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Lectures 2 and 4, Fall 2011
1. Ross, 20.16. Suppose that the limits L
1
= lim
x→a
f
1
(x) and L
2
= lim
x→a
f
2
(x) exist.
(a) Show that if f
1
(x) ≤ f
2
(x) for all x in some interval (c, b) containing a, then L
1
≤ L
2
.
(b) Suppose that, in fact, f
1
(x) < f
2
(x) for all x in some interval (c, b) containing a. Can you
conclude that L
1
< L
2
?
Note: The problem as stated in the book actually uses righthand limits lim
x→a
+ and the
interval (a, b) instead; it’s ﬁne if you kept the problem statement as given in the book instead of
using the restatement I gave.
Solution. (a) By way of contradiction, suppose that L
1
> L
2
, so that L
1
− L
2
> 0. Since
lim
x→a
f
1
(x) = L
1
and lim
x→a
f
2
(x) = L
2
, there exist δ
1
, δ
2
> 0 such that
f
1
(x) −L
1
 <
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
) if 0 < x −a < δ
1
and
f
2
(x) −L
2
 <
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
) if 0 < x −a < δ
2
.
Now, pick any y = a such that y − a < min{δ
1
, δ
2
}. Then the above inequalities hold, and in
particular they respectively imply that
−
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
) < f
1
(y) −L
1
and f
2
(y) −L
2
<
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
).
Thus
f
2
(y) < L
2
+
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
) =
1
2
(L
1
+ L
2
) = L
1
−
1
2
(L
1
−L
2
) < f
1
(y),
contradicting the fact that f
1
(x) ≤ f
2
(x) for all x. We conclude that L
1
≤ L
2
as claimed.
(b) This need not be true. For example, let f
1
be the constant zero function on (−1, 1) and let
f
2
be the function on (−1, 1) deﬁned by
f
2
(x) =
_
x if x = 0
1 if x = 0.
Then f
1
(x) < f
2
(x) for all x ∈ (−1, 1) but lim
x→0
f
1
(x) = 0 = lim
x→0
f
2
(x).
2. Ross, 24.6. Let f
n
(x) =
_
x −
1
n
_
2
for x ∈ [0, 1].
(a) Does the sequence (f
n
) converge pointwise on the set [0, 1]? If so, give the limit function.
(b) Does (f
n
) converge uniformly on [0, 1]? Prove your assertion.
Proof. (a) For a ﬁxed x ∈ [0, 1], the sequence
_
x −
1
n
_
converges to x, so
_
x −
1
n
_
2
converges to x
2
.
Thus the sequence f
n
(x) =
_
x −
1
n
_
2
converges pointwise on [0, 1].to the function f(x) = x
2
.
(b) We claim that (f
n
) does converge uniformly to f on [0, 1]. To see this, let > 0 and pick N
such that
3
N
< . If n ≥ N, for x ∈ [0, 1] we have
f
n
(x) −f(x) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x −
1
n
_
−x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x −
1
n
_
+ x
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
2x −
1
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
≤
1
n
_
2x +
1
n
_
≤
3
n
≤
3
N
< .
Thus (f
n
) converges uniformly to f on [0, 1].
3. Ross, 24.14. Let f
n
(x) =
nx
1+n
2
x
2
.
(a) Show that f
n
→ 0 pointwise on R.
(b) Does f
n
→ 0 uniformly on [0, 1]? Justify.
(c) Does f
n
→ 0 uniformly on [1, ∞)? Justify.
Proof. (a) First, the sequence f
n
(0) is the constant sequence 0, and so converges to 0. For a ﬁxed
x = 0, we have
nx
1 + n
2
x
2
=
x
n
1
n
2
+ x
2
.
The numerator converges to 0 and the denominator to x
2
= 0, so f
n
(x) also converges to 0 for
x = 0. Thus the constant zero function is the pointwise limit of (f
n
), as claimed.
(b) We claim that (f
n
) does not converge uniformly to f = 0 on [0, 1]. Indeed, uniform conver
gence would in particular require that there exists N such that
f
n
(x) −f(x) <
1
2
for n ≥ N and all x ∈ [0, 1].
However, for any n, the number x =
1
n
∈ [0, 1] has the property that
¸
¸
¸
¸
f
n
_
1
n
_
−f
_
1
n
_¸
¸
¸
¸
=
n
_
1
n
_
1 + n
2
_
1
n
_
2
=
1
2
,
so no N can possibly satisfy the above required inequality for all x ∈ [0, 1]. Thus the convergence
on [0, 1] is not uniform.
Note that we can also see this as a consequence of problem 5 on this assignment: if the conver
gence were uniform, since
1
n
→ 0, f
n
_
1
n
_
=
1
2
would have to converge to f(0) = 0, which it does
not.
(c) We claim that (f
n
) does converge uniformly to f = 0 on [1, ∞). To see this, let > 0 and
choose N such that
1
N
< . For n ≥ N and any x ≥ 1, we have
f
n
(x) −f(x) =
nx
1 + n
2
x
2
≤
nx
n
2
x
2
=
1
nx
≤
1
n
≤
1
N
< ,
showing that (f
n
) converges uniformly to f = 0 on [1, ∞) as claimed.
4. Suppose that f
n
: [a, b] → R is a sequence of functions and f : [a, b] → R is a function with
the property that for any x ∈ [a, b] there exists an open interval I
x
containing x such that (f
n
)
converges uniformly to f on I
x
. Show that (f
n
) converges uniformly to f on all of [a, b]. Hint: The
same would not necessarily be true if we replace [a, b] with (a, b) or with R.
Proof. Let > 0. For each x ∈ [a, b], since (f
n
) converges uniformly to f on I
x
there exists N
x
∈ N
such that
f
n
(y) −f(y) < for n ≥ N
x
and y ∈ I
x
.
Now, the collection {I
x
}
x∈[a,b]
of all the open intervals given in the problem forms an open cover
of [a, b]; since [a, b] is compact this has a ﬁnite subcover, say I
x
1
, . . . , I
x
k
.
Let N = max{N
x
1
, . . . , N
x
k
}. Let n ≥ N and ﬁx x ∈ [a, b]. Since the intervals I
x
1
, . . . , I
x
k
cover
[a, b], at least one of these, say I
x
i
contains x. Since n ≥ N
x
i
, we have
f
n
(x) −f(x) < .
Thus f
n
(x) − f(x) < for n ≥ N and all x ∈ [a, b], showing that (f
n
) converges to f on [a, b] as
required.
5. Suppose that f
n
: [a, b] → R is a sequence of continuous functions converging uniformly to
f : [a, b] →R. If (x
n
) is a sequence in [a, b] converging to x ∈ [a, b], show that the sequence (f
n
(x
n
))
of real numbers converges to f(x). Give an example showing this is not necessarily true if (f
n
)
converged only pointwise to f.
Proof. Let > 0. Since (f
n
) converges uniformly to f, there exists N
1
such that
f
n
(y) −f
(
y) <
2
for n ≥ N
1
and all y ∈ [a, b].
Since each f
n
is continuous, f is also continuous so (f(x
n
)) converges to f(x). Thus there exists
N
2
such that
f(x
n
) −f(x) <
2
for n ≥ N
2
.
Let n ≥ max{N
1
, N
2
}. Using the triangle inequality, we have
f
n
(x
n
) −f(x) ≤ f
n
(x
n
) −f(x
n
) +f(x
n
) −f(x) <
2
+
2
= .
Thus (f
n
(x
n
)) converges to f(x) as required.
Consider the sequence of continuous functions f
n
(x) = x
n
on [0, 1] and their pointwise limit f.
Let x
n
=
_
1
2
_ 1
n
. Then (x
n
) converges to 1 but the constant sequence f
n
(x
n
) =
1
2
does not converge
to f(1) = 1. As another example, the sequence y
n
= 1 −
1
n
converges to 1 but f
n
(y
n
) =
_
1 −
1
n
_
n
converges to
1
e
= f(1).
6. Ross, 14.6. (a) Prove that if
a
n
 converges and (b
n
) is a bounded sequence, then
a
n
b
n
converges.
(b) Observe that Corollary 14.7 is a special case of part (a).
Proof. Since (b
n
) is bounded, there is some M > 0 such that b
n
 ≤ M for all n. Let > 0 and
choose N such that
a
n
 +a
n+1
 +· · · +a
m
 <
M
for m ≥ n ≥ N,
which exists by the Cauchy criterion for convergence applied to the series
a
n
. If m ≥ n ≥ N,
we have
a
n
b
n
+ a
n+1
b
n+1
+· · · + a
m
b
m
 ≤ a
n
b
n
 +· · · a
m
b
m

≤ a
n
M +· · · +a
m
M
= M(a
n
 +· · · +a
m
)
< M
M
= .
Thus
a
n
b
n
satisﬁes the Cauchy criterion for convergence, and so converges.
(b) If
a
n
 converges, applying part (a) with b
n
= 1 for all n shows that
a
n
converges as
well.
7. (Optional, diﬃcult) We know that any continuous function on a compact space is uniformly
continuous. This problem deals with a possible converse to this. Suppose that X is a metric space
with the property that every continuous function f : X →R is actually uniformly continuous.
(a) Give an example showing that X need not be compact.
(b) Assume in addition that X is contained in a compact space K. Show that now the above
condition forces X to be compact.
Note the following contrast: we also know that if X is compact, then any continuous function
f : X → R is bounded—here the converse is true without the additional assumption that X sits
inside of a larger compact space.
Solution. (a) Any continuous function Z → R is uniformly continuous since such a function must
be constant, so Z is an example. Any inﬁnite discrete space is also an example.
(b) Let (x
n
) be any sequence in X; we must show this has a convergent subsequence in X.
Since (x
n
) is also a sequence in K, this has a subsequence (x
n
k
) converging to some p ∈ K, so we
need only show that p ∈ X.
Suppose p / ∈ X and consider the function f : X → R deﬁned by f(x) = d(p, x) for all x ∈ X.
This function is continuous (part (b) of the second optional problem from the previous homework
shows this) and never zero since p / ∈ X. Hence the function
1
f
: X → R sending x →
1
d(p,x)
is
also continuous. By the assumption on X, this is then uniformly continuous. Since uniformly
continuous functions send Cauchy sequences to Cauchy sequences, the sequence
_
1
d(p,xn
k
)
_
would
have to be Cauchy in R since (x
n
k
) is Cauchy in X. However, this sequence is unbounded since the
denominator gets arbitrarily close to 0, and so cannot be Cauchy. This contradiction shows that p
must be in X, so X is compact as claimed.
we have x nx = 1 n 2. the number x = fn 1 n 1 n 1 for n ≥ N and all x ∈ [0. which it does not. for n ≥ N and all x ∈ [a. 2 so no N can possibly satisfy the above required inequality for all x ∈ [0. Proof. showing that (fn ) converges to f on [a. . Thus the constant zero function is the pointwise limit of (fn ). Nxk }. b) or with R. for any n. 1]. 2 ∈ [0. b] there exists an open interval Ix containing x such that (fn ) converges uniformly to f on Ix . Indeed. Ixk . For a ﬁxed x = 0. For n ≥ N and any x ≥ 1. Ixk cover [a. Proof. b]. we have fn (x) − f (x) < . Note that we can also see this as a consequence of problem 5 on this assignment: if the conver1 1 1 gence were uniform.b] of all the open intervals given in the problem forms an open cover of [a. 1]. b] → R is a sequence of functions and f : [a. To see this. . 1]. say Ixi contains x. 1 + n2 x2 +x n2 The numerator converges to 0 and the denominator to x2 = 0. the sequence fn (0) is the constant sequence 0. 2 x2 1+n n x nx n N showing that (fn ) converges uniformly to f = 0 on [1. . 4. (a) Show that fn → 0 pointwise on R. Hint: The same would not necessarily be true if we replace [a. Let n ≥ N and ﬁx x ∈ [a. ∞). 24. Let N = max{Nx1 . b] is compact this has a ﬁnite subcover. as claimed. we have fn (x) − f (x) = nx 1 1 1 nx ≤ 2 2 = ≤ ≤ < . so fn (x) also converges to 0 for x = 0. (b) Does fn → 0 uniformly on [0. ∞)? Justify. since [a. . . Thus fn (x) − f (x) < required. b]. (c) We claim that (fn ) does converge uniformly to f = 0 on [1. Since n ≥ Nxi . since (fn ) converges uniformly to f on Ix there exists Nx ∈ N such that fn (y) − f (y) < for n ≥ Nx and y ∈ Ix . Since the intervals Ix1 . Let > 0. ∞) as claimed. . For each x ∈ [a. Now. . b]. . fn n = 2 would have to converge to f (0) = 0. 1] has the property that −f 1 n = n 1+ 1 n 1 2 n2 n 1 = . at least one of these. 1] is not uniform. (a) First. Show that (fn ) converges uniformly to f on all of [a. uniform convergence would in particular require that there exists N such that fn (x) − f (x) < However. . let > 0 and 1 choose N such that N < . b]. Thus the convergence on [0. Ross. 1]? Justify. Let fn (x) = 1+n2 x2 . (b) We claim that (fn ) does not converge uniformly to f = 0 on [0. b] → R is a function with the property that for any x ∈ [a. . and so converges to 0. Suppose that fn : [a. b] as . since n → 0. .nx 3. say Ix1 . .14. b]. (c) Does fn → 0 uniformly on [1. the collection {Ix }x∈[a. b]. b] with (a.
If (xn ) is a sequence in [a. b] → R is a sequence of continuous functions converging uniformly to f : [a. we have an bn + an+1 bn+1 + · · · + am bm  ≤ an bn  + · · · am bm  ≤ an M + · · · + am M = M (an  + · · · + am ) <M M = . and so converges. This problem deals with a possible converse to this.7 is a special case of part (a). Then (xn ) converges to 1 but the constant sequence fn (xn ) = 2 does not converge 1 1 n to f (1) = 1. b] converging to x ∈ [a. Thus an bn satisﬁes the Cauchy criterion for convergence. Give an example showing this is not necessarily true if (fn ) converged only pointwise to f . 1] and their pointwise limit f . (b) Observe that Corollary 14. Since (fn ) converges uniformly to f . Since (bn ) is bounded. b]. Using the triangle inequality. Proof. Consider the sequence of continuous functions fn (x) = xn on [0. an bn Proof.6. an converges as 7. there exists N1 such that fn (y) − f( y) < 2 for n ≥ N1 and all y ∈ [a. we have fn (xn ) − f (x) ≤ fn (xn ) − f (xn ) + f (xn ) − f (x) < Thus (fn (xn )) converges to f (x) as required. f is also continuous so (f (xn )) converges to f (x). the sequence yn = 1 − n converges to 1 but fn (yn ) = 1 − n converges to 1 = f (1). (a) Prove that if an  converges and (bn ) is a bounded sequence. e 1 2 + 2 = . b] → R. diﬃcult) We know that any continuous function on a compact space is uniformly continuous. show that the sequence (fn (xn )) of real numbers converges to f (x). 2 Let n ≥ max{N1 . N2 }. b]. then converges. there is some M > 0 such that bn  ≤ M for all n.5. Thus there exists N2 such that f (xn ) − f (x) < for n ≥ N2 . Ross. Let > 0 and choose N such that an  + an+1  + · · · + am  < for m ≥ n ≥ N. 6. Suppose that fn : [a. M which exists by the Cauchy criterion for convergence applied to the series an . Since each fn is continuous. applying part (a) with bn = 1 for all n shows that well. . Suppose that X is a metric space with the property that every continuous function f : X → R is actually uniformly continuous. If m ≥ n ≥ N . As another example. (Optional. Let > 0. (b) If an  converges. 14. 1 1 Let xn = 2 n . (a) Give an example showing that X need not be compact.
xn ) would k have to be Cauchy in R since (xnk ) is Cauchy in X. Any inﬁnite discrete space is also an example. so we need only show that p ∈ X. (b) Let (xn ) be any sequence in X. However.(b) Assume in addition that X is contained in a compact space K. This contradiction shows that p must be in X. Since uniformly 1 continuous functions send Cauchy sequences to Cauchy sequences. Suppose p ∈ X and consider the function f : X → R deﬁned by f (x) = d(p. this sequence is unbounded since the denominator gets arbitrarily close to 0. Solution. the sequence d(p. Show that now the above condition forces X to be compact. we must show this has a convergent subsequence in X. Note the following contrast: we also know that if X is compact. Hence the function f : X → R sending x → d(p. . / This function is continuous (part (b) of the second optional problem from the previous homework 1 1 shows this) and never zero since p ∈ X. this has a subsequence (xnk ) converging to some p ∈ K. x) for all x ∈ X. so Z is an example. Since (xn ) is also a sequence in K. this is then uniformly continuous. then any continuous function f : X → R is bounded—here the converse is true without the additional assumption that X sits inside of a larger compact space. and so cannot be Cauchy. (a) Any continuous function Z → R is uniformly continuous since such a function must be constant. so X is compact as claimed.x) is / also continuous. By the assumption on X.
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