Pharmacy 299 – Searching for Primary Literature
January 5, 6, 7, 2010 Teresa Lee, Pharmacy Liaison Librarian tel. 604.822.4442 email teresa.lee@ubc.ca

What are the objectives of this session?
By the end of this session, students should be able to: Locate the Pharmacy subject guide Locate instructions for connecting to UBC library’s subscription databases and ejournals from home Describe the role of article indexes/databases in locating primary literature Name the major indexes/databases used for pharmacy literature searching Formulate a clear search question in the PICO format Develop a good search strategy using keywords, subject headings (MeSH or EMTREE), subheadings, explode, and Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) Interpret a journal citation Describe how to obtain full text articles by downloading from e-journals, finding the print version at UBC, or ordering from other libraries Save, edit and search references on Refworks Produce in-line citations and bibliographies using Refworks and Word

Library catalogue: what you use to look up books, videos, journal titles (NOT article titles) owned by UBC library Subscription resource: something the library licenses and pays for so that its users can get access, in other words, resources not freely searchable on the Web Journal: a publication that comes out periodically (i.e. at regular intervals); for example, the New England Journal of Medicine appears weekly Article index/database: a tool for finding journal articles on a topic PICO: a formula for designing a clinical question in a clear and concise format Subject heading: standardized term or phrase assigned to an article to describe the content of that article MeSH: stands for Medical Subject Heading; the collection of subject headings used in MEDLINE and PubMed databases EMTREE: the collection of subject headings used in EMBASE Subheading: terms that are used to make subject headings more specific (for example, the subheading adverse effects for the MeSH heading Aspirin) Citation (or Bibliographic citation): a reference to a book, journal article, or other publication that gives enough detail for the reader to identify the item

etc. sd stands for study design.library.ca 2) Under “Subject Resources”. which is a category assigned by the Cochrane Collaboration. use the EMTREE heading Randomized Controlled Trial or the keyword string randomi$. It indexes articles about the development and use of drugs and professional pharmaceutical practice from 800+ medical. EMBASE (1980 – present) via OVIDSP Use EMBASE to search the international biomedical literature. To locate RCTs.ubc.2 Where should I start? Try the Pharmacy Subject Guide Three steps: 1) Go the library homepage – www. EMBASE uses EMTREE to organize article records. . pharmaceutical and health related journals. PubMed allows simple searches that use a powerful translation algorithm and more structured MeSH searches. EMBASE has unique content not in MEDLINE.sd pt stands for publication type and will pick up citations that originate in PubMed. To limit results to the most rigorous studies.ubc. although its OVIDSP interface will be familiar to those who use MEDLINE on OVIDSP. PubMed (1949 – present) – FREE to search The NLM’s (US National Library of Medicine) in-house interface for accessing MEDLINE. apply specific limits to publication type such as Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) or MetaAnalyses.cfm?id=68 What are the major article indexes/databases for finding primary literature in pharmacy? MEDLINE (1950 – present) via OVIDSP Use MEDLINE to search international medical/pharmaceutical journals back to 1950. meta-analyses. To limit to RCTs in EMBASE.ca/subjects/subjpage1.library. such as Single Citation Matcher and Clinical Queries. use: randomized controlled trial. to organize article records.pt or randomi$. and features many other useful tools. and has an obvious European perspective. EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews via OVIDSP Features highly synthesized and often rigorously analyzed information in the form of systematic reviews. as well as OLDMEDLINE and in-process citations (recent citations that have not yet been indexed. Medical Subject Headings. click on “Subject Guides” 3) Click on “Pharmaceutical Sciences” – http://toby. IPA requires careful keyword searching. IPA (1970 – present) via OVIDSP Produced by the American Society of Health Systems Pharmacists. MEDLINE uses MeSH. or labeled with MeSH). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via OVIDSP Cochrane Collaboration's database of controlled trials. It is especially strong for pharmacy literature.

Lately he has reported gastrointestinal complaints.e. Use your critical evaluation skills when sifting through information on the Web. UBC Library collects major pharmacy books. A list of life sciences ebooks is available at: http://www. which is moderately effective in controlling his aches and pains. i. see: http://www. While searching on the Internet recently.).library. What do I need to think about before searching a database? PICO Before you start. Develop a clear and focused research question. PubMed.ca/life/ebooks/ The Internet provides access to vast amounts of information. population I = intervention.com/) is a good Internet resource for scholarly information. . PICO provides a model for defining your search question: P = patient. keep in mind that the library’s subscription databases allow more thorough and rigorous searches. exposure C = comparison (if appropriate) O = outcome Research Problem John is a 50-year old male with osteoarthritis.ubc.ubc. problem. but wonders whether any studies have proven it to be more effective than current drug therapies. He’d like to try it. have a clear idea of what you’re trying to find. try clinical practice guidelines and systematic reviews (available by limiting to this publication type in MEDLINE. In the health sciences.google. He takes Naproxen. Though searching it is easy. Can you track down information for him on this research question? Use PICO to formulate a clear research question. For tips on evaluating information sources. John found a news article about the use of acupuncture on patients with osteoarthritis. etc. plan out a search strategy. journals and e-resources such as Natural Standard (available via the Indexes & Databases list). prognostic factor.3 Textbooks (including e-books) – don’t forget about textbooks.ca/home/evaluating/ Google Scholar (http://scholar. EMBASE. For articles that synthesize primary articles.library. but is reluctant to consider switching to a COX-2 inhibitor because of recent media attention to the cardiovascular risks associated with drugs such as Vioxx.

see: http://www. Make sure you select the correct reference type in the Ref type drop-down menu (for example. Click Apply. Go to the Results Manager at the bottom of the screen. you can navigate to any other area of RefWorks. 4. 5. Your records should appear in the Last Imported Folder. 7. 8. Select Complete Reference in the Fields section. 4. Select References/Import from the toolbar. Each record displayed will have an Import into RefWorks link.txt) file to your desktop.ubc. Direct export from OVID (Embase. 2. 3. 6.ubc. The export will open RefWorks if it is not already open and automatically import the references. Log in to RefWorks. Section). select Medline under Format. 7. 4. In the Display Settings drop down menu. 2. Enter information into the blank fields. 9. you must configure Google Scholar by clicking on the Scholar Preferences link and selecting RefWorks as your default in the Bibliography Manager area. Once you log in. In RefWorks.html . 2.library. For more help see the UBC RefWorks & RefShare help pages at: http://toby. 4. 8.ca/webpage/webpage. Direct export from Google Scholar into RefWorks Note: To configure the direct export to RefWorks. Select University of British Columbia Library as the data source and PubMed as the database. Clicking on the link will launch the RefWorks login page. 1. Perform a search and mark the references you want to export. 5. Select the references you want to export. Then select Add new reference 3. 6. Browse to find the text file you saved to your computer.ca/life/instruction/refworks_for_sciences. for a book chapter. 3. Using the import filter (2-step) to transfer citations from PubMed into RefWorks 1. Select Export Citations to RefWorks and Continue.library. Click Import. Click the Save button.cfm?id=486 For an excellent step-by-step online tutorial on RefWorks.4 How do I get article records into RefWorks? Manually creating a new record 1. Save the resulting page as a text (. Your records should appear in the Last Imported Folder. click on the References menu. Medline. etc. 2. If you do not wish to edit the record.) into RefWorks 1. you should select Book. 3. the fields marked with green checkmarks are the ones that are used by the output (bibliographic) style you’ve chosen. 10. Conduct your search in Google Scholar. Select the Direct Export format. you are brought automatically to the Edit view of the reference. Your record is stored in your Last Imported Folder.

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