbine to be governed. Both gears a and c are loose on their shaft, but the arm n which carries the bevel pinions b is fast to

illustrated in principle

the shaft. On one end of the shaft there is a pinion / which meshes with a rack g that operates the turbine gate, and thus controls the flow of water to the turbine. As the auxiliary motor

has no work to do except to drive part of the governing mechanism, it runs at practically a constant speed; the variations

due to the

rise or fall of

of the total


It will

the water level are so small a percentage water that the speed of this motor is little be assumed then that the speed of gear a is

The speed of gear Cj however, changes practically uniform. with an increase or decrease of the load upon the turbine, and,
as gear c runs faster or slower than gear a, the arm n follows it around one way or the other and thus opens or closes the turbine

it is

The governor shown at B controlled by centrifugal

also has a differential action,


force acting

on a




The governor
is operated by a belt a connected with This belt passes around idler pulleys and over the

the turbine.

wide-faced pulleys b and c. These pulleys, through bevel gearing, drive the differential gearing composed of gears J, e, and/. Gears d and e are loose from their shafts and pinion/ is pivoted on an arm that is keyed to the shaft. Gear e is connected by the
gearing shown with a centrifugal governing device at g. The belt pulley b is conical and the diameter at the center is the same
as that at pulley c. When the turbine is operating at normal the belt is at the center of the conical pulley b and, conspeed,

Fig. 10.


Governing Devices for Water Turbines

sequently, gears d and e revolve at the same rate of speed in opThe result is that the arm carrying pinion / posite directions.

remains stationary.
balls at g

If the turbine begins to

run too



move outward under


belt a



the action of centrifugal force, a mechanism not shown to a smaller part

b. The resulting increase in the speed of gear d causes the arm carrying pinion / and the shaft h to which it is attached to revolve in the same direction as gear d. As a

of the conical pulley

movement, the turbine gate is lowered by means of not shown, and the speed of the turbine wheel is reduced. gearing If the turbine should begin to run more slowly than the normal
result of this



speed, the shifting of belt a by governor g would cause gear d also to revolve slower, thus turning shaft h in the opposite direction and raising the gate.

Another modification of the differential governor is shown by n. This particular type of governor was installed in one of the large power plants at Niagara Falls. It is equipped with two sets of The gears A epicyclic gearing. and B are free to turn on the shaft, but may be retarded by brake bands at E and F. The inner gears C and D are driven by belts
the diagram, Fig.

connected in some

way with

the turbine.


of these belts is

open and the other

crossed, so that the gears revolve in opposite

Fig. ii.


Governing Mechanism controlled by Ratchetoperated Brakes


The brake bands

are so arranged that,

when one

Both of tightens, the other loosens its grip on the brake drum. bands are operated by a shaft G and the tightening of the these
effected by a double ratchet mechanism (not shown) two pawls. One pawl rotates shaft G in one direction having and the other in the opposite direction. When the speed in-



pawl or the other is operated by a flyAs the result of this ball governor driven from the turbine. motion of the pawl, one band is tightened and the other released,
so that one of the gears

creases or decreases, one




degree of friction or is prevented

is held with a greater or less from turning altogether, while


If gear

the other one runs free.




carrying pinion



begin to turn in the

by the brake, the arm same direction in

which gear


turns, whereas,



remains stationary, the

carrying pinion on the end of the shaft will pinion




follow gear


D; consequently, the means of a rack raise or by

lower the turbine gate. This governor depends for its sensitiveness upon the fly-ball governing device, and for its power upon
the open and cross-belts which


be proportioned to transmit

any required amount

of power.

Differential Gearing of Automobiles.


of the important

applications of differential gearing, at the present time, is found on automobiles. The object of transmitting motion from the engine to the rear axle through differential gearing is to give an

equal tractive force to each of the two wheels and, at the same time, permit either of them to run ahead or lag behind the other

may be required in rounding curves or riding over obstructions.
axle is not formed of one solid piece, but





mitted to the right- and left-hand wheels by means of separate sections, the inner ends of which are attached to different members of the differential mechanism.


principle of this




be understood by referring to Fig.


general types of differential gearing are


in this illus-


design at the left


equipped with bevel gearing

is the type generally employed. The propeller shaft extends from the transmission case where speed changes are ob-

which drives the large tained, and revolves the bevel pinion bevel gear M. This gear and the casing to which it is bolted revolve freely on the hub of gears F and E. Attached to the casing are radial pivots on which revolve loosely bevel pinions D. These pinions engage the bevel gears and





which are connected with the


and left-hand
of gear

axles or

shafts T.

Under ordinary conditions, the rotation gears F and E to both revolve at the same
the connecting pinions



rate of speed, since


but do not revolve.


the casing 0, illustrate the action, assume that the


moved around with

wheels are jacked up and are simply revolving in one position;

The differential gearing is ordinarily incorporated in the rear axle. except when power is transmitted to . 12 illustrates the difference in arrangement. if E moreover. the speed of either of the gears is reduced.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS then. 12. These pinions do not extend over as far as the opposite gear so that connection between the gears F and E is from one pinion to the other. when gear On the other hand. say. if the opposite wheel and gear F were held stationary. The action of this form of differential is identical with the bevel pinion type previously described. the rotation of bevel gear on gear E. if 221 held from turning so that. with the result that gear F will revolve twice as fast one wheel is M D as is revolving with it and at the same speed. Each of the bevel pinions is replaced by a pair of spur pinions D connecting with each other and with spur gears E and F. gear E is will roll pinions around stationary. the gear E would run at twice its normal speed. the other side is speeded up a corresponding amount. The diagram at the right in Fig. Automobile Differential Gearing of Bevel and Spur Gear Types While the bevel form of differential gearing is largely used. Fig. as shown by the detailed view. some designs have been equipped with spur gearing.

Speed Regulation through speed of a driven part is Differential Gearing. represents a mechanism for controlling the speed of the bobbins. Fig. Diagram of Mechanism having Differential Gearing through which Speed Changes are Transmitted roving. 13. one of which is indicated at B. it is wound on bobbins and at the After the fiber is . When the two different governed by sources. The diagram. 13. An application of this kind is found on the fly frames used in cotton spinning for drawing out or attenuating the untwisted fiber or drives from Fig. This bobbin receives its motion through a train of gearing connecting with the main shaft of the machine and also through another combination of gearing which is driven by a pair of cone-pulleys successively. in which case the differential in the countershaft. at increased speeds. differential gearing may be used to combine these drives and allow any variations in speed that may be required. attenuated.222 the wheel is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS by means of side chains. same time given a slight twist. by passing it between different pairs of rolls which move.

As each successive added. the speed of the bobbin depends first upon the speed of bevel gear E. The roving passes from the rolls to the flyer. The differential is gear and cam combination described in the following used on fly-frames in conjunction with the same general class of mecha- . This change of speed is transmitted to the bobbin through the differential gearing referred to by shifting the belt Differential on the cone-pulleys. shaft is wound upon The main rolls. and also upon the speed of gear D. which cones. and entering the top of its hollow spindle. so as to cover is its entire surface. but the bobbin has a higher velocity and. The flyer of the flyer H driven at a M and bobbin revolve in the same direction. is threaded down through one arm of the flyer and then wound on the bobbin. and its speed layer relative to that of the flyer must be decreased in order to pre- vent breaking the roving. Bevel gear F which meshes with by the pinions carried by gear is loose on shaft 5 and is connected D D through gearing with the bobbin B. The cone C and is the rolls move at a constant speed. produce The roving is wound on the bobbin in successive helical layers may be varied by shifting the position Any variations in the relative speeds of the belt D on the and E by means constant speed by gear on shaft S. is driven from the lower cone C\ which is connected This gear belt with the upper cone. the bobbin increases in diameter. which is constant.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS for decreasing the it 223 speed of the bobbin as the roving is and the diameter increases. for that reason. will of gears twice the variations in the speed of the bobbin. draws the roving from the flyer and winds it in successive layers as the bobbin travels up and down. On the shaft S there is a bevel gear E. and the roving at a uniform rate of speed." The large gear to the arm of the gear corresponds delivered by the rolls D train. driven through shaft S and is one of which by pulley A and motion is transmitted the gearing shown to the cone C and the indicated at the upper part of the diagram. since it carries the two intermediate bevel pinions J and K. which is one of the gears of an " differential epicyclic train that is commonly known as the motion. With this arrangement. Gear and Cam Combination.

a motion employed in connection with a shifting belt and cone- pulleys for changing the speed of the bobbins. 14. but gear A has a somewhat smaller number of teeth. Fig. Differential Gear and Cam Combination on one C. 13. the secured to sleeve E. This from the is differential ordinarily used in that mechanism it has no differential epicyclic train of gearing. 14) which crown gear C driving gear F. This cam is driven from the lower belt-cone of the machine which is connected with gear H. which carries the bobbin is position. A position of intermediate gear D is changed so that different teeth . ber of teeth as the intermediate gear D. As previously explained. the between gear . The differential action is obtained. attached to the main driving shaft B. If cam G were revolving at the same speed as gear A the same teeth on gears A and D would remain in contact and the entire gear combination would act practically the same as a clutch. which is mounted on a spherical seat and engages gears A and C at points diametrically opposite. The differential action is obtained by the relative motions and cam G. by means of a crown gear A (Fig. As soon as the speed of the cam differs from that of gear A. D side meshes with gear allows the intermediate crown gear spherical bearing to swivel in any direction. in this case. so that a small part of the gear This double crown gear operates in an oblique meshes with gear A Fig. and it is held in position by a cam side and a small part on the other The The gear C has the same numsurface on the edge of sleeve G. and the double crown gear D.224 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS illustrated nism differs by the diagram.

the speed of gears and extent of the differential motion depends upon cam G. for cutting successive teeth. the speed of gear C is also reduced. This machine operates on the same general principle as a universal milling machine when the latter is used for cutting spiral gears. This cone-pulley is also connected with change gearing worm for which transmits motion to the indexing G and the work at a rate suitable the required helix angle. On a certain kind of gear-cutting machine. 15. as the speed of is cam G nism are quiet operation and reduction Differential of friction. however. As D C increases. for generating the helical and indexing the work form integral parts' of the machine. the speed transmitted to gear C is either increased or decreased. Mechanism of Gear-cutting Machine. reduced. teeth The mechanism.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS are 225 successively engaged. a differential mechanism is employed so that when cutting spiral gears the rotary motion Fig. As the result of this differential action. Application of Differential Gearing for Combining Rotary Motions for generating helical teeth will be combined with the rotary motion for indexing the work. machine is The screw which of the feeds the cutter-slide along the horizontal bed driven from cone-pulley (see Fig. The advantages claimed for this mechainversely.gears generating F K for revolving wheel . These change. The the difference between the speeds of gear A and this difference diminishes. since the motion from gear A is lost as the result of differential action. 15) through D connecting shafts and gears.

thus revolving worm K. if the indexing mechanism is stationary and the cutter- N slide feeding. Bevel gear / is attached to the shaft connecting with the change-gears at H. As will be seen.226 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS same purpose as those used on a universal milling connecting the spiral head with the table feedThe worm-wheel G is not only used for rotating the work for F serve the machine screw. the change-gears at H may be operated for in- dexing. the movement thus imparted to shaft M may be transmitted to bevel gear / around the stationary and impart motion to gear L. motion being transmitted from gear J to L through as idlers. 16. if shaft is M driven M stationary. Crane equipped with Differential Hoisting Mechanism shown Diagrammatically in Fig. in order to generate the helix. attached to a hollow sleeve upon which worm are carried by an arm attached to shaft M. The action of this differthrough change-gears " mechanism or " jack-in-the-box is such that. consisting of bevel gears with a shaft leading to the differential or epicyclic / and L with intermediate pinions N. whereas the opposite bevel gear L Fig. bevel pinions K N This shaft ential is cutter-slide connecting with the by worm-wheel F. The way these two motions are imparted to wheel with each other will now be explained. G without interfering The change-gears nect at for controlling the indexing movement con- H gearing. but for indexing as well. 17 is The is mounted. it roll worm K as pinions N . On the other pinions hand.

the cutter is dropped down to clear the work and returned for milling another tooth groove. As the cutter feeds across the gear blank. 16. After a tooth groove is finished. of utilizing differential action to two chains attached to the crane hook. These chains may be wound upon their respective drums either in opposite direcwinding drum C. The indexing mechanism is then tripped by hand and the work is rotated sufficiently Fig. and worm K.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS would be possible with rotate it for 227 this mechanism to index the generating helical teeth independently. An ingenious method Mechanism. a helical groove is generated by the rotary motion derived from change-gears F. 17. . vary the speed of a hoisting mechanism is illustrated by the diagram. work and The two motions can also be operated together or combined without interare connected through a oneference. Fig. The change-gears at H revolution friction trip with the main driving shaft. The other chain trolley pulley to the left. and then down to a drum located back of drum C. the differential gearing. shaft M. which repreThere are sents the crane to which this mechanism is applied. Differential Hoisting Mechanism for the next successive tooth by the change-gears at H acting through the differential gearing and Differential Hoisting worm K. One of these chains A passes over a pulley on the trolley and over pulley B to the D passes upward over its and over pulley E to pulley F.

if motor the drums in opposite directions and raise or lower the hook On the other hand. the effect will be to raise or lower the hoisting hook. The bevel gears with N which the pinions mesh are loose on their shafts. the if drums rotate in the same direction and at equal speed. Motor / drives the worm-wheels in opposite L directions and bevel also the attached other gears. 18. 17. and at varying rates of speed. M drives the spur and the upper The inter- bemediate pinions tween the bevel gears revolve on arms Q which are keyed to the shafts of their respective drums. K . With this is stationary. The motor K Fig.228 tions or in the If MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS same direction. with motor / as previously explained. The mechanism for operating the two hoisting drums is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. Differential Speed Indicator gears bevel gears. thus causing the hook and its load to be carried horizontally without raising or lowering it. both drums are rotated in opposite directions at the same speed. and given by the other. motor / will drive arrangement. the off chain will be taken in by . Any difference in the speed of the two drums when mov- ing either in the same or opposite to directions will evidently cause the hook move both vertically and horizontally at the same time. There are two electric motors / and K.

cylindrical rollers. inasmuch as any slipping of a belt would affect the action of the may be obtained. the spherical ball will rotate about a transverse horizontal axis and will carry the wheel E vertically up or down. and on the ends of these shafts are mounted belt pulleys C. It is equipped with two one roller is shown at A and the other is lo- cated in a similar position on the opposite side of the vertical center line. in Fig. motor K will operate the drums in the same direction and move the crane hook horizontally. This instrument is said to be very sensitive as of speed variations. For instance. the ball will rotate about some inclined axis and wheel will direction of If either of E naturally turn so that its axis is parallel to that about which the sphere rotates. While this degree of sensitiveness it would seem preferable to transmit the motion from the driving shaft by some positive drive instead of by belts. The movement will be indicated by the pointer F. .ooi inch in the diameter of driving pulleys having a nominal diameter an indicator of 2 1 inches cari be detected. As these motors may be reversed or operated together at varying speeds. as the case may be. This roller is mounted on an arm fixed roller D E to a spindle is which is free to rotate and to the outer end of which attached the pointer F* When both the supporting rollers A are driven at the same speed and in the same direction. the supporting rollers runs faster than the other. Each roller A is in contact with a spherical steel ball B three inches in diameter. device which shows variations of speed between two rotating parts is shown.DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS 229 stationary. This indicator Differential operates on the differential principle. indicator. any desired combination of movements and speeds for the hook and its load may be obtained. The axes of the roller shafts are in the same vertical plane. The ball is held in position by a small stop at the rear and by a small at the front. it is claimed that a difference in the speed of the rollers due to a Variation of o. A sensitive speed-indicating Speed Indicator. partly in section. These pulleys are connected with the shafts the relative speeds of which are to be compared. 18.

trips are used to disconnect a at a predetermined point. The three mechanical . some design of clutch is generally used to disconnect the driven member from the driver or source of power. whereas others act once and then must be re-set by hand preparatory to another The application of disengaging mechanisms With some classes of machinery. action is automatic. matic trip of some form is used to stop the machine completely after it has performed a certain operation or cycle of movedisengagement. in order to avoid (When a feeding motion must be disconnected at a certain point within close limits. not only to prefeeding vent the tool from feeding too far. in case there is an unusual resistance to motion. an autogreatly.) devices is to safeguard the mechanism by stopping either tripping the entire machine or a part of it. it is common practice to use some form of positive stop for locating a slide or carriage after the feeding movement has been discontinued by a trip The function of some acting through suitable mechanism. the operator to watch the machine constantly. 230 jurious strains. and be adjustable operate periodically or at regular intervals. which might subject the machine to in- methods of arresting motion which are most commonly employed are by means of clutches.CHAPTER IX CLUTCHES AND TRIPPING MECHANISMS THE different devices used for controlling motion which is transmitted by various kinds of mechanism may either be for varying the time of disengagement. Tripping and disengaging devices also vary in that some manually or automatically operated. and by the disengagement of gearing. varies ments. but to make it unnecessary for spoiling work. or non-adjustable so that the tripping action occurs at the same point in the cycle of operations. On many machine movement tools. by shifting When the tripping belts.

TRIPPING MECHANISMS 231 The controlled in various ways. or positive clutches. tensively for this purpose. such as a cam connected by suitable means with the shifting clutch member. those which transmit motion from No the driving to the driven part of the clutch by frictional contact. and also the means of governing the time at which disen- gagement takes place when such engagement is automatically As various tripping devices are controlled. or upon some other factor. namely. will be dealt with. or automatically by the action of some power- driven mechanical apparatus. attempt will be made to describe all classes. and the necessity of eliminating shocks in starting. The common types which are made in a great variety of deof clutches may be divided into two general classes. The method dropped out of mesh when the feeding action of controlling motion may depend of the driving and driven members. the chapter of on " Reversing Mechanisms " shows additional applications automatic tripping appliances. but rather to il15 A . but are very generally used to control the starting is action of the clutch or stopping of an entire machine. is by a worm which is is discontinued. such as the inertia of the driven part or the frequency with upon the speed which starting and stopping is required. Shifting belts are not ordinarily applied to machines as a part of the regular mechanism. A are engaged or disengaged either at will by a hand-operated controlling device. and (2). form of coupling which is designed to connect or disconnect a driving or driven member for starting or stopping the driven clutch consists principally of two main sections which part. used in conjunction with reversing mechanisms to change the direction of motion. A clutch is a Controlling Motion by Means of Clutches. There are several distinct types of clutches signs. instead of stopping it entirely. (i) those having teeth which interlock. In considering some of the more common forms of mechanical devices ot the class used for starting and stopping. the types of mechanisms employed to disconnect driving and driven members. clutches are also used ex- Gearing which engaged to start or stop a driven member is Feeding mechanisms of some types have a worm-wheel driven engaged or disused in some cases.

There are other differ in forms of positive clutches which or tooth type is regard to the shapes of the teeth or the angle of the engaging surfaces. Two examples of the positive or tooth clutches are shown at A and B in Fig. The positive used when it is not objectionable to start the the resistance to motion is driven member suddenly and when into engagement. The movable part to engage or disengage it is ordinarily of a forked lever c which may be operated either hand or mechanically. Many clutches of this general type have straight instead of tapering teeth. Motion is transmitted from part g to k by the frictional resistance of the conical surfaces. One part a part b is of the clutch is fast to one shaft. This lever has prongs which either by shifting of the done by means engage a groove in the shifting member or are pivoted to a ring d which fits into the groove. so that it revolves free to move in a lengthwise direction. i. or in the form of one or more flat rings or disks.232 lustrate MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS some of the more common types and include a few special forms as examples indicating variations in clutch design. The effectiveness of any friction clutch as a transmitter of power . not so great as to cause teeth an injurious shock each time the clutch come Friction Clutches. whereas the other with it. i that incline to The form illustrated at A has teeth with sides make them engage or disengage more readily. the arrangement in either case allowing the clutch to revolve between the U-shaped prongs. When motion is transmitted from the driving to the driven parts of a clutch simply by frictional con- tact. the load may be started gradually and without shock. Fig. ent types of friction clutches vary in regard to the form of the friction surfaces and with respect to the kinds of material used to obtain sufficient frictional resistance. What member is commonly known as a " saw-tooth " clutch is il- lustrated at B. such The differas often occurs when a positive clutch is engaged. The frictional sur- faces may be either conical or cylindrical. This type is very easily engaged but the driving can only be rotated in one direction. simple design of conical clutch is A illustrated at C. keyed but is to the opposite shaft section. .

The cast iron and leather comcommon. 233 between the en- may both be of metal. is the natural tendency for a heavy . It is common practice to maintain the driving and driven members of friction clutches in engagement by means of springs which are compressed in order to release the clutch. One of the disadvantages of a large clutch. gaged but. in many cases. aside from the increase in weight and the space which it occupies. (C and D) Friction Clutches tional resistance. The conical type of friction clutch is simple in construction but rather bulky or large when compared with other types of equal capacity as transmitters of power. one member has a metal surface and the other is partially or entirely covered with some material such as frictional surfaces The leather or bination in -one is an asbestos fabric.TRIPPING MECHANISMS varies with the coefficient or degree of friction surfaces. (A and B) Positive Clutches. i. The angle of the conical surfaces is usually about 12 or 13 degrees. and pieces of cork inserted in holes drilled is member another common method of increasing fric- Fig.

in turn. When the sliding collar engages the ends of the toggle levers. The rings A and B are not rigidly attached to the outer casing. and the outer ring E is connected to the toggle mechanism shown. the details of the design being varied more less. The two expanders and the toggle mechanism are caused to revolve with the shaft by a central driving hub q. are connected to the sliding sleeve p. in this particular case.234 rotating MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS body to continue in motion. but are driven around with the casing by keys or feathers. The clutch is operated by shifting the sliding sleeve and toggles as indicated by the full and dotted lines. some classes of machinery. is of For instance.and left-hand threads far enough to either expand the inner members tightly against the outer casing or to withdraw them from frictional contact. respectively. This clutch consists of an outer casing j in which there are two expanders or segment-shaped pieces connected by rightand left-hand screws at k and /. is keyed to the shaft. in Fig. Expanding Type The i is radially expanding type of clutch illustrated at or D in Fig. The expanders referred to are lined with maple grips. automobile clutches are equipped with a brake which is interconnected with the foot pedal and only comes into action when the clutch is disengaged. 2 has shown two friction rings A and B which are gripped between flange C and the rings D and E when the clutch is in engagement. to increase the frictional resistance. this movement turns the screws having right. of Friction Clutch. a form that has been used very generally. when a quite large in diameter heavy clutch. which. driving rings D and E are free to move along the hub. which might be objectionable on some To avoid trouble from this source. The driving plates or rings D and E are keyed to the hub of The two flange C and this hub. thus forming toggles between the sleeve and the screws. is revolving rapidly and is disengaged in order to either stop or reduce the speed of the driven member. The type of friction clutch Ring or Plate Clutches. out- . which necessity made to obtain the required amount of frictional surface. in turn. by links n. it may continue to revolve for some time after disengagement. These screws are attached to levers w.

thus giving two frictional also other modifications of this type. These The . instance. compact clutch.TRIPPING MECHANISMS side driving plate 235 which forces back against flange moves back against the driven plate the central driving plate D and the driven plate E B A C four frictional surfaces. The engine flywheel A transmits motion through keys to the driving disks B. Some clutches of this general type have one ring which is gripped between a stationary and movable ring. thus engaging The two driven rings A and B contain wooden inserts or blocks to increase the frictional resistance. the diameter of the clutch may surfaces. The driving member of the clutch has a number of disks which alternate with other disks connected to the driven member. with considerable pressure. Multiple-disk By using quite a number of disks or rings instead of one or two. For One set of disks may be of soft steel and the other set of phos- phor-bronze. 3. has been referred to. some disks are provided with cork inserts. or some other combination may be employed. of the smaller and more on automobiles. Plate or Ring Clutch be reduced without sacrificing the contact area or the amount of frictional surface. Clutches. to general arrangement of a multiple-disk clutch as applied an automobile is illustrated in Fig. especially The advantage Clutches of the disk type are now applied to many automobiles. 2. There are n Fig.

While most clutches are engaged and disengaged by mechanical means. Some disk clutches. generally enclosed in an oil-tight case. While the clutch disks D where the speed changes must revolve with their respective driving and driven members. do not " " clutches have one operate in an oil bath. The pressure required to force all the disks into contact is derived from a spring E. 3. however. transmits its motion through a connecting shaft to the gear set enclosed in casing are obtained. in turn. commulpressed air or water under pressure may be employed. These dry-plate series or set of disks which is faced with some special friction material. disks alternate with the driven disks which engage keys on drum this drum. The clutch is controlled by a pedal attached to lever F which releases the Fig. Pneumatically-operated Multiple-disk Clutch. such as asbestos-wire fabric. they are free to move laterally.236 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS C. so that all the disks may be firmly pressed together in order to engage the clutch. Multiple-disk Clutch applied to Automobile Transmission spring for engaging the clutch and compresses the spring for Clutches of this kind are releasing the pressure on the disks. so that the disks can be kept well lubricated. A .

Pneumatically-operated Multiple-disk Clutch is admitted back of the circular piston H . 4. The clutch mechanism shown in Fig. but the difficulties multiply as weight and speed are increased. The clutch may also be operated by water under It is sometimes Multiple-disk Clutch equipped with Brake. The sleeve F is with a stuffing-box and gland at each end to prevent provided the escape of air. . and through which air Fig. which holds the disks engaged. the problem is relatively simple. engages Fig. 5 has proved very efficient for the class of service mentioned. The disks are enclosed in the casing by cover E which is bolted Surroundto casing B and is free to turn on the driven shaft D. and in synchronism with other moving parts. pneumatic operation is shown in has keyed to it casing B. necessary to start and stop machines or certain parts of machines smoothly. with great rapidity. which is connected at G with a pipe for supplying the compressed air.TRIPPING MECHANISMS tiple-disk clutch designed for 237 driving shaft six friction disks C. The annular groove in the center of this sleeve connects with a hole that extends to the end of the driving shaft. 4. it. With light or slow moving apparatus. The A ing the driving shaft is a sleeve F. This sleeve remains stationary and the shaft firmly together when the clutch is revolves in pressure. which These disks alternate with an equal number connecting with a hub attached to the driven shaft D.

The two clutches are is. while the other disks have external projections loosely fitting the internal slots of the driving and braking clutch drums. When it is considered that the clutch drum is driven at only 340 revolutions per will minute. but not to turn. makes three revolutions and comes of to rest again in three-fifths second. one set is preferably faced with friction fabric. device consists essentially of two multiple-disk friction clutches of the dry type mounted tandem on a single sleeve The which is fitted to slide. As both clutches are mounted on the same sleeve. in reality. the sleeve be- comes the driven member of the driving clutch and the driving member of the brake clutch. and the outer part of the driving clutch is continuously driven. Both the clutch drums are built in skeleton form to facilitate the egress of material wearing off the friction facings. The projecting lugs on the disks are reinforced to provide greater bearing surface on the sides of the slots in which they travel. that The driving clutch is B. at the usual form for disk clutches.238 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS This design of clutch is used on a machine transmitting a load of 20 horsepower and operating about 3600 times per day. one keyed to the driving member and the other to the driven member. or at an average rate 300 revolutions per minute. One series of disks in a set is provided with internal projections to engage longitudinal slots on the sleeve. The driven member of the brake clutch is solidly bolted to the frame of the machine of which the clutch constitutes a part. so that. The absence of shock may be attributed to the perfect cushioning of the pressure applied to the clutch and to the liberal friction area provided. and the engagement is only a fraction of a second. there being nearly a square inch for each pound of pull at the average radius of the disks. it be seen that the slip is very slight indeed. this clutch but acts as a brake to bring the sleeve to rest when engaged. with two al- ternate series of disks. is it is not driven. and to . on a shaft that is di- rectly coupled to the intermittent load. shown at built A up in and the brake clutch. under unusually trying conditions. This machine picks up its load from dead rest. without the slightest shock or effort.

the disks of of the sleeve flanges one of the clutches will be clamped between one and the head of one of the clutch drums. when it is moved endwise. if the facings are allowed to become entirely dry. illustration. while the pressure on the disks of the other clutch will be reMovement of the sleeve in the opposite direction will leased.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 239 permit of the easy application of castor oil to the facings. together with a . they will be less durable. The actual movement of the sleeve which engages and disengages the clutches is derived from two opposed pneumatic cylinders and the connections shown. If this treatment is not neglected. 5. It will be apthat the cylinders must work alternately. The distribution of air is controlled by two valves. In the The controlling mechanism is operated pneumatically and may be made automatic by connecting with other moving parts to actuate the valves. Fig. or with the driving clutch disengaged and the brake clutch set. The sleeve is provided with a flange on each end so that. but. that is. a set of facings may last two years or more in constant service. Quick-acting Multiple-disk Clutch and Brake Combination release the disks of the first clutch and clamp those of the second. when one parent is under pressure the other must be open or free to exhaust. the parts are shown in the position of rest.

and it and opening to exhaust. the slowness of the electrical operation " build up. the shaft stopping within a few degrees of the same position every the friction disks or their facings is automatically compensated for by additional travel of the pneumatic pistons. 6 is equipped with an electrically operated brake which acts automatically when the clutch is reThe leased. around the stem. the control may be somewhat remote and placed in any convenient position. and is open continu" " ously. The automatic brake. time. This plate which is prevented from coming directly carries the armature into contact with the magnetizing coil by a ring of frictional material at F. and also of moving the clutch sleeve by means of magnets. The hub C on the driven shaft has attached to it a flexible spring-steel disk or plate D. and the ends of the band . which is made of woven asbestos and brass wire. to the top of the other valve for forcing it cutting off the air supply of the cylinder it serves." being due to the time required for the magnets to The drift of the shaft after the operation of the stopping valve has been found to be very small and practically constant. which nected with is H of the band type. small hole near the live-air inlet leads to the annular space below the valve proper. which is provided with a driving shaft carries the field A magnetizing coil B. " up " position. but both have been found far less efficient and much slower than air. Any wear on The magMagnetic Clutch with Automatic Band Brake. Experiments have been made to determine the practicability of operating the valves magnetically. compressed air is free to pass through the pipe to one of the cylinders down. so that mechanical adjustments are rarely required. engages drum /. in order to stop the driven part as quickly as possible. netic clutch illustrated in Fig. As the only connections between the controlling A valves and the cylinders are pipes. The ends of the winding of the magnetizing coil are attached to E the rings G which are in contact with a pair of brushes conthe electrical circuit. This friction ring. provides a frictional surface for driving.240 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS With the valves in the series of interconnecting pipes. admitting air to hold the valve in the up position when so placed.

As soon as the circuit is broken. The plunger of are pivoted to lever a solenoid enclosed in cylinder L is attached to lever K. The solenoid is also energized so that lever released. The induction clutch shown in Fig. This spider runs loose on the shaft and its hub carries a pinion through which power of hub . The the driven member and it is held by a spider A . 6. 7 is Induction Clutch. Magnetic Clutch equipped with Automatic Band Brake which operates when Clutch releases is held in circular form and out of contact with the drum by a spring and rod 0. the clutch is released. the clutch similar in its operation to an induction motor. In the operation of this clutch. K is pulled upward and the band brake about drum / This brake Fig. so that motion is transmitted between the driving and driven shafts.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 241 at two points as shown. and the solenoid allows the weighted lever to fall. and at the outer end of this lever there is a weight which serves to apply the brake K when the clutch is disengaged. The magnetic attraction between this coil and the armature causes the friction ring F to be held firmly against the driving member. K thus supplying the brake automatically to the driven part. the current is gradually admitted to the magnetizing coil by means of a rheostat. This particular form of clutch copper ring the is C is applied to an electrically-driven planer. This feature is of particular advantage when the driven side of is connected to some part which tends to revolve quite a long time after disengagement. which contains the bushing b.

and the other for the return and a switch worked by dogs admits a small current to one clutch on the cutting stroke and to the other clutch on the return stroke. a high conductivity and. which acts also as a flywheel. Two of these clutches Fig. treadle is held down. This ring has.treadle. The induction clutch transmits power without contact between its driving and driven members. and the has running clearance beis nonmagnetic. because of this fact and its position it is with relation to the revolving magnetic driving member. The clutches used Clutches that Automatically Disengage. member which shaft. one for the cutting stroke. pulled along by this driving member on the same principle as that of the induction motor. if the treadle is released. since C it tendency to be drawn over towards the poles on either side. 7- Induction Clutch which operates on the Principle of the Induction Motor are employed. and. the clutch is disengaged when the ram or slide of the press is approximately . by pressing down a foot. whenever As long as this it is tripped. however. on power presses are designed to automatically disengage after making one or more revolutions. it has no D. the clutch remains in engagement and the press continues to run. the coil G. The copper and tween castings E ring F. consists of the two-part steel castings collector rings E and F.242 is MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS All the other parts shown belong to the driving is keyed to the continuously running motor transmitted. The clutch connects the flywheel or driving gear of the press with the driven shaft. This driving member.

8 shows a clutch a key which is engaged or disengaged with having the hub A of the flywheel.TRIPPING MECHANISMS at the top of its stroke. when the treadle is released. This clutch is equipped with a safety device to prevent the ram or slide of the press from descending unexpectedly while setting dies or making adjustments. the press will make one revolution before stopping. Ring F has an extension arm that enables it to be turned readily. of the type Automatic Clutches of the Key Type. the press will continue to run. When the press slide is at the top of its stroke and dog D is up. key Type and when key C comes into contact with the dog.treadle. 8. but if the treadle is held downward. key. then the key C is forced downward into engagement with the flywheel by a strong When spring E. thus preventing accidental engagement of the clutch. This safety device consists of a steel ring F having a keyway or slot in it for receiving the key C. the locking device encounters some form of trip or cam surface which withdraws it and stops the press. or 243 of the treadle The downward movement some other form of locking device which quickly engages the driving member. This key A extends across the shaft clutch is A and. Fig. Automatic Clutch of Shiftingdog D is forced up. This flywheel revolves freely on the shaft is until the dog D pulled down by the action of the foot. If the treadle is depressed released. thus allow- leased. releases a pin. it is pushed back into the shaft. shown in Fig. There are many to be described designs of clutches of this general type and the examples will illustrate the general principles governing their operation. the key is entirely within the shaft and may be held in this position by turning ring F. 9 that has a rocking key instead of one that moves radially. when the press is not in motion. the and then ing the flywheel to again run freely. the foot-treadle is resteel Fig. the key rests in a semi- .

the latter. Automatic Clutch of Turning-key Type treadle is immediately released. is example of the cam type of clutch having a series of eccentric or to the crankshaft. the lever B at one end of the key is in en- When in this gagement with the latch C. cam surfaces. by making a quarter turn in its seat. a wedging action of some automatic clutches are engaged by locking member between cam or eccentric surfaces. Some designs of Clutches Engaged by a Wedging Action. thus allowing latch of C to swing back to the vertical position. If the Fig. which is connected with the footAs soon as latch C is swung out of the way by deprestreadle. instead of is employing pins or keys. sing the treadle. Fig. 10. 9. position. and surrounding this keyed An A cam a. When the flywheel has turned far enough to bring one of the recesses F opposite the key. engages the recess and locks the flywheel and shaft together. .244 circular seat MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS and occupies the position shown in the end view. it will engage lever around and force this lever and the key back out B when it comes engagement with the flywheel. lever B and the key tend to turn as they are acted upon by the compressed spring E. shown at A.

there is the rollers are carried around by the action of the flywheel until they are wedged tightly between the cam surfaces and the outer ring d\ the crankshaft is then driven with the flywheel and continues to revolve until lever e is released and. On the a lug / which is in engagement with the As soon lever e when the press is not in operation. k inserted in a recess in the hub of the flywheel. The ring ring is split and compressed somewhat so as to exert a pressure against the wall of the recess. Fig. When the stop 5 is in engagement with . by a hardened tool steel ring d. pivoted stop as the stop lever is drawn downward by means of the foot pedal. These parts are inserted in a recess formed in the slotted ring c. which. The design of clutch illustrated at solid B is equipped with an ec- centric h member which with the crankshaft and a wedge-shaped j which serves to lock the flywheel and crankshaft This wedge j is located between the eccentric and a together. hub of the flywheel. 10. Automatic Clutches of the Cam or Wedging Type throws the rollers rollers out of engagement.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 245 cam there is are surrounded a slotted ring c containing rollers 6. by striking stop /. in turn. The slotted ring c has a spring attached to leased it (not shown) which turns the ring and toward the high points of the cam when the ring is re- by the lowering is of lever e.

" When is clutches are engaged usually controlled either carrier or disengaged automatically. The chain drum is revolved by means of change gearing for varying the speed according to requirements. rolls . the ring k expands. Variable Control by "Pattern or Chain. their action by cams some form of revolving having one or more lugs or dogs that engage the clutch- operating lever. When stop 5 is withdrawn. A similar clutch and gear combiupper rolls c nation The located at g for driving the lower set of delivery rolls. and the is lower clutch. the flywheel. both sets of being rotated while the yarns are being twisted together between the knots. The action of these clutch levers is governed by a pattern chain / suspended on a drum m. The by controlling the action of two sets of lower rolls r and s of each set support the and d. By changing the position of the rolls or risers of the pattern chain. with lever j pivoted at k. The clutch gears are rotated continuously. expansion ring. and the delivery rolls are only stopped when a knob or knot is being formed.246 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS pin w. chain come revolves. When the foot pedal is released and stop s engages pin n the ring contracts and remains stationary while the flywheel continues to eccentric h y revolve. consequently. the flywheel simply revolves about the expansion ring k. and. the wedge j is forced between the and the inside of the ring. the rollers of the pattern into engagement with the lower ends of the clutch this As drum levers. thus shifting the clutches in and out of engagement. illustrated at The in Fig. upper clutch is connected with lever q pivoted at h. as it begins to revolve with the flywheel. The surface at shaft is stopped when Clutch serves as a brake. in the yarn are obtained delivery rolls. so that the crankthe slide is approximately at the top of m its stroke. Splined to the end of roll r is a shifting clutch member e which revolves the roll when engaged with the clutch teeth on the hub of gear/. and the shaft are firmly locked together. ingenious method of controlling clutches A n is applied to a textile machine known as The variations a " twister " and used for producing fancy yarns. the pattern of the yarn may be varied and different fancy effects be obtained.

drum or cylinder e carrying the clutch controlling chain Above this chain. The pin / connecting the link and lever engages a slot in bellcrank m. Mechanisms equipped with Endless Chains for Engagement and Disengagement of Clutches Controlling /. of shaft a carries a clutch member b. Shaft d. The vertical shaft a is driven through bevel gearing The upper end (not shown) at the lower end. 1 1 . The 16 A action of the mechanism is as follows: When the clutch . ii. is connected with Fig.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 247 Another application of an endless chain for controlling the engagement and disengagement of a clutch at predetermined This mechanism is applied intervals is illustrated at B. from the driving shaft of the loom. Fig. the movements of which are controlled by a spring n and a connector o which extends to another part of the machine. there is a lever g pivoted at h and connected by link i with another lever j pivoted at k. The vertical slot in the chain lever m has a short horizontal section at the upper end. which is en- gaged by the shifting clutch member c splined to shaft d. to a loom. through the bevel and spur gearing shown.

the bellcrank lever swings over under the action of spring n. members when one thus locating pin q in the upper part of the annular groove of the shifting clutch member. may consist simply of a stop a part having a rectilinear which is placed in such a position that it will disengage a clutch after the part under the control of the trip has moved the required distance. of the connector are controlled by another chain which operates on the same general principle as the one Tripping Mechanisms. The following . If a rotary motion is involved. to the right. The link p on the pattern chain is no longer under the roller of lever g. if for motion. or it may only act when a machine begins to operate under abnormal conditions. thus stopping the rotation of shaft d. the chain drum and chain revolve. by the engagement of pin / with the horizontal slot The clutch remains disengaged until the in bellcrank lever m. The adjustable form of trip. m The movements referred to.248 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS are engaged. As soon as the lever j is raised. the action may be governed by variations of pressure or resistance to motion. tripping mechanisms are applied to various kinds of machinery to stop the movement either of the entire machine or of some part of it. a projection engages pin q and disconnects the clutch. the lower lever j is raised. the same principle may be applied with whatever modification of the mechanism the trip is is is designed to act automatically only when necessary. When the machine operating under adverse conditions. The trip may be adjustable and be set beforehand to act after a certain part has moved a given distance. and of the links p engages lever g. What are known as " " Automatic tripping devices generally operate in conjunction with a clutch. but this lever is still held in the upper position. thus connector o swings the vertical part of lever allowing the upper clutch member c to reengage the lower part. or the product on which the machine is working may cause the trip to act in case the operation is not as it should be. As soon as pin / at the end of lever 7* reaches the upper end of the vertical slot. thus engaging pin m / with the horizontal part of the slot and locking the lever j in the upper position. or they are used to disengage intermeshing gears.

Fig. which is engaged by some propart/ on the carriage. Fig. 12. form of automatic trip which serves to disengage worm gearing instead of a clutch. Simple Forms of Automatic Tripping Mechanisms carries jecting an adjustable stop collar e. Obviously. of automatic tripping mechanisms is One of the simplest forms at A. tripping mechanisms Trip which Disengages a Clutch. the clutch-shifting type which differ from the kind described in regard to the details of the mechanism for shifting the clutch. The worm g revolves worm- . when this engagement occurs.TRIPPING MECHANISMS examples bilities of 249 will illustrate a few of the applications and the possiof different types. 12. illustrated diagrammatically This general type is applied to some classes of The shifting member of this clutch is operated d. the point at which disengagement occurs depends upon the position of stop collar e which is set in accordance with the length There are other trip mechanisms of of the part to be turned. the rod is shifted in a lengthwise direction. thus throwing the clutch out of mesh and stopping the feeding movement. which may be slide at a predetermined point. 12. by a lever c the lower end of which connects with rod This rod extends along the bed a distance equivalent to the carriage movement and Fig. machine tools for disengaging the feeding movements of a toolThe tool-slide. the carriage of an engine lathe. is moved along the bed by a feed-screw a or a splined rod which is rotated through a clutch b. Diagram B. Trip illustrates a which Disengages Gearing.

13 shows a side elevation and plan of an automatic stop or trip for a verticalspindle drilling machine. Lever g n. When the adjustable and swings it about attached to the work table. will m The point of this engagement may Some of the trip operate on this by simply changing the position of the trip dog mechanisms on vertical drilling machines same general principle. by disengaging a friction The feeding movement is transmitted to the spindle from the friction gear c to the disk d and through worm gearing at k to a pinion meshing with rack / attached to the spindle sleeve. worm by is carried by an dog n. lever/. the pawl may be prevented from engaging the gear teeth of the ratchet wheel after the latter has turned a predetermined is is intermittent and amount. 3). . shaft a.250 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS This wheel h and the table feed-screw. Fig. the worm g drops out of engagement with worm-wheel h and the feeding motion stops. If the feeding movement obtained through ratchet gearing. which operates clutch. are of the same principle as those described. be varied at n. Automatic Stops for Drilling Machine. Any wear in the friction clutch is compensated for by adjusting set-screw j in the end of connecting link e. quired. thus releasing lever g and the friction gear c. used on machine tools for controlling feedtype Many different designs of especially of the ing movements. through link e. in that trip dogs are attached either directly to the driven mem- ber or to some auxiliary mechanism such as a revolving disk geared to the driven part. The position of friction gear c is controlled by hand lever g which. and collar b moves the friction gear in or out of engagement with disk d. strikes lever pivot p. and these dogs stop the feeding movement either by disengaging a clutch or gearing. in An example of this type of tripping device is described Chapter VI (see Fig. arm j pivoted lever / at k and held in position the engagement of trip with a notch in lever m. automatic tripping mechanisms. is held in the engaged position by the latch or trigger collar h is set An adjustable stop by means of graduations to automatically disengage the feed after a hole has been drilled to whatever depth is reThis collar acts by simply striking the end of latch n.

13. for facing or similar operations. 13. after a hole has drilled. When the /. gear g is disengaged. Ordinarily. Automatic Stop or Tripping Mechanisms of Vertical-spindle Drilling Machines Lever c controls the engagement of worm e with wheel whereas d serves to disengage the bevel gear g. been hand-feed lever. worm is cut of mesh. but this does not leave the spindle free for rapid adjustment. Another form of tripping device for a vertical-spindle drilling machine is illustrated at B. The dog b may be swung so as to engage either levers c or d\ as shown in the plan view. or it may be utilized to disengage miter gear g is which drives the worm-shaft. This stop may be set to disengage the worm e from the worm-wheel on the pinion shaft.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 251 Duplex Automatic Tripping Mechanism. The auto- matic tripping mechanism shown in Fig. Fig. Adjustable Dial Type of Tripping Mechanism. the spindle may be moved vertically by the position. 14 is applied to Colburn drilling machines and may be adjusted to disengage the down- . it is in the latter Fig. The attached to a bracket or arm a clamped to the tripping dog feed rack on the sleeve.

14. 7 inches of tripped regulated by the graduated $$ inch The graduations on this dial indicate of the spindle travel. if it should be required to automatically trip the feed at a depth of 3 inches. the feed The is by the engagement of distance that the spindle feeds is downward before adjustable dial 7. to shaft quill. Fig.252 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of the drill at is ward feeding motion any depth up to 14 inches. of the The operation mechanism is as follows: If the feed is to be tripped automatically in 7 inches or less. pawl is set as indicated by the dotted lines at K\ if it is desired to trip the feed H at a distance greater than 7 inches. the knurled nut L would first be loosened and the graduated dial H / turned until the figure 3 on it was opposite the mark on . For example. and one complete revolution represents The pawl H is so designed that it spindle travel. pawl is turned to the position shown by the full lines. drill The feeding movement from shaft A. spindle worm B which has a pinion engaging the rack on the spindle disengagement of the feed is controlled The automatic pawl H with lever N. Automatic Feed-tripping Mechanism having Graduated Adjusting Dial for Controlling Time of Disengagement can be set to allow two revolutions of the dial before engaging lever N. through transmitted through the gearing.

Fig. thus preventing further rotary movement. so that. 15. as the pawl. the sur- H would come into contact with the side N of the trip arm and disengage the feed. the feed cannot be automatically tripped at any point. the feed would be that disengaged. with the end in contact with a projecting sleeve. A represents the reel which contains the stock of wire. On the other hand. This spool is driven . tripping the arm. With the pawl its in this position. if it were required to drill to a depth of 9 inches before the feed was automatically tripped. when the drill had traveled 3 inches. Trip for Wire-winding Machine. being loose on would simply turn and pass the Fig. shows an automatic tripping device that is applied to a machine used for winding small wire onto spools. 15. arm without moving it After the pawl had passed would then be in the position shown by the dotted as at it is. The diagram. and B is the spool upon which the wire is wound. If the knurled nut L is loose. the dial I would be set with figure 2 opposite the mark on pointer /. Safety Tripping Device for Wire-winding Machine it. when K. lines. throw out the feed. with the result that. the contact of surface O with lever N would not stud. The pawl would then be set in the position shown by the dotted lines. after which nut L would be tightened. again came around to the tripping lever. and pawl H would be turned to the position shown face M by the full lines. In this illustration.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 253 pointer /.

so as to form a loop. stops the machine. for some reason. after leaving the reel. F. the wire. Contact with this .254 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS at a constant speed. The exam- ples described illustrate the possibilities of the use of comparatively simple devices for automatically controlling the action of machines under conditions which might. G. through an eye in wire D and out through the guide at E. will result in swinging lever D upward trip into which. assuming that the wire passed directly from the reel to the spool. which is The wire D is attached to another wire by the fall full normally held by the yarn in the position shown lines. the weight of lever is sufficient to prevent the D wire from lifting it. The yarn passes from the guide wire at A around the rolls B and C. disengaging a clutch. the wires F to the position shown by the dotted lines. If. however. In order to avoid trouble from any resistance to uncoiling which guided by free to occur. thus bringing wire into engagement with the lower roll C. The stop motion shown in Fig. mechatripping " are stop motions Tripping Device for a Textile Machine applied to different classes of textile machines. at the end of this may loop. " Some very ingenious nisms or Fig. at first. such as might be caused by a kink on reel A. is idler pulleys. the wire should not uncoil easily from reel A. it might be broken or the mechanism damaged. any ab- normal resistance. C mounted on a lever D which is When the uncoiling and winding is proceeding under normal conditions. there is an idler pulley swing about fulcrum E. contact with by Tripping Devices for Textile Machines. seem to be very complex and difficult. If the yarn or thread should break. 16. 16 is applied to a machine used for twisting yarn.

The device is also arranged so that the wire which drops when a thread breaks raised automatically to its is normal position for re-threading. This mechanism is applied to a machine used it It is designed to raise the spool for winding thread on spools. Another stop motion which acts when a thread is broken is shown in Fig. Fig. there is a small finger m . The lever G is normally held in a horizontal position by catch F. 17. If a thread breaks. This lever is connected by a rod H with a sleeve / pivoted sleeve at K. Attached to this wire pivoted at D and connected by link E with the catch F. however. out of contact with a flange which drives it by friction. illustration. which prevents from revolving and stops the delivery of yarn. at the same time. The downward movement of lever G swings the about its pivot and brings a pin under the flange R of the thus raising it from the supporting disk L. thus arresting the motion of the spool without stopping the spindle on which the spool is mounted.TRIPPING MECHANISMS roll 255 immediately moves the wires to the left until a tongue G enters between the rolls and raises B out of contact with C. the flange of the spool engages a rubber disk of which stops the rotation. as shown in the spool. 17. if a thread breaks. Attached to the shaft which is given a partial turn lever G. the dropping of wire B releases catch F and lever G falls to the position shown in the illustration. Another Tripping Device or "Stop Motion" for a Textile Machine The thread A there is passes through the eye of a drop wire B and serves to hold this wire in its a lever C normal position.

prevents the completion of the electrical circuit except when the cotton breaks and both rolls of a pair come directly into contact with each other. the electrical circuit thus formed. Certain classes of machines are equipped with some form of electrical control for automatically stopping the machine when it is operating under abnormal conditions. and one pole of a small dynamo is connected to one frame section and the other pole to the other section. A very simple form of electrical controlling device is shown . as its rotation is stopped. The Fig. the with the drop wire B back to the normal position ready for re-threading. which is a non-conductor and is constantly passing between the different pairs of rolls. Simple Form of Electrical Control for Stopping a a Thread Breaks Loom when upper and lower sections of the machine frame are insulated from each other. The cotton. A simple method of controlling a Electrical Control for Textile textile machine electrically is found on some drawing frames. either a belt from the tight to the loose pulley or disengages a clutch by means of suitable mechanism. acting in conjunc- tion with an electromagnet. when As the swings result of this movement. swings a lever into the path shifts revolving trip or catch which. Machines. When of a this occurs.256 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the catch lever falls. As soon as the catch lever has been reengaged with the catch F. 18. the spool drops finger engages lever it C and into contact with its driving flange and again begins to wind the yarn.

Mechanism of Drop-hammer. thus closing an electrical This circuit is a comparatively weak one and stops the machine by means of an electromechanical type of mechanism. and it is derived by a moving part of the loom. it is necessary to release the friction bar at exactly the right time. the lifting board is gripped between this and one at the rear that revolves in one position. which must g. is returned to its seat by a spring-operated rises. principle as the design illustrated at friction bar a is attached at its upper end to a lever that A controls the position of the eccentrically mounted friction roll. an incline surface d on it engages bracket b and pushes bar a off fore the friction bar of its seat. the friction rolls grip the board and elevate the hammer preparatory to the delivery of another blow. If one of the warp threads should break. The tripping mechanism must be so set that. be varied according to the thickness of the hammer dies. Be- is released. when the bar front roll falls.TRIPPING MECHANISMS in Fig. in this particular case. When a board type drop-hammer has fallen and is rebounding. Most of these tripping devices operate on the same general The in Fig. as the hammer rebounds. 1 8. its upward movement is continued by the action of . as shown to the right. 257 This device is ever a thread breaks. As the hammer engages a lever and raises the friction bar which. The weight of this bar is sufficient to give the roll referred to the required gripping pressure on the board /. The actual force required for stopping the machine is somecircuit. the spring wire is immediately released and flies over to the left into engagement with rod B. 19. the electrical mechanism simply being used to cause a locking effect that enables the other part of the mechanism to operate. the lower end rests upon a seat which prevents it from falling. The applied to looms and operates whensteel spring wire A is normally held between two threads in the bent position shown to the left. The eccentrically mounted gripping Tripping of roll is moved inward against the board for elevating the hammer. times considerable. when a " friction bar " is released by a tripping mechanism and allowed to fall. it guide In order to operate the hammer properly. When the hammer c descends. so that the hammer is lifted to the top of its stroke.

that extends out far enough to engage an inclined surface on the As the hammer descends. bar k is held in the upper pothis case. trip A mechanism In of the swinging latch type is hammer.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the friction rolls. bar m. if the release occurs too late. the roll will hammer back after rebounding and the bracket b. the friction Fig. thus releasing the friction bar k and allowing the rolls . Board Drop-hammer Tripping Mechanisms shown at B. hammer On the will fall other hand. lever n. the rolls will grip the board either before the strikes its blow or before it has had time to rebound. 19. If the release of the friction bar occurs too soon. and catch I are turned. sition by a catch / which engages a slot in the bar and is attached This shaft also carries a lever n to the short vertical shaft m. or stationary load. 19. tical position of The point of have to pick up a " dead " release depends upon the ver- Fig.

the machine operator sometimes inserts a pin that is stronger than it should be to afford adequate protection against injurious The ideal safety device is one which does not break in strains. there are certain disadvantages. A simple form of safety device consists of a pin which shears the off or breaks in case overload becomes excessive. case of overload. The point at which release occurs may be varied by changing the vertical position of lever n. This pin C connects the driving hub B with the hub of the sprocket. in order to prevent it damaging the mechanism or straining excessively. The being loosely mounted on is it. 20 is provided with a pin of this kind. In electrical work. Some types of ma- chines are so arranged that any unusual resistance to motion will automatically stop either the entire machine or whatever part is affected. while it is simple. this principle has been applied by substituting circuit-breakers for fuses which melt when the current becomes excessive. 20. thus leaving the wheel free and protecting the driven parts.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 259 to grip the board for elevating the hammer. it will break. In order to avoid replacing a broken pin. usual strain. If this pin is subjected to an unFig. Breakable Pins to Prevent Overload. Sprocket driven through Pin which breaks in Case of Excessive Overload This same method of protection against overload has been applied in various ways. The sprocket A shown in Fig. . instead keyed to the shaft. but simply disengages it and is so arranged that can readily be reengaged. and. of is sprocket. and the hub shaft B keyed to is the instead. The pin C ing of in diameter grooved or reduced an amount depend- upon the maximum amount power to be transmitted.

21. The clutch C is keyed to this shaft so that it will rotate and move axially with the shaft. Device for Automatically Stopping Feeding Motion when Resistance to Rotation becomes Excessive The spindle to which the cutting tool is attached is represented at A. is also arranged to reverse the feeding movement for any reason. the excessive resistance should continue after the feed has been disengaged. Fig. but are preupon in a lengthwise direction. 2i. ciple governing the operation of an automatic device for disengaging a clutch when the overload becomes excessive is illus- trated by the diagram. This spindle is driven through worm-wheel and worm L from the driving shaft B. This mechanism was applied to a metal-cutting machine. The driving shaft B is free to move in a lengthwise direction within certain limits. which receives its motion from a M countershaft through a belt operating on pulley K. Fig. side of clutch C are free to revolve vented from moving of each gear is provided with clutch teeth corresponding to those and F on each gears the shaft.260 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS The prin- Automatic Clutch Control to Prevent Overload. The inner side The D . the object being to automatically becomes abnormally high. disengage the feed in case the resistance to the rotation of the tool The mechanism if.

22.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 261 on clutch C. thus reversing the feeding movement. the pressure between the spindle teeth of the worm L and the worm-wheel causes the worm A M by somewhat like a nut. These devices operate on the same general principle as the one previously described. If the resistance to rotation again becomes normal. shaft This automatic action is obtained as follows: The is for- B C is normally held Z). The should become excessive. When to the clutch C engages with gear Z>. excessive resistance motion of the cutting tool will cause the clutch to be shifted to the neutral position. The sleeve a is revolved constantly The by a pulley on its outer end. In case the resistance to the rotation of the cutting tool and ward. by clutch engages gear spring so that the feeding N in such a position that movement tension on this spring is regulated by the nut shown. clutch D. The mech- anism illustrated by diagram A is designed to allow a wormwheel to make one revolution and then stop. which transmits feeding movement to the cutting tool. When clutch C engages gear D. thus stopping the feeding move- ment. the worm-wheel C is automatically returned into engagement with gear On the other hand. The shaft /. pleted. but differ somewhat in regard to the arrangement. the cutting tool is fed forward by shaft 7. is driven either through gears D and E or through gears F. inner end of this sleeve has clutch teeth intended to engage . the movement. disengages clutch C from gear D and stops the feeding movement. clutch C may be drawn over into engagement with gear F. and a reversal of the feeding movement is obtained when clutch C is shifted into engagement with gear F. P. if may be discontinued before the revolution is com- the resistance to rotation becomes excessive. however. acting to move in the direction indicated the arrow. which is used to lock either gear to shaft B. against the tension of spring N. and H. Other mechanical devices for automatically disengaging the driven member whenever the 'resistance to motion increases excessively are shown at A and B in Fig. if the resistance to rotation increases. This lengthwise movement of worm-wheel L and shaft B.

Pro- . the spring e revolves the revolution. The worm-wheel then begins to revolve and continues until the lug g strikes the stop d or until some unusual resistance too great to be overcome by the spring is encountered. The spring e tends to and into engagement with clutch teeth on sleeve a. as the wormleft wheel remains stationary. The strength of spring e is proportioned with reference to the safe or maximum load to be transmitted. The latter is attached to the shaft and both are free to move slightly in an endwise direction. 22. (C) Friction Gearing designed to Vary Contact Pressure According to Load Member whenever and into engagement with the constantly revolving clutch a. it forms a nut for the worm which screws itself out of engagement with clutch a. The stop at d is utilized in this particular case to disengage the driving clutch after the worm-wheel has made a If stop d is withdrawn. worm-wheel slightly and moves the worm and clutch b to the shift sleeve b to the left B Fig.262 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS corresponding teeth on the end of sleeve b. then. (A and B) Devices for Automatically Disengaging the Driven Resistance to Motion Increases Excessively. The body of sleeve b is threaded to form a worm which engages worm-wheel c. One of the advantages of this type of mechanism is that the motion is positively transmitted until an excessive load causes the driving clutch to be disengaged.

in which the pressure between the two friction wheels of is automaticallyf regulated by the amount w power transmitted. disengages the friction clutch. If the resistance to the motion worm-wheel becomes shaft worm moves bodily along the teeth of the wheel. as though it were a nut. keep h in engagement with n under This thrust may be regulated by the of the block to thumb-screw the spring is which changes the position excessive. A spiral spring p inserted between nut s and the pinion forces the latter against the driver w with a pressure depending upon the position of the nut. and in- creases the compression A on spring p and also the pressure be- . nut s moves downward. as soon as shaft r lags behind or stops revolving. is shown at C in Fig. which has a gear n. and.TRIPPING MECHANISMS vision 263 made for the adjustment of spring e so can be varied according to conditions. m The endwise thrust from lever k might be obtained by means of a weight instead of a spring. supplies the m necessary amount / of thrust to ordinary conditions. slides in grooves in the friction pinion / so that the pinion and nut revolve together. The lever k. The wheel which is the driver revolves in the direction shown by the t The driven pinion lengthwise direction upon arrow. Motion is applied to gear n fits is and for transmitted by worm j to a worm-wheel (not shown). by moving and disk h to the left. illustrates a modification of the same may readily be in is free to move slightly general type of mechanism. 22. is free to either rotate or slide in a shaft r within certain limits. spring fastened to it above the fulcrum or pivot. The shaft an endwise direction and is keyed to the tapering disk h. thus forming a friction clutch. m which into a seat of corresponding taper in the hub of gear n. If wheel w is revolving in the direction shown by the arrow and the driven shaft meets with an unusual degree of resistance to rotation. the which of the fastened. Fig. turns freely in the hub of any desired purpose. novel design of friction gearing. 22. A Pressure of Friction Gearing Varied According to Load. owing 17 to the action of the screw. that the tension Diagram B. Shaft but is attached to worm j. This This nut shaft has a screw of coarse pitch which passes through nut s.

detail The upper . by means of two cams F and G. in case the stock to be is forged is not placed in the grooves of the flat faces. and the lower view shows it after being tripped to relieve any abnormal pressure on the dies. completed. but between the These relieving mechanisms differ caught some- what in design. which is connected with slide E through a toggle and link mechanism. forms of spring-controlled a ram by die or plunger for performing the forging operation. withdraws the die after the forging operation is view to the right shows the relief mechanism in its normal position. it embodies an interesting principle. dies. Automatic Relief Mechanisms for Forging Machines. The gripping slide is actuated to E which B is attached is moved inward for gripping the stock and outward for releasing it. which will shear off or break if there is an excessive strain. in engagement with roll V. These cams transmit motion to slide H. in case the operating parts are subjected to a The release may be strain or pressure that is abnormally high. Cam F. 23. When the resistance to rotation again becomes normal.264 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS tween pinion / and wheel w. Forging machines are equipped with a tripping or relief mechanism which prevents excessive straining or breakage of the parts controlling the motion of the movable die. Spring forging machine. the spring moves the nut slightly upward and reduces the endwise thrust. While this device may not be entirely practicable. which carries die A and the movable die B. but the object in each case is to temporarily and automatically release the movable die from the action of the driving mechanism. the stock is gripped between the stationary The heading slide C. another type of relief mechanism depends for its action upon a obtained spring which is proportioned to resist compression for all ordinary strains but to compress sufficiently to release the pressure on the dies when that pressure increases beyond a safe relief maximum. moves the slide E for gripping the stock. illustrates one method of arranging a spring and toggle relief mechanism. The plan view of a and Toggle Relief Mechanism. whereas camG. acting upon roll T. When this machine is in operation. by inserting bolts or "breaker castings" in the mechanism. shown in Fig. a crank on the crankshaft D. Two mechanisms will be described.

oscillates link K RELIEF IN "TRIPPED" POSITION Fig. M toggle. If a piece of stock or some other part is caught between the flat die faces. 23. Plan and Detail Views of Forging Machine showing Automatic Relief or Tripping Mechanism tinues until the strain exceeds a certain amount. which con- nects with link K of the main gripping about pivot L and. link /. the gripping action con.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 265 When the machine is operating normally. then the backward thrust upon to swing about pivot lower detailed view) carrying with it the other links of the (see " " and compressing the spring S which is shown by-pass toggle link N causes it O in the plan view at the left. through link imparts a reciprocating motion to the gripping slide E. As the result of this change in the .

necessary Fig. A type of reBeveled Spring-plunger Relief Mechanism. of the by-pass toggle. through rod R. it is capable of transmitting enormous pressures to the gripping dies. upon the return stroke. except is when a sticker to use the shop expression caught between the gripping While this relief mechanism safeguards the work- ing parts from excessive strains. re-setting of the toggle as is makes it unnecessary to stop the machine.266 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS position of the by-pass toggle. swings the toggle links back to their normal This automatic position shown in the upper detailed view. This relieving device . pressure on the gripping die is Meanwhile the heading tool attached to slide C comreleased. the by-pass toggle is re-set automatically by spring 5 which expands and. 24. pletes its full stroke and. with safety devices of the breaking-bolt type. lief mechanism which differs from the design described in the is apforegoing is illustrated in Fig. 24. Bevel Spring Plunger Type of Relief Mechanism on Bolt and Rivet Header There " is no movement " dies.

When forming the heads on bolts or rivets. as these dies are intended to come together. The movable die which is beveled to correspond with the tapering end of slide b. the beveled end of slide b forms a metal backing. as indicated by illustration B. but caught between the faces. the increased pressure on plunger a forces it back against the tension of the spring and in the gripping dies. off of the beveled seat. and. is prevented from moving inward by a piece of stock that is not in the die impression. A speed-limiting device is governed by the inertia of a weight and the tension of a spring is shown in Fig. in case the governor failed to operate. head moves to the its stroke. This automatic stop was designed for application to steam engines but devices operating on the same general principle could doubtless be applied to other classes of machinery. The lever A is pivoted at B to the engine cross-head and normally prevented from swinging about pivot B by the spring C attached near the upper end. suddenly reversed and the crossWhen the cross-head is at one end of is the upper end of lever A is quite close to the catch . however. to the right when the motion left. The beveled end of this plunger bears against an angular projection on a slide for transmitting motion. which has a beveled end and is held outward by the spring shown. which Automatic Speed-limiting Device. If this die. which securely locks the movable die during the heading operation. which may be adjusted along the lever A tends to swing the lever is . it is necessary to place the stock directly in the impression and not between their opposing faces. when slide c is pushed in- ward solid for closing the dies. to slide b and the movable die. 25. so that the stock is firmly held in the impression between them while the rivet or bolt head is formed by the tool attached to slide g. between the dies. through the toggle mechanism. Slide b is given a reciprocating movement by the toggle mechanism at e. consists of a spring plunger a. The inertia of weight D. The relief which comes into action in case the stock is caught mechanism. This mechanism is primarily a safety device and is intended to stop the engine and prevent damage such as might be caused by a bursting flywheel.TRIPPING MECHANISMS plied to a wedge-grip bolt 267 d is attached to a slide c and rivet header.

from which rod / carrying weights at its lower end is suspended. Automatic Speed-limiting Mechanism for Steam Engines quick-closing valve M. This rod passes through trip-lever K. the flange on it strikes trip and allows the steam valve to be closed by the N. is Rod G PUSH BUTTON FOR REMOTE CONTROL Fig. which normally engages lever L connected with the at the left of the illustration. weighted lever nearer the weight is K have to be to overcome the tension to the pivot B. This speed-limiting device may be adjusted the tension of spring C and also by chang'ng the by varying The greater the spring tension and the position of weight D. with the tripping mechanism used in conjunction with a quickclosing valve der. 25. which controls the flow its of steam to the engine is cylin- This valve and operating mechanism shown in detail connected in any convenient way with bellcrank lever H. which engages latch F. the lever A and its attached weight gine resists the sudden reversal of motion at the end of its stroke sufficiently to overcome the tension of spring C. the faster the speed will of the spring at the point of .268 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS E. the speed of the enbecomes excessive. and lever A strikes catch E. thus releasing latch F. for any reason. Rod G attached to this latch connects through whatever additional rods or levers may be needed. as rod / drops. If.

or by the use of a solenoid R. this may be obtained by the use of rods or cables directly connected to latch K. The ignition switch is located at G and. for tripping the valve by hand. which is of the centrifugal type. 26. This weight is located within a casing C carried by a stud is D screwed into the end of the shaft. operates by It may be attached either breaking the ignition circuit. Centrifugal Type of Speed-limiting Device designed for Gas or Gasoline Engines owing to the failure of the governor. The automatic speedCentrifugal Type of Safety Stop. 26) which is attached to a rod connecting with a spring B on the opposite side of the hub.TRIPPING MECHANISMS reversal. limiting device described in the following was designed for apIn case the speed becomes plication to gas or gasoline engines. this tripping mechanism. element is a weight A (Fig. the ignition circuit is closed. The controlling to the secondary shaft or to the main shaft. excessive. indicated Fig. positive in action. adjustable. This automatic safety stop is recommended as being simple. and easily applied to almost any engine. when the lever F is held up by latch E. inexpensive. as by the illustration. Pivoted near the casing a latch E which normally holds the weighted trip-lever F in* the position shown. 269 The handle is for re-setting the steam valve and handle Q. If remote control is required. If the .

the tripping devices conchinery. While it is not claimed that purely mechanical means cannot accomplish the same results which are secured through the use of electromagnetic tripping devices. by striking catch E. the end of rod H. A metallic cartridge shell is shown in Fig. converted into " Methods of Closing Electromagnetic Circuit. 27 (view to right) in place on a machine which pierces the primer hole. if not impractical. This is particularly true in the case of automatic machines signer is often confronted by where one operator looks after several units. the primer is inserted in the primer cavity J. The case application of electricity to automatic machines may be regarded as a complication in itself. In designing automatic Electromagnetic Tripping Devices. that they would be a source of trouble. releases lever F and allows it to fall." thus dispensing with the necessity of an operator for each machine. be so complicated. and by studying these designs.270 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS is speed of the engine increased to such an extent that the action of centrifugal force causes weight A to fly outward against the tension of spring B. thus breaking the ignition circuit. These operations are performed on a standard Waterbury-Farrel cartridge primer. and a shell is illustrated at on which the piercing operation has been performed. stitute part of attachments for standard machines that were tripping automatics. one may readily understand how similar mechanisms could be applied to other classes of maIn most of these examples. After the hole has been pierced. or automatic devices for standard machines. the demachinery the problem of providing a suitable " mechanism for making a machine " fool-proof and reliable. in some cases. following examples are typical applications of electro- magnetic tripping devices to automatic machines. as compared to electrical devices for the same purpose. the mechanisms would. The shells were formerly placed on dial pins by hand and indexed under the cross-head for piercing H . if but from being the The these tripping devices are properly applied. Another advantage of the electrical devices lies in the fact that they may be used as a check on the accuracy of preceding operations and thus avoid finishing pieces of work that this is far are defective.

the dial pin. as there are three and inserting the primer. it contracts the spring b when the ram descends. The feed mechanism might the production of imperfect fail to deliver the shell to while primers would 2. An improvement was made in the method of operation by applying an automatic feed mechanism to place the shells on the dial pins. but . or the supply of shells might become exhausted. and such shells would obviously be use3. but this did not dispense with the necessity of an operator for each machine. The application of a suitable electromagnetic tripping mechthis machine takes care of all of these contingencies. or the supply of primers might become exhausted. If a shell is in its place on the dial pin. they were then possible conditions that may result in work: i. deliver a shell to the dial pin. 27. Referring to diagram A. Mechanism for Closing Circuit and Stopping Machine Case Punch fails to Pierce the Shell in had not been less.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 271 removed from the dial pins automatically. The primer feed might fail to work properly.pins on the dial and anism to are indexed under the punch a. consider the possibility of the feed mechanism failing to First. The \ piercing punch might break and the machine would CROSS-H Fig. then continue to place primers in the cavities of shells which pierced. continue to feed and thus be wasted. it will be seen that the shells are carried on. 28. Fig.

as but if the piercing operation . is The way in which the piercing operation is safeguarded by the 27. does not take place. and the method by which the tripping mechanism operates will of the tripping down over be described in detail later. The punch-holder located at the index point immediately after the completion of the piercing operation. The failure of the machine to feed a primer into the primer cavity of the shell is guarded against by the mechanism illustrated at B in Fig. This closes the electrical circuit and causes the machine to be stopped so that D shells cannot have primers inserted in them when the primer hole has not been properly pierced. electromagnetic tripping mechanism illustrated in Fig. 28. the punch is held in the position indicated in the right-hand illustration. thus contracting the light spring C and throwing the lever against the contact E. This closes the electrical circuit and stops the cross-head on the upThe contacts are fastened to the frame of the machine stroke. the sleeve the dial pin and pushes the upper contact d mechanism down upon the lower contact e. (A) Circuit-closing Device which acts when Shell has not been placed on Dial Pin. (B) Trip which prevents passing a Shell without a Primer pierced. the pin B shown at the left of the illustration descends through the hole in the shell.272 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS fail should the mechanism g passes to deliver a shell to the pin. The design of this tripping mechanism . If a shell is is A Fig. 28.

and will Fig. that a plunger descends in such a manner that the cup A is forced into place in cup B. These cups are held in hoppers on each side of the machine from which they are taken by notched dials. mechanism used on a press for assembling the brass cups A and B. the cup A being inserted in the cup B. 29 illustrates the be readily understood without further description. The cups A are dropped FIBER CONTACT CLOSERS Fig. Several conditions may occur that will result in loss or damage. however. 29. it should be mentioned. fail The feed mechanism could to deliver either one or both cups to their or it could deliver them to the dials in an inrespective dials. The operation of the machine will not be described. .TRIPPING MECHANISMS is 273 practically the same as that used to control the piercing oper- ation. Circuit-closing Device Shells used on Machine for Assembling A and B into holes in the machine dial which passes over the dial carrying the cups B.

the punch C is down through held on the bottom of the cup and pulls the rod G the action of the pinion. In this case. to pull the contact closer F The descent of the rod G causes down the upper electrical contact to be stopped. Either the absence or inversion of either or both cups is detected by an electromagnetic tripping device which automatically stops the machine until the error has been corrected. until it closes the circuit and causes the machine view at the right shows the punch and die when the feed mechanism has failed to deliver a cup to the dial plate. Electromagnetic Controller. 30. which engages with rack Fig. The punch C is located at an index point preceding the assembling punch. Electromagnetic Controller applied to Power Press for Operating Clutch teeth cut in the rods C and G. the upper electrical contact is pulled down by the and causes the machine to be stopped as precontact closer The detail H viously described. In the case of an inverted cup. and is carried by a bracket which is fastened to the cross-head. netic tripping device used Fig. 30 shows the electromagon the machines referred to in the .274 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS verted position.

was designed and Then: it will be seen that Z= to give a = inch and D NI = 5 3000 x y g Vi5 -T- 1. This engages the flywheel clutch (see Fig. the lever E is pulled down. 1 current in amperes.D. The brass pole G is wound with No. The brass pins H help to support and provide adjustment for different widths of air gap. 31 diameter of plunger in inches. 1. in Fig. thus setting the pole-piece C at the proper working distance from the magnet.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 275 In this illustration. 19 ampere-turns. air gap in inches. piece C. 30) and allows the spring / to pull the lever D over the hardened knife-edge. which This tripping mechato is shows an end and cross-sectional view. 14 double-covered wire and the connecting wires extend through the back of the spool. which N 7 = number turns) on the spool (ampere- = = P Z = D= pull of 15 pounds. Where cast iron is used. it gives an initial pull from twelve to pounds.125 = 3423. device is shown in place on a power press equipped with tripping a Horton clutch. In order to start the press. pull in pounds. which should be as small as possible. of coils of wire . 31. The electromagnet shown 25 inch. nism self-contained and can be applied any style of press or type of machine. The initial pull provided by an electromagnet of this kind varies with the material used for the magnet and the pole-piece. When used on magnet is energized by two dry fifteen cells. the foregoing. the pull of the magnet can be calculated by the formula: . The bracket A carries the magnet Bj poleand levers D and E. for stopping the machine. 31. will The arrangement of the tripping mechanism be more readily understood by referring to Fig. As the dry cells are open-circuit except for the fractional part of a second during which the contacts meet they have a long life.V7 in = 3oooZ VP-T. the pole-piece C The the of inside dimensions of the device are given in Fig. .

32. it will be seen that an ample factor of safety designing devices of this kind. When moving wires and moving contacts should be avoided and the mechanism should be made as simple The dry cells should be used on open circuit. of current required will 10 amperes. and covers provided for contacts and terminals. The delicate mechanism of an adding machine is safeguarded and intricate from injury resulting from careless or rough operation. is ator is only allowed to supply the power for stretching certain . by the ingenious mechanism shown in Fig. Mechanism. as possible. is provided. As 10 amperes is sufficient to enable the electromagnet to do the work required of it. but the operation of the machine is subject to spring action at a The opercertain known rate and with a known driving force. the NO. End and Cross-sectional Views of Electromagnetic Controller contacts carefully insulated from the machine. This controlling device is so arranged that the force or power exerted upon a hand lever Controlling Device for a Delicate by the operator not transmitted directly to the mechanism. 14 DOUBLE COVERED WIRE Fig. 31. Two be found to be 34 3.9 375 good dry cells connected in ^ g series will average 15 amperes during their useful life and give a considerably higher current when new. the amount or.276 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of wire Assuming that there are 375 turns on a spool. say.

3 Fig. The " " shows the lever after it has upper view marked position No. 32. catch C pawl Z. the arrangement being such that he cannot apply his strength directly to the mechanism. i POSITION No. thus allowing member E to fly forward as .2 POSITION No.TRIPPING MECHANISMS 277 springs and releasing their action. This lever revolves freely on its shaft and the operating parts are driven by the member E. Spring Controlling Device which Safeguards the Delicate Mechanism of an Adding Machine been pulled forward for operating the machine. releases As lever Y is pulled forward. The inner end of the operating lever is shown at F.

This free movement of part E operates the forward stroke of the machine. which makes it possible for them to operate the mechanism on both the forward and backward strokes. the springs links B are extended.2 78 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS springs A contract and transmit motion to E through levers D and links B. the end of pawl Z strikes pin H. 2 to position No. Near the end of the return permit pawl Z to pass. This reverse movement is also under the control of the oil governor. 33. The movement of E is stopped by abutment F in The forward moveposition No. In one The strain case. and the rate of action is controlled by an oil by-pass governor (not shown). and acting through levers and they return lever F to the starting position. ment of operating lever F. throw3. 2. movement. The double action of these springs. Simple Arrangement for Holding in the Downward Position only One Key at a Time in a Row of Adding Machine Keys carrying with it part E and the mechanism of the machine. continued by the operator until the lever arrives at position At this point. ing the pawl back into engagement with the projecting lug on part E. is No. which is now free of the mechanism. i ready for another stroke. the connection is to levers D and in the other to operating lever F. is due to the fact that they are connected to movable members at each end. As the lever moves from position No. 3. latch and the various parts return C rises to to position No. the lever A D Fig. provision of two springs A is simply for balancing the on the mechanism. The contraction of these springs between positions .

and their contracfrom position No. With this arrangement. the depression Fig. the releasing of one by the downward action of the other would eliminate a possible error. but ingenious.TRIPPING MECHANISMS No. 2. As a further advantage. key No. 3 to No. if a key will stay down. machine is said to be has been depressed. Full-stroke Mechanism to Prevent starting the Operating Lever and not completing Its Movement of the right one restores the The wrong one to its normal position. it of another key in the same vertical column will release the first key. 2 operates the forward motion. The result is that the key is held in the downward position by this hooked end until some other key is depressed. if the wrong key were pressed. device for controlling the action of the keys on one of the commercial adding machines is illustrated If in Fig. if an attempt were made to de- Control for Flexible Keyboard. 33. this will swing the strip A about its pivot to allow the ISA . i operates the backward motion. 34. the lower hooked end of springs past the end of a long that extends throughout the entire length of i is it is mounted the vertical row of keys. tion i 279 and No. if the operator presses down on key No. but the pressing down press two keys successively. simple. For instance. the stem on which pivoted strip A depressed. " " The keyboard of an adding flexible when so arranged that.

Full-stroke Mechanisms. As the handle is moved A is obtained in a very or upward. pawl B engages successive notches in sector C. if handle A is in the upper position. shown by the view to the right. as Similarly. pawl B drops into the enlarged notch E of sector C where there is enough room to permit the pawl to swing around to the vertical position. and locks into one of these notches if an attempt is made to return handle downward movement B engages sector C and A before the downward all stroke is completed. the top of pawl B swings to the left and again engages successive notches in sector C. downward pawl B is carried with it. For instance. When left. as is shown at the and a started. the lever at the lower end of its stroke. as soon as handle A is moved upward. handle A its is at the upper end of its stroke. controlled mechanically. Mechanisms are sometimes so arranged that hand-operated movements are. any upward movement must be completed before the direction of motion can be reversed. to prevent motion in the wrong direcThe full-stroke ratchet mechanism tion or incomplete action. to some extent. When handle A has been pushed the way down (as shown to the right). as shown at the left. consequently. and this movement of strip A releases the hooked end of key No. This pawl is pivoted to part D and normally held in a vertical position by a spring. shown in Fig. In the same manner. 34 is used on the Ellis the operator from starting handle adding typewriter to prevent A and not completing the required movement. i which immediately is forced upward to its normal position by a spring B. as the downward movement of handle A continues. This positive control of the action of handle simple manner.280 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS of the stem to pass. thus preventing any return of handle A to the lower position until the pawl has cleared the upper end of the sector and again swings to a vertical position. . any downward movement must be continued until the handle has it made a complete stroke before can be reversed if for returning it to the original or is upper position. any key which may be pressed down will throw back the strip and release any other key which may at the time be hooked end depressed. pawl upper end swings to the right.

Most of the parts made on these mach'nes are produced directly from bars of stock. in a general way. The feeding mechanisms described in the following include designs which differ considerably. Attachments having Inclined Chutes. to the tools that perform the necessary operations. and it equipped with a mechanical device for removing the parts separately from the magazine and placing them in the correct position wherever the operations are to be performed. or the supply of parts is to be operated upon by the machine may be held in some other way. The magazine used in conjunction with mechanisms of this kind is arranged for holding enough parts to supply the machine for a certain period. and then an automatic or semi-automatic attachment may be employed to transfer the parts successively to the ma281 . but secondary operations on separate pieces are sometimes necessary. or it may be necessary to convey the parts to the tools by an auxiliary transferring mechanism which acts in unison with the magazine feeding attachtransfer of the parts The ment. One of the important applications of magazine feeding attachments is in connection with the automatic screw machine. The magazine may be in the form of a hopper.CHAPTER X AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS MACHINES which operate on large numbers of duplicate parts which are separate or in the form of individual pieces are often equipped with a mechanism for automatically transferring the parts from a magazine or other retaining device. These automatic feeding mechanisms are usually designed especially for handling a certain product. the possibilities of automatic devices of this kind. although some types are capable of application to a limited range of work. and illustrate. from the hopper or main source of supply to the operating tools may be through a chute or passageway leading directly to the tools.

As the ends bottom is of the handles have shoulders. The pawl H . from which they are transferred to the chuck. so that a hole can be drilled in the illustration. tapping. which is held in place by finger is fastened to lever G. a spring plunger L attached to the turret advances and pushes the work out into the chuck of the machine. pushes back spring plunger 7. at the same time. block F. An shown in Fig. The upper and lower plates C of the chute have grooves milled in them to correspond to the en- larged parts of the handle. one at a time. and cutting off the handle. clear through the handle as indicated at B. When a piece of work drops into the pocket in This finger H block E and the front cross-slide has advanced far enough to bring the work in line with the hole in the chuck. As each successive handle reaches the lower end of the chute and drops into the small pocket shown. forming. thus producing a piece of the form shown at These partly finished handles are then placed in the chute or slide of the feeding attachment. thus allowserves as ing finger F to drop away from block E. drilling. knurling. The preliminary screw machine operations involve turning. example of this type of magazine attachment is i. the enlarged part of the plunger L trips the finger F after the work has been partly inserted in the chuck. Many of these attachments have magazines which are in the form of an inclined chute that holds the parts in the correct position and from which they are removed. by a transferring device. This attachment was designed for feeding the handles of safety razors on a Brown & Sharpe automatic screw machine. the pocket at the shoulder. A and one end of the hole be slightly enlarged. automatically enlarged to permit the passage of this The work-carrier consists principally of two blocks D and E and a finger F. The forward end of block E is cut out to fit the work. and held in position by a pawl normally engaged by plunger / and pin /. pivoted on block D. This action is caused by the contact of plunger L with a beveled edge on pawl which disenthe V-shaped end of the pawl from a groove in lever G gages H and.282 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS chine chuck where the tools can operate upon them. Block D is held in the cross-slide and E is attached to the top of block D.

Automatic Screw Machine Magazine Attachment which. This spring plunger ejects the work when the machining operation has been finished and the chuck is opened. it swings down and the work is pushed into the chuck by plunger L which is held in the advancing turret. closes the work-carrier. brings SHOWING ELONGATED SLOT SECTION THROUGH X-Y Fig. and spring plunger /. as moves outward. The piece in the chuck is forced in against a spring plunger trip K M held by feed finger N. when disconnected from lever G. the cross-slide. through the combined action of against casting lever G.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS 283 a locater for the work and. it After a piece has been inserted in the chuck. pawl #. i. .

B which is by the dotted lines in the upper right-hand The chute C is supported by a bracket attached to a boss provided on Brown & Sharpe .284 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS Another magazine Feeding Attachment for Pinion Staffs. Magazine Attachment for Pinion Staffs form illustrated corner of the illustration. 2. 2. feeding This attachment was designed for handling pinion staffs of the ~"R?tSSFr%'- I Fig. attachment having an inclined chute is shown in Fig.

When the transferring arm swings upward. faced. The transferring arm. the spring to their former position. bushings shown at A. but the magazine this illustration is used for both. held back temporarily by trip F.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS 285 automatic screw machines for holding special attachments. The bushings are placed in the inclined slide or chute. through connecting link G. operates trip F and allows one piece to drop into the pocket formed at the end The transferring arm carrying a split bushing D advances and pushing back the nest L passes over the end then of a pinion staff and grips it. This trip is connected to which carries a pin that engages a slot cut in lever H (see detailed view). This action. which removes the work from the lower end of . returns trip-lever plate / and lever Trip-lever F also swings back in order to catch another piece. The narrow and drawn in a die to the shape shown. so that the latter are held in the correct position. for 3. the exact position of the finger depending upon the adjustments of set-screw. cedes and swings is down to the chuck in which the pinion staff placed. The transferring arm then reof this trip. The bracket A is attached to B and carries the mechanism for feeding moved by the pinion staffs successively to the place where they can be rethe transferring arm. they are then turned. The two main parts of the fit chute are grooved to as follows: is the pinion staffs. Two attachment shown in separate operations are required. The operation of this attachment is The chute is filled with pinion staffs and the lower one link G. the arm itself bearing against plate / and forcing it back. and the lower one is retained temporarily by a finger i which is held upward by t spring k. and threaded (as indicated at B) in a Brown & Sharpe automatic screw maMagazine Attachment are blanked out chine. together with lever H./ which engages a projecting end. it is stopped in the correct position by set-screw /. N for transferring to the split bushing D the next time the trans- ferring arm ascends. Fig. Narrow Bushings. the pinion staff in the trip being deposited in the nest L ready When the transferring arm H descends. Lever H has fastened to trip-lever plate / the inclination of which may its upper side a be varied. which engages stop K.

Magazine Attachment for Handling Parts shown at A and B The degree of inclination for chutes of magazine attachments varies from 20 to 60 degrees and depends upon the size and shape of the work. 4 differs from the types previously described in that the blanks to be operated on are held in a revolving carrier or magazine B. and then. the main body On this body is pin in flat is driven. tachment shown in Fig.286 the chute MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS and conveys it to the chuck. such. This spring also compensates for slight variations of diameter. A slot in body c receives a spring g. The automatic feeding atRevolving Magazine Attachment. thus allowing the bushing to slide out of The work-holder has a taper shank b which fits into c. the finger i is the chute. as might be cut out in a blanking die. has a swinging or circular movement. PATH OF TRANSFERRING BUSHING TO RK-CHUCK Fig. c The pin h in this ring held a ring d through which a d fits into an elongated hole body and enters spring plunger e. depressed. for example. The chutes of attachments used for handling flat pieces. as indicated by the dotted line. The work is gripped as the holder (shown in detail at C) advances. The chute should incline at a greater angle for small work than for large work. which is provided to grip the work securely. as the transfer arm starts to swing downward toward the chuck. This attachment is used for feeding the . 3. are usually held in a vertical chute instead of one that is inclined.

the magazine wheel rotates at Fig. As these two is B rotated pulleys are of the same diameter. These fingers are attached to plugs is F which are held in drilled holes in block 7. The wheel by a belt which transmits motion from a pulley on the front camshaft to a pulley located on shaft S. The shape of these barrels. The cross-slide free to slide in block 7 and held back upon which the attachment is mounted then advances to locate . as indicated at N. and it is provided with slots around the edge in which the blanks fit. The block / of this carrier (see enlarged detail view) is counterbored to receive a bushing which contains plunger P. is indicated at M. Magazine Attachment of Revolving Type the same speed as the front camshaft. The blanks.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS 287 blanks from which the barrels for watch springs are made. to form a pocket for the blanks. The blanks slot are inserted in the attachment or magazine wheel through C which connects with pocket D. and the bushing is cut out to receive the spring fingers E. as shown by the side view. which bears against a pin driven into the bushing. it is deposited in bushing 0. which are about f inch in diameter. As a blank rolls down the slide H. drop into slide and from there H into a pocket in a bushing held by a carrier. The magazine wheel B is recessed. 4. as they are carried around by the wheel. is The bush- ing by spring G.

The automatic such a feeding mechanism shown in Fig. equipped with a plate or center-board C which passes through a slot in the bottom of the hopper and is given a reciprocating motion by a gear-driven cam. these wheels shown by the detailed view. This device consists of three revolving wheels at D which have teeth is like ratchet wheels. The faces of the dies are in a vertical position and one die is given a reciprocating motion in a direction at right angles to the axis of the screw blank. As the center-board moves up through the mass of screw blanks. This centertop of the machine. When in this position. The in a vertical position which is at the hopper A . The arrangement of The center wheel. which is the smallest. The autoHopper Feeding Mechanism for Screw Blanks. revolves above the heads of the blanks which are moving down the slot of the center-board in the proper . the mass of blanks is disturbed and it is likely that one or more blanks will fall into the slot on the next successive stroke of the center-board. an auxiliary device is employed to dislodge such blanks.288 MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS the blank in line with the hole in the chuck. blank does not happen to be caught for any one stroke of the center-board. P E much ing 0. heavier than the spring G used for holding back the bushis The will object of this arrangement to insure that the bushing be pushed out close to the face of the chuck before the plunger forces the blank out of the spring fingers. 5 is arranged to transfer the screw blanks from the hopper is A to the dies at B in way when caught between that each successive blank the dies. is board has a vertical detail sectional view) slot which extending along the upper edge (see is a little wider than the diameter of the screw blank bodies. As some blanks are picked up while in a crosswise or other incorrect position. one or more of these blanks are liable If a to drop into the slot and hang suspended by their heads. thus forcing the blank from the fingers The spring Q which returns plunger P is made it in the chuck. matic feeding mechanism to be described is used on a thread rolling machine of the type having straight dies between which the blanks are rolled to form the threads. the turret advances and a stop on it pushes plunger and depositing forward.

289 The two outer wheels. it will be caught by these wheels and be thrown back into the hopper. derangement. the center-board. After the blanks leave the center-board. mechanical motion and control are almost boundless. the . As each successive blank reaches the lower end of the chute. bilities of if The possiFeeding Shells with Closed Ends Foremost. they pass down the inclined chute G. but as complication means higher manufacturing cost. there is no limit to the number of parts that may be incorand usually greater liability of porated in a mechanism. 5. but all blanks that hang in the slot pass between the outer wheels and beneath the central one without being disturbed. it swings around to a vertical position and is caught between the dies which roll screw threads on the ends.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS position. If a blank is not in the correct position. as indicated at E. Hopper-feeding Mechanism for Screw Blanks in position. which is provided with a guide F that holds them Fig. which are revolve close to the outer edges of larger than the central one.

after rebounding. An ment for feeding lead bullets or slugs to press tools with the pointed ends foremost. In this in the proper position or with the closed case. If the shell is foremost. it is autobe difficult. Attachment of an Automatic Feeding Mechanism Shells which enter Open End Foremost for Turning matically turned around to the left illustrates the by the simple device shown. 6 illustrates how a very simple device may some- times be employed to accomplish what might appear at first to an attachment used in conjunction with an mechanism for drawing shells in a punchautomatic feeding These shells are fed from a hopper. This is Fig. The feed-chute shown in Fig. the bottom of the shell simply strikes pin B and. The view movements of a shell which comes down end foremost. and it is essential to press. 6. drops down through tube C. the drawing will punch attach- probably be broken. have them enter the die with the closed ends down. it is this simplifying process that often requires a high degree of mechanical ingenuity. Feeding Bullets with Pointed Ends Foremost. If a shell descends from the hopper with the open end foremost. it open end of a catches on pin If B and is turned around as the illustration indicates.2QO skillful MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS designer tries to accomplish the desired results by the simplest means possible. as illustrated at the right. regardless of the position in which the . a shell enters the die with the closed end upward.

the latter is attached to dial F. the plungers are not forced back. the plungers H are pushed back against the tension of springs / and the bullet drops into the tube beneath. the cross-head descends. of dial is The arrangement F so that every bullet that into the feed-tube G. and a pinion N with which The location of the dial is This rotary motion of the dial is derived the rack meshes. If the blunt or flat end is foremost. governed by an index plate and a plunger T which enters one of the notches in the index plate. shown by the detailed sectional views at the lower part of the illustration.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS bullets are received 291 from the magazine or hopper. A mechanism is provided for turning dial F one-half revolution. in turn. a hole in dial it is simply pushed through F and into feed-pipe G leading to the dial feed-plate This feed-plate. and as rod E is prevented from descending further. the rack revolves the clutch shown by the arrow. As each bullet reaches the lower end of this tube. it simply moves upward against the tension of spring K as the cross-head continues its downward motion. Whenever a bullet enters tube A with the C D rounded or pointed end downward. conveys the bullets to the of the press. press tools where such operations as swaging or sizing are performed. is illustrated is applied to a press having a 4^inch stroke. it is transferred by slide attached to the cross-head) to a (operated by cam position under the rod E. An moves agitator tube in Fig. 7. not pushed through the dial will be turned around with the pointed end foremost before it drops is from a rack M attached to bracket L. This attachment up and down through the mass bullets of bullets in the hopper and the which enter the agitator tube drop into tube A. A clutch P (see also detailed sectional view) is fastened to sleeve R. Whenever a bullet enters the dial with the pointed end foremost. The rod-holder L is also carried by the cross-head. The bullets enter the tube A which connects with " " a hopper located above the press. Fiber friction washers S are used to prevent breakage in case anything unusual should happen. When within one-quarter inch of the lower end of the stroke (this position is shown in the in the direction When M .

the rack M strikes lever U and disengages the in- dex plunger T. 7. The rack descends far enough to give it time on the return stroke to move dial F sufficiently to prevent the returning index plunger from reentering the hole it just occupied. FLAT END FOREMOST '. the lost motion of the rack in its bracket provides time for the withdrawal of rod E before dial F is revolved.MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS illustration).CLUTCH Fig. all Attachment for Bullets to a Dial Hopper Feeding Mechanism which delivers Feed Plate with Pointed Ends Foremost the return stroke. On This lost motion can be adjusted so that the highest is point of the upward stroke reached just as dial F has turned .

so that all the shells in it form a continuous and orderly row. excepting at the mouth.way may be curved gradu- . This fence causes the shells to move out towards shells mouth the circumference of disk B. is rotated in the direction shown This guide-way. A feeding Feeding to feed shells or cartridge cases one at a mechanism designed time and in any position is shown in Fig. they may readily be arranged upon a table heads downward. so as to feed the shells forward at a definite rate along the guide-way C. If the rack should move too high. Shells Successively and in Any Position. thus bringing the other index slot in line with plunger T. 8. the friction washers 5 will allow for this excess movement by slipping. so that it drops down in the pipe G with the pointed end foremost. shells are carried The the which move too near the center of disk B to enter of the guide-way are carried around until they meet the edge of an inclined fence E.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS 1 80 293 degrees. This half revolution of dial F turns a bullet that is not pushed through it end for end. Owing to the weight slide roller firmly against the of the heads of cartridge cases. the way C towards the funnel-shaped mouth of a guidewhere there is a wheel D having teeth of irregular form. wheel by the arrow. may enter the guide- Just beyond the wheel teeth of regular form that D fit there is a feed-wheel F which has This between the cartridge cases. The table A upon which the shells are placed is slightly inclined so that the shells readily slide towards a horizontal disk B which is rotated constantly by a belt and pulley. As the disk revolves. is only slightly wider than the shell diameter. The guide. so that they way as they again come around. The slide C is returned for receiving another bullet from tube A by the action of spring which holds the W cam-plate D. This wheel is revolved in the same direction as disk B so that it continually pushes back some of the shells and prevents jamming. and the particular mechanism to be described is arranged for changing the shells from a vertical to a horizontal position before dropping them into a trough by means of which they are conveyed to the operating tools. which is just above the disk near the center. but is arched near the periphery so that shells can pass under it.

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS ally in any direction. The first stop consists of a pair of fingers G which rise up through the floor LLLJ UU . As previously mentioned. changes from a vertical to a horizontal position. may be turned to any desired position as they pass in this case. At the end of the guide-way there is a pair of stops that act alternately to allow one shell to issue at a time from the guide-way. so that the shells which enter it with their axes vertical along. the guide-way.

C and through one of the slots D Each time the pushformed in the periphery of the feed disk A rod B moves upward. a shell drops against the lower 19 A . When this by it push-rod makes the next successive stroke. the upper finger is withdrawn. one at a time. 8. As each successive shell passes from the guide-way of the revolving disk. When rim. vertically through a guide This tube has two gravity fingers lifts F and. which is This push-rod is pivoted to the end of a lever oscillated by a cam. and provide means of detecting shells shells are having heads that are over the standard diameter. two which project into the passageway for the These fingers are withdrawn against the tension of suit- G M able springs and the upper one catches the cartridge shells by the whereas the other one extends beneath the open end. and its function is to feed cartridge cases or shells from a tube. This feed disk operates on the same general principle as the one illustrated in Fig. as the shell rises. the fingers then drop back behind the rim and prevent the shell from falling when the push-rod recedes. the shell lifted pushes the first shell up into tube E which is bent over to form an arch and terminates at E\. The placed heads downward onto a fixed table from which 9. thus causing the push-rod to move . fingers shells. it pushes a shell into the end of tube E. it is placed directly over a push-rod B. three-armed lever G. its rim these fingers and separates them far enough to allow the rim to pass. Just below the end of tube EI. they fall open end first down into the vertical section E\.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS shells 295 drop into the trough M as they are discharged from the guide-way. The mechanism described in the following is part of a cartridgemaking machine. Feeding Shells Successively and Gaging the Diameters. which is pivoted at oscillating or rocking roller in This consists of a H and is contact with lever movement by vertical rod / cam K. Fig. they are pushed by hand onto a revolving disk A. there is a device for releasing the shells one at a time. alternately. against which the rod is oscillates. it given an having a held by a spring. When the vertical section of tube E is filled and the shells passed over the top of the arch. As L and withdraws.

As each successive shell drops. which are equally spaced around the periphery of the pins machine table. finger this shell is released and. MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS when the latter is withdrawn. Attached to the rod /. the upper moves and then falls over one of the vertical passes through a gage 0. there is a bar P the which are steadied by a bar bar Q mounted in suitable guides movements of The having a beveled end which engages a beveled surface as shown. Mechanism for Feeding Shells Successively and Gaging the Diameters to locate the shells beneath a series of tools carried by a tool- holder having a vertical reciprocating motion. plunger R is pushed back far enough When rod J to clear the rim of the descending cartridge.296 finger and. at the same time. in and prevents the next successive shell from dropping out until it is released by the backward motion of finger L. as rod / and bar P are lifted by cam K. carries a spring plunger P R . 9. This table is revolved intermittently in order it N Fig. consequently.

the machine must be stopped and the shell through removed by hand. thus pushing it through the gage and onto one of the series of pins 0. the attendant will notice that there is a pin withholds out a shell upon cessive shell. As the table moves around. If the rim of a R N cartridge should be so large that it would not readily pass through the gage. If . and the cartridge remains in the gage until the next stroke of the machine. the resistance overcomes the tension of the spring that / into contact with the cam. he will remove the next sucbecause.AUTOMATIC FEEDING MECHANISMS 297 moves inward and bears downward descends. an exceptionally large head will not pass the gage. plunger on the head of the cartridge beneath it. ordinarily. and. however. therefore. the shells are not so large as it to resist being forced through the gage by a second stroke of the push-down bar P.


reversing. device for protecting delicate mechanism full-stroke mechanism of operation key controlling device Adding mechanism. meaning of 4 175 276 280 Accumulator mechanism of adding machine Adding machine. flexible. methods of arranging Bands. multiple disk combined with clutch Breakable pins to prevent over-load 240 237 259 53 133 23 Brown Brown & & Sharpe multiple-disk speed-changing mechanism Sharpe quick-return motion for screw machine Brush wheel of friction gearing Builder motion of a textile machine 115 Camera. for transmitting motion 30 189 Barrel or cylinder Bellcrank lever Belts. automatic variation of automatic variation of cam rise and drop 299 192 . for transmitting power use of open and crossed. claw mechanism of moving picture 143 189 Cam motion. for reversing motion Bevel gearing 100 26 24 266 Bevel type of friction gearing Bolt and rivet header relief mechanism Brake and magnetic clutch combination Brake. general principle 279 172 Aeroplane motor. of revolving cylinder type with revolving cylinders and eccentric track Air springs or cushions of printing press bed American or continuous system of rope transmission Anchor or recoil escapement for clockwork 65 66 79 29 142 Angular velocity Automatic clutches for power presses Automatic control of reversing mechanism Automatic relief mechanisms of forging machines Automatic screw machine feeding attachments Automatic speed-limiting devices for engines Automatic variation in points of reversal Automobile differential gearing Backgearing.INDEX PAGE Acceleration. 5 242 112 264 281 267 115 220 44 use of. cam for shifting 8 open and crossed 107 28 mechanism use of.

. with automatic band clutch multiple-disk equipped with automatic brake of reversing mechanisms. and general application double two-revolution shifting type face or positive motion for 200 185 motion perpendicular to plane of cam 189 184 189 187 general classification of having rectilinear motion having yoke type of follower in group engaged successively 197 198 185 obtaining resultant motion of several plate plate. differential motion of Claw mechanism of moving picture camera Clutch control. arranged to vary rotary motion definition of. arrangement of Connecting-rod and crank combination 60 . automatic disengaging of. of the key type controlling motion by friction friction. induction type magnetic. engaged by wedging action 246 260 244 243 231 automatic power press. for varying motion 194 187 188 special. methods of operating .300 CAM cams for CONNECTING-ROD PAGE 191 Cam motion. multiple-disk friction. 240 237 101 pneumatically -operated multiple disk that automatically disengage trip for automatically disengaging 236 242 249 231 types of positive or toothed type which expands radially Clutch method of controlling speeds 234 46 3 Compound Compound Concave gearing train of epicyclic gearing friction disks and inclined intermediate wheel 37 55 Cone-pulley and epicyclic gear combination Cone-pulley and spur gear combination 44 43 41 * Cone-pulley drives. mechanism for varying dwell of follower sectional varying 194 196 22 Cams. arranged for positive motion 185 sectional. 235 234 241 '. for returning follower wiper and involute Center-line of motion 8 57 Centrifugal and inertia governors Centrifugal type of safety stop for gas engines 269 29 202 143 Chain and sprocket form of transmission Chinese windlass. ring or plate 232 type type . variable by pattern chain Clutches. to prevent over-load automatic power press.

application Crank mechanism Crank motion. relative motions of Crankshaft of stationary type and revolving cylinders Crosby straight-line motion for indicator Cross-feeding movement. 205 Disengaging mechanisms or clutches Dividing mechanism. 215 Differential back-gear for varying speeds Differential controlling Differential Differential mechanism of steering gear feeding mechanism for revolving spindle gear and cam combination 210 223 38. automatic reduction of Cross-feed mechanism of grinding machine . 60 86 124 63 75 Crank.CONSTRAINED Constrained motion DRILLING 301 PAGE 2 I Continuous motion Continuous or American system of rope transmission Controller.. for automatically varying the stroke Crankpin and cross-head. automatic 230 167 Diving key type of speed-changing mechanism Double back-gears for lathes 48 44 72 Drawing press toggle mechanism Drilling machine tripping mechanisms 250 . for .. 68 83 61 65 16 144 139 61 Cross-head. motion relative to crankpin Crown gear and shifting pinion for changing speeds 49 3 6 Curvilinear translation Cycle of motions Cylinder or barrel cam clockwork 189 Dead-beat or Graham escapement Dead-center positions of crank for 142 60 45 213.. for tripping 29 mechanism 274 Crank Crank Crank Crank and connecting-rod and epicyclic gear combination and oscillating link and slotted cross-head reversing press bed motion for doubling stroke of. mechanism mechanism of gear-cutting machine Differential motions 225 202 between screw and nut from gearing Differential or floating levers substitute for 208 204 211 216 229 Differential speed indicator Differential speed-reducing mechanism 38. electromagnetic. compound train for varying speeds of automobiles 220 222 speed regulation through Differential governors for water turbines Differential hoisting Differential 217 227 . 206 Differential gearing.

arranged for quick-return motion use of. compound use use of. for transmitting motion Feeding shells successively 293 30 211 Floating or differential levers substitute for 216 115 Fly frame. automatic. automatically varying point of reversal mechanism for varying transverse movement of roving Fly frame differential gearing Force-closed mechanism 83 222 6 Forging machine. for handling separate pieces automatic. 206 N . or reverted train for reversing motion 108 85 obtaining a rapid reciprocating on water turbine governors movement 217 Epicyclic gear trains 33 . action of. under different conditions 204 combined with cone-pulley 44 38. mechanisms Frictional ratchet mechanisms relief 264 137 Frictional speed-changing devices 49 232 235 Friction clutches multiple-disk type ring or plate type 234 . for screw blanks with automatic accelerating device Feeding shells automatically with closed ends foremost 288 208 289 295 and gaging the diameters Feeding shells successively and in any position Flexible bands. positive DRIVE FRICTION PAGE 6 93 257 Drop-hammer Drop-hammer Eccentric lifting mechanism tripping mechanism 62 63 274 Eccentricity of an eccentric Electromagnetic controller for tripping mechanism Electromagnetic tripping devices Electro-mechanical tripping device for textile machine Elliptical gear 270 256 130 128 70 267 29 and eccentric pinion for quick-return motion Elliptical gearing. for of. Escapements for controlling action of clockwork Evan's friction cones for changing speeds 141 52 185 Face or positive motion cam Feeding and reversing movements combined Feeding bullets automatically with pointed ends foremost in 290 281 Feeding mechanism. for modifying crank motion Engine speed-limiting device English or multiple system of rope transmission Epicyclic gear and crank combination Epicyclic gear and friction disk combination 86 56 Epicyclic gearing. use of.302 Drive.

differential 217 142 14 139. double-cone 234 56 belt type and intermediate ring or 52 51 double-cone and intermediate wheel type factors affecting power transmitted by 25 having concave disks and inclined intermediate wheel multiple-disk type for changing speeds pressure varied according to load transmission by 55 53 263 23 use of. effect motion on transmission of motion for intermittent 148 32 32 154 57 trains of spur Geneva wheel motion Governors. pressure motion power transmitted by 25 varied according to load 263 intermittent mangle or the Napier motion ratchet type toothed. centrifugal and inertia for water turbines. for reversing motion Full-stroke mechanism of adding machine 100 280 Gear and cone-pulley combinations 43 Gear and rack combination Gear-cone and tumbler-gear mechanism Gear-cones and sliding key for changing speeds Gear-cutting machine. various classes of train of. 67 48 48 225 46 32 220 128 204 compound automobiles differential. action of. for reversing motion motion 85 108 148. 33 transmission by toothed 23 26 worm. calculating speeds for uniformly intermittent motion for variable intermittent idler. differential mechanism of Geared speed-changing mechanisms Gearing. 144 Graham dead-beat escapement for clockwork Grasshopper motion Grinding machine. arranged for quick-return motion under different conditions epicyclic. epicyclic. factors affecting friction. for obtaining rapid reciprocating epicyclic. for transmitting motion transmission by friction 146 81 134 26 31. of elliptical. type which expands radially Friction disk and epicyclic gear combination Friction gearing.FRICTION v GRINDING 303 PAGE Friction clutches. trip for automatically disengaging 249 33 147 Gears. automatic cross-feed mechanisms reversing mechanism 102 . 150 for high-speed intermittent friction.

304 Harmonic motion. 150 gearing for high speed gears for variable 148 Geneva wheel of for 154 moving picture projector Intermittent movements automatic reduction of Intermittent rotary motion. Geneva wheel for Indicator. locking device for Intermittent gearing Inertia 57 159 146 147 designed for uniform rest periods for shafts at right angles rapid acting for moving picture projector with swinging sector 157 150 153 i Intermittent motion automatic disengaging device automatic variation of constant.. differential type Hooke's coupling or universal joint Hopper feeding mechanism for screw blanks 288 45 36 32 142 171 Humpage's gear for varying speeds Idler gear. relief HARMONIC definition of for bolt LEVERS PAGE mechanism and rivet . 64 266 3 27 27 Helical motion Helical or spiral gearing Herringbone gear Hoist. two-speed Inverse type of cam 150 134 144 159 188 188 Involute and wiper cams Irregular motions 184 Key controlling device of adding machine 279 20 8 8 Lazy tongs or pantograph mechanism Levers. combined Indexing mechanism. Header. Induction clutch 241 and centrifugal governors Intermittent bevel gears. from variable motion 163 164 161 148. action of differential chain 203 227 11 Hoisting mechanism. effect of. in epicyclic gear train its effect on transmission of motion Impulse face of an escapement pallet Indexing and locking mechanism. application of bellcrank. . pantograph reducing mechanism straight-line motions for of screw slotting 169 for 154 20 14 . automatic 167 machine Indexing movement.

LEVERS Levers. movement possible PAGE 280 211 length of arms relative to fulcrum position of. elliptical gear drive general methods of transmitting 69 7 helical 3 i. factors affecting construction Magazine feeding attachments for separate pieces Magnetic clutch equipped with automatic band brake Mangle gearing or the Napier motion Mechanism. on driven mechanism Locking and indexing mechanism. factors affecting construction trains of 281 240 81 I 30 75 Miehle press bed motion Milling machine feed mechanism with accelerating device 208 27 Miter gearing Motion. for taking indicator cards 9 83 61 75 mechanism for automatically varying reciprocating of crankpin relative to cross-head of Miehle flat bed or cylinder presses bed reversed by reciprocating pinions of press bed. combined Locking device for intermittent bevel gearing Loom. complete stroke before return floating or differential MOTION is 305 . relative to center-lines of motion Lifting mechanism of drop-hammer n 10 Lifting toe or wiper cam Link connection between rotating parts Link mechanisms 93 188 ir 7 Load-and-fire type of reversing mechanism Load. two-speed intermittent rotary motion for 159 159 I Machine. intermittent irregular 134 184 lever reducing. pressure on friction gearing varied according to 101 263 259 171 prevention of excessive. center-line of classes of 8 i constrained 2 I continuous curvilinear translation differential 3 202 for press bed. the Napier of press 79 81 2 plane quick-return reciprocating rectilinear translation spherical straight-line straight-line for 124 i 3 4 12 steam engine indicators 14 .

intermittent 150 242 flat bed or cylinder presses 75 . Scott Russell sun-and-planet Motor Motor drives. action of. prevention of. by automatically disengaging clutch prevention of. for projector. effect of arc of swing on time Period of a cycle of motions rectilinear 141 6 259 Pins. intermittent motion of Mowing machine. by breakable pins 72 260 259 142 19 Pallet of an escapement Pantograph mechanisms Pattern chain for operating clutches 246 136 134 91 17 Pawl. 206 compound use of. under different conditions 204 38. multiple type for ratchet gearing of ratchet gearing motion from revolving Peaucellier straight-line motion Pendulum.306 MOTION PRESS PAGE 17 13 Motion. Peaucellier straight-line. train for varying speeds for reversing motion on water turbine governors 108 217 Planetary gear trains Plate 33 185 cam arranged for positive motion Pneumatically-operated multiple-disk clutch Positive driving Positive motion or face 185 236 6 cam motion for 185 Power moving picture Power press clutches Press bed motion. straight-line. reversing 38 122 65 143 of revolving cylinder type Moving picture camera claw mechanism Moving picture projector. wabble gear for driving cutter-bar Multiple-disk clutches 150 85 235 237 equipped with automatic brake pneumatically-operated design Multiple-disk type of speed-changing mechanism Multiple or English system of rope transmission 236 53 29 Napier motion One-cycle type for printing press beds 81 of drive for cold header Over-load. use of breakable to prevent over-load Piston with traversing and rotating Pitch circle of spur gearing movements 95 26 2 Plane motion Planer feed or crank disks Planer reversing mechanism 161 107 Planetary gearing.

conversion of Rectilinear and rotary movements combined Rectilinear motion. from revolving pawls mechanism for varying 92 3 Rectilinear translation ^ Reducing motion. . . method of calculating Pump piston with combined rectilinear and rotary movements Punch press clutches 95 242 Quick-return motions crank and oscillating link derived from elliptical gearing eccentric pinion 124 1 24 128 130 and elliptical gear type independent crank-operated type modification of Whitworth 133 127 126 Whitworth Rack and Rack and worm gear combination drive . withdrawing from working position Recoil or anchor escapement for clockwork 90 142 and rotary motions. having elliptical gear drive reversed by reciprocating pinions 69 79 81 th Napier Projector. mechanism for obtaining 9 19 264 e 198 . for taking indicator cards pantograph type Relief mechanisms for forging machines Resultant motion of cams. 67 74 75 Rack. and shifting gear for reversing motion Racks and pinion arranged for doubling stroke Radian. operated by multiple pawl Ratchet mechanism. . for releasing sprockets of frictional type 136 138 137 which controls a reversing mechanism which reverses automatically Ratio.PRESS RESULTANT 307 PAGE Press bed motion. for automatically varying 83 85 from epicyclic gearing Reciprocating slide. intermittent motion of moving picture 150 31 Pulley speeds. velocity 117 no 5 i Reciprocating motion mechanism rapid. definition of 69 5 Rapid starting and stopping clutch and brake mechanism Ratchet gearing arranged for reversal of motion automatic disengagement of double action type 237 134 136 139 137 137 methods of varying motion derived from . . from epicyclic gear and crank combination Rectilinear 60 95 86 91 . double. lever.

breakable-pin type to prevent over-load for limiting speed of engines for protecting 60 95 . applications of Reverted or compound train of epicyclic gearing Revolution counter for controlling point of reversal 74 37 . . applications of reversing 276 260 264 63 . by reciprocating pinions with ratchet gearing 79 v 117. by bevel gear and clutch combination by double rack and shifting gear 98 . . conversion of Rotary and rectilinear movements combined Rotary motion varied by means of cam Safety device. 213 22 having differential motion relative to nut transmitting motion Sellers worm and rack drive use of. . 136 Reversing and feeding movements combined Reversing clutches. 117 Rotary and rectilinear motions. 13 74 208. 75 by means of friction disks by means of open and crossed by means of spur gears Reversing motor drives 100 belts 100 97 122 Reversing screw. driving mechanism for crank Skew bevel gearing Sliding key type of speed-changing Slotted cross-head and crank 24 27 mechanism 48 63 Speed-changing and controlling mechanisms 39 46 Speed-changing mechanisms. all-geared f Fictional 49 53 41 multiple-disk type types ot mechanical . 196 259 267 a delicate mechanism which disengages clutch to prevent over-load Safety relief mechanism of forging machines Scotch yoke or slotted cross-head and crank Scott Russell straight-line motion v Screw. for . 74 1 Shaper.308 Return cam RETURN for follower SPEED-CHANGING PAGE 187 Reversal of motion. methods of operating Reversing mechanisms in 101 97 115 112 arranged to vary point of reversal automatically automatic control of automatic ratchet type load-and-fire type of epicyclic or planetary gear type of grinding machine of two-speed bevel gear type special no 101 108 102 99 of reversal methods of controlling point 105 117 which reverses after given number of revolutions Reversing motion.

237 65 213. . 206 205 38.SPEED TEXTILE 309 PAGE Speed indicator.reducing mechanism. reasons for 206 39 Spherical motion Spiral or helical gearing 4 27 Spring and toggle relief mechanism of forging machine Sprocket and chain transmission Sprocket releasing mechanism of ratchet type Spur gear and cone-pulley combinations 264 29 138 Spur gearing 43 26 32 Spur gears. prevention of excessive. . 259 68 69 92 83 6 mechanism which insures complete 280 Sun-and-planet motion 3& Textile machinery. builder motion differential speed-regulating gearing of "5 222 mechanism for varying reciprocating motion 83 2 S4 motions tripping devices or stop . automatic. calculating for Humpage's gear changing by gear cone and tumbler gear mecham'sm changing by gear cones and sliding key control of. clutch mechanism Stationary crank and revolving cylinders Steering gear. for engines electromagnetic 267 270 Stop motions for textile machines 254 237 Stopping and starting rapidly. clutch mechanism for Stops or tripping mechanisms Straight-line motions for indicators 248 12 14 J? ^Peaucellier Scott Russell Stress. automatic Speed. by means of epicyclic gearing of pulleys. 13 Stroke. doubling by means of double rack and pinion mechanism for adjusting from zero to maximum mechanism for automatically varying length of of a crank of a lever. in machines. compound epicyclic gear type differential or epicyclic 229 267 38. differential controlling for. calculating methods of calculating Speed variation. method of determining of gears. 56 for high velocity ratios Speed regulation through differential gearing Speeds. crank on driven mechanism mechanism for doubling. sensitive differential type Speed-limiting device. 222 45 48 48 46 33 33 31 by means of clutches of epicyclic gear trains. 215 mechanism Stop mechanism. trains of Starting and stopping rapidly.

...................... duplex......................... .......................... Toggle mechanism............................. Watt sun-and-planet motion ............................. trip for automatically disengaging ' 74 28 216 249 83 ..................................................... 38 127 126 202 188 253 Wire winding machine tripping mechanism ......................... general methods of ... of drilling machines ......... ...................................................... Velocity.. Worm gearing ........... ........................................... arranged as substitute for floating lever ............. angular ... for varying a transverse movement ........................................................................................ ............................................310 THOMSON WORM-WHEEL PAGE 15 Thomson straight-line motion for indicator ............................................................................... Whitworth motion.............. Tripping or relieving mechanisms of forging machines ................................................... .................... .......... single...................... Velocity ratio ........................... ...................................... .. Windlass............... of drawing press ............ .......................... for 48 71 Universal joint or Hooke's coupling ........................ of electromagnetic type . Worm and rack drive ...and double-stroke ........................... 85 217 13 Water turbine governors.................. Two-cycle type of drive for cold header ......... Whitworth quick-return motion ..... Watt straight-line or parallel motion ...... Wiper and involute cams ....................................... Transmitting motion....................... differential motion of Chinese .............................. 270 254 253 machines ......................... ................................................ Toggle joint ................................... modification of ..... ..... 44 248 Tripping mechanisms .................................................................. Triple gearing for engine lathes .................................................. Toggle and spring relief mechanism of forging machine .... definition of .............................. of Humpage's gear ........ of wire winding machine ....... differential ..... .... ................................................ Worm-wheel......................................... ............. of textile 264 Tumbler gear mechanism changing speed ............ 63 264 18 72 71 30 32 7 Trains of spur gears .......................... of 250 257 drop-hammer ..................... n 5 4 5 45 gear for driving reciprocating part rapidly ... ............................. ........ Throw of an eccentric ...... Trains of mechanisms ..............................................


Fine schedule: 25 cents on NOV 14 1947 JUN 2 7 1956 r LIBRARY USE OK REC'D LD JUNl 1 1953 FEB23"65-7PM 31AG'53HK AUG171953U 3Nov54Vl| OV 4 1954 LO 6 Oec'55CT LD 21-100m-12.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.'46(A2012s 6)4120 . first day overdue 50 cents on fourth day overdue One dollar on seventh day overdue.


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