This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
“God must decide / Who will be given to death’s cold grip.” INTRODUCTION
The Anglo-Saxons were a remarkable people, with a rich culture that favoured intricate and art and high decoration, and a strong tradition of the warrior class. Their language, which we now refer to as Old English, was different enough from Modern English that we cannot read texts in their original form, without translation. Although nearly all Old English poetry is preserved in only four manuscripts—indicating that what has survived is not necessarily the best or most representative—much of it is of high literary quality. The world of the Anglo-Saxons was violent and dangerous. Rival kings fought for control of the best land, and it was very much a warrior society. Warriors spent their leisure times in mead halls, listening to court poets, called scops, sing about the triumphs of their greatest heroes. An Anglo-Saxon hero had to be able to fight and defend his people, and had to be able to lead them into battle. It is the legends of these daring men, composed into epics, that have survived to this day. Beowulf, a complete epic, is the oldest surviving Germanic epic as well as the longest and most important poem in Old English. It originated as a pagan saga conveyed orally from one generation to the next. The version of Beowulf that is still in existence was written down by a Christian poet, probably early in the 8th century. Since most of the people who could write at this time were monks in the Christian church, it is not surprising that some Christian content has found its way into the epic, adding another layer to the exciting story.
Activity 1.1 Activity 1.2 Short Answer Questions for LG 2................................................... 5 marks Flashcards for LG 2 ........................................................................ 5 marks
Please hand in your flashcards in the same order that they are presented in this Learning Guide
Activity 1.3 Activity 1.4 Activity 1.5
Beowulf Sight Passage ................................................................ 15 marks Beowulf Essay Outline ................................................................ 25 marks Beowulf Essay Written Expression .............................................. 25 marks Beowulf Essay Content ............................................................... 25 marks
LG 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf
“The Seafarer”. You may answer directly on the worksheet. Toronto: Holt Rinehart and Winston.1. Burton trans. 2996. Adventures in English Literature. Questions B: Answer questions 1-1 to 1-6 at the end of this Learning Guide. Focus 2: Anglo-Saxon Versification and The Seafarer The poem The Seafarer should be our first student presented poem.. Harcourt Brace and Company. Harcourt Brace and Company. Activity 1. beginning on page 2. 12 – 30. which will be returned to you for study purposes. 12 – 30. Burton trans. “from Beowulf”.Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf TEXTS Rafel. Rafel. 2996. Athena Edition.. (Student directed lesson) TERMS alliteration allusion aphorism caesura characterization colloquialism conflict epic essay *ethnocentricity figure of speech foreshadowing formal diction hero heroic tradition image imagery irony kenning literary essay literal language metaphor myth omniscient point of view oral tradition personification poetry point of view rime-giver rhythm scop setting symbol thesis thesis statement Focus 1: The Anglo-Saxons A: Read “The Anglo-Saxon Period: 449 – 2066” in Adventures in Literature. Questions for Learning 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 2 . Adventures in English Literature. Turn to page 35 in your textbook and read “The Seafarer”. There are a number of elements of Anglo-Saxon poetry that we can identify here that will help us in our reading of Beowulf. Toronto: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Athena Edition.
They find expression in such phrases as "earl's raiment" for armour and "swan's road" or "whale's road" for sea. The emphasis achieved by the beat here is supported by the parallelism of expression. Activity 1. or so graced by God ("graced" is the rime-giver) Let us now look at line 9. and by the repetition of an idea in synonymous words or phrases: 9 In icy bands.Read the poem slowly and see if you can imagine the poem as a conversation between two speakers. Carmichael 3 Last printed 04/02/2009 1:47:00 PM . Activity 1. There are two distinct attitudes being expressed: the enthusiasm of the youth for new adventure and the weariness of the old sailor recounting his hardships.2. Such synonyms are called kennings. is the basis of the poetic line. you will discover that there are many terms you need to know for the provincial exam – nearly 300! This is a lot to “cram” for. 'Normally. bound with frost For another example. Each line is divided into two parts. The descriptions are enhanced by the metrical charm of the poem and by the flowing alliteration. Make it a habit to watch for these kennings. In Anglo-Saxon poetry. you will find that they enrich the description." This is a synonym for sea. especially since much of it is memorization. In each of these half-lines there are two beats. Flashcards As you work through the Literature 12 and English 12 courses. As you read note the powerful descriptions in the poem. Such lines as the following have the typical beat. note the phrase "whales' home. Line ∪ / ∪ / ∪ ∪ / ∪ ∪ ∪ / 6 Of smashing surf / / when I sweated in the cold ("sweated" is the rime-giver) / ∪ ∪∪ / ∪ / 41 Grown so brave / /. of these.1 (continued): Questions A: Answer questions 2-1 to 2-5 at the end of this Learning Guide. there are four stressed syllables in each line. (The first beat in the second half of a line is called the rime-giver. look at line 15: Line 15 Alone in a world blown clear of love In lines 59-60. Frances Kelsey Secondary Mrs. M. Kennings are metaphors of a particular type. not the number of syllables. You also need to be familiar enough with each of the 41 works (including Beowulf) to recognize the entire work and author from a quotation. at least three are alliterated (alliteration: repetition of the same initial letter or sound). at least one of the beats in the first half alliterates with the first accented syllable in the second half. the number of stresses. with a slight pause (caesura) between.) The number of unaccented syllables varies from line to line.
They are “larger than life” the gods or supernatural elements are often involved in the deed and combats of men always exalted and lofty in the style of writing May have an “invocation” or statement of purpose Epic At this time you should make up flashcards on the following. Whenever you get an answer that doesn’t agree with mine. and come up with a definition. or you might read a definition and remember the appropriate term.Personally. speech. I would be pleased to look them over to make sure you are on the right track. valour. you might read a term. In order to do a flashcard most efficiently: a. etc. For example. c. What do you think people of the future will think about the values implied in the popular music and movies of today? We know from the remnants of AngloSaxon literature that these people highly prized the following: • • • • • a heroic tradition endurance courage generosity and loyalty fair Play • • • • love of Fame learning fatalism (resignation to “Wyrd”) the recent conversion to Christianity Frances Kelsey Secondary Mrs. Here. be sure to argue it out with me! You can add any additional flashcards. alliteration caesura epic hero heroic tradition kenning oral tradition unstressed syllable (∪) rime-maker rhythm scop stressed syllable (/) Focus 3: Beowulf We can tell a lot about a culture by paying close attention to the values implied in the culture and poetry of a people. set up your cards so that you can study them from either side. Carmichael 4 Last printed 04/02/2009 1:47:00 PM . put the word or phrase on one side. strength. on the other. only one piece of information is on each card (you can cut your cards in half) b. such as particularly tricky questions. You will also answer a number of questions and do some self-marking activities. for example. Some terms may have fairly lengthy definitions. size. in words that make sense to you. its heroes surpass ordinary men in deeds. is my flashcard on “epic” is a poem of considerable length national in theme – usually composed when a young nation is searching for its own identity. M. and the definition. that you wish. I have found the use of flashcards invaluable in learning this material.
Keep in mind the following key features of Anglo-Saxon poetry: • • • • • • • • • • oral in tradition (sung by scops in the mead hall) no rhyme rhythmic 4 beat line a caesura (or break mid-line) kennings (metaphorical phrase or compound word) alliteration somber tone larger than life hero stately diction and speeches traditional scenes .2. a quote that shows the Christian influence 1. Read the introductory material and the excerpts from Beowulf. You should include: 1.5. a quote that shows the character of Grendel 1.1.3: (continued) Flashcards C: Create 6 content flashcards with significant quotes from Beowulf.7.3.4. translated by Burton Raffel. Activity 1. in Adventures in Literature. a quote that shows the pagan influence 1. a quote that shows the character of Beowulf 1. beginning on page 12. battle. banquet. and the author and the name of the text (Beowulf) on the other. funeral “Beowulf” has all these features. including many basic ingredients of epic poetry: This poem is pagan in origin but was written down by an Anglo-Saxon Christian. Although an Anglo-Saxon (Old English) poem. any other quotes you think are significant Literature 12 LG 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 5 . a quote that shows the style or mood of Beowulf 1. it moves to Geatland (Sweden). violent. a quote that suggests the conflict 1. heroic and fatalistic. its setting is mainly in Denmark and begins in Herot. Later. boast. the mead hall of King Hrothgar. Write the quote on one side of the card.voyage. B. Read “Literary Elements” on page 30 of Adventures in Literature.A.6. Activity 1.2 (continued): Questions B: Answer questions 2-2 to 2-24 at the end of this Learning Guide. it is dark.
but the title of both should appear on the cover sheet. Remember the following: o provide a cover page that has your name. the date you completed it.5. D: Create a flashcard on each of the following terms with a definition and an example from Beowulf. Activity 1. double space page 6 o o o Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf . A: By specific reference to the selection from Beowulf. B: With specific reference to Beowulf. You may use the same cover sheet for both assignments. Complete the questions and paragraph and hand it in. show that life was not easy during Anglo-Saxon times. show two Anglo-Saxon values that are demonstrated by Beowulf’s actions and comments. These topics both appeared as exam questions when students were required to write a total of six essays on their exams! For each point you make. If you type. C: With reference to both “The Seafarer” AND Beowulf. I know the trick of writing he essay and then pulling the outline off of it. allusion aphorism characterization conflict foreshadowing image imagery irony metaphor omniscient point of view personification point of view setting symbol Activity 1. provide a title for each assignment. Activity 1.3. and write the line numbers in round brackets at the end of each line. the name and number of this learning guide. write in blue or black ink. so I would like you to get your outline initialled before you write your essay. identify two ways in which the epic Beowulf displays heroic actions. or type your outline. be sure to include a quote or specific reference. Outline an Essay Write an outline on ONE of the following topics. use a standard font. but I really want you to have the experience of legitimately working from an outline. where you will have to identify quotes from this course (provide the title or author).You will use these flashcards to prepare for the provincial exam. Beowulf Sight Passage The excerpt and questions in the Beowulf Hand in Exercise appeared on the June. Remember that you will probably not be able to write your introduction and your conclusion until you have found your content. 2002 Literature 12 exam. and the name of this course.4. Write an Essay Choose ONE of the topics you have outlined above and write it as a full essay.
We will go over this in class. (Usually you would mention the author too. but since we don’t know who exactly wrote Beowulf down.6. let’s leave that part out). but you might want to note that I use proper format at the beginning of each learning guide. Self-Quiz When you have handed in all of the activities for this learning guide. you might like to try the ”self quiz” for Learning Guide 1. Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 7 . like this (57). so you can get some idea of what exam questions are like. This quiz is not for marks. let alone composed it – well.o o indent the first line of each paragraph (and have more than one paragraph please!!) mention the name of the text you are discussing (Beowulf) in the first paragraph. placed before the period of the sentence the quote is in. provide a list of works cited in proper format. o o Activity 1. It can be found under “Courses” and “Literature 12” on the Frances Kelsey Web Site. in brackets. It is made up of questions on Beowulf from former provincial exams. so for this learning guide you can simply copy it.. cite your sources in-text in the outline itself with a page number only. or just after the quotation.
and explain why the England of this period was largely a military society. other than the one used in the learning guide. other than the one used in the learning guide. 1-2: What common traits and ideals did the Anglo-Saxons share? 1-3: What indicates that the Anglo-Saxons prized beauty and learning as well as bravery and strength? 1-4: What dominant characteristics of Anglo-Saxon poetry are due to its oral tradition? 1-5: Explain the role of the Anglo-Saxon scop. in literary terms? Give an example from “The Seafarer”.Name: ___________________________________ Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf Focus 1: 1-1: The Anglo-Saxons Give the dates included in the Anglo-Saxon Period. 2-2: What is parallelism. Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 8 . 1-6: What event brought the Anglo-Saxon period to a close? Focus 2: 2-1: The Seafarer What is a rime-giver? Give an example from “The Seafarer”.
Name: ___________________________________ 2-3: What is a kenning? Give an example from “The Seafarer”. Cite one positive and one negative view of the seafaring life shown in the poem. Focus 3: 3-1: Beowulf What contrasting characteristics are found in the epic Beowulf? 3-2: When was Beowulf most likely composed? When did its events probably take place? 3-3: Why is the poem’s tone sombre? 3-4: Explain Grendel’s nature as it is illustrated by the following items: a) his ancestry b) his isolation c) his motives for coming to Hrothgar’s battle hall d) the part of nature with which he is associated Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 9 . 2-4: “The Seafarer” is a poem of great contrasts. other than the one used in the learning guide.
guardian of crime. in which Beowulf answers Unferth’s charge. a) before: b) after: c) change: 3-10: What happens to Beowulf after he slays Grendel? 3-11: Describe Beowulf’s funeral and memorial. and the ideal Anglo-Saxon hero? 3-8: What happens when Grendel enters the hall that Beowulf and his men have inhabited? 3-9: Locate five adjectives or adverbs in lines 363 – 423 which are used to describe Grendel before the battle. 3-12: Explain how the following lines illustrate the use of kennings. That shepherd of evil.Name: ___________________________________ 3-5: How long does the monster’s reign of terror last. What do these lines reveal about Beowulf. and caesura. and how is it broken? 3-6: Explain what motivates Beowulf to help the Danes. alliteration. 3-7: Reread lines 250 – 326. and five in lines 458 – 504 which describe the monster after the battle. and comment on the change in Grendel that these lists imply. Study both lists. Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 10 .
Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 11 . a) kennings: b) alliteration: c) caesura 3-13: Anglo-Saxon society had only recently converted to Christianity. .Name: ___________________________________ Knew at once that nowhere on earth Had he met a man whose hands were harder. Find an example from the poem to support this statement. and still had strong pagan influences. .
now when he needed it Most. 5 If the dragon hiding in his tower dares To face me. helped him. that excellent sword. Pouring out fire and smoke. As a good man must. prepared Behind his high shield. but cracked And failed him before it went deep enough. None of his comrades Came to him. The ancient blade broke. 30 Unwilling to leave this world. The monster came quickly toward him. what kinship should mean. now. before. then it began to melt. But I will fight again. remembering. as death Ends their few brief hours on earth. deserted him. And he suffered. bit into 20 The monster’s skin. 35 Quickly. they ran for their lives. with glory Denied him. hurrying To its fate. thrashed and beat at him. Flames beat at the iron Shield. And only one of them Remained. and for a time it held. spreading them everywhere. but now A beaten warrior.Name: ________________________________ Beowulf Hand in Exercise: excerpt from Beowulf The Last Battle And Beowulf uttered his final boast: “I’ve never known fear. He knew it. wrapped around in swirling Flames—a king. fled Deep in a wood. 15 And for the first time in his life that famous prince Fought with fate against him. but he raised his sword And struck at the dragon’s scaly hide. miserable. protected Beowulf as he’d planned. seek fame still. as a youth I fought In endless battles. stood there. unmoving. its breath flared. Edgetho’s Famous son stared at death. Literature 12 LG 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 12 . spouting Murderous flames. his brave and noble 40 Followers. encouraged As Beowulf fell back.” …The Geats’ Great prince stood firm. I am old. drew blood. the dragon came at him. 25 And the Geats’ ring-giver did not boast of glorious Victories in other wars: his weapon Had failed him. The dragon leaped With pain. helped him Less than he needed. to exchange it For a dwelling in some distant place—a journey Into darkness that all men must make. waiting in his shining 10 Armor.
he sees the enormous size of the dragon. C. “Geats’ ring-giver” (line 25) is an example of A. respond to the following question. 5. simile. B. D. “And for the first time in his life that famous prince” (line 15) This line illustrates the use of A. D. 4. B. C. (10 marks) Questions for Learning Guide 1: The Anglo-Saxons and Beowulf page 13 . C. Paragraph Answer: INSTRUCTIONS: In paragraph form. using approximately 150 words. B. Beowulf is A. caesura. With specific reference to the passage. Beowulf first learns that fate is against him when A. cowardly. Write your answer in ink. he realizes that he boasts too much. joyful. The tone of the lines “his brave and noble / Followers” (lines 39–40) is A. his iron shield begins to melt. 1. paradox. C. humorous. invincible. D. alliteration. betrayed. kenning. 3. oxymoron. 2. At the end of the excerpt. elegiac. 2. ironic. B. B. show that the hero Beowulf becomes vulnerable. C. aphorism. metaphor. confident.Name: ___________________________________ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. D. none of his men comes to help him. D.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.