< previous page

page_101 cover

next page >

Page 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.

< previous page

page_101
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

title: author: publisher: isbn10 | asin: print isbn13: ebook isbn13: language: subject publication date: lcc: ddc: subject:

The Morning After : Sexual Politics At the End of the Cold War Enloe, Cynthia H. University of California Press 0520083369 9780520083363 9780585041155 English Sex role, Man-woman relationships, Feminist theory, Cold War, Post-communism. 1993 HQ1233.E55 1993eb 305.3 Sex role, Man-woman relationships, Feminist theory, Cold War, Post-communism.

cover
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_1

next page >

Page 101 Page 1 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Introduction manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that "Now that the war is over, Esmeralda has CHMIUD PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED VERSION OF hadthose TOremoved." What? I read the sentence again. of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in her gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. Salvadoran woman who spent many of her young adult years as a guerrilla in the Esmeralda is a Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front, the FMLN. She pounded out tortillas and washed her boyfriend's clothes as well as wielding a gun. 1 Now it was the "morning after." Not of an illicit affair, page_101 peace page < but of a Cold War-fueled civil war. Her country's strife had been brought to an end by anextaccord > previous page signed by government men and opposition men up in New York, under the watchful eye of the men UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book, buy it!to United Nations peacekeepers and try BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD from Washington. So Esmeralda was going to hand her gun over to remake her life. One of her first postwar acts was to have her IUD taken out. During the war her guerrilla tasks had made it seem politically irresponsible to get pregnant. But now she was being urged by men in the political leadership to imagine her postwar life as one devoted to being a good mother. Some Salvadoran women, however, had quite a different vision of postwar relationships between their country's women and men. They were imagining an end to police rape and domestic violence. Men's violence against women had escalated under the pressures of a civil war fueled by classic Cold War anxieties. These women were organizing to ensure that the peace accords, even if not designed by women on either

THE

THE

< previous page

page_1
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_10

next page >

Page 101 Page 10 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter One manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Are UN Peacekeepers Real Men? civilians and soldiers relatePuzzlesanother in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of And Other Post-Cold War to one militarization. It's so clear she's a mother. It's so obvious that she expects him to listen to her, as should any son. No matter that he is facing her with a rifle in hand in a phalanx of soldiers. page_101 < When I first looked at the photograph of a Russian woman facing troops, what I thought of was page > previous page next not what it takes to foil a military coup. I did not wonder at the crumbling of the Soviet state. No, my mind If scolding my best playmate, Alfie Ross, for using a double conjured up memories of my own mother you like this book, buy it! negative. Five-year-old me was thoroughly mortified. With a second glance I tried to banish these memories of childhood embarrassment. My own mother had been trying to roll back the tides of bad grammar. This Russian woman was trying to end the Cold War. Still, each woman acted out of a sense of her maternal authority. The Russian woman seemed to be emboldened by her maternalism to chastise a young soldier to stop wielding military might against his society's fledgling democracy. For journalists, the image was irresistible: the frumpy Slavic woman facing down sleek modern weaponry, as if she were its equal. Funnythe image verged on being funny. The photograph was not intended, I suspected, to convey a serious message. It was not imagined by the photographer or the photographer's editor as help-

< previous page

page_10
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_100

next page >

Page 100 101 Whether one is pressured to play somewhat different roles processes, one must chart how women and women may be tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social to reduce or mask those tensions and keep the men in machine running smoothly. We scarcely know yet means describe the marriage politics that militaryany particular historical setting comprehend what it how to to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military United been affected by those of Italy, South help to sustain the military-industrial complex of theofficials States, much less their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Africa, or Brazil. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. <><><><><><><><><><><><>

THE

page_101 < Militarization is page process. It occurs both during those periods of intense militarization that we > previous a tricky next page
call "war" and during the periods that we refer to as "peace"or as "prewar" or "postwar" or ''interwar." military or on military values. Virtually anything can be militarized. Toys, marriage, scientific research, university curricula, motherhoodeach can be militarized. Fatherhood, AIDS, immigration, racism, fashion, journalism, and comic strips can be militarized. Even gay rights can be militarized. Each one of these processes involves the transformation of meanings and relationships. Rarely does the transformation happen without the use of public power and authority. Occasionally the process is reversed. American children seemed to demilitarize their play in the early 1970s, as evidenced by the sharp fall in sales of G.I. Joe dolls. Chilean women are consciously working to demilitarize their children's play in the 1990s, turning children away from the games of hiding and torturing they learned during the Pinochet years. 52 Those American, Canadian, European, and Japanese scientists who are refusing in the 1990s to take part in SDI research are trying to demilitarize their professions. Women in any country who refuse to see their sons accept conscription or voluntarily enlist in the military as a valid way to cope with civilian unemployment are taking steps to demilitarize motherhood. University teachers who encourage their students to assign as much analytical "seriousness" to pacifist movements as to national security policymaking are demilitarizing at least a small part of their curriculum.

Militarization is occurring when any part you society becomes it! UNREGISTERED VERSION OF of a like this book, buy controlled by or dependent on the If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE

< previous page

page_100
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101

next page >

Page 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.

< previous page

page_101
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

Many women active in feminist and nonfeminist peace groups were becoming alarmed as they learned from Central by the page_101 < Americans just how completely their communities' social fabrics were being unraveledname of Cold previous page destructive alliances formed between local elites and Washington policymakers in the next page > War anti-Communism. buy it! UNREGISTERED VERSION scaleyouthe violence and the potency of the militarizing alliances BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD loomed so large that feminist questioning seemed beside the point.< previous page page_101 page_102 next page > Page 102 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. and cease-fire agreements are altering the political landscapes of Nicaragua and El Salvador. militarization." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Four manliness and femininity. once again. Panama has disappeared from the television screen. This time it will be the rush of demilitarization rather than the THE THE < previous page page_102 If you like this book. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Bananas Militarized and Demilitarized UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of When I decided the time had come to try to make feminist sense of U. buy it! next page > . and potentially Guatemala as well.S. Central America was the first region I turned to. when Americans' memories of the Grenada invasion are fading. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Rather. there is the danger that. Not that feminists didn't suspect that the politics of masculinity and femininity were indeed at work. foreign policy's penchant for militarization. Yet both the OF of like this book. Now. feminist questioning will not be taken seriously. It was the mid-1980s. the mid-1980s political environment was such that it was hardrisky evento insist that those feminist hunches get a hearing at Central America peace meetings and rallies. almost ten years later.

Demilitarization may tempt people and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to reliance of that policy means to be concerned with Washington's Central America policy to disregard thebe "manly" and what it on peculiar "feminine. will throw light on the new power relationships between the United States and each of the countries in the region. That clearer understanding. post-civil war society? Is the American government's current drive to construct a "continental" market a post-Cold War strategy that depends on the continued feminization of cheap page_101 < labor? previous page next page > Yes. however." It was also a time that compelled Central American women and men to relate to one another in ways that shape the sexual politics of today's demilitarization. we need to recall the ways in which feminist curiosity provided a launchpad for making new sense of the 1980s militarization. The answer to all three questions is Yes. Anti-Imperialism With Blinders On When one finishes writing a book.like this book. one inevitably feels a curious mix of elation and uneasiness-elation from managing to come full circle in < previous page page_103 If you like this book. Demilitarization as it is currently progressing in the 1990s may not be putting much of a dent in the patriarchal quality of either Central American political life or U.< previous page page_101 page_103 next page > Page 103 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S. So.Nicaraguan women reveal something important about political life in that organizing of postrevolutionary. the If you During the height of reward for paying attention to women's lives was a clearer vision of how that devastating process really worked." Not only women and men relationships betweenhave government and military officials been the postCold War international of the relation of each to affected by their own perceptions manliness system. today: if one takes women's experiences seriously. buy it! the militarization of the 1980s. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civiliansaand soldiers relateof the 1992 Salvadoran cease-fire ways that ease the the new. too. autonomousof Is there feminist analysis to one another in those gendered agreement? Does complicated process militarization. buy it! next page > . in turn. and femininity. one must chart how women momentum of militarization that may dull feminist curiosity. foreign policy. For that militarized era wasn't just the best-forgotten "bad old days. Before looking more closely at the gendered politics of Central American demilitarization. one has a much better chance of understanding the consequences of the peculiar politics of Central America's demilitarization.

either in those countries or in the donor countries. perhaps it many of wholehave also of power and design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM had neitherwaysinsight northe complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers economy. they did not seem to believe that the expansion of Third World militaries through foreign arms sales and the influx of military aid depended at all on changing notions of what constitutes "masculine" behavior. Noam Chomskysome of these men were from If CHMthis book. in historical setting comprehend what Become You?an exploration into means men in any particular1983. They scarcely ever wondered whether the IMF's standard package of austerity measures. foreign investment. the latter are "private" and probably trivial." Not only have government and military officials been be more than just military operations why militaries attempt to control womenI had a sense that it mightaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. changed the power relations between women and men in these countries. As these writers' eager audience. Together. and others were from the what like was called the Third. we virtually never were prompted to figure out what the connections might be between international debt. but was the them network attempted to dependence we call "the that were gendered. Walter UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you thenRodney. The well-known commentators who then occupied the center stage of almost any critical discussion of page_101 < imperialism or foreign interventionism apparently believed that there was little to be gained by looking > previous page next page at women's lives. For the moment. and wife battering on the other hand." But at the time I gendered the that ease the nerve to pursue that international political relate to one another in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. The message one came away with from these books was: the former are inherently "serious" and "political". they had helped fashion the intellectual tools many of us still use to explain how Exxon. buy it! next page > . But these men almost never asked whether it mattered that the Third World's investment-attracting cheap labor was made cheap by being feminized. the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Emmanuel Walterstein. Thus.< previous page page_101 page_104 next page > Page 104 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or it's almost certain that important puzzles have how left glaringly one's thinking. Perry Anderson. Moreover. when I completed Does Khakiit means to be "manly" and what ithow andto be "feminine. NATO. one must chart been women and unresolved. SamirCONVERTER STANDARD BY TO PDF Amin. prostitution. buy it!First World. and uneasiness becausedemilitarizing social processes. hunch. I left explaining the patterns of global power and profit to those historians and social theorists who continued to deem gender (including their own) irrelevant. imposed on Third World governments. THE THE < previous page page_104 If you like this book. and Hollywood have come to distort relations between the world's rich and poor. housework. and militarism on the one hand and rape.

Gendering A Banana Republic Bananas." as if those questions were peripheral to such a movement's central thesis. less traditional industries have been added: tourism. United Fruit. Only belatedly. and what are they doing?" entire campaigns would be more firmly grounded in political reality and would have a much better chance of achieving their page_101 < public goals. office work. Cocoa. oil refining. When militaries have been sent into these countries it has usually been to protect those hierarchies and the rewards those at the top have garnered from their control of sugar. Bookers. electronics assembly. many women in left-wing and social justice movements dealing with domesticensure that civilians and soldiers relate to were most in those gendered ways the women complicated process challenging male activists whoone another comfortable leaving it tothat ease the to take up "women's of militarization. Rice. Cotton. Limes. Each product has its own history. They had become convinced that if one asked "Where are the women. the United States. Sugar. Both the more traditional and the recently introduced products have been enmeshed in global struggles from the outset. women's movement suggests that Yet surely everything we have revealed in the last three decades of theone must chart how women and men in any particular any analysis or any organizing strategy that to be "manly" and what it means to be we should be wary of historical setting comprehend what it meanspresumes that economic and "feminine. however. Most have been nurtured not just by the region's warm climate and rich soil but also by foreign capital and by hierarchies of class and skin colorand gender. Del If you like this book. Britain. buy it! < previous page page_105 If you like this book. and most recently. the Netherlands. Coca Cola. Alcan. By perceptions of manliness and femininity. Tate and Lyle. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to issues were in fact. issues. melons and broccoli farming. garmentmaking. Geest. bananas. Kaiser. The colonizing governments (Spain. and other products for export." Not only have government and military officials pale affected by their own the mid-1980s. France) and the internationally competitive companies (Gulf and Western. Coffee. In the last two decades other. buy it! next page > . cattle raising. These are the raw products for which the countries of Central America and the Caribbean have been famous.< previous page page_101 page_105 next page > Page 105 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. coffee. emotional relations between women and men are outside the been of serious politics. were many of these same women starting to imagine what a previous page next page > distinctly feminist analysis of international politics would look like.

would generate profits forPDF CONVERTER their local allies. Central American people have tried to cope withor at times resistthem are written as Caribbean and though the principals concerned never had gender on their minds." Not only have government and decisions made been affected by societies. buy it! companies and STANDARD BY If CHM TO the overseas sugar and cotton. Thus. and Guyana demonstrate the legacy of gendered racist divisions of plantation labor. to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTERand of how of BY civilians and soldiers relate tohistorical accounts we have of these external decisions STANDARD Where are the women? Most one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. to be "manly" and what it means to have in any particular historical setting comprehend what it meansThe constant has been the extreme be "feminine. But is this true? For instance. and Monte. for instance.< previous page page_101 page_106 next page > Page 106 101 Whether one is tracing waxed and or demilitarizing social processes. Laws governing marriage and child custody. racism nonetheless was wielded in order to create domestic stratifications of color that served to coopt the Hispanicized peasant and exploit the Indian. The present-day politics of Jamaica. theorizing about late twentieth-century Caribbean or Central American "plantation societies" will be shaky at best if it is carried on as if women and THE THE < previous page page_106 If you like this book. The formulation and even more interesting for us todaythe replication of these divisions of Central American labor were accomplished with the help of sexism. In those Central American societies where colonists' use of African slaves was less prevalent.next page > previous in which European plantation managers constructed gendered labor divisions in ways that guaranteed that the cultivation of UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. buy it! next page > . rationalizations for missionary workall were crucial tools for economic exploitation and colonial order. though often vulnerability of the region's local peoples tomilitary officialsoutside their own their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. notions which present obstacles to effective political action even a century or more after slavery's abolition. and Indian communities. and Dole) have militarizingwaned in their fortunes. They have helped to sustain patriarchal notions within the black. but many of them have also attempted with the collaboration of members of their own national elites. Latino. one and chart each other. have bargainedmustfoughthow women and men withdrawn from some places in order to intervene in others. Trinidad. new work being done in this country by African-American women historians suggests that sexist strategies page_101 < shaped the wayspage racism was developed to rationalize and organize slave labor. These early uses of sexist strategies have had lasting effects. Dominica. policies to guarantee men's waged labor. and all leaned heavily on conscious presumptions about masculinity and femininity.

It is also tied integrally to the ways in which women's relations to men have been shaped by local governments and foreign companies. capturing Africans. When Spanish slavers began raiding the coast. sugar. as if Hispanicization and its complementary exploitation of Indians is what "really" If you like this book. however. about how women in the perceptions manliness and El Salvador. it is not discussed in ways that could tell us how sexual divisions of labor have been used to support racial and class divisions of labor. We need to go further.< previous page page_101 page_107 next page > Page 107 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. < previous page page_107 If you like this book. military intervention. So the banana may be a good place to start in our fashioning of a feminist analysis of American militarization of Central America in the 1980s.themNicaragua attempted to design policies to ensure that male movements of femininity. then. if it is. of North American neocolonial intervention." Notaonlyabout the potency of machismo officials been affected by their own insurgent of We have heard lot have government and military ideology. they started shipping bananas as well. The banana. entered this hemisphere as the slavers' choice of a cheap and popular African staple to feed enslaved women and men. buy it! next page > . Of page_101 < course. and ask how machismo has privilege inside their relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.racist stratifications on which most of the coffee. later. Its original home was Southeast Asia.S. Or. The banana's history is embedded in the history of European colonial expansion and. but many of and have also have struggled against the presumption of civilians and soldiers own organizations. and shipping them to the West Indies and South America. By the 1400s the banana had spread westward to become a basic food on the Guinean coast of Africa. Machismo's role in the process is hardly considered by the analysts of international economy. yet never the twain shall meet. We often proceed as if ideologies of male dominance and ideologies of Indian inferiority each have a place in Central American history. one must chart how women and men experienced slavery in identical ways or as if the politics of postslavery communities were free of men in any particular historical setting comprehend the legacy of the colonists' patriarchal strategizing. and coffee beans. what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. banana trees. buy it! explains how profits are squeezed out of sugar cane. they do meet. Moreover. 1 The banana is not native to Central America. in most of our political organizing it is racism that getsnext page > previous page treated with more seriousness. and banana companies have supported the depended for their own operations. Take the banana. Guatemala. bolstered from time to time by U.

are the workers whose political mobilization has struck such fear into the hearts of banana plantation executives and their local allies? Photographs of Honduran banana worker union members always show lots of men. All of these players have had a common stake in keeping banana workers' wages low and their political consciousness undeveloped. page_101 < Thus began a marketing competition to win the allegiance of American and European housewives and > previous page next page their local grocers. one must as a distinct variety until men in any particular historical setting served at the homes of wealthy Bostonians in what The United the nineteenth century. or is it only the male workers who are employed in the banana industry in situations that allow them to unionize? Where are the women? Women do work in sectors that make bananas profitable for this triple alliance of elites. marketing director's dream UNREGISTEREDToday the one company are better book. exactly. followed quickly on its heels with its own brand name: Cabana.bananas from another company. America and the women of Central America.American popularizationalsothis humbleto design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and an invisible but one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process success wovesoldiers relate to crucial political link of interdependence between the women of North of militarization. and with Washington policymakers on the other. They were first comprehend what it means to be "manly" and 1875." Not only have government and military officials like surrogate their own perceptions of Fruit Company. In the 1940S United Fruit took the lead in launching a brand name for its own bananas: Chiquita. which over the next century came to behave beenaaffected bystate in much of Central manliness and out of the but many of them have of attempted globe-trotting fruit. buy it! next page > . but the waged work they docleaning and packingis so marginalized that they develop a different sort of political consciousness and are excluded from the unions by their fathers and THE THE < previous page page_108 If you like this book. if necessaryin Central America focuses on the class alliances made by United Fruit and Del Monte executives with the local political and economic elite. its chief competitor. on the one hand. The North American or European consumer-housewife is scarcely imagined. And who. Its marketing America. grewfemininity. Standard Fruit. female VERSION OF you like this thanremains persuading predominantly If CHM TO PDF it! buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY consumers that bananas from The conventional way of thinking about how and why it was "banana republics" that American officials wanted to preserveby force.it means to be "feminine. Do only men work on the major banana plantations.< previous page page_101 page_108 next page > Page 108 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social were not developed chart how women and The yellow bananas familiar to North American consumers processes.

and cooking so thatthemmen in their families to designseasonal plantationthat civilians and soldiers relatescores of industrialized and Third ways that ease the complicated process of By the 1980s. but many of the have also attempted can take policies to ensure jobs. buy it! next page > ." Economic changes in the region during the 1970s and 1980s were initiated by foreign corporations and governments and were designed to resecure their hold on the region. militarized society we have come to call a "banana republic." than men of the women. they are at home doing unpaid subsistence sustain the plantations of United Fruit or Del Monte. The pagework that women doand the patriarchal assumptions on which that workpage > previous unpaid next dependsallows for the survival and reproduction of those paid workers. one must chart how women and brothers." Not only have government and military Instead. feminists in to one another in those gendered World countries had begun to reveal how militarization. militarization was intended to sustain have relied on patriarchal political arrangements in at least two ways. Hondurans and Costa Ricans have been told that countries such as Ecuador and the Philippines now < previous page page_109 If you like this book. one is tracing their own conflicts with management to be more "political. and in part as a global. and ethnic strategies of labor and profit that foreign companies have used serve to perpetuate low wages and attenuate union organizing. buy it! Thus. child care." more "serious. If you like this book. that is. the gender.officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. class. some of the largest banana companies have threatened to cut back their Central American operations. These propositions operate together to sustain the kind of internationally dependent. the colonially seeded culture of machismo serves to legitimize local class and racial stratifications. even those mining and agricultural operations that recruit only male workers nonetheless depend on women's work. economically lopsided.< previous page page_101 page_109 next page > Page 109 101 Whether who imagine militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. the companies would not be able to pay their male workers such page_101 < low wages. First. in-house strategy. farming. Second. In part because of growing militarization and its resultant social unrest. the banana republics that U.S. historical setting comprehend what it receive be wages for the work means to thosein any particularOther Central American women do notmeans toany "manly" and what it they doto be "feminine. For if women were not relegated to doing the hard but unpaid work of subsistence farming and household maintenance. Many men who are denied access to decent jobs or to public decision-making continue to feel powerful as long as they can control the women in their daily lives. the subjugation of all women helps perpetuate the inequalities among the country's men.

Stalinists promoted patriotic motherhood through the page_101 < Communist Party's Soviet Women's Committee. But it was the episode devoted to a young Russian conscript that today seems most revealing." the British filmmakers interviewed the mother and father of the teenage conscript. a British film team produced a documentary series. For "Soldier Boy.this book. although not captured on celluloid. numbers of Soviet women had begun to organize a campaign for a very different military system. was beingcomprehend what bymeans to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Motherhood was an embattled strategic turf during the Cold War. portraying the lives of ordinary Soviet citizens.< previous page page_101 page_11 next page > Page 101 Page 11 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. idiosyncratic figure. just as it had been during hotter conflicts on. One hour was devoted to an elderly Russian woman who was on trial for theft. another followed a Muslim craftsman who lovingly repaired Islamic mosaics in Soviet Asia. strand it strand. in fact. the Red Army was in deep political trouble. definedanyentire generation.2 The woman whose fuzzy-cheeked son was about to leave THE THE < previous page page_11 If you like this book. one the chart how women and ing readers around the world understand precisely how the rivalry betweenmustgreat powers. and a third showed an Estonian fashion designer defying the inefficient textile industry in an effort to turn out styles to match those of European couturiers. buy it! next page > . but of also attempted to thing policies to UNREGISTERED VERSION OF alsothose TO PDF CONVERTER glibly refer to as BY STANDARD civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM gendered ways that ease the complicated process of in the postCold War world. Comrades. was a grass-roots movement of mothers with their own emergent analysis of Cold War militarism 1 In the mid-1980s. militarization. The woman wielding her maternal authority in front of coup-supporting soldiers thus wasn't a lone. buy it! Russian but also Estonian and If CHM TO not only Lithuanian mothers began to withdraw that support." one took this Russian woman seriously?officials beenwould be by their makeperceptions of But what if Not only have government and military Perhaps one affected able to own more sense. both sides of the Iron Curtain. Stretched out behind her. but many of them havethe creation of thisdesignwe now so ensure that only of the failure of the Soviet coup. not manliness and femininity. None of the major players or their allies duringpage > previous page next the four decades of Cold War rivalry could have enlisted sufficient numbers of conscripts or voluntary soldiers without a large measure of support OF you like When PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY UNREGISTERED VERSIONfrom mothers. This withdrawal had begun several years before the moment immortalized by the photographer during the August coup. As early as 1989. which had men in an particular historical setting unraveled.

the banana companies' layoffs and the women's cooperatives' income production could alter more than simply the household distribution of influence. Jamaica's populist women's theater collective. < previous page page_110 If you like this book. risks missing real political transformation. buy it! women's families are mostly unemployedyou like this book. if successful. The men in these If banana workers. This tried to develop cash-generating projects such as making straw hats and processing cashew process of militarization. as mothers and wives. In the long run. The women who have begun these small cooperatives. These corporate social processes. needs to be seen as a strategy to redistribute power within an internationalized political local innovation economy. Any commentator who treats a ''workers' family" or a "rural household" as monolithic. said about what they have meant for relations between women andaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and the last decade'smany ofcorporate reorganization. but global them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicatednuts. Sistren. buy it! next page > . Women." Not only have government and military officials been men. If so. some Honduran peasant women have In response to femininity.< previous page page_101 page_110 next page > Page 110 101 Whether one is banana operations. Scarcely anything has been be "feminine. could make the banana republic system of dependent politics a bit less tenable. who hesitates to step over the threshold out of some naive notion of where the international system ends. Central American women fashioned their own critiques during the last decade to challenge the conventional masculinist notions that gender was politically irrelevant and that women were politically valuable only as auxiliaries. these changes could diminish the political prominence of the Honduran banana workers' union. joined women's straw hat and cashew nut cooperatives in part to offset the resultant decline in household income. one must chart how of their look greener fortracing militarizing or demilitarizing decisions have been reported in terms women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to effects on unemployment in already-fragile Central American economies. The Honduran women starting to make straw page_101 < hats and processpage through their cooperatives intend to reduce their earlier dependence on previous cashews next page > exploitative middlementhe coyotesandto gain some social autonomy as women. will Honduran women thereafter demand a larger say in leftist political organizations? It is reasonable to predict that whatever change or resistance to change flows from these twin economic changes will be played out not in the public plaza but in thousands of peasant homes. Together.

2 They used both the script and the chart how putting and created a one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Not only have government and military officials been affected by who had perceptions of postindependence politics were dominated by men. Both tourism and light assembly are notoriously feminized industries. even the sugar industry. But they and their labor were made politically invisible in ways that continue to obstruct Jamaican women's entry into the nation's political life. One indication that it is not is the rising numbers of THE THE < previous page page_111 If you like this book. Women. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that the ranks of the preindependence militant sugar workers' union. There is no reason to believe a priori that landlessness is any less gendered than plantation labor is. Grenadan women in the revolutionary previous page next page > movement began to and UNREGISTERED insist that the men take their work seriouslyCONVERTER STANDARD BY VERSION OF you like this book. The postinvasion Grenadan society of the late 1980s thereafter was "developed" on a stark sexual division of labor."manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Chambermaids Cleaning America's '"Backyard" As landlessness increases in Central America. military invasion. buy it! to develop government policies If CHM TO PDF which would dismantle the sexual divisions of labor on which the island's cocoa business has relied.S. with the expansion of the tourist industry and the (not terribly successful) attempt by Washington officials to "secure" Grenada by inviting American light industries to establish cost-cutting assembly plants there. too. buy it! next page > . had worked CHM genderedfor CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. Grenadan women had been organizing to make their work page_101 < in the cocoa industry (a principal export sector) more visible. before the U.S. one mustvery act of women on the men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be although Jamaican drama to remind the country's poor women (and foreigners as well) that. in part because it was mentheir own led and filled manliness and femininity. These important developments in sexual politics were cut short by the landing of the U. Similiarly. women and men have been driven to make quite different choices about how to survive. Marines. had not been an UNREGISTERED VERSION OFtoin those TO PDF Tate & ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another generate profits ways that Lyle.< previous page page_101 page_111 next page > Page 111 101 Whether play about women sugar workers. The chief political difference between them and the older cocoa industry has been that in the former industries it has been a lot harder to make women's cheap labor contribution invisible. the giant British company. all-male affair.

as domestic workers. who was awarded the Among and was the young Rigoberta Menchu. buy it! next page > . that she had witnessed her mother's rape. According to one estimate. families. This Guatemalan that ease the complicated process of militarization. Many are also the sole caretakers of children. if and women migrating from militarizing or demilitarizing to seekprocesses. to the towns. 1992 Nobel Peace Prize for leading a movement for Latin American indigenous people's human rights. Many of these women are Indianof manliness and femininity. The exodus of more and more peasant women from the countryside. allowed more and more Central Ameri- < previous page page_112 If you like this book. Most of the journalists them took advantage of that covering the Swedish Academy's announcement seemed to feel most comfortable treating Menchu as an ungendered Indian rights advocate. The awarding > previous page next page of the Nobel Peace Prize to Rigoberta Menchu provided an excellent chance for mainstream journalists to ask "Where are the women?" Few of If you like this book." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions wages in Guatemala City today are employed as domestic workers. where they could no longer support themselves and their children. that before she became well-known she had received support from women's groups in other countriesall of these realities which helped explain Rigoberta Menchu's own politicization and political analysis appeared to make many people in the media uncomfortable. where they had to accept low-paid jobs with minimal workers' rights.< previous page page_101 page_112 next page > Page 112 101 Whether one is tracing the countryside to the towns social jobs as low-paid seamstresses and. but page_101 < also from her experience working as a maid for a wealthy white family in Guatemala City.4 The fact that more Latin American women were working in domestic servant jobs than in any other type of waged employment in the 1980s was an important clue to what kinds of class transformations were occurring in the wake of changes in the international economy. to women working for Latinobut many of them have also attempted to design policies3 ensure that civiliansthem soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways Indian woman. Having household servants became one of the most visible signs of having joined the region's middle class. That she had worked as a maid. 64 percent of all and what it means to are lessany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" women working for be "feminine. one must chart how womenthey men in lucky. learned some of her lessons about how a military-backed regime could serve white landowning class interests not only from watching her peasant father's struggles to organize fellow landless Indians. buy it! opportunity. And so an opportunity for serious understanding of the workings of militarization was lost.

still had children or parents to support.born Latina and black THE THE < previous page page_113 If you like this book. Thus.S. on the other hand. but many of them middle class. prostitution. In the United States one such organization includes both Caribbean and Central American women." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their with which to resist access to a young rural woman under his own roof who had only minimal resourcesown perceptions of manliness and femininity. The women of the page_101 < house. Those as women from the UNREGISTERED(or whowomen." What kind of politics did a woman learn from being the sole caretaker of someone else's child? What understandings about power came out of working as an Indian maid in a Latino home? At what point did sexual harassment by the father or son of that household begin to inspire resistanceresistance supported by whom? In the Caribbean. as well. they often turned to the income generator of last resort. the U. he might fire her to cover up his own actions. prostitution was being integrated into this gendered and globalized political economy. as well as U. buy countryside who were STANDARD BY CONVERTER never lucky If CHM TO PDF it! or transistor radios only to be laid enough to find jobs VERSION OF you found in factory assembling bras off soon afterwards). For the man of cans withone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.< previous page page_101 page_113 next page > Page 113 101 Whether relatively secure incomes to imagine that they had arrived in the middle class. might fire her as a way to deal with her husband's "indiscretions. more women resorted to domestic work during this era. Some of them started to overcome the isolating effects of such work to speak out and to organize politically. Simultaneously. For the woman of this growing have also attempted toof employer may have subverted any UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate the poor women in her own country. Thousands of women from the 1970S onward migrated to Canada. If the male employer got her pregnant..jobswella aslike this book." turning her > previous page next page anger on the victim. To understand what changes were occurring in Central America during the era of Cold War militarization. and Europe in search of ways to support themselves and their children. A woman working as a domestic servant was frequently fired by her employers if she became pregnant. itparticular historicalwas potentially accompanied by a peculiarly masculine privilege: sexual "feminine. we need to go beyond simply talk of "landless peasants" or "peasant mobilization. Some island women sought jobs as domestic servants in their own countries. the role design policies to ensure that his demands. sense of shared destiny withto one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. therefore. buy it! next page > .S. one must chart how women and men in any was an arrival that setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be this class.

French. If you like this book. By 1984. A country which could be made page_101 < hospitable to North American and Western European tourism. where Gulf and Western. Tourism was a partner for regional anti-Communism. Canadian. tourism became the Caribbean response to the world's declining demand for cane sugar. with imported foods and familiar decor. Typically. the hydra-headed American conglomerate. tourism had leapt ahead of sugar to become the Dominican Republic's top earner of foreign exchange. it was imagined.< previous page page_101 page_114 next page > Page 114 101 Whether one is would our political analysis look like if we took these domestic workers' women women. it institutionalized racism and kept crucial decisionmaking prerogatives in the hands of overseas executives. in this vision. as in the mid-1980s in the Dominican Republic. could only siphon off whatever foreign exchange the friendly regimes may have hoped to keep for themselves. this rapid rise of foreign-capitalized tourism was condemned by critics for turning the countries of the Caribbean into "nations of busboys. who planned to turn their newly purchased land into tourist havens. < previous page page_114 If you like this book. and British patrons feel comfortable. The them have also attempted represents women's private coping stemming fromfemininity. but many ofgrowth in domestic serviceto design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that countries undeserved breathing with the maldevelopment which gave the elite in several of the region'sease the complicated process of militarization. deskilled their workers. the lengths to which Holiday Inn or Club Med managers would go to make their American. But was it a "nation of busboys" that was replacing the region's plantation society? Was this the most accurate way for us to make sense of the kind of transformation that was taking place in Grenada. one must chart howpolitical and men in any particular historical as seriously as we what it means to activists and social theorists? messages and organizing effortssetting comprehenddid those of male be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. buy it! next page > ." Not only have government and military officials cannot keep by lid on social unrest Militarization occurs in large part because governing regimesbeen affected the their own perceptions of manliness and maldevelopment. 5 Whattracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Jamaica. Even more striking than the increase of domestic work in this era was the emergence of the tourist industry." The very character of these sprawling Holiday Inn chains. sold off more than two hundred thousand acres of sugarcane fields to American entrepreneurs. Furthermore. was less open topage > previous page next the appeals of leftist revolutionaries and their Soviet sponsors. buy it! In the 1980s. space. Sometimes the shift was explicit.

and the imposition of U. If observers concerned with the militarization of the Caribbean paid any attention to Puerto Rico. the growth of tourism. however.7 If you like this book. one must chart how women to men into its security historical setting comprehend what busboys" be have raised what it means to be drawin any particular orbit? Fear of becoming a "nation ofit means tomay"manly" and masculine "feminine. and other countries that the Reagan administration was trying and Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. as "copers. Washington's security plan for the region faltered.< previous page page_101 page_115 next page > Page 115 101 Barbados. Cash income had become a desperate necessity for women because it was women. the Dominican Republic. 6 Many of these women sought hotel jobs in the wake of agricultural decline. Much of this development was based on the lessons derived from Puerto Rico's earlier Operation Bootstrap. Approximately 75 percent of the 250. one way we can make sense of how the Reagan administration transformed U. even more than men. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TOnoted that tourism was a complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate putone their gender glasses PDF CONVERTER STANDARD Observers who bothered to to on another in those gendered ways that ease the blatantly feminized militarization. a formula that depended in no small measure on forced sterilization and making women's wages cheap. such as Roosevelt Roads." Not only of a government and but it may not have reflected the their gender dynamics of anxieties to the status have nationalist cause.000 Caribbean tourism workers in the industry in its 1980s were women. It appears that each of these trends required that Caribbean women play certain rolesas workers. buy it! next page > . and femininity. Cold War security policy too narrowly.military officials been affected byactualown perceptions of manliness tourism. buy it! VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY In other words.S.S. control. And to make sense of feminized industrialization as THE THE < previous page page_115 If you like this book. But such a focus may have defined U.S. lowest ranks. Military basing always needs to be understood through its connections to a security-driven political economy. who page_101 < had to find dailypage coping with their government's decisions to succumb to IMF pressure to cut > previous ways of next page public services and UNREGISTEREDraise food prices. "Nimble Fingers" for the Cold War Light industry was the newest economic sector to be opened up in the Caribbean and Central America during the last decade." When they refused to play those roles. influence in the Caribbean is to trace the connections between the decline in foreign-funded agribusiness. they usually concentrated on its American military bases.

femininity. and electronics assembly. Thanks to the wondersand the cost-effectivenessof satellite communications. The ideal job for a woman. women who demanded more training. buy it! to accept more light-industry foreign If America and Colombia) investment. as "unskilled"requiring "merely" a high tolerance for repetition. executives during the Reagan era began to look outside the United States for office workers. could make and keep women's labor cheap. and family. also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered executivesease the complicated process of page out of the textile industry's history book. without loss of assembly jobs precisionand thus low-waged. investors could attract women workers. skill. in turn.S. corporate profits as the guarantee of a security alliance between those weaker regimes and the United States. Attracting them would depend. we need to learn a lot more a theme in the United States government's security scenarioprocesses. Soviet page page_101 < Obsessed with apage and imagining Nicaragua and Cuba to be mere front men fornext power. if properly controlled. women who unionized. to call the Caribbean Basin (which included Central you like this book." such as was first promoted in Puerto Rico. what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officialsusually encompasses labor-intensive forms "Light industry. U. The aim of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) was not so much the promotion of Caribbean economic development or even of U. Taking a of manufacture such as toy and garment-making. International lending agencies such as the World Bank and the IMF were enthusiastic. women who wrote plays about battering. and women who saw single motherhood as a political category were not the sorts of women who would guarantee the success of Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative and the security objectives the CBI was designed to serve. these five conceptions. buy it! next page > . on sustaining myths of masculinity. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend about the political history of Puerto Rican women. contemporary ways that of light industry have defined militarization. misleadingly.S. women who risked overseas migration. > previous Cold War the Reagan administration urged friendly regimes of what they began.S. motherhood. A Washington- < previous page page_116 If you like this book. but many of them havefood processing. Yet this security scheme ultimately could not work unless the local regimes and U. been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Together.< previous page page_101 page_116 next page > Page 116 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social for the region. In contrast. The glue? Economic dependency.

however. THE THE < previous page page_117 If you like this book. for instance.00 less than the wage paid to women in the U." Not only tourist mecca. office workers and their supporters here and in countries such as Barbados. and Jamaica had to try to get the attention of women and men active in the peace and anti-intervention movements. They continued to compare the costs.50. .S. one must chart open up a word based organization called the "Free or demilitarizing urged Jamaica's Seaga regime to how women and processing particular historical setting at a location what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be men in any export facility. Their average wage was only $2. being a chambermaid for a tourist hotel.S. but also the page_101 like work that would earn more respect for a > previous page next page woman than. claims. officials Barbados. plus the legacy ofPDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY countries of the Caribbean. a hundred own perceptions of throw from Jamaica's have government and militaryIn nearby been affected by theirwomen were sitting at manliness and femininity. 8 UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_117 next page > Page 117 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing Zone Authority" social processes. American women contracted to do office work as home work in the suburbs (without the costs of overhead and in a setting that is harder to unionize). not only did the wage seem attractive compared with the wages available in other job seemed < sectors of the Barbados economy."9 Diana Roos. . As one of the boosters of offshore office work told a journalist. and pornographic novels for foreign companies. . insurance airline every day. the Bahamas. which was $7. Montega Bay. and accuracy is about 99 percent. and. researcher for the national office of the 9 to 5 organization. UNREGISTERED the same building. these corporate strategies presented at least two interlocking challenges. But to many of the Barbadian women. buy it! next page > . First. doing comparable work.Typing skills are impressive. a "teleport.10 For American feminists. buy it! language in the postcolonial If CHM TO the English It was the feminization of cheap labor. "These workers are really good. that made this extension of America's global reach attractive." comprehend that had the added attraction of being only a stone's "feminine. Caribbean and Asian (especially Indian) women working offshore. Second. politically active office workers and their supporters had to find ways to understand these global maneuvers that didn't play into the hands of divide-and-rule union busters. finally. In VERSION OF CHM gendered ways thattelephonecomplicated process of militarization. but many of them have also attempted to design flowed to ensure that rows of computers entering three hundred thousand ticket reservations that policies in from a single U. other those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in women were processing ease the books. and controllability of three groups of women office workers: American women employed at the companies' own offices. productivity. reported that American executives hadn't stopped site-shopping.

at Guantanamo Bay. military bases at Roosevelt Roads. If Honduran women had met with < previous page page_118 If you like this book. spill their gendered consequences far beyond the base or If you like this book. Feminists in the Philippines. A military base wasn't only an installation for servicing bombers.S. and at Key West. we have some clues. over the years. together toand femininity. military base. Still. in the Panama Canal Zone. and aircraft carriers or a launchpad for aggressive forays into surrounding territories.S. naval base in the Philippines) as its dry docks. become as integral to Subic Bay (the mammoth." Both rely on page_101 < the energies of local residents but use alien cultural presumptions to organize their work lives. Until we have such histories. A foreign military base shares some striking similarities with a multinational company's overseas branch. And both. > previous page next page while concentrated in compact physical spaces. We won't know how sexuality was used to wage the Cold War in this corner of the globe. Massage parlors had. recently closed U. military bases distorted the sexual politics of the countries. one must chart of how women Activists one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing socialenergies with an awarenesshow women andin men in any particular other countries of the region were being linked to "manly" and what it means to the United States and historical setting comprehend what it means to be one another in ways that couldbe "feminine. we won't have a realistic picture of just how militarization of the Caribbean and Central America has been entrenched in the twentieth century.S. recognizing affected by couldown perceptionswork manliness subvert Washington's grand security scheme. Honduras was the newest regional site for a U. buy it! factory gates. buy it! next page > ." Not only have government and military officials been those links their permit them to of serve to smooth the way for Caribbean militarization. It was alsoand always had beena package of presumptions about male soldiers' sexual needs and about the local community's resources for satisfying those needs. Both camouflage their functional interests with talk of "family" and "community. and Thailand have described in detail just how U.< previous page page_101 page_118 next page > Page 118 101 Whether in those campaigns would have to mobilize their processes. We have yet to possess comparable sexual histories of the U. In the 1980s. South Korea.S. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Base Instincts militarization. fighters.

STANDARD BY If CHM again wrongly STD as "Vietnam Rose." While the OF you onceTO PDF CONVERTER it suggested that Hondurans saw the Vietnamization of their country in terms of sexuality as well as in terms of antiCommunist ideology.< previous page page_101 page_119 next page > Page 119 101 Whether Filipina women.S. process of BY OF near U. one of the bases used by the U. Hondurans refer to a particularly virulent form of UNREGISTERED VERSION nicknamelike this book. soldiers. base fell somewhere in between these two groups. Kosimar found that local policemen acted as enforcers of the prostitution system. Cold War control over its series of "Big Central America. military buildup.S. military there. to tell? What light would those men in any on what takes to setting comprehend what it means to stories shedparticularithistorical militarize international relations? 11 be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Lucy Kosimar let us hear from some of the people behind the statistics. First there were the Honduran womenas young as sixteen years oldwho had been virtually kidnapped and brought to the brothels as captives.S. which were intended to preserve U." Notaonly have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Lucy Kosimar. THE THE < previous page page_119 If you like this book. They had been drawn so deeply into debt to the men who supplied their food and minimal housing that they were never able to pay off their debts and thus regain their freedom. on the surface. seemed to have come to the brothels freely. One woman who tried to escape was caught and returned by Honduran policemen. freelance reporter.12 In 1985. money. buy it! blamed the victim. although in fact they had been driven by their need for money. and weaponry. Her report revealed in a microcosm what Honduran public health officials have noted more < generally: that there had been a notable rise in page_101 sexually transmitted diseasesnext page > previous page the cases of in Honduras in the three years since the start of U. Kosimar went to civilians andof brothels thatto one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD shanty town soldiers relate had grown up in those gendered ways that ease the complicated military in militarization. wrote an account of how sexual politics in Honduras were being manliness so asfemininity.S. The police. This control reflected the country's then-growing militarization.S. were controlled by Honduran army officers. These women split their fees with the owners of the shabby cantinas where they conducted their business. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure thatvisit the fashioned and to meet the alleged UNREGISTERED VERSIONneeds of the Palmerole. what common stories would they have had one must chart how women and Thai and one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in turn. buy it! next page > . But many of the women living on the fringes of the U. She found Honduran women serving as prostitutes to both Honduran and U. Pine" joint maneuvers.S. There were other women who.

It was the unresponsiveness and even contempt with which officials greeted these requests that sparked more radical thinking and activist grass-roots organizing among increasing numbers of women. robbing a boy of his chance to achieve masculinized adulthood. independent of the official organizations designed to channel the anxieties of soldiers' mothers. buy it! next page > .and was graduating from boyhood have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to robbing the military of its needed soldiery. the organizers founded the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers. "Mother's Heart. The filmmakers weren't able to follow the young man beyond basic training. anger. They were stories of cruelty within the ranks of the Red Army itself: harsh hazing rituals carried out by older soldiers against younger conscripts or by men of one ethnic group against men of another ethnic group. one associated "manly" and what it means was about to join a popularly esteemed comprehend what it means to bein the past with saving the to be "feminine. A year later. In 1989. By joining this manliness he femininity. but would also be process would not only be unpatriotic. The first objective of these groups was to extract more information about their sons' fates from the government. Nor was the crew able to return to interview the mother after her son > previous was being next page returnedif he returned." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of country from Nazi invasion and in the present with protecting it from American threat. prompted by stories slowly filtering back from book. the organization began to receive telephone calls and letters from parents < previous page page_12 If you like this book." Although the exact size of its membership remained unknown. one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated a bad of militarization. But it would not be surprising if he had been sent to Afghanistan. some of the women whose sons had been officially listed as missing in action began to form their own groups. But she was also filledprocesses. Perhaps she would have told them of her new worries. one must chart how womenson men in any particular historical setting state institution.< previous page page_101 page_12 next page > Page 101 Page 12 Whether the is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social with a mixture of loss and pride. Her and home for one first time was nervous. it changed its name to Materinskoe Serdise. but many of them to manhood. to challenge officials' sanguine explanations. Soviet troops were still mired in that guerrilla war when page_101 < the documentarypage shot. buy it! These were not stories of enemy atrocities. Some mothers began to collect the stories. to add up the suicides. After a large demonstration outside the Soviet Chamber of Deputies in March 1989. with officers participating or standing passively by. maybe now mixed with If you like this Afghanistan. mother. A mother who tried to hold on to her son institution.

" that was have government and military officials belief that one of the prerogatives due an masculinity Not only most responsible for U. those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.S. culture. whereas in Vietnam American malefemininity. buy it! next page > .S.S. racism. It may have means to be "manly" and what it means to be werein anyboth the enlisted and setting comprehend what itbeen the construction of militarized "feminine. not only as it reveals masculinity. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in in Honduras the U. but also as it supports or weakens particular policies abroad. army doctors from the Palmerole base routinely conducted medical exams on Honduran women working in the nearby brothels. About rape and the waging of the Cold War.S. But where did these women soldiers go for their R and R when their male page_101 < comrades headed for the cantinas? previous page next page > It would be wrong to imagine that the sexual exploitation of local UNREGISTERED VERSION diffuse U. Coupling them is no more far-fetched than coupling rape with World War II. We also need to look closely at military recruitment. Third. patriarchalbuy it! women was sustained solely by If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Honduran military intimidation and OF you like this book. As is true in other base towns around the world. the system of militarized sexual relations required explicit American policy-making. that U. The most common complaint from the women soldiers was that they had not been issued proper sanitary supplies. The U. It is not clear whether their presence affected the men's assumptions of sexual prerogatives. The relationship is only unexamined. women soldiers. Kosimar reported. However. enlisted men'sbeen affected by their own perceptions of manliness and GI overseas was the sexual services of local women. one must chart how women and men from particular historical officer ranks. soldiers involved the increasingis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. for example. Cold War Rape In our attempt to discover to what degree militarization is a gendered processthat is.< previous page page_101 page_120 next page > Page 120 101 Whether one capacity of the military to intimidate other Honduran officials. Their job was to ensure that American male soldiers would have access to sex without jeopardizing the army's operational readiness.S. field units included several dozen most American military women were nurses. how much of militarization is a process that won't work unless men accept certain norms of masculinity and women abide by certain strictures of femininitywe need to think more internationally about rape. we have to dig deeper into ideas about and roles of women in the THE THE < previous page page_120 If you like this book. and poverty at home.

in those gendered ways that ease the complicatedof repressive became and soldiers relate to one another Typically. For manliness and femininity." Not only have government and might raise our level ofaffected by their own perceptions of I can only be suggestive here. therefore. and Uganda now have begun to ask questions: If rape was being used deliberately as a tactic of intimidation. sons. as if rape know surprisingly little about why the government's male soldiers in Guatemala or the contras' male insurgents in Nicaragua engaged in sexual assault on women so insistently.S. buy it! next page > . but doing so military officials been genuine political curiosity. or was the real military target the rape victims' husbands. Bosnia. Were we witnessing men out of control or men under control? If you like this book. who was the ultimate target of that intimidation? Was rape used to intimidate the women themselves. but many of them haveaboutattempted to design policies toby malethat instance. whose sense of male honor is tied up in their capacity to protect ''their" women? 13 Guatemalan army commanders were quoted as saying that killing Indian women and children was part of a deliberate strategy of counterinsurgency. and fathers. or demilitarizing social processes.14 Perhaps there was also a third target: the new male military recruit. thereby severing their ties from their civilian compatriots? During the past decade some Latin American feminists began to theorize that masculinity was being reconstructed by some of the region's regimes in order that men would tolerate extreme forms of violent < previous page page_121 If you like this book. The foundation of the Indian guerrillas' organization was seen to be the family nucleus. one of each of how necessary for very ideologyis tracing militarizingIn what ways exactly was the genderingmust chart thesewomen and men in any particular historical setting Caribbean what it means to be in the 1980s? the U. rape was listed among an assortment process of militarization.-sponsored militarization of thecomprehendand Central America "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Or they might have been the result ofnext page > previous page a conscious command policy of intimidation.< previous page page_101 page_121 next page > Page 121 101 Whether one of national security. These assaults might have page_101 < been one more product of masculinity militarized. We still acts. there was minimal political questioning also why rapes of civilian women ensure soldiers civiliansso widespread in Central America. Both the Guatemalan government forces and the Nicaraguan contra units depended on unwilling young men. Were new recruits pressed to participate in rape during military maneuvers as a technique for socializing them into a kind of brutality. buy it! Women in countries as different as Guatemala. were not qualitatively different in both its motivations and its repercussions. whole families had to be murdered or intimidated if the insurgency was to be crushed.

Costa Rica) have so merged soldiering and manhood that they have become indistinguishable. government. cricket: I wondered how it was that Barbadian standards of masculinity could be so transformed that the cricket player was overshadowed by the soldier (or the militarized policeman). governments would not need to waste their legitimacy by trying to enforce conscription laws. Upon hearing that. gendered ways more carefully to STANDARD militarization. Then there are the gendered politics of military manpower. If they weren't." I found myself wondering about some things that in my prefeminist years might have appeared far removed from the Cold War or regional militarization. We have been much more comfortable analyzing when and how landlessness or plantation exploitation has page_101 < politicized rural page Americans. For instance. THE THE < previous page page_122 If you like this book. and when it served instead to intimidate and silenceeven shamethem. Not all societies.g. We need to know when it was that rape politicized and been raped and mobilized women or men.< previous page page_101 page_122 next page > Page 122 101 behavior. failed proprietors. it! who has seen her may well be that a BY If government book. True. buy it! next page > . the Barbados government was expanding its military "manpower.." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions funded and advised by the U. implicitly required a form of patriarchy based on brutal of manliness 15 femininity.S. and not simply to control particular women or particular men. Anti-Communism for be "manly" and what it means to for the sake particular historical setting comprehend what it means to these regimes. It UNREGISTERED VERSION OFayou like this as soldier. will have thoughts about power and injustice that are rather different from those of her male comrades who either have not been politicized by rape at all or who have been only indirectly. but and of them being woven into an design alliance. as failed protectors. andCold warriorismmanyrape werehave also attempted tointimatepolicies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHMwe have to listen that ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those TO PDF CONVERTERwomen who have To make sense of this form of anti-Communism. But the two are analytically and historically separable. in the wake of the Grenadan invasion. one must chartwas being remade men in any of controlling the society at large. it makes the military recruiter's task easier if most women and men in one's country believe that being a soldier proves a man's masculinity. buy CONVERTER STANDARD woman who has herself suffered rape by CHM TO PDF or mother or sister raped. the men in their families. Masculinity how women and Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. misogyny. and certainly not all of those in the Caribbean or Central America (e. many of which arebe "feminine. We have imagined sexual assault as either too horrifying orpage > previous Central next too "private" to be discussed in the same political breath peasant impoverishment.

< previous page page_101 page_123 next page > Page 123 101 Whether the is tracing militarizing set out to urge governments in the Caribbean and Central America So when one Reagan administrationor demilitarizing social processes. wider emergency powers. Does this mean that the U. it comprehendthem to engageto be "manly" and what maneuvers. What happened in the 1980s to Barbadian and Costa page_101 < Rican women's beliefs about masculinity? Were they changing in ways that would grease the wheels of > previous page next page Washington's militarizing operations? If women in these countries resisted such cultural changes." Not only could count on young men to officials been affected by their own perceptions Unless those regimes have government and militaryaccept conscription or enlist simply to escape theof manliness and femininity. greater security budgets (for police as well as the military). buy it! possibly from the men in their lives If you like governments. farming on < previous page page_123 If you like this book.S. These studies have also revealed how governments intent upon legitimizing their expanded powers have used propaganda emphasizing women's need for protection and men's duty to serve as protectors to win that legitimation. then they may have become more alienated from their this book. raising children on their own. be "feminine. Feminists who have studied European and North American societies in wartime and militarized peacetime have discovered that men and women occasionally differ sharply about what they need to feel safe. and as well. There is strong reason to believe that some of the same efforts may have been needed in order for Caribbean and Central American regimes to gain their people's acceptance of larger "manpower" quotas. and more foreign bases on their soil. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that despair of unemployment or the threat of repressionand both of these motivations are available to civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways convince their male citizens that Caribbean and Central American recruitersthey would also have tothat ease the complicated process of militarization. buy it! next page > . They would also have to convince women in their countries that men who joined newly expanding armies were more genuinely "real men" than were the men who were able to get decent civilian jobs. there were more women in these countries controlling their own fertility. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting was asking what it means in some tricky cultural it means to to increase their numbers of soldiers. soldiering was the ultimate proof of manhood after all. we could perhaps understand militarization of any region in any era better if we looked at how "national security" is gendered there and then. By that era.fueled militarization of these countries depended on an even more entrenched version of machismo? This may not have been easy to guarantee in the 1980s. Finally.

To fulfill the goals of militarizers of the Cold War era.< previous page page_101 page_124 next page > Page 124 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing write for themselves.Latinas. (but not too many) needed to view the military as the place to prove their equality with men. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Sometimes during this era when I thought of U. and joining one must chart how women are their own. Other women in the U. learning how to read andor demilitarizing social processes.S. withoutTO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD the rumors about Honduran brothels.S.S.S. And the bureaucratically sophisticated women inside the military did indeed use the invasions of both Grenada and Panama to expand the opportunities for American women soldiers.S. Wives of soldiers needed to accept the extra duties of household when their UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. sorts. buy it!much aboutmaintenancethey had heard BY If CHM worrying too husbands were on maneuvers in Honduras." Not only of male protection. In Central America and the Caribbean. buy it! next page > . though complementary. some < women in the U. or if they refused to privatize their economic struggles and chose instead to THE THE < previous page page_124 If you like this book. If local poor women couldn't manage these demanding tasks. crafts cooperatives. us directed toward others of us. needed to feel protected bypage_101 previous page next page a massive arms buildup and by their sons and husbands > in uniform. efforts to the UNREGISTERED VERSION OF women ingenderedmilitarize Central America andfrom some of BY civilians andimaginedrelate map showing CHM TOthese ways that with the complicated process of Caribbean I soldiers a big to one another in those all PDF CONVERTER STANDARD countries ease arrows arising militarization. Militarizers depended on still other women in the U. them as mere objects have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and needed these women to see their husbands and boyfriends answer the U. It was a diagram charting how the militarism of the United States and other countries needed us all to behave as women. But our "womanly" behavior had to be of several different. militarization required women to work for low wages for foreign companies or to support those companies' low-paid male workers by performing family work that was rewarded with no pay at all. maybe new arrivals from war-torn Central Americato work in Silicon Valley's electronics factories making the latest electronic weaponry. Army recruiter's invitation as a step toward acculturation. It also relied on women to do the stress-inducing juggling of household budgets so that the governments could cut their social service budgets in order to live up to agreements with the IMF. 16 Theseand men in any of experiences that encourage women what it means to security doctrines that means not the sortsparticular historical setting comprehendto accept national be "manly" and what itportray to be "feminine.

to legitimate the rebels' political participation. families. buy it! her fourteen-party coalition. Voters believed Chamorro's claim that only she. We have just begun to and more and femininity. of militarization. one must chart local take to the streets. All three processes could potentially be carried out in ways that demasculinize Salvadoran public life. It calls for feminist monitoring as close as that required for militarization. Men and women do not turn into blandly ungendered "citizens. then militarizing ormilitarization would be jeopardized by faltering how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be governments." "peasants. The El Salvador agreement reached in January 1992 between the military-supported government of President Alfredo Cristiani and the leadership of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) has three pledges at its center: first. and not the ruling Sandinistas.< previous page page_101 page_125 next page > Page 125 101 Whether one is tracing U. newly confident in the wake of its successful invasion of Panama. the Chamorro and If you like this National Opposition Union (UNO). the denser the arrows became. to reduce and reform the government's military. and third.S. Each event has been seen as a landmark on the road to Central America's demilitarization. buy it! next page > . and the subtler manlinesscomplex grew the connections between this hemisphere's women. The U. second. There is a feminist lens through which to read any peace agreement. All three < previous page page_125 If you like this book. government. The following year a peace accord was signed in El Salvador. and between women and menin movements. "feminine. to reorganize the police." and "workers'' simply because the shooting has (almost) stopped. and the fracturing of the Soviet Union." "investors. on military bases." "officials. < Making Feminist Sense of A Peace Accord previous page page_101 next page > In 1991 Nicaraguan voters elected Violeta Barrios de book. But demilitarization is always problematic.-fostered demilitarizing social processes. its war in the Persian Gulf. also seems less preoccupied with arming allies in its backyard." concentrated on this imagined Cold Warofficials been affected by their own perceptions of The more I Not only have government and military map. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process in understand which particular relations between women. on plantationswere the prerequisites for American-promoted military expansion in the name of anti-Communism. could bring the country's civil war to an end.S.

which will form part of the army." of international politics. goodbye National Guard.19 There is no evidence that these men are being pressed to rethink their masculinized relationships to the state or to its male and female citizens. Women as well as men can apply. However. Six months after the signing of the accords. Whether women will be seen by the government as appropriate. the postwar reorganization of the police should be a process that empowers women." leftists and their supporters sang in January 1992. demilitarized police remains uncertain. but many of them haveand its foreign allies to the individual UNREGISTEREDrelationships boththe theinstatewhich policeways thatand tothe complicatedmen in their BY civilians shaped in large measure by OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD and soldiersVERSION relate to one another those gendered forces and policing operations process of ease lives are ways in are militarization. the police. But the implementation of a fresh policing policy might be a useful gauge to employ in the feminist monitoring of the country's demilitarization. there were reports that most of the eight thousand men who had formed the two disbanded forces have now been incorporated into two new units. civilian-controlled. But will it be? page_101 < previous page next page > "Goodbye Treasury Police. in an optimistic scenario. Creating a new. Precisely because the intimidation and repression of women have been so central to the Salvadoran government's waging of its eleven-year-long war against the leftist insurgents. gendered. especially those claiming to be First. 17 could also be is tracing militarizing or remasculinize Salvadoran publicand must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what itcommentators. could loosen those links. although members of the existing police as well as members of the FMLN guerrillas will be eligible to join. members of a new. They were bidding joyful farewell OF you like most repressive UNREGISTEREDa VERSION to twoCHMthis book. buy it! and misogynist arms of the If of the TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Salvadoran police. the Border Police and the Military Police. THE THE < previous page page_126 If you like this book. one privatelife.18 Following the peace accords. demilitarized police force is a process that might recreate the links between masculinity and the stateor. both forces have been legislated out of existence. however. Police are typically neglected by political means to be "manly" and what it means to "feminine. much less desirable. buy it! next page > . feminists from India to France have own perceptions of make sense Not only have government and military officials been affected by their made it abundantly manlinesswomen's also attempted to design policies to ensure that clear that and femininity. The architects of the new peace accord envision the majority of new police officers as Salvadorans who have not been combatants on either side in the civil war.< previous page page_101 page_126 next page > Page 126 101 Whether one carried out in ways that demilitarizing social processes.

22 Although it was a modestly slim pamphlet. aone is tracing militarizing or look at how thesocialpolice training program is fashioned. He always asks me If you .. my page_101 < husband and I shared all our ideas and dreams. "Before the army and the so-called civil self-defense patrols came. As Central American women are making clear. buy it! who I talk with and what people are saying. its publication broke new ground. to reform any country's police force to make it part of a genuine international peace process will require placing domestic violence on the agenda of new police training and deployment.particular historical officerscomprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. The children are afraid of him because he hits them .like thisalways depressed. nowhere is such behavior merely national. . Domestic violence is international insofar as it has become integral to any regime's attempt to assert its control over those sectors which may want their society to develop quite a different relationship to the international order. either. In the same month that the El Salvador peace accord was signed. . Now he doesn't share anything with me." one rural woman recalled. Thus. He's book. Nowhere is men's violent behavior toward the women and children in their households merely private. "But now everything's previous page next page > changed. or men who understand the importance of the prevention of domestic violence in postwar policing? Guatemalan indigenous women have reported that domestic violence increased during the long years of civil war in their country. Amnesty International issued its very first report on rape and sexual abuse. 20 manliness and femininity. ."21 As feminist commentators living under other repressive Cold War regimes have noted. and men in any six hundred police setting (the New York Times refers to "policemen") from other countries Reportedly. governments that wield policing powers in a spirit of generalized suspicion tear apart the fabric of local relationships. conscious of the relationships between rape and policing? ensure Will that training force be but many of them have also attempted to design policies toWill thethat governments selecting the foreign another in those gendered ways choose the complicated process of civilians and soldiers relate to one trainers to be sent to El Salvadorthat easeat least some policewomen militarization. and when he talks to me he yells. and the shredding can take the form of domestic violence.< previous page page_101 page_127 next page > Page 127 101 Whether feminist might take a close demilitarizing new processes. For never before had Am- < previous page page_127 If you like this book. postwar police. Which brings us back to rape. buy it! next page > ." Not El Salvador under United military officials been affected by their own perceptions of are being sent toonly have government and Nations auspices to help train the new. I don't know my husband anymore. one must chart how women Second.

and Guatemala. Before UNREGISTERED they will wait toOFifCHMthis book. Nicaragua. at that. Central American feminists bestow considerable significance on the rape behavior of regimes < claiming today to be demilitarizing. 23 And the rape of a nun. For nuns have been essential symbols of idealized femininity in Central America. they have played important roles in perpetuating the existing sexist political order. authorities had reassured her that the regime. El Salvador. the report's authors laid out the ways in formin any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. to one another CHMhave refused to prosecute low-ranking police and of BY civilians and soldiers relate These officers either gendered ways that ease the complicated process police and military VERSION OF in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. They will page_101 for new disciplinary policiesnext page > previous page be watching as police forces and militaries are being reconstructed in Panama. buy it! next page > . eager for international legitimation. As such. The Amnesty pamphlet laid much of the blame at the doors of senior UNREGISTEREDofficers. and local Catholic nuns takes on added significance. Using careful documentation. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that suspected of criminal behavior.S. Thus.S. Yet the government of Jorge Serrano nonetheless seemed most comfortable operating in the mode of those governments described by the Amnesty investigators: dragging its feet. Thus. not seeing women as credible witnesses. one must chart how distinctive nesty or mostis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social the sexual abuse of women as awomen and men of illegitimate state action." Not only have government and military officials been abuse to intimidate female citizens which governments have employed rape and other forms of sexualaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. was now serious about bringing the perpetrators to justice. the decisions of many nuns during the 1980s to THE THE < previous page page_128 If you like this book. but only after months of therapy designed for victims of torture and only after U. Sister Diana Ortiz. and acting reluctant to hold accountable a military or police official accused of rape. agreed to return to Guatemala in April 1992 to testify in a trial of men in the security forces accused of rape.< previous page page_101 page_128 next page > Page 128 101 Whether one other international human rights groups seen processes. a member of the Kentuckybased Ursuline Sisters. In this context. VERSION see youmale policePDF CONVERTER STANDARD superiors as a normal male who is just a bit out of control or even as worthy of congratulation for successfully silencing a troublesome woman activist. buy it! rapes a woman is treated by his BY If a like TO officer who celebrating a peace. the current investigation into accusations that men in the security forces have raped U. soldiers who have engaged in such sexual abuse of women in custody or have prosecuted alleged assailants but have handed down mild reprimands for those few men declared guilty.

25 The second pledge calls for the demobilization of the rebels' troops and the reduction of government military personnel. the staff of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) should be moved from Vienna to Geneva. scheduled to be held in If the like this book. in the first ten months of the peace accords. but as a site for redefining power relations between women and men in postwar societies. It chose to demobilize only those guerrilla fighters it believed were peripheral to its mission. but consequently. Thus. the process has been revealing. should provide moreto design policiesas to what that civilians and soldiers relate to the another in those gendered ways that ease the post-Cold War Central demilitarization will mean for one relationship of femininity to state authority incomplicated process of militarization. America. it sent < previous page page_129 If you like this book. buy it! Vienna in 1993. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it politically active. They are seeing it not only as an overseer of peace accords in war-torn countries like El Salvador and Somalia. While each side has been reluctant to reduce its soldiers. The Salvadoran trials and the remaking of the country's police force are occurring at a time when feminists are coordinating an international effort to insert domestic violence and rape into the formal page_101 < discourse on human rights. As the nuns became means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. 24 Specifically. The FMLN leadership initially devised a way to fulfill at least part of its pledge while retaining what it considered as its military capacity. Second. should have the right to initiate CEDAW investigations. These women are taking you United Nations seriously. Feminist activists and legal scholars have mobilized their argumentspage > previous page next to present to the first World Conference on Human Rights in twenty-five years." Not only have government and anti-Communist regimes. they became allies of political ripples throughout the region. buy it! next page > . Third. these feminist advocates of the internationalization of the politics of domestic violence call for the following measures: first. the heart of international agency operations. The outcomes of perceptions many poor women and thus threats to elitistmilitary officials been affected by their own trials for the of state-sanctioned rape of nuns. many of them have also attempted than a few clues to ensure manliness and femininity. the UN Declaration of Human Rights should be amended to protect women from police rape and domestic violence. not just governments.< previous page page_101 page_129 next page > Page 129 101 Whether one simply their religious vows but also their institutionalized feminine identities sent reimagine notis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. individuals and groups.

they pushed their way into the meeting hall. which were wearing a new mantle. > previous page next page An official investigatory commission was created. representatives of the mothers of soldiers movement. 10 percent from accidents. OFmothers beganSoviet society. 20 percent from beatings or other inflicted injuries. was particularly vulnerable to this emergent maternal dissent. It was not only the military that had page_101 < to be mollified but also the maternal organizations. the decommissioning of a missile. of eightconfirmed Soviet soldiers had died BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD authors estimated that for the past fifteen you like average buy it! thousand annually in service: 50 percent from suicide. Being a good Soviet affected by their a Soviet patriot of manliness and femininity. Many of the steps require the redefining of THE THE < previous page page_13 If you like this book. It is not an event: the signing of a peace accord. 3 serving any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. And the war-ending process is gendered. as it was now being labeled. only to be evicted by police. The UNREGISTERED VERSION OF years anthis book. surrounded the defense minister and insisted that they be allowed inside the congress. with each step shaping the steps that follow. yet no step automatically succeeding the ones that came before it. a group of 250 women from fifty-six towns in Russia held a hunger strike outside Moscow's White House to demand that the state-sponsored All-Union Congress of Parents of Servicemen not be privileged as the sole organization representing soldiers' families. A few days later. buy it! next page > . It seemed more of an inhumane machine devouring the sons of mothers. No seem the patriotic defender of boys into militarization. but many of them have also attempted a radicallypolicies to ensure that longer seemed mutually The to forge to design new portrait UNREGISTEREDdid itreinforcing. It is a long series of steps.4 In the wake of the abortive August coup. trying to extricate itself from Afghanistan while instituting political reforms at home. and only 20% in the line of duty. Its 1991 report the women's claim. women organizing out of their identities as mothers of soldiers became even more assertive. one and chart how of their sons throughout the Soviet Union anxious to know more about the whereaboutsmustwell-being women and men in in the military.< previous page page_101 page_13 next page > Page 101 Page 13 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. When he turned his back on them and drove off. mother-free men.5 The ending of any war is a complicated process. In October 1991. a new legitimacy. easetransformer ofof the state'sof BY civilians and longer VERSION soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD in those gendered ways that the the complicated process military. The Gorbachev regime." Not only have government and military officials beenmother and being own perceptionsno These women were redefining motherhood.

to twelve-acre plots to be purchased by the government and distributed to 7. many men who have spent months or years operating in death squads or guerrilla units may believe that their manhood is being shrunk when those organizations are disbanded. For the first chart how women peace. The Salvadoran peace agreement's land redistribution pledge may affect its success in demilitarizing masculinity. . buy it! next page > . police forces torture units state intelligence agencies page_101 < previous page next page > civil patrols and home guards If you like this book. older men.ooo < previous page page_130 If you like this book. and women of processes. a feeling that they have been freed from the burden of molding themselves to a kind of ill-fitting masculinity that made them outsiders in their own communities. The Salvadoran plan calls for three. one must eleven months of and back to civilian tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social all ages. men the FMLN leadership held onto was a remasculinized core of combatants.5. the process of political reconciliation in Central America may provide a sense of relief to peasant men demobilized from civil patrols. Thus. and 15. By contrast.500 rebel combatants. 26 whatin any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Notany country often calls for the sharp officials beentotal elimination of myriad institutions To demilitarize only have government and military reduction or affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. buy it! death squads militias regular military units insurgent guerrilla units Each of these institutions may have become dependent over the years on a quite distinct form of masculinity: men in torture units might look either up to or down on men in militias. Distributing land is a time-worn strategy for assuaging the anxieties and resentments of male soldiers who are being demobilized. butmilitarize them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that which have been designed to many of masculinity: civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarized militarization.000 peasants from villages that supported the rebels. Little has been written about the consequences of such a strategy for women's landholding in postwar eras.< previous page page_101 page_130 next page > Page 130 101 Whether one is life the children.

" Not only have government and military officialsbabiesaffected by their own perceptions of Photos of Salvadoran women kissing been in celebration manliness and femininity. "feminine. but the 1992 them have alsoseemed to presage the of many of peace accords attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TOcountry'sCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to remasculinization of gendered ways that ease the complicated process of one another in those the PDF military. buy it! CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE If you like this book. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. buy it! If .< previous page page_101 page_131 next page > Page 131 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. militarization. (AFP Photo) THE < previous page < previous page page_101 page_131 next page > next page > UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. 7. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed.

If a new recruit does not If correctly. and mothers. a pro-Sandinista soldier who is fearful of losing his livelihood. for example. A Nicaraguan contra who feels naked without his gun. fails to shout with enough enthusiasm. we first need to be curious about masculinity. in or conscription into one of these militarized units."28 Only when it is known how any particular form of masculinity has been militarized will one be able to devise personal and state strategies for reversing that transformation. And so. The men who have served in the multitude of militarized organizations will not all have become equally imbued with militarized forms of masculinity. And for their lovers. women's of them have also attempted to design formula does not entrench but many inequality in the politics of land. buy the shower late. gets out of it! understand an order. Shari Truiz. a Panamanian National Guard commander used to the privileges not only of masculinity but also of classthese men may pose quite different problems for demilitarizers. Then we need to trace varieties of masculinity as they served to foster civil strife." Not only patriarchal dignity.< previous page page_101 page_132 next page > Page 132 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. nor will all forms of militarized masculinity be identical. does not carry it out you like this book. any violation of the norms of military life is severely punished. one must chart how women and ex-soldiers from the government's own forces. wives. Little has officials been affected by their own perceptions with a reassurance of have government and militarybeen spelled out to ensure that this demilitarizingof manliness and femininity. his brother who has been pressed into a torture unit. > previous against next page during training. he is likely to be punished with various cruel methods of torture. "To use page_101 < torture as a tool pagethe civilian population. the soldier has first to be dominated himself. has described how an ordinary Guatemalan military recruit was socialized to become a torturer. Some may find that men manhood is reconfirmed in their new control over land. buy it! next page > .29 If the years of violent conflict have depended upon varieties of milita- < previous page page_132 If you like this book. Most of the recipients will be men. 27 policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways 'been transformed by his enlistment To understand just how thoroughly a man's masculine identity has that ease the complicated process of militarization. a Nicaraguan man who thought his masculinity was assured by his participation in an armed unit on either side but who now faces the Chamorro government's postwar anti-gay law. or fails to make his bed properly. Even three acres can provide it means to their in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what some men be "feminine. a Guatemalan male peasant conscripted into the regular army.

buy it! next page > . Moreover. women hold a mere 8 of the total 158seats." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of recognized in the recent Central American accords. Feminists in UNREGISTERED demilitarization. the candidates selected were overwhelmingly male. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION masculine identitiesPDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians men. So it is being left to women to accomplish the task. lovers. postmilitary Chilean legislature. in the first freely elected. one by one. then militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. and she was not given a ministry. women.OF you like this book. the women in these still-militarized men's lives. when it came time for democratic elections in 1988. As a result. Will the United Nations peacekeepers monitor misogyny? page_101 < It remains unclear how postwar civilian political competition will be shaped by this problematically previous page next page > gendered process of Some of the evidence is is. without fear of being shot or arrested. Those few important women candidates who competed successfully for seats in the revived national legislature owed their victories at the polls more to the concentrated campaigns of women's groups on their behalf than to the backing of male party leaders. If they fail. manliness likely it will be women. will bear the brunt of persistent contempt and violence. This gendered transformation has notitbeen to be "feminine. and less on violence and sexism.< previous page page_101 page_133 next page > Page 133 101 Whether one is tracing successful demilitarization will require the reconstitution of each of these rized masculinity. 30 Therefore. who will be expected to More than and femininity. the new president. buynot encouraging. What the photographer seemed intent on showing was that the former Salvadoran guerrillas had traded in their camouflage fatigues for jackets and tiesand that they could disembark in full public view. to one another in those gendered rest more on cooperation and respect for socialize and soldiers relateinto new OF CHM TO that ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. one must chart how women and varieties into a form that fosters social comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what means men in any particular historical setting reconciliation. it is more than likely that they. What the photographer unintentionally suggested as well was THE THE < previous page page_133 If you like this book. some bringing down the BY Chile have given fairVERSION theCHM TO PDF it! activist women in STANDARD warning. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin. Despite If essential part played CONVERTER by Pinochet regime. and wives. This is a smaller proportion than they held in the pre-Pinochet legislature. it may not be a mere photographic fluke that those FMLN leaders who are pictured descending from a plane after successful negotiations in New York are uniformly male. in their roles as mothers. felt free to ignore the activism by women's groups which helped bring him to power. he appointed only one woman to his cabinet.

but it could also shrink it. the mothers of disappeared sons and daughters. a feminist becomes immediately curious about how the demilitarization of masculinity relates to the potential < masculinization page parties. They are not welcomed as leaders. have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. canvassers. and widows. buy it! next page > . men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it in the to be antidisappearance campaigns. Africa. Women are welcomed as supporters. Such open competition is generally organized around at complicated process militarization. < previous page page_134 If you like this book. and Asia. Much of the responsibility for preventing such a shrinkage in El Salvador will fall on women activists in all of these sectors. men have presumed that patriarchy this book. A postwar return to the politics-as-usual of patriarchal parties threatens to marginalize these innovative forms of political intervention. The more that men imagine party competition as a form of warfare without guns. but also in Eastern Europe. widows became a political class. It is conventionally presumed that demilitarization automatically widens the political space.< previous page page_101 page_134 next page > Page 134 101 Whether one is women's activism or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them havebe part and parcel designcreation (orensure that Demilitarization is thought by many observers to also attempted to of the policies to revitalization) of civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease theleast two legalized of electoral competition. candidates. It will be left to women to stop both leftist and conservative men from constructing a postwar civilian party system that ignores the remarkable political mobilization of women that has occurred in the past decade. the more parties become sites for the reprivileging of masculinity in a postwar society. and guerrilla combat itself had not translated into prominence meansnew "feminine. it provoked new kinds of political action." Not only civilian leadership. platform writers. As oppressive as the militarized era was for Central American women. peasant groups. or strategists. a social sector whose actual needs could be addressed in ways that underscored their importance to the larger antimilitarism effort. wives. Thus. buy it! If you like is the social system most effective for running competitive electoral political parties. only in Central America. symbols. one must chart how women and that Salvadoran tracing militarizingin support of antimilitaristic trade unions. For example. A lot of faith is being invested in political parties as vehicles for demilitarizationnot political parties. fresh approaches to consciousness-raising and organizing. and women garment workers. So did women peasants. Where arepage_101 in these revitalized political parties? page > previous of political next the women All too often.

"32 So demilitarization in itself may not undermine patriarchal ways of conducting political life. but many of them have also Sandinista women policies to ensure that state authority to improve women's lives. Torres spoke for many of the women active in the new autonomous women's groups when she explained that." Not only have government and military officials been expenditures. it funded literacy. . those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in the wartime regime passed laws recognizing common-law Amanda Association of Nicaraguan OF CHM gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. and. for instance. a director of one of Managua's Casas de la Mujer. allow for the continuation and even the spread of nonparty forms of political mobili- THE THE < previous page page_135 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_135 next page > Page 135 101 Whether one is Sandinistas. It has also made the women's caucus inside the Sandinista party more impatient. . and health programs directed toward women. it encouraged fathers and sons to share domestic work. one must chart how women and men in opposition during a period of comprehend what means to be "manly" Despite it means pour partyin any particular historical settingdemilitarization hasitcreated new pressures. . since the party's electoral loss. beyond just abortion. women began to break out of the double boxes of mothers-mobilizing-to-save-the-revolution and mothers-as-protectors-of-sons-abouttobe-conscripted boxes which had been built by the Sandinistas and the U. These women's critique of political parties on both the right and the left has given rise to a nascent autonomous women's movement. as in Nicaragua. 31 page_101 < Nonetheless.-funded counterrevolution.S. it encouraged women to join the militia. the Sandinista leadership has been faced with a newpage > previous page next independence on the part of women both inside and outside the party who. buy it! next page > . legal advice. marriages and legalizing the status of children born outside marriage. the transition from being a party in control of a besieged state to being a For Nicaraguan tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. criticized both Chamorro's UNO government and the Sandinista leadership for shying away from public discussions of abortion. Our struggle now is laying the foundation for the day we have laws and health centers which protect our right to decide about our bodies.and whathaving to to be "feminine. ''We want sex education and birth control. although it excluded women from military conscription. During the first two years of the Chamorro administration. But it may. the Luisa UNREGISTERED VERSION Women. the Sandinistas did use a disproportionate percentage of their national budget into defenseaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. buy it! their support during VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY contras. Pressured by attempted to designof AMNLAE. Sexuality became a topic of more open public discussion. Luz Marina Torres. during the 1980s. had lent it UNREGISTERED the war against the If you like this book.

buy it! postwar electoral politics. Canadian women were the first women in the hemisphere to hoist warning flags over the Free Trade Agreement (FTA). and students." Not only have on party politics. and mobilization to be men in any particular from an outside-supported military threat. 33 In fact trade unions. A sufficient number of voters-43 percent. In to be "manly"such what it meansmay "feminine.eight hundred women came to the meeting. friends and workmates argued with each other over the implications for Canadian identity. health workers.< previous page page_101 page_136 next page > Page 136 101 Whether one women. It may officials been affected by their the perceptions of not have a decisive impact government and militaryeven leave male party members ownspace they need manliness and femininity. which had been called to create a movement surprised that embracing academics. In 199z. Washington's vehicle for its post-Cold War "continentalism. Participants voted to eschew national leaders and a national agenda and instead build locally page_101 < rooted networks. Canadians engaged in a debate that tore their society apart. buy it! next page > . even the parties which are the principal players in the nation's If you like this book. while most of their neighbors to the south looked the other way. rather than parties. and Canadian social welfare programs of signing the FTA with the United States. Canadian jobs." During 1988-89. one an insurgent movement or a zation amongis tracingmobilization or demilitarizing by the need to protect must chart how women and revolutionary regime historical setting comprehend what it means the short run. of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in Women was held in January 1992. trade unionists. but many to remasculinize political party life. may indeed be the centers of many Central American women's activism in the postwar era. Wives and husbands. They also agreed that what women need now is a political home that is independent of > previous page next page all of the existing political parties. and lesbians as well as straight women." which was designed to reinforce the postwar sexual division of labor throughout the continent. militarizing less constrained social processes. which translated into a majority of Conservative seats in the federal parliament-eventually were persuaded by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's prediction that if Canada refused to sign the < previous page page_136 If you like this book. the administration of George Bush called for an "Enterprise for the Americas Initiative.complicated were of The first National Conference of Nicaraguan those gendered ways that ease the Organizers process militarization. Among Washington policymakers' chief incentives for demilitarizing America's "backyard" in the wake of the Soviet Union's dissolution has been the desire to turn the region into part of an American-directed economic zone that can compete with Japan and the European Community.

have developed a political analysis of the FTA's gendered dynamics.S. buy it! next page > . By the time of the U.S. Republicans argued. Women trade unionists from Mexico.S. Not all paths toward THE THE < previous page page_137 If you like this book.S. But the Republican vision of an economic market that will encompass the entire continent. unravel the meanings of Central American demilitarization. feminist counterparts. and Canada began meeting in 1991 to construct a feminist analysis of and strategy for responding to the NAFTA negotiations and the new continentalist vision of women's threat to one another.. corporations. UNREGISTEREDtheir Mexican counterparts for TO PDF it! VERSION OF AmericanaFree Trade CONVERTER had become a If CHM presidential campaign of 1992.S. and women working for insurance companies in Toronto were encouraged to believe that. but many of themFTA." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their especially Canadian women's loss of jobsmost notably in garments. one must probable women and FTA. also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF relationships to each other are rarely weighed when trying of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD Canadian and Central American women's in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process to militarization. a market made more viable by demilitarization following immediately after hyper-militarization. for the sake of a postCold War order. they must see each other as competitors. was the shape of the post-Cold War world. FTA were negotiations between the U. treaty. it would be left out in the economic cold.S. Mexican women have contributed to the strategy sessions their experiences of working for U. women sewing jogging outfits in Tennessee. buy Agreement (NAFTA) STANDARD BY popular issue. and own perceptions of telecommunicationsdirectly traceable to the have 34 manliness and femininity. page_101 < Following on the heels of the Canada-U. The new continentalism depended on it. trade previous page next page > representatives and similar MexicoU. textiles.35 Demilitarization can take a variety of forms.S. At stake.< previous page page_101 page_137 next page > Page 137 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. developing feminist consciousness while working inside unions still run by males. The role of Canadian women has been crucial in these tripartite meetings because they have felt the effects of the FTA and. Canadian feminists analyzed thechart how effects of the men on women during the 1989 debate and continue today to monitor its consequences. Women packaging strawberries and assembling Ninja toys in Juarez. charting FTA in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. the U. has made that long-distance relationship salient. and creating autonomous women's trade unions that have raised issues such as neighborhood pollution and domestic violence. the North you like this book. far more than their U.

Nor would it allow local environmental grassroots organizations entry into the corridors of national policymaking. however. buy it! A demilitarization process designed to produce a society congenial to NAFTA would not break up export plantations or deprive them of the labor they need to operate profitably. as one feminist sociologist described it. buy it! next page > ." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions elites in El Salvador. This was well understood by American foreign policy and militarization. And power-sharing accords would reserve senior posts in the ministry of finance and in the central bank for officials who shared the NAFTA architects' presumptions about reducing public spending. 36 If you like this book. and Guatemala in such a way as to lay the groundwork for the spread of manliness and femininity. the ending militarism's influence on politics lead to easy social processes.< previous page page_101 page_138 next page > Page 138 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing acceptance of the free trade model. Finally. the place for the < previous page page_138 If you like this book. but That of to foster conditions hospitable to acceptance of the NAFTA. Agency for International Development (AID) to entice American companies to invest in the Caribbean and Central America. Thus. it would be accomplished in ways that would continue to devalue women's labor. Formulas intended to halt civil war would not permit organized labor to gain effective economic or political influence.S. security officials. Given the level of popular mobilization that has occurred in Central American countries during the last decade. who in the 1980s pressured the field staff of the U. Panama. although demilitarization might contain within it the seeds of reducing masculinist privileges. one must chart how women and demilitarization of Central America is comprehend what Washington policymakers what it means to men in any particular historical settingbeing promoted by it means to be "manly" and and by governing be "feminine. Demilitarization would be fashioned to encourage small farmers to grow export crops such as broccoli and mangoes and to accept marketing arrangements with such multinational agri-businesses as Green Giant. the NAFTA model southward. them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers be of to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of demilitarization must relate a particular sort. none of this would be easy. Some Central American analysts fear that perhaps worse than being drawn under the NAFTA tent is the prospect of being left just outside it: becoming.many is. While this policy only became well known to unemployed women garment workers in Tennessee and to page_101 < the American public in the heat of the 1992 presidential debate. it had been the subject of considerable > previous page next page concern both inside and outside of AID several years earlier.

comprehend what it means to mail-order company. employing a that ease the complicated process of BY civilians licensed an relate to 250 OF in those gendered ways mostly female work force of war. What is also new for this hemisphere is that this treaty-based continentalism is being legitimized as a formula for (a) coping with the new conditions of a world without competition between two superpowers. men in any particular historical setting Crew. and a demeaning and risky but occasionally more lucrative income from prostitution. It is old as the dilemma of a woman who must choose between an unlivable farm income. Foreign-owned and jointly owned factories assembling products for exportmaquiladoraswereseen by both the nervous civilian regime and Washing- THE THE < previous page page_139 If you like this book. one must chart how women and "quick-and-dirty" investment. and global belonging. Even while the civil war continued. on the one hand. This is not a newSTANDARD BY OF to like this book. a position as a domestic servant. still ensure a civil hosted a mere 10 garment factories. currently to be "feminine. many argue. Whereas in 1986 perceptions PanamanianNot onlysewing its 100 percent militaryturtleneckbeen affected by their ownGuatemala of manliness and femininity." women have government and cotton. the popular American be "manly" and what it means has Panama. and Guatemala. 37 Multinational corporations already operate in El Salvador. or a factory wage. buy CONVERTERprofits by using as If CHM foreign and local constructs of femininity youdevalue women's it! situation. had and soldiersestimatedone another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. and (b) ending local military conflicts fueled in large part by that superpower rivalry. five years later the attempted to design policies to fightingthat UNREGISTERED VERSIONgarment factories. Costa Rica. social stability. 50. a page_101 < creatorof international confidence. previous page next page > The factories most often located in are precisely those that maximize UNREGISTERED VERSIONthese countries TO PDFlabor. stylish Van Heusen shirts have taken on a distinctly postCold War look. the government of President Vinicio Cerezo worked with agencies of the U.S. Suddenly.39 What is new in the 1990s is the prospect that entire economies built on gendered as well as class and racedependent presumptions of skill and worth will be integrated through treaty arrangements into a hemispheric market. J. government to entice foreign investors to return to Guatemala. Such investment has been heralded as a reflectorand. buy it! next page > . but many of them have also Guatemalan government.< previous page page_101 page_139 next page > Page 139 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. on the other. officials jerseys. after coffee. Many observers consider multinational investment to be a sign that the local regime is making progress toward ending a destabilizing civil war.000. Garments have become Guatemala's second leading export.38 Foreign investment has become a sign of a national regime's political legitimacy. Honduras.

Having internalized an acute sense of danger. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. previous World next page > We will be able to chart more accurately the gendered processes that are at work in constructing the postCold War world if we can describe If you like this it is that needs to be dismantled. buy it! gendered relationships on which the Cold War relied for its creation and forty-five-year-long perpetuation? The regimes that were essential to perpetuating the Cold War had to convince their citizenries that the world was a dangerous place. "feminine. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Air raid drill.< previous page page_101 page_14 next page > Page 101 Page 14 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. intended to sustain particular relationships between men and women and between men or women and the state. 1951. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that (FPG International) civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of long-held notions of femininity and masculinity as well as the abandonment of government policies militarization. buy it! next page > . The Cold War has had distinct attributes. but in its dissolution it is no different from the page_101 < Crimean War orpageWar II. manliness and femininity. citizens would be more likely to < previous page page_14 If you like this book. New York. Their citizens had to behave as if surrounded by imminent danger. What were the exactly what book. 1.

40comprehend such as Levi-Strauss.43 Naming sexual harassment was unsettling to the postwar continentalist project. I want to be in school but I am here. But in 1991. and Montgomery Wardofficials been affected by theirearly perceptionsitof manliness and femininity.be "feminine. 80 percent of the workers whom factory managers hired were women. My father does not have a job and so wethe girlshad to find work. They hoped to keep their factories union-free. workers primarily young womenbegan to organize in PhillipsVan Heusen's two Guatemalan factories.< previous page page_101 page_140 next page > Page 140 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social economic one must chart how women and ton's security-minded aid officials as an engine for postwar processes. K-Mart. single women between the ages of 14 and 24. Guess. In the cities. were not expecting Guatemalan women to be assertive. Bugle Boy. manufacturers. in order to support their parents and siblings. organized. or militant. mostly young. but the invitation have also attempted to design policies to ensure contract served their interests to accept many of them to invest directly in Guatemalan operations or tothat UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another have factories in ways that ease the locally owned indirectly with Korean companies that nowin those gendered Guatemala or with complicated process of militarization. development that would not upset men in any particular historical setting Companies what it means to be "manly" and what it means to Guatemala's traditional landed elite. A fifteen-year-old girl working in a UNREGISTERED VERSION OFworking thisthis PDF it!factory for this demanding manager BY maquiladora explained: "I would not be you like in book. these executives presumed that established notions about femininity would survive demilitarization and continue to ensure a compliant work force. They threatened to strike unless they gained the right to unionize and better wages." Not only have government and military decided in the late 1980s and own 1990s that Van Heusen. preferring Indian men. I went to the maquila because I knew they would hire me. Sears. Phillips. buy CONVERTER STANDARD If CHM TO horrible unless it was absolutely necessary. Managers who have set up their factories in the countryside hire as many men as they do women. Like the designers of postCold War continentalism. but also out of autonomous women's consciousness-raising and organizing begun earlier as a direct response to Guatemala's THE THE < previous page page_140 If you like this book. headquartered in New York City.41Some of these women told on farms or as page_101 < interviewers thatpage going to work as daughters. This organizing grew not only out of conditions experienced in the PhillipsVan Heusen plants. leaving school or quitting worknext page > previous they were domestic servants. I do not like it but what can I do?"42 PhillipsVan Heusen executives. they also called for an end to unsafe working conditions and sexual abuse. buy it! next page > .

and thus political. It can follow a path leading to the militarization. men's notions about themselves will be recognized as If you like this book. How this zone is constructed and occupied during the next decade will determine in large measure how Central America's women and men experience the postCold War world. and in trade negotiationswill be charted as a necessarily contested zone. Or it can be nudged along a road that leads toward the reduction not only of organized violence but also of masculinity's civic privileges. one must chart how women and Whether one isIn late 1992. buy it! problematic. remasculinization of civil life. Masculinityin policing. buy it! next page > ." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of <><><><><><><><><><><><> manliness and femininity. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of So demilitarization is a process that can take more than a single route.< previous page page_101 page_141 next page > Page 141 101 militarization. 44 men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in political parties. < previous page page_141 If you like this book. > previous ignore the next page the prospects for taking the latter route will remain dim. if the feminist question "Where are the women?" is taken seriously. On the other hand. the Guatemalan government recognized the union. If the designers and monitors of formal page_101 < peace processes page diverse ways in which masculinity provided fodder for earlier militarization.

one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. . to State. and technological features.. Since U.S. Africa. . and the West Indies didn't seem much on the curators' minds at THE THE < previous page page_142 If you like this book. the military authorities began helping them out last week by issuing a phrase book. Sample utility phrases: very pretty" . mark its continuities with other wars. Asia.< previous page page_101 page_142 next page > Page 142 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. doctrinal. . UNREGISTERED VERSION OF the Entrepreneur ways that ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate theone another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD The Prostitute. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Time. the book listspage_101 will I meetto say goodbye. no ''Where 14 ways you?" And since next sorrow less than UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. occupation troops in Japan are unalterably determined to fraternize. I was quite embarrassed. in the wake of the Gulf War. Actually. and in those gendered militarization. But now." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Five manliness and Than Two but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that It Takes More femininity. the Soldier. I persuaded a friend to play hooky from work to go with me to Britain's famous Imperial War Museum. Malaya. < "You're of parting always comes. I had never visited the Imperial War Museum. Only selective British experiences of the "great" wars were deemed worthy of display. Aden. the Falklandsthese British twentieth-century war zones didn't rate display cases. In all my trips to London. the time seemed ripe. buy it! next page > . I was in for a disappointment. Maybe the museum would help put this most recent military conflict in perspective. Kenya. and clarify its special human. the sweetpage > previous page "How about a date?" . In fact. July 15. 1946 On a recent visit to London.

There was no evidence. of the political furor set off when page_101 < white British women began to dateand have children withAfrican-American GIs. previous page next page > Our disappointment with the museum's If you like this book. or Puerto Rican. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend today's visitors how much the British it means to deeds. Berber. Thereone is two formal portraitsor demilitarizing social processes. a local citizen or a foreigner. they might be Korean. A manikin of the owner of the business (it might be a disco rather than a formal brothel) would be sitting watchfully in the cornerit could be a man or a woman. In my war museum there would be a reconstruction of a military brothel. It would show rooms for officers and rooms for rank and file soldiers. and unannotated portraits of Sikh heroes? Brothels. but to the Gurkha Museum. Filipina. however. or miniskirts topped with T-shirts memorializing resort beaches. Most The only civilians who received much attention in gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. What would we put on display besides frontline trenches (which at least showed the rats). In this realistic war museum. and parents they were trying to support with their earnings. I made a their own perceptionsto manliness and femininity. Several of the women might compare the sexual behavior and outlook of these foreign < previous page page_143 If you like this book. African-American. or Indian. soft drinks. Namibian. It would display separate doors for white soldiers and black soldiers. the "plucky" cockney Londoners who coped with the German blitz by singing in the celebrated were Underground. take the train south of London many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those the Imperial War Museum were British. saris. The women serving the soldiers might be white European. Japanese. Vietnamese. Depending on the era and locale. and aircraft carriers." Not only have government and to fight officials been affected by vow on my next trip of relied on men and women from its colonies military both world wars. but there were no displays to make visible to what it means to be "manly" and whatmilitary had be "feminine. cockney blitz-coping lyrics.< previous page page_101 page_143 next page > Page 143 101 Whether were tracing militarizing of turbaned Indian soldiers who had won military honors for their all. siblings. they could be dressed in sarongs. Women were allocated one glass case showing posters calling on housewives to practice domestic frugality for the cause. buy it! served to make us trade hunches portrayal of Britain's wars about what a realistic curatorial approach might be. buy it! next page > . visitors would be invited to press a button to hear the voices of the women chart the routes by which they came to work in this brothel and describe the children.

women were different from or similar to the women from their own countries. During the course of the study.S.." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of country. Some ofone must chart how women and men own analyses of historical setting comprehend or United Nations troops had come to it in their their in any particular how the British. suggests one reason why prostitution is so invisible. A letter from a former CIA analyst. French. A museum curatoror a journalist. their anxieties about living up topage > sexual performance UNREGISTERED expectations of their officers this book.S. however. now an academic. novelist. They might compare their strength. who leaves it on the cutting-room floor. manliness and femininity. delivers to the audience a skewed and ultimately unhelpful account of just what kinds of myths. The more brazen might flaunt their sexual prowess. Some of the soldiers. He warned me not to jump to conclusions. but also in "serious" official discussions of security. the women probably would add men withone is tracinglocal men they had been involved with. The men CONVERTER STANDARD patronized brothels relate to while on duty those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of they imagined militarization. analyst found this pertinent and included the information in his report. and state policies are required to fight a war or to sustain a militarized form of peace. What were their functions? "Prostituki!" The U. he had conducted a classified study of morale and discipline among Soviet forces. not only in military museums. buy it! next page > . inequalities. He noted that in a recent book I had surmised from a Rand Corporation report that Soviet commanders had banned prostitution from their bases in Afghanistan during the counterinsurgency of the 1980s. he had interviewed an emigre who had been a conscript on a remote Soviet air force base in Russia's Far North. the former conscript recalled that there had been approximately one hundred.< previous page page_101 page_144 next page > Page 144 101 Whether those of the militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. chivalry. While working as a CIA analyst in the 1970s. their < uncertainty of what it means to be a man whenpage_101 previous page next the you're a soldier. overmanyneighboring tape recorder to hear the voices of to ensure that Museum goers could step but to of them have also attempted to design policies UNREGISTEREDand discos oneaanother CHM TO PDFmight describe how soldiers who these BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF in abroad. or earning power with that of the local men. CONVERTER STANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF Warand militarized peaceare occasions when sexual relations take on particular meanings. U. In reply to the analyst's inquiry about the presence of women on the base. But when THE THE < previous page page_144 If you like this book. anxieties. buy it! VERSION OF you like and buddies. what it means to be "manly" and what bemeans to be "feminine. or political commentatorwho edits out sexuality. would describe their feelings of loneliness.

"Close to 200. commonly encountered in the CIA. but many of them to the issue in the U. "to use informationto one another in those gendered ways thatU.S. or was the only social processes.< previous page page_101 page_145 next page > Page 145 101 Whether one is version came out.S. bases tell us that a militarized masculinity is constructed and reconstructed in smoky bars and sparsely furnished rented rooms. the organizational incentive is to avoid mentioning theof manliness and femininity. American men be able to sustain their own Asian or Latina women's compliant sexuality. If we confine our curiosity only to the boot camp and the battlefieldthe focus of most investigations into the formations of militarized masculinitywe will be unable to explain just how masculinity is created and sustained in the peculiar ways still imagined by officials to be necessary to sustain a modern military organization. The analyst." he went on to Soviet problems for fear of drawing attentionhave also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate about the USSR as a means of discussing ease the complicated process I explain. problems was something of militarization. military command be able > previous page next page and recreation. their visions of themselves as manly enough to act as soldiers? Women who have come to work as prostitutes around U. Histori- < previous page page_145 If you like this book. often tedious sea voyages and ground maneuvers? Without myths of If you would book. be "manly" and what it means originalany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to military represses its bases' to be "feminine." on only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions dependency Notsexual access to local women. one must chart how women the official CIAtracing militarizingthisdemilitarizinginformation excised by his superiors from the and men in draft.S. We will also miss just how much governmental authority is being expended to insure that a peculiar definition of masculinity is sustained. Without sexualized restpage_101 would the U. They help us to make sense of militaries' dependence onyet denial ofparticular presumptions about masculinity to sustain soldiers' < morale and discipline.like this many buy it! identities. looking back. Military prostitution differs from other forms of industrialized prostitution in that there are explicit steps taken by state institutions to protect the male customers without undermining their perceptions of themselves as sexualized men.S. speculated: "Since the U. buy it! next page > . The tendency."2 These figures come from records kept in Hawaii during 1941 and 1944. to send young men off on long.000 men a month paid three dollars for three minutes of the only intimacy most were going to find in Honolulu.S." 1 It is for this reason that feminist ethnographies and oral histories are so vital.

plus extra for laundry and $13 for each required monthly venereal disease test. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend American soldiers' "manly" and what it means had to submit reports to Hawaii's military governor.< previous page page_101 page_146 next page > Page 146 101 Whether these tracing militarizing or Honolulu brothel managers. many of whom came by ship from San Francisco to work as prostitutes. Women working in the most successful brothels. and not to marry members of the armed forces. government had passed the May Act in 1941. and of them have staff. not to own an automobile. what it means to be sexual encounters with localto be "feminine. but manythe governor's also attempted to designfifty prostitutes paid $1. the center of the city's burgeoning prostitution industry. Two hundred and policies to ensure that among the and femininity. ans have one isprecise figures because demilitarizing social processes. and to reassure the Hawaiian white upper class that wartime would not jeopardize their moral UNREGISTERED the army set up prophylaxis distribution centers along Honolulu'sSTANDARD BY order. The effort was only partially successful. 3 Hawaii's military governor disagreed. THE THE < previous page page_146 If you like this book.00 per UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM the Honolulu CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate as "entertainers" with gendered ways that ease the complicated process of year to be registered merelyto one another in those TO PDF Police Department because the federal militarization. not to buy property in Hawaii. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER Hotel Street. made enough money to violate the official rules and buy homes outside Honolulu. not to go out after 10:30 at night. they werebeenobject of by their policy consideration manliness military. most of whom were white women. one for white male customers and one for men of color. making prostitution illegal. to assuage the fears of many American civilians that mobilizing for war would corrupt the country's sexual mores. The two departments collaborated with the local police to try to ensure that licensed prostitutes kept their side of the bargain: in return for the license. the police. The objective was to keep prostitutes quite literally in their place. to prevent sexually transmitted previous page next page > diseases." Not not left to government the military officials the affected official own perceptions of prostitutes were only have chance or to and market. They saw a tightly regulated page_101 < prostitution industry as necessary to bolster male soldiers' morale. most of whom were Asian men who worked on the island's pineapple and sugar plantations. He had police and military officers on his side. women servicing soldiers and sailors up and down Hotel Street had to promise to have regular medical examinations. white women. Before the war. buy it! next page > . most Hotel Street brothels had two doors. The navy and VERSION OF you like this book. They kept $2 of the $3 from each customer. Out of their earnings they paid $100 per month to the brothel manager for room and board.

by their own perceptions of manliness offending white male customers have also attempted to design policies to ensure door any risk ofand femininity." Not the have government and more toward a white affected most managers decided that and sailors tiltedonlybrothels' business ever military officials beenclientele. in a second the prostitute engaged her customer. in a third a man who had finished put > previous page next page his clothes back on. and inexperienced men. militarization. Today British and Belize officials work hard together to develop a complex policy to ensure a steady but safe supply of military prostitutes for the British troops stationed in that small ex-colony perched on the edge of Latin America. they did away with the second that and civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of turned away men of color altogether. many have traveled across the border from war-torn Guatemala to earn money as prostitutes. for the typical Honolulu brothel during the war years was 9 A.< previous page page_101 page_147 next page > Page 147 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. with the cooperation of the owners. rather than Afro-Belize women. one white men who objected to Brothel managers believed this segregation prevented violent outbursts by must chart how women and men in any particular paying for servicing men of any other race. The U. we learn that most of the brothels used what was called a 'bull-ring' setup consisting of three rooms.S.5 A new nine-hundred-man batallion arrives every six months. although they slip out of the carefully woven policy net to meet local women in bars and discos in Belize City. British soldiers have special brothels designated for their patronage. From prostitutes and soldiers recalling the arrangement. military's policymakers tried to think of everything." 4 Prostitutes learned to tailor their services to the sexual sophistication of their If you like nervous buy it! military clients. A senior military police officer in the middle of the war speculated before an audience of local citizen reformers that those sailors who performed oral sex with the Honolulu prostitutes were those men most likely to engage in homosexual behavior once they were back on board ship. buy it! next page > . It operated on an Opening time efficient assembly-line principle. to be wartime influx of white soldiers the women they were historical setting comprehend what it meansAs the"manly" and what it means to be "feminine. but many of themwas bad business. have a photo identification card and undergo weekly medical examinations by a Belizean < previous page page_147 If you like this book. They offered oral sex to the morethis book. "In one room a page_101 < man undressed. The government-to-government agreement requires that every brothel worker. Most of the women who work in the officially approved brothels are Latinas.M.

made it known publicly that the Conservative government of John Major was hoping that the British troop rotation in Belize could be continued.7 Do the field marshal and his superiors back in London perhaps also find the Belize government's willingness to cooperate in the control of local women's sexuality a military attraction? The United States fashioned a rather different policy to regulate soldiers' relationships with prostitutes around major U. it is assumed that the manliness and blame. buy it! contradicts the PDF CONVERTER militarized masculinity: though white British men's masculinity is presumed by their officers to require a diet of local sex while overseas. bases such as Clark and Subic Bay in the Philippines. buy it! next page > . one must chart how not clear doctor. the future of the government-to-government prostitution agreement has become uncertain.< previous page page_101 page_148 next page > Page 148 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Not only of a government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of does show symptoms have sexually transmitted disease or tests positive for HIV. both in Belize under a Belize-British defense pact. on a third she is fired. on a second offense she is fined. but manysoldier gives his British superiors the name of the prostitute who he UNREGISTERED VERSIONof the soldier's TO PDF CONVERTER aSTANDARD BY civilians and soldiers On the one OF in those gendered ways on ease the complicated process the believes infected him.S. according to the field marshal. Prostitutes are required to use condoms with their military customers. on first "offense"of militarization. Britain's Chief of Defence Staff. now finds Belize's climate and topography especially attractive for jungle warfare training. Like the British. British-born soldiers and their Nepali Gurkha comrades. which means that page > previous page next the Gurkhas are more likely to stick to any Gurkha UNREGISTERED VERSIONthe government-approved prostitutes. faithful when home and celibate while on assignment abroad. The infected of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that prostitute is to femininity. the British army. Nepali men's masculinity is constructed as more disciplined. If you like this book. Though no longer needed to defend Belize. Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent. 6 With the end of the Cold War and the relaxation of political tensions between Belize and Guatemala. however. although it iswomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to how many women may be paid extra by their customers to break the condom rule. But in early 1992. Whereas the former are likely to frequent both page_101 < Latina and Afro-Belize women. have rather different racial/ sexual preferences.relate to basisanother CHM word as well as thattest results. woman is reprimanded by the brothel owner. Theportrayal STANDARD BY OF CHM TOlong-standing British fact that of Nepali troops go to prostitutes at all. the Americans THE THE < previous page page_148 If you like this book. If a soldier-patron be "feminine. the Gurkhas reprotedly prefer Latina women.

or even to Germany. complicated the names practice of the Angeles Cityto one another in those gendered ways that ease the base officialsprocess of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_149 next page > Page 149 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S.9 Olongapo City's businessman mayor.S. an industry that is increasingly dependent on young women from abroad. Nonetheless." Not only have government and who contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were Filipinomunicipal authorities. of sex workers who had contracted STDs. officials occasionally sent out a "contact" card to a club owner containing the name of a Filipina employee whom the Americans suspected of having infected a particular sailor or air force man. to continue working as prostitutes for U. U. it was the civilians and soldiers relate and Olongapo health authorities to pass on to U. 8 page_101 < Apparently believing that "stable" relationships with fewer local women would reduce the chances that > previous page next page their personnel would become infected. although the Filipino military is also eager to take over at least part of the operations for its own purposes. with his own entertainment investments now in jeopardy. soldiers military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and report the but many of them believe gave them the design policies to ensure that not required to femininity. Similarly.woman whom theyhave also attempted to disease. The base commanders then ordered that the photographs of infected Filipinas be pinned upside down on the public notice board as a warning to the American men. military men. Military base conver- < previous page page_149 If you like this book. buy it! stay with their military boyfriends on the base.S. They may also have been vulnerable to recruiters procuring Filipina women for Japan's entertainment industry. they refused to contribute to the treatment of prostitutes with sexually transmitted diseases or AIDS and turned down requests that they subsidize Pap smears for early cancer detection for the estimated one hundred thousand women working in the entertainment businesses around Clark and Subic.S. U. buy it! next page > . women and men in the license issued with setting comprehend what it means from working by what it means case withoutany particular historical these examinations were preventedto be "manly" andthe localin this to be "feminine. base commanders allowed Filipinas hired out by bar owners to If you like this book. Their few options included migrating to Okinawa or Guam. has been in the forefront of promoters urging that Subic Bay's enormous facilities be converted into private enterprises. However. one must chart how women supported compulsory medical examinations of women working as prostitutes. The closing of both Clark Air Force Base and Subic Naval Base in 1992forced many Filipinas in precarious states of health into the ranks of the country's unemployed.

Great Britain. but was of campaign for attempted to to accusations to ensure that portrayed. behaved as though she was not endangered. The more their own perceptions of unquestioned. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDFtoCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that literacy among poor urban Calling for a reduction of a factory's toxic emissions. Mexico. Brazil. as though a man's protection was irrelevant. buy it! next page > . considered those If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD woman ignored the dictates of femininity. and its myths exposed. to be the brave one. citizens would be more willing to it means to be militaryany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and whatleave secrecy "feminine. For example. women could be persuaded to support their governments' efforts to organize against the Cold War threat. Being persuaded that danger lurked. In most of the societies that page_101 < were drawn intopage War. the United States. Military Assistance Program which urged national security strategists to think about Third World women's fertility. women. the report explained THE THE < previous page page_15 If you like this book. As the Cold War rivalry spiraled. on UNREGISTERED even flirted with OF you like this book." Not leave conscription and wiretapping unchallenged. chiefly by women in India. But the lessons are pertinent to making sense of the Cold War. Any man was socialized into the gendered culture of danger in part by the women who would look to him to provide protection. andone must chart how women and men in spending. and more vulnerablemanyanythem have alsosocial change design policiesof subversion. men were thought to be manly insofar as they did not shy away from previous the Cold next page > danger and perhaps it as they protected the nation's children and women. Likewise. she deserved what she got. housing. if she hitchhiked or traveled far from home without a masculine shield. were VERSION most vulnerable to danger. But of course women and men do not experience danger in identical ways. toonly have government and military officials been affected by convincingly danger was manliness the femininity. a Women. education that came with high accept the heavy taxation and the underfunding of health. feminist researchers have uncovered a 1958 report by a presidential commission assessing the U. buy it! Only a foolish woman. If she went out alone at night.who BY the other hand.< previous page page_101 page_15 next page > Page 101 Page 15 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. organizing the harvesters of agricultural cropsall would be more easily imagined as threats to the state and to the social order itself if the world could be thought of as fraught with diffuse danger. working spreadease the complicated process of militarization. This gendering of danger has been dissected.S. and elsewhere who have created movements against violence toward women and against government efforts to control women's sexuality.

public health formulas. they will be on many of the negotiators' minds. < previous page page_150 If you like this book.S. despite popular misgivings about the implications of allowing U. has urged military officials been affected by their own perceptionsat manliness but also that tourism development be also attempted investment list. military planners to rethink their prostitution > previous page next page policies. citizens.11 The women who have been generous enough to tell their stories of prostitution have revealed that sexuality is as central to the complex web of relationships between civil and military cultures as are more talked-about security doctrines and economic quid pro quo. Singapore citizens. For instance.S. The governments of Singapore and the United States signed a basing agreement in Tokyo in mid-I992. the basing agreement itself was kept secret. and commercial zoning formulas have been devised by the two governments to shape the sexual relations between American and Singapore men and the women of Singapore. military power in the postCold War world. 10 ensure that Subic Bay. among others. attracted may be slightly older American men trying to relive their earlier militarized sexual adventures with Filipina women. Even ifsocial processes.12 They found that the local and foreign men who own the brothels. but many of them havehigh on the new to design policies toIn the coming civilians politics of relate to one Olongapo City gendered ways that ease the complicated process of years.< previous page page_101 page_150 next page > Page 150 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing women working the must chart how women not sion is always an intensely gendered process. buy it! next page > . But. Shifting some of the Philippines operations to Guam or Singapore or back home to the United If you like this book.S.and femininity. but many of the tourists militarization. buy it! States does not in itself guarantee new official presumptions about the kinds of sexual relations required to sustain U. the above"feminine. and discos catering to soldiers are motivated by profit. There is no evidence thus far that being compelled by the forces of nature and nationalism to shut down page_101 < two of their most prized overseas bases has caused U. theand soldiersprostitution inanother in those may take on a civilian look. Korean and Filipino women interviewed by Sandra Sturdevant and Brenda Stoltzfus for their oral history collection Let the Good Times Roll also remind us of how hard it is sometimes to map the boundaries between sexual relations and economics. are left with little information about what policing formulas. Thus.S. Navy personnel to use the small island nation for repairs and training." Not only have government and not only that privatized ship maintenance be developed of mentioned mayor. one entertainment sector are and at men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be the conversion negotiation table. bars. as well as U.

isn't sufficient to sustain a full-fledged prostitution industry. The stories that prostitutes tell also underscore something that is overlooked repeatedly in discussions of the impact of military bases on local communities: local women working in military brothels and discos THE THE < previous page page_151 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . masculinized sexual desire.15 Similarly. bar owners what it means to be "feminine. The women who told their stories to Sturdevant and Stoltzfus were less concerned with parsing analytical categorieswhat is "economic. by the early 1990s." and what is ''political"than with giving us an authentic account of the pressures. urban commercialized demand. Thus. U.S. male entrepreneurship. Over the decades. both because they liked living outside the United States (often with Filipina wives) and because they could make a comfortable livelihood from sexualized entertainment." what is "social. They These men weigh the market value of a woman's virginity.S. among the investors and managers of Thailand's large prostitution industry are Thai military officers. by itself.16 Militarized. Yet military prostitution is not simply an economic institution. buy it!men in the Philippines military have areas to take If in the TO PDF been known to supplement their salaries by acting as procurers of young rural women for the tourist and military prostitution industries." asmust chart how women and constantly particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and and procurers men in anyreassess their male clients' demands.14 OF you like industry. SomeCONVERTER STANDARD BY and authority in the VERSION partCHMthis book. soldiers were competing to have sex with younger and youngerof manliness and femininity." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions concluded that AIDS-conscious U. Australian men immigrated to launch their own page_101 < businesses in the base towns and eventually made up a large proportion of the owners of the military. also used their status UNREGISTERED rural industry. especially officers. hold onto some self-respect. but many of to supply also driving down the value of the ensure that Filipinas.attempted to design policies to sexual services UNREGISTERED womenwomenanother CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one OF early twenties.> previous page next page dependent entertainment Local military personnel. hopes. and overlapping governmental economic interest to ensure its success.< previous page page_101 page_151 next page > Page 151 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. and so the proprietors sought them havethem. fears. police protection. It requires (depends on) rural poverty. 13 supplied by "older" VERSIONin their in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. one well as her age. and shortages they had to juggle every day in order to ensure their physical safety. her "cherry. Navy veterans stayed in the Philippines and set up bars and discos. and make ends meet for themselves and their children.

but many of them Filipina women detailed how their relationships with local civilians and soldiers relate to created the in those gendered ways that them vulnerable to the appeals male lovers and husbands had one anotherconditions that initially madeease the complicated process of militarization. South Korea." 17 < previous page page_152 If you like this book. found that Filipino male soldiers were prone to sexualizing their power. only the women who confided in Stoltzfus and Sturdevant knew that they had to be of manliness simultaneously. as if it were nonexistent or harmless. Because it is politically less awkward to concentrate on foreign soldiers' exploitation of local women. buy it! In deeply militarized countries such as the Philippines. Outside observers rarely talk "manly" and what it means to soldiers. a woman working in prostitution may have to cope with local as well as foreign soldiers who need her services to shore up their masculinity. the foreign soldiers and the local mensome ofchart how women and men in any particular historical civilians. But none of those circumstances should be accepted as fact without a close look." Not But have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions the same breath. have to be talked about. Cass watched as many of them flaunted their sexualized masculinity in front of their female soldier trainees. For instance.< previous page page_101 page_152 next page > Page 152 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. too. Children. an Australian researcher who spent many months in the late 1980s both with the Philippine government's troops and with insurgent forces. of the labor-needy disco owners. Unfaithfulness. neglectful fathering any combination of these behaviors by their local lovers and husbands might have launched these women into military prostitution. Most of the page_101 < women servicing foreign soldiers sexually have children. Honduras. women expected from respectable families to be virgins. one must whom are themselves mediate between two sets of men. Prostitution and men's ideas about fathering: the two are intimately connected in these women's lives. and Afghanistan. misuse of already low earnings. or may have too little money to spend to become major customers of local prostitutes. violent tempers. buy it! next page > . If you like this book. Anne-Marie Cass. The Korean and have also attempted to design policies to ensure that consideredand femininity. She also reported that many Filipino soldiers "expect to and receive rides on civilian transport. some fathered by local men and otherspage > previous page next fathered by the foreign soldiers. local soldiers' militarized and sexualized masculinity is frequently swept under the analytical rug. may have easier access to noncommercialized sex. and drinks and the services of prostitutes in discos and bars without payment. And in fact the local soldiery may have more respect for local women. but many of whom are setting comprehend what it means to beabout these two sets of men in be "feminine.

men whose actions may > previous page next page contribute to the construction and maintenance of prostitution around any government's military base: UNREGISTERED lovers If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY husbands and VERSION OF you like this book." Not only have the lucrative R military officials been the U. local men must be inserted into the political equation. local and foreign local public health officials local government zoning board members local police officials local mayors national finance ministry officials national defense officials male soldiers in the national forces local civilian male prostitution customers local male soldier-customers foreign male soldier-customers foreign male soldiers' buddies foreign base commanders foreign military medical officers foreign national defense planners foreign national legislators THE THE < previous page page_153 If you like this book. withoutaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. irresponsible husband would not have driven his wife into work as an Olongapo bar girl.< previous page page_101 page_153 next page > Page 153 101 Whether one course. ofis tracingto argue that local men are the social processes.S. militarizing or demilitarizing root of the commercialized and how women and This is not. Nonetheless. In fact. economicallyprocess of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered even an ease the complicated the sexuality of poor womenwithout each CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. one must chartmilitarized sex that men in any so rife. we need to widen our lens considerably if we are to fully understand militarized prostitution. but without local have also attempted to design policies to ensure that keeping male soldiers content. page_101 < Here is a listprobably an incomplete listof the men we need to be curious about. especially in countries allied to what it means to Without local what it means has becomeparticular historical setting comprehend the United States. buy it! next page > .ways thatabusive. buy it! bar and brothel owners.many of them and foreign entrepreneurs willing to make their profits off UNREGISTERED VERSION OF of these conditions.be "manly" andgovernments to be "feminine. military's strategies for willing to pay the price for government andand R business. the women who tell their stories make this clear.

S. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to oneof masculinity'sand femininity'sdaily ease the complicated process of is Sexual practice is one of the sites another in those gendered ways that construction. 18 In the past. missionaries. when the Japanese army was moving southward into China. Women in Okinawa. military If you like this book.It has been so for generations. Their Japanese counterparts. a professor of history at Chuo University. together with a small. novelists.S. Today the U. businessmen. < previous page page_154 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_154 next page > Page 154 101 Whether one men there may be diverse forms of masculinity. Thus.government and militarythey had learned would by their own perceptions of manliness sexual partners feel manly.S. officials when asked about the Pentagon's current prostitution policy. Japanese officials insisted that any Asian women pressed into servicing Japanese soldiers sexually during the war were organized and controlled by civilian businessmen. or Filipinoand femininity. Korean women petitioners. and local finance ministry bureaucrats depend on it! historically evolving differences between masculinities. buy local women to be alert to the commanders. men feel manly during sex. recently pressed the Japanese government to admit that the Japanese military had a deliberate policy of conscripting Korean. Senior officers had simply accepted the prostituted women as part of the wartime landscape. That construction militarization. military men rely on to bolster their sense of masculinity. health authorities. buy it! next page > . have had to give up their long-time defense in the face of convincing bureaucratic evidence uncovered by Yoshiaki Yoshimi. This defense is strikingly similar to that employed by U. Korea. one must chart how women and men in any described to Sturdevant and Stoltzfus how they had to to be what would what it means to Philippines particular historical setting comprehend what it means learn "manly" andmake American be "feminine. and Burmese women into prostitution during World War II." Not only have it was not always what officials been affected make their Korean. supportive group of Japanese feminists and Japanese historians. colonial officials and international. military's "R and R" policy and the industry page_101 < it has spawned function only if thousands of poor women are willing and able to learn those sexual acts > previous page next page that U. and the Among these is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. however. Tourists and explorers. and soldiers have long been the internationalizers of sexualized masculinity. The military itself was institutionally immune. Korean women have been among the current historical investigators of militarized prostitution. In the Self-Defense Agency's library he found a document entitled "Regarding the Recruitment of Women for Military Brothels" dating from the late 1930s. Japanese. Thai. bar owners. development technocrats.

the program.000 Asian women were by their conscripted to work invasion. The research by Yoshiaki Yoshimi. the internationalizing dynamics which have shaped military prostitution in the past grind on. Every base I ever lived on .S. Nakahara Michiko. media at a time when many Americans were in search of evidence that they were morally superior to. It could have been quite a different story. the uncovering of 1930s and 1940s Japanese policy it! UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book.S.20 page_101 < previous page next page > Furthermore. Thus. . and other Japanese historians about their country's military's prostitution policies could have been written-and read-so as to draw attention to U. A researcher studying the sex industries in Southeast Asia. British. 19 as Karayuki-san.< previous page page_101 page_155 next page > Page 155 101 Whether one military militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S. I was often called 'geisha-girl' or 'Suzy Wong' (soldiers usually couldn't tell Japanese from Chinese). and other elderly Korean women are calling on their government and the Japanese government to reach a settlement that will include monetary compensation for the hardships they suffered. women. buyon prostitution led to a spate of articles in BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD the U. she is also an Asian-American woman who spent her childhood on U. "I faced the assumption that any woman who looked Asian was sexually available to soldiers. . Japan. one must chart how women and It ordered theis tracingto build "facilities for sexual comfort. had a thriving red-light district near it. albeit economically lagging behind. Eventually. and Okinawa. readers. and other militaries' past and present prostitution policies. This possibility was what inspired Rita Nakashima Brock to write to the New York Times in the wake of the discovery of the Tokyo document." When she was older. issue is not resolved. She recalls that." Not only an estimated 100. military bases in the United States. even if not intentionally by its authors." The official rationale was that brothels men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it women be "manly" and what it means would stop Japanese soldiers from raping Chinese and othermeans to along the route of the army's to be "feminine. one of the survivors of the "comfort women" Miyazawa. have government and military officials been affected forcibly own perceptions of manliness and femininity. "comfortbut many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM aTO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another evoked gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Although the uncovering of the document in those formal apology from Prime Minister Kiichi militarization.." in these military brothels. as a girl. Thus the story was set in a Pearl Harbor context by many U.S. Kim Hak Sun. Brock began to wonder about official military policies that led to THE THE < previous page page_155 If you like this book.000 to 200. buy it! next page > . Germany. French.

new insecurities. previous page next page > bar owners. introduced "foxy boxing. They act as though Rambo epitomizes the attributes that make for an effective combat soldier: "a soldier in khaki or camouflage. had acquired new tastes. learned that they would be paid for their performance only if at the end of a bout they could show bruises or had drawn blood. he was reassigned stateside."25 One consequence of this form of borrowed masculinized intimidation is that local prostitutes servicing < previous page page_156 If you like this book." 21 own perceptions of manliness and femininity. barrel waving in the air. Thai women working in militarization. But they also may be connected to each other quite directly.23 At about the same time. bare head. This. had to learn new sexual skills in the 1980s that they hadn't needed in the prostitution.S.22 Similarly. buy it! next page > .page_101 still dependent on military customers. and well armed. Navy base at Subic Bay in the late 1980s. open shirt. At least some Filipino male soldiers are adopting what they see as an American form of militarized masculinity. she 1960s because by the 1980s their male customers. sunglasses or headbands. now mainly local and foreign civilians. in turn. women in the bars were instructed by their employers to learn how to pick up coins with their vaginas. buy it! on stage would make the American sailors in like audience more eager for sex with the Filipina employees. was designed as a new way to arouse the American customers. gun held casually. lounging in a roofless jeep traveling down a Davao City street. The men most prone to adopting such attitudes are those in the Scout Rangers. a Vietnamese of them have also attempted the political economy of Thailand's civilians and soldiers also reminds another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of prostitution industry. around the < U. the elite fighting force of the Philippine Constabulary. too. but manyfeminist who has investigated to design policies to ensure that Thanh-Dam Truong." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their set up prostitution centers using Japanese women. Women. "A former Navy chaplain who served in Japan during the the prostitution tracing militarizingas ademilitarizing social processes.< previous page page_101 page_156 next page > Page 156 101 Whether one is she had witnessed or child.24 Each group of men involved in militarized sexuality is connected to other groups by the women working in the base town bars. discovered. relate to one us to view sexuality historically." These entrepreneurs believed that having women wrestle and box each other If you the this book. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be postWorld War II occupation told me that when he protested the American base commander's efforts to "feminine. and new grounds for competing with other men.

TO PDF it! Much of that information comes from the women with whom she works. despite growing efforts by local feminists to provide spaces for such solidarity. own perceptions of manliness and femininity. The women who told their stories to Sturdevant and Stoltzfus did not romanticize the sistership between women working in the bars. The Latina next working > previous hearings woman page as a prostitute in Belize or the Filipina woman working in makes her UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book.S. however. to guarantee the well-being of her soldier-customers. She has direct and military officials been some of them. She is not invited into the conference room when U. and how to remain appealing to paying customers when they are older and their valued status as a "cherry girl" is long past. buy it! next page > . But. Women have engaged in collective actionsfor instance. She never hearsthose gendered arrangements localcomplicated process deviousness soldiers relate to one another in what financial ways that ease the and STANDARD militarization. men in any particular historical setting comprehendbrothel or discoto be "manly" and what it means to be A woman who comes to work in a foreign military what it means finds that she must negotiate among "feminine. bar workers in Olongapo protested against being forced to engage in boxing matches for the entertainment of male customers. or French legislators decide it is politically page_101 < wise not to hold page on their government's military prostitution policy. Most women rely on a small circle of friends to accumulate the information necessary to walk the minefield laid by the intricate relationships between the various groups of men who define the military prostitution industry. how to avoid deductions from their pay. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that advice the foreign base commander UNREGISTERED VERSION passesCHM TO PDF CONVERTERforeign medical of BY OF on to his troops regarding the alleged unhealthiness or civilians andof local women. Women are telling their prostitution stories at a time when the end of the Cold War and the frailty of an industrialized economy are combining THE THE < previous page page_157 If you like this book.the Philippines or OkinawaSTANDARD BY If CHM buy CONVERTER assessments using only what information she has. collective action remains the exception.< previous page page_101 page_157 next page > Page 157 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. British.. how to persuade men to use a condom. how to meet soldier-customers outside their employers' supervision. The environment is not designed to encourage solidarity. She rarely learns what a soldier officials devise who wants to marry her and support her children is told by his military chaplain or superior officer. one must chart how women and Filipino soldiers perform sexual acts that they otherwise would refuse to perform."male only have governmentcontact. with onlyaffected by theirShe never hears what all of these Not actors. The women teach each other how to fake orgasms.

29 It might be tempting to listen to Asian women's stories as if they were tales of a bygone era.< previous page page_101 page_158 next page > Page 158 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. ash so thickly over Clark Air Force Base that even this facility. the government had no operative base conversion plan ready to launch that would put women's health and autonomy high on its list of objectives. Filipina women from Olongapo's bars cried and hugged their sailor boyfriends and customers at the gates of the base.S. U." Not of the Gulf War in the eyes of many Ameiican strategists by their own perceptions of apparent lessonsonly have government and military officials been affected is that the United States now manliness and femininity. military and civilian men and their Filipina If you like this book. perhaps each with quite different fears and expectations.S. was classified as uneconomical. The Philippine Senate.27 What sexual expectations would the American men take home with them? Perhaps the Filipinas' tears and hugs prompted many men to imagine that they had experienced not commercialized sex but rather relationships of genuine affection. Large bases still exist in South Korea and Guam. The to pressure governments in North America and Europe to "downsize" theirmust chart how women and men Department of Defense has announced the closing of means bases at home and abroad. for its part. in any particular historical setting comprehend what itmilitaryto be "manly" and what it meansof the "feminine. previous page next page > Base closings have their own sexual consequences.gendered ways that ease Pinatubo spewedprocess of militarization. ship from Subic Bay. Over forty thousand American military personnel were stationed in Japan (including Okinawa) at the end of < previous page page_158 If you like this book. National Public Radio's reporter in the Philippines. which until 1991 the Bush administration had deemed vital to American national security. rejected Coraz6n Aquino's requests that the Subic Bay Navy Base page_101 < agreement be renewed. Mount the complicated its deadly costly and often politically risky base in the region. I think. but to deploy large numbers of troops overseas policies to ensure that has the administrative capacitymany of them have also attempted to design rapidly without maintaining a civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those Simultaneously. be a mistake. buy it! next page > . one military establishments. buy it! lovers had to discuss the possibility of marriage. How many women who have lost their jobs around Subic Bay will seek out the employment agencies that. for a fee. There were reports of a number of quick marriages. That would. Or maybe for the loss of their livelihoods. 26 In March 199z Pat Ford. One to be U. What were women shedding tears for? Perhaps for the loss of some temporary emotional support. will send them to Kuwait to work as maids?28 Despite the efforts of the Filipino antibase campaign.S. described the departure of the last U.

and training. government made agreements with officials in Australia. the number of American men going through those bases on long tours and on shorterterm maneuvers will be in the thousands.< previous page page_101 page_159 next page > Page 159 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. money to send to her landless parents? (Reuters/Bettman) page_101 < previous page next page > 1991. 8. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed. Even with some cutbacks. and Malaysia to use facilities STANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER in their countries for repairs. 1992. buy it! UNREGISTERED VERSION OF youSingapore. child support. and Manila have made no moves to cancel the R and R agreements they have with Washington. "feminine. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that at Subic Bay Naval Station in the Philippines. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. Foreign UNREGISTERED loweredto see aanother CHM TO PDFdeparting marine. Tokyo. what is it she is really grievingthe loss of an income.S. After eighty-nine years.complicated process of BY civilians and soldiersVERSIONFilipina womangendered a CONVERTER STANDARD relate journalists one OF in those hugging ways that ease the But militarization. buy it! next page > . Governments in Seoul." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their is perceptions of November 24. even more will be redeployed from Clark and Subic Bay. like this book. agreements that spell out the conditions for permitting and controlling the sort of prostitution deemed most useful THE THE < previous page page_159 If you like this book. the U. the American flag own manliness and femininity. In early 1992. communications.

Army women's softball teams in the 1950s in order to track down alleged lesbians. Smuggling FBI agents into U. many of many countries imagined to be strategically important in During theand femininity. at the very time when the government was taking steps to roll back the allegedly anomalous gender changes wrought by World War II. recruiting military ''manpower. therefore. buy it! next page > .9 < previous page page_16 If you like this book. women in combatall.7 Male bonding among policymakers privy to If you and keeping buy it! state secrets. was just one small policy brick laid on the American side of the rising Cold War wall." like this book. that scores of women voluntarily offered their services to Washington's new civil defense bureaucracy. version of Cold War culture as did its remasculinized military.checks on women-led social reform movementsall were part of a web woven to perpetuate the Cold War. Brazil. These one must chart how women and men in in countries of strategic setting comprehend what it means to Mexico.such as Egypt.S. national security officials. butwomen inthem have also attempted to design policies to ensure that the civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways only with their husbands process U. Perhaps it is not surprising." Not only have government and military officials been affected Communist perceptions would destabilize their regimes and make them dangerously susceptible to by their ownsubversion. citizens from the lures of Communism. 6of manliness next two decades. Both were part of the "American way of life" that would protect U.S.S. Many Brazilian women who organized against their country's anti-Communist military government in the 1970s and 1980s came to the conclusion that militarized anti-Communism and domestic violence page_101 < against women needed to be critiqued in the same breath. be "manly" and whatIndonesiathat "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_16 next page > Page 101 Page 16 Whether birth tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S. and it means to be growth any particular historical importance to the U. for the construction of the worldview that previous page next page > placed danger at its core relied on gendered danger as well. that the "feminine mystique" gained such political potency in the United States in the 1950s. Pressing womenespecially white. could undermine the country's capacity to meet the global threat.S. latchkey children.8 Homosexuality. therefore. rates were producing population that high one isrates were due to women's uncontrolled fertility. the feminine mystique became as solid a pillar of the U. Cold War cultural strategists warned. then. with U. It was no coincidence. each thread of which required women to relate to danger in a markedly different way than was required of men.S. U.S.Soviet rivalry would find that they were sharing their beds not that ease the complicated but also of militarization. middle-class womenback into the domestic sphere went hand in hand with promoting consumerist capitalism.

in movements to transform foreign military bases into productive civilian institutions. and masculinity? about morale. listening > previous page next page to these women will shake the has come from relying UNREGISTEREDconversion.S. Listening is political. What discussions regime nervous abouthave government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. listening to them can provide information necessary for creating a more realistic picture of how fathering. book. The no-prostitution formula adopted to fight the Gulfmust chart how women and men in not initiated historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what means to formulaany particularby Washington policymakers. For nonfeminist anti-base campaigners.soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. Canberra. man-to-man borrowing." Not only its own Islamic legitimacyhas not been adopted anywhere else. Marriage. will all have to be accepted as serious political agenda items if the women now living on wages from prostitution are to become actors. For political analysts. parenting.conventional confidence thatbuy it! and self-respectonly on economic BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD approaches to base VERSION OF you like thismale violence. buy it! next page > . one Wara no-prostitution for the U. military. but many their counterparts in Singapore. THE THE < previous page page_160 If you like this book. and sexual practice play vital roles in the page_101 < construction of militarized femininity and masculinity.< previous page page_101 page_160 next page > Page 160 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. childrearing. health. military planners had withof them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and commerce.S. but rather imposed on the United Statesitby a Saudibe "feminine. and Kuala Lumpur have U. and not mere symbols. private enterprise. Listening to women who work as prostitutes is as important as ever. poverty.

< previous page

page_101 page_161

next page >

Page 161 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Six manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that The Gendered Gulf civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of A Diary militarization. Most of us are still trying to make sense of the Gulf War. Its meanings are as multilayered as a Mesopotamian dig. For instance, I realize now that I know nothingnothingabout Kurdish women. Kurdish page_101 < Consequently, I page inherently faulty understanding of how Iraqi forces or nationalism is being previous have an next page > conceptualized; and I don't know how either the Peshmerge guerrilla the noncombatant Kurdish refugee communities are organizing theirthis book,they it! threats from the governments of If you like lives as buy face both Iraq and Turkey. The six entries that follow, therefore, are best read as incomplete, time-anchored attempts to bring a feminist sensibility to bear on what was initially described as the ''Gulf Crisis" and later labeled the "Gulf War." Nowadays one also hears it referred to as the "first postCold War war." My first entry was written in mid-September 1990, only a few weeks after I returned from my first visit to the South Pacific. I was in the Cook Islands when I heard on the BBC World Service the news of the Iraqi military's invasion of Kuwait. The South Pacific was nudging me to imagine this postCold War world in new and surprising ways. I was seeing Australia as an emerging and militarizing regional power, and New Zealand as not only an antinuclear renegade but also once a colonizer. Small islands no bigger than pin pricks on a world map were

< previous page

page_161
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_162

next page >

Page 162 101 Whether one have dynamic and complex international relations their one must chart how women and turning out tois tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, citizens barely had the resources men in any much less control. And women's relationships to men to be "manly" small societiesFiji, to monitor, particular historical setting comprehend what it meansin each of theseand what it means to be "feminine." Not only have Tahitiwere and military officials been affected alliances, and anxieties of Vanuatu, the Cook Islands,government as much the stuff of political myths,by their own perceptionsas manliness and femininity, but they were in any other society.many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF Gulf Crisis, Ithe complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers the news onewhat wasin those gendered ways that ease tried, notSTANDARD So when I first heard relate to of another instantly called the CONVERTER always militarization. think about what the invasion and its ripple effects meant for Cook Islanders, successfully, to Australians, and Fijians: higher petrol and kerosene prices, plummeting tourism, and a further rationale for expanding Australian military presence. Each would have its own distinctively gendered causes and page_101 < consequences. page previous next page > Perhaps it was these VERSION that you like this mePDF it! UNREGISTERED mental aerobics OF encouraged book, month later, now back on the East Coast of BY If CHM TO a buy CONVERTER STANDARD the U.S., to set off on a trial run at analyzing the crisis by imagining it from the vantage point of one of its apparently least significant participants: a Filipina working as a maid in Kuwait City. Although I didn't have all the analytical ends neatly tied together, I had been taught by feminists over the last twenty years to be wary of presuming that the political actors with the most powerand the most media coveragewere the most useful starting points for figuring out exactly how politics work. I might get back to George Bush, Fran ois Mitterrand, King Fahd, and Saddam Hussein eventually. But coming to their ideological outlooks and uses of state power by way of particular groups of women, and the relationships of those women with other women, would prove more fruitful than taking the masculinist shortcut. That was the path paved with presumptions that powerful men would reveal the most about why a crisis had developed and why it was following its peculiar course. The second entry in this diary was written almost five months later, in February 1991. The Bush administration and its allies had launched their massive air bombardment on Iraq under the umbrella of the United Nations and were in the opening stages of what would be an alarmingly brief ground war. I had been following the protest by a few Saudi women against the prohibition on women driving automobiles; I was watching for the consolidation of military prostitution policies which would rely

THE

THE

< previous page

page_162
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_163

next page >

Page 163 101 Whether World women and scanning demilitarizing social processes, one than that of the U.S.) for any on Third one is tracing militarizing or the European press (more promisingmust chart how women and men that the feminist, prodemocracy comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it exiled signsin any particular historical settingIraqi Women's League would be listened to among the means to be "feminine." Not only Yet, back in February, I felt most compelled to turn by their own perceptions of opposition coalitions.have government and military officials been affectedmy attention directly toward manliness and femininity, but many of were sprouting in my neighborhood like daffodils in that women closer to home. Yellow ribbonsthem have also attempted to design policies to ensure spring. civilians and to be spontaneous expressions, those gendered ways that women; only later did the press They seemedsoldiers relate to one another in especially expressions by ease the complicated process of militarization. and Washington officialdom impose their own meanings on them. To this day I am not at all sure I know what each woman was saying when she put a ribbon on her winter coat lapel or on her secretarial in-tray or on her hospital staff association notice board. That is < something we still had better be curious about.page_101midst of the ground war I felt next page > previous page But in the that women had suddenly become invisible. During the tense months of the "prewar" autumn, women had at least served If you like this girlfriends, as valuable "human interest" storiesas wives, soldiers,book, buy it! mothers, or even alien veiled women. Now that the serious business of combat had begun, women had slid further down the page; only their yellow ribbons caught the public eye. Yet it seemed clear that the yellow ribbon phenomenon (which occurred, to a lesser degree, in Canada and Britain as well) was drawing U.S. women into the Bush administration's larger global scheme in ways we needed to understandnot just because any change in the world order would affect women, but also, more radically, because any configuration of international relationships can be fashioned by government leaders only if they can devise ways to harness women's compliance. The third entry was written in June 1991. The regime of Saddam Hussein, although weakened, remained in power. British and U.S. troops were being pulled out of northern Iraq, where they had been protecting Kurdish refugees. The governments of George Bush and John Major wanted the refugees to return to their homes in Iraq, less because the Kurds were now secure than because a lingering U.S. troop presence might remind voters back home of a Vietnam-like "quagmire"; also, if Iraqi Kurds stayed in

< previous page

page_163
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_164

next page >

Page 164 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and southern Turkey, they might destabilize that ethnically less-than-harmonious NATO partner. At that men the Soviet Union still existed, but NATO was what it means to be "manly" and without a mission. pointin any particular historical setting comprehend beginning to look like an alliancewhat it means to be "feminine." Not only have government faint to catch the world's affected Rumblings in the Balkans were still tooand military officials beenattention. by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of themCity, though only the to design policiesenvironmental have also attempted most committed to ensure that Oily smoke continued to hang over UNREGISTERED VERSIONKuwaitin those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate theone another CHM gendered ways that ease the complicatedof the of to spills OF investigators were charting threatening Persian Gulf marine life or the aftereffects process militarization. bombing of Iraq's chemical plants on the health of women and men dependent on the local water supply. There was no date set and no list of invitees yet agreed upon for an Israeli-Palestinian peace conference, and in the meantime new Soviet Jewish immigrants were being settled on the disputed West Bank. page_101 < Arms dealers were doing a brisk business in the Middle East; disarmament seemed to have few page > previous page next genuine advocates. Even with Saudi Arabia Israel as UNREGISTERED VERSIONand If you likewilling PDFmen back inPatriot missiles, however, BY TO showcases for its recession-plagued Raytheon Corporation was laying offOF CHMthis book,and it! hundreds of women buy CONVERTER STANDARD Massachusetts. Wearing yellow ribbons and hosting the president back in February hadn't saved these defense workers their jobs in June. Despite all these signals that the warwars, actuallyhad not ended for Iraqis and Kuwaitis, most North Americans and Europeans were acting that summer as though they were living in a "postwar" era. Those who had come to support the U.S.led war-making, however reluctantly (as a majority of women had), were going to victory parades; those who had opposed the war-making were going to conferences. The fourth and fifth entries were written a year later. It felt then like I was writing about a war that had evaporated eerily from the public consciousnessalmost. Election campaigns in the U.S., Britain, Canada, France, and Japan were preoccupied far more with domestic economic problems than with foreign affairs. Being on the winning side in the Gulf was not guaranteeing the leaders of any of these governments victory at the polls. Still, the Bush administration rattled swords in the form of joint military maneuvers with Kuwaiti soldiers, helping to forge a revised and rearmed Kuwaiti masculinity in the process. It was this masculinity that was allowed expression in Kuwait's own limited election in mid-1992.

THE

THE

< previous page

page_164
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_165

next page >

Page 165 101 Whether the journalist who seemed curious about how the processes, one must chart how women and Rare wasone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social return of so many Asian women to domestic men in jobs might affect the relationship of public what it means to in "manly" and what it means servant any particular historical setting comprehendto private politics be postwar Kuwait. Why didn'tto be "feminine." Not only have two thousand maids who had sought refuge in their ill-prepared embassies they interview some of the government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions ofto manliness and femininity, but many had hit have also attempted to design had sexually assaulted escape from women employers who of themthem and male employers who policies to ensure that them, civilians make sense of 199z one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process in part toand soldiers relate to electoral politics? 1 And what had happened to the Kuwaiti women's of militarization. suffrage movement in the aftermath of the war? Only a few writers covered the story of the Kuwaiti women who participated in October 1992 election rallies and pressured male candidates to commit themselves to votes for women if they won seats in the revived parliament. The network news reporters page_101 < didn't interview page leaders of the surprisingly successful opposition party to see how theirpage > previous the male next agendas incorporated women's demands. They didn't tell of some of those men's willingness to allow women to vote but staunch refusal to allow them to holdlike this office. Television screens didn't show Kuwaiti If you public book, buy it! women picketing the polling stations and carrying signs.2 Next door, in Saudi Arabia, King Fahd introduced a few postwar political reforms, taking modest steps to rein in the religious police who had so energetically enforced Saudi women's decorum and quietly reinstating to their jobs the middle-class women who organized the driving protest, without addressing any of their substantive demands. At the same time, the king's U.S. allies became more nervous about his Islamic fundamentalist opposition. Thus in mid-19gz, U.S. commanders ordered women soldiers still on duty in Saudi Arabia to stop driving cars and trucks so as to stop critics' charges that the king's alliance with the United States was jeopardizing the Saudi moral order.3 As Asian women returned to the Gulf countries to work again as maids, as vulnerable as ever to sexual abuses, North Americans and Europeans coming back from their summer holidays turned on their television sets to find that once again the screens were full of "womenandchildren"this time trying to escape wartime havoc in Bosnia and Somalia, countries without the oil fields and without the potent Orientalist imagery that spurred international mobilization during the Gulf Crisis. Wartime and post-wartime were evolving simultaneously. While wars

< previous page

page_165
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

the British and American women who in the last decade have created formidable lobbying organizations to press their interests. If there is an image that defines television's Gulf Crisis.S. don't fit into this scenario. They are times when lessonssometimes the wrong lessons. intervention in the Gulf would be harder to justify if there were no feminized victim. it's a disheveled white woman coming off a Boeing 747. women are typically made visible as symbols. an exhausted baby on her shoulder." Not only have government the military officials for killing their their own perceptions of politicized their parental grief and sued and U.S.S. States exist. These unpleasant revelations would somehow have to be incorporated by the public into the unblemished portrait of the postpost-Vietnam U. the Gulf War was being subtly but perhaps significantly reconstructed in raged in Bosnia tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." American many of soldiers at the same time were beginning to tell ensure thathad UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM fellowPDF CONVERTER commanding of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process experienced in the Saudi desert: sexual assault by TO soldiers and contempt from STANDARD militarization. military. this book. Ato be "manly" and what itand men be "feminine. Rarely do journalists look to women to reveal any of the basic structures of a dangerous confrontation. but women them have also attempted to design policies to what they with "friendly fire. and < sometimes lessons that are useful for some butpage_101 othersare hammered out. September 1990: "Womenandchildren" In the torrents of media images that accompany an international crisis. victims. officers. presumed to be almost childlike in their innocence about international realpolitik. this media story implies. government been affected bysoldier sons in the desert manliness and femininity. The real diplomatic wives. or dependents. to protect womenandchildren. It follows that the Gulf Crisis story must also ignore the female THE THE < previous page page_166 If you like this book. by warmakers and peacemakers alike. A postwar period is > previous page next page harmful to a time for feminists is a UNREGISTERED to keep their eyes wide open. "Womenandchildren" rolls easily off network tongues because in network minds women are family members rather than independent actors. one must chart how women and men in any collective psyches setting comprehend the it means group of British women means to the postwar particular historicalof the Americans andwhatBritish. Postwar periods are dangerous times. buy it! masculinity and femininity will be BY VERSION OF you like ItTO time when PDF CONVERTER STANDARD If CHM reconsidered.< previous page page_101 page_166 next page > Page 166 101 Whether one is and Somalia. and perhaps reconstructed. U. buy it! next page > .

Though you don't see them on the evening news. Government officials. Her existence is not design policies to the capable. These Asian women.the releasechart how women and men in any particular historical setting Department what it means to be which opened up the womenandchildren.S. but many of Others. The regimes acted ineffectually. the media treats the been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and Ethiopia. Jamaica." Not only have government and military officials attache as merely an honorary man: previously masculinized foreign service. able to take care of herselfand them have also attempted to allowed to disturb ensure that womenandchildren-protected-by-statesmen script. the Sri Lankan and Philippine governments were pressed by their own women's advocates to take steps to protect their nationals working abroad. now trapped in occupied Kuwait or crowded into Jordanian refugee camps."manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Passing over State comprehend women's organizing. de- < previous page page_167 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_167 next page > Page 167 101 Whether the U. negotiating with the Iraqis for one must of these very same attaché atone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in part because they were afraid of offending the Gulf states on whom they depend for oil. embassy in Kuwait. Caryl Murphy. washing. there are over page_101 < twenty-nine thousand Filipina domestic servants in the Middle East. and minding children in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. there are an estimated seventeen thousand Filipina women today working as domestic servants in Saudi Arabia. Thousands of others have been cleaning. Together. When stories began to filter back home of abuse that some-not all-Asian domestic servants were experiencing. Kuwaiti and Saudi women became employers in their homes. civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. have been crucial players in reducing the global tensions generated by international debt. But their relationships with their Sri Lankan or Filipina maids had to be devised in ways that met with their husbands' approval and kept the foreign workers at least minimally content. the Washington Post reporter who sent out clandestine reports from Kuwait in the days following the Iraqi invasion. After the 1970s oil boom. have been counting on the If their nations' imbalance paychecks that maids send home to lessenyou like this book. not only in > previous page next page the Philippines but also in Sri Lanka. and in part because they have concluded that they need to satisfy the men from the IMF more than they need to win the support of their own women's movements. buy it! next page > . buy it! of payments and to keep the lid on politically explosive unemployment. Indonesia. in part because they have rebellions and other worries closer to home diverting them.

to many Jordanians. be reported. and other Arabs. fueled by a resentment of European and U. but many of Iraqi soldiers had raped domestic workers. strength of the military's lines of command. THE THE < previous page page_168 If you like this book. ideology. we have to talk about soldiers' ideas of page_101 < manliness. Filipinas in Kuwait City told manliness and femininity. since the turn of the century many have been active participants in their countries' freedom movements. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY Though we have a hard time understanding it. and by class and ethnic inequalities between women. First. To many Arab men. As a rich Kuwaiti woman you would have less chance of being raped than you would as an Asian maid. laundry." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of invading troops leaving their Filipino employees to fend for themselves." Being an Arab nationalist feminist is a risky enterprise (although one might say that being a feminist nationalist in any community is a daunting project). and the IMF's strategies for handling > previous page next page international debt. they are diverse. But Middle Eastern women are not mere symbols. To make sense. one mustPhilippine embassyand men in any particular historical setting protection. by theof BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another male soldiers' notions that ease the complicated process simply random violence. and nationality.< previous page page_101 page_168 next page > Page 168 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or taken by their Kuwaiti employers to the chart how women so scribed how some Filipina maids weredemilitarizing social processes. of the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. Saddam Hussein is a potent symbol of nationalist aspirations. buy it! next page > . attempts to impose their values and their priorities on the societies of the Middle East. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this are PDF it! If CHM TO book. distinguished by ethnicity. rape. while splitting the nation at a time when it needs unity above all else. Second. fled in front of the that they would have some modicum ofcomprehend Other it means toshe "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Debt. women appear most vulnerable to Western corruption and exploitation. Palestinians.S. to ensure that Murphy that they had heard stories thatthem have also attempted to design policiesRape in war is never UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTERprivilege. and conquest understandable only in relation to each other. It is structured byin those gendered waysof their masculine STANDARD militarization. middle-class women's presumptions about housework. This conviction has infused debates over women's attire and women's education with political passion. then. class. Arab feminists have criticized many of their male compatriots for trying to fashion a nationalism which camouflages male privilege under the legitimizing mantle of "Arab tradition. what Kuwaitis. A women's rights advocate in these countries is always open to nervous men's double-barreled charge that she is succumbing to alien Western bourgeois values.

During the Iran-Iraq war. nonetheless. If you like the more Saddam The more devasting the war became.militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.< previous page page_101 page_169 next page > Page 169 101 Whether one is tracing defined largely by massive U." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of patriarchy and Western policymakers' cultural imperialism. who walk a tightrope "manly" and nationalists' the taskanylocal feminists. nationalisthas made wide use of women in his military buildup. government followed the same course during World War II. Now. But many observers. Of course. the less likely it is that even the < previous page page_169 If you like this book. "civilized" politics are.S. once the war had ended. have the most to lose when an international manliness and internal debate. the Iraqi cousins of Rosie the Riveter also discovered. military posturing. not a religious. Today there is evidence that once again Iraq's Women Federation is being called upon to mobilize women. A Saudi in Baghdad during that war even wondered aloud whether it didn't further Iraqi women's emancipation. she recalled. one must radically complicated men in of particular historical women activists. feminists: the U. has chart how women and The current Gulf Crisis. Her wondering would sound familiar to many U.this book. Saddam Hussein encouraged the Iraqi Women's Federation to channel women < into nontraditional jobs in order to free men topage_101 feminist stationed with the Unitedpage > previous page next Nations fight. that male government officialsand their own fathers and husbands expected women to return to the more restricted. buy it! Hussein's all-male Revolutionary Council called on women to lend their efforts to the nation (without ever forsaking their primary responsibility of producing more children). Arabsetting comprehend what it means to be between malewhat it means to be "feminine. however. are portraying wartime mobilization as good for women.S. Saddam Hussein is beginning to refer to his campaign as a holy cause. this time to put in place the consumer rationing programs which will be key to the Hussein regime's ability to withstand the UN embargo. buy it! next page > . Western male officials attempted their policies are to ensure that crisis polarizesfemininity. but many of them have also who claimto design policies supporting civilians and soldiers relate to painting Arab women into a tight corner. in fact. domestic feminized roles that bolstered male egos and made space for the employment of demobilized male soldiers. The more he couches his brand of Arab nationalism in religious terms. It would not be surprising if many Iraqi women activists saw in the crisis yet another opportunity to use wartime mobilization to demonstrate their public capabilities.one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. in search of Muslim allies. Saddam Husseina secular.S.

taking more interest in their food and clothing. senator and presidential initiallyany particularthe political scenecomprehend what supporterto be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. She and men in appeared on historical setting in the 1960s as a it means of U. in reality it was a national security formula. Act One appears to have had little to do with Act Two. buy it! next page > . in his essays and prison letters to his wife.S."11 While Havel himself only hints at the different implications for women and for men of this Cold Warperpetuating strategy. Each part of the formula sustained the other. Domes- THE THE < previous page page_17 If you like this book. one must chart how women From thisone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing of Phyllis Schlafly seems more coherent. their homes and their families. But by the 1980s Phyllis Schlafly was best known not for her foreign policy views UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDFother feministthe complicatedglance. . they make life agreeable for themselves. . building cottages. But it may in fact have been all of a piece: it was her belief in militarization in the face of Soviet threat that convinced her that any movement trying to revise traditional relationships between women and men page_101 < was a threat to U. spelled out how the post1968 Czechoslovakian regime deliberately pushed its citizens toward domestic coziness and consumerism. an outspoken advocate of a national security policy propelled by ferventof manliness and femininity. of BY civilians and soldiers relate the Equal Rights those gendered ways that ease goals. . which translated into a change in gender rolesnot for Czech women as much as for Czech men. Havel believed that his country's nervous Communist Party leadership promoted domesticity as a strategy for ensuring the political quiescence it needed from its citizens in order for the country to be a reliable junior partner in the Warsaw Pact. rather. allowing women soldiers to volunteer for combat positions > previous page next page would not maximize the military's access to talent. . "People are thinking today far more of themselves." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions candidate Barry Goldwater. there that they can forget all the world's folly . it would erode the gendered cultural shield UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. 10 Vaclav Havel. perhaps the political career social processes. Cold BY which was America's best defense against CHM TO PDF it! If the dual threats buy CONVERTER STANDARD War militarization required that men be able to kill for their country and that women be prohibited from killing for their country. Thus. looking after their cars. . the eloquent Czech playwright turned president.of Communism and the Soviet Union. Schlafly's public career might appear fractured. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that anti-Communism. It is there that they find rest.< previous page page_101 page_17 next page > Page 101 Page 17 Whether vantage point. Olga. national security. At first process but for her sharp attacks on to one another in Amendment and CONVERTER STANDARD militarization.S.

Though the to one another is those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. at least they weren't pent up in a harem. U. The imperialist enterprise relied on the feelings of both its women and its men that they were superior to the patriarchal Arabs. American reporters are implying that the United States is the advanced.< previous page page_101 page_170 next page > Page 170 101 Whether one wartime militarizing will produce long-term gains for Iraqi must chart exigencies of is tracingmobilization or demilitarizing social processes. couldn't control their own reproduction. previous page next page > woman soldier and the veiled Arab woman. civilized country whose duty it is to take the initiative in resolving the Persian Gulf crisis and in leading the international commu- < previous page page_170 If you like this book. buy it! If you Orientalism. but the political intent remains much the same. In the past it was the daring Victorian lady traveler who posed the stark contrast with the secluded Arab woman. The European woman traveler also tempted many of her homebound sisters to imagine that they were a lot more emancipated than they really were: even if they were denied the vote. one women.S. Today. coverage of the Gulf Crisis has been framed by a contrast between the liberated U. and couldn't divorce a violent husband. mobilization may benefit Saudi women portrayed as benighted. there has been scarce curiosity about the history or current thinking of those women. but many of them have also attempted toare nowpolicies to ensure that nurses who have been restricted to caring only for women patients design to be permitted to attend civilians and soldiers relate Western media in heralding this announcement as evidence that the wartime wounded men. The harem has been at the center of this Western preoccupation. that package of often ambivalent ideas about the presumed backwardness and allure of Arab culture.S. The former's presence served to reassure the self-satisfied Western man that his society was the more "civilized" and thus within its natural rights in colonizing the Middle East." Not only have government and military officials been affected by them.own perceptions of encourage Saudi women to volunteer for war-related jobs until now closed to their Saudi women manliness and femininity. how women and men inare reports out of Saudi Arabia this week that what it means to be "manly" and what it to There any particular historical setting comprehend King Fahd has instructed his ministries means to be "feminine. television and print journalists are substituting the U.S. By contrasting the allegedly liberated American woman tank mechanic with the Saudi woman deprived of a driver's license. woman soldier for the Victorian lady traveler. page_101 < In fact. buy it! next page > . It is striking how consistent this current media preoccupation is with the Western tradition oflike this book.

Just this past July. it is part of a political struggle that began with the American women in Vietnam and was carried into the U. The second problem with the neo-Orientalist interpretation adopted by so many American reporters is that it treats the ''advances" made by U. who practice women-only hospitals.S. It is true that many women in the military do see themselves as feminists.< previous page page_101 page_171 next page > Page 171 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them university attempted to design policies to ensure that have a have also who have founded UNREGISTERED medicine in whoOF CHM TOeducation. and ways established militarization. are more by passive perceptions manliness and are Saudi women purdah. They organized petition drives and took part in public rallies. forces in Saudi Arabia are women. invasions of Grenada and Panama. buy it! next page > . neighborhood-level protests against the next page > occupying Iraqi < There are Kuwaiti women who have organizedpage_101 previous page army. women became more visible as activists pressing for parliamentary government.earn wagesthe newlywomen-only of BY PDF CONVERTER STANDARD civilians and soldiersVERSION relate to one another in those genderedwho that ease in complicated process banks.S. the Persian Gulf operation is not part of Middle East political evolution. For them.S.S. a little more than half their proportion in the military as a whole. and British media. Approximately 6 percent of all U. puts this surprising news VERSION OF you like TOchangingCONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED in the broader contextCHMthis book. Each U. women soldiers outside any consideration of militarism. There femininity. One need not overstate the political and economic freedom of these women to argue that Saudi women are diverse and offer authentic analyses of their own. Susan Shuaib. buy it!political relations between women and BY If of Kuwait's PDF men. garment factories.S. one must chart how women and nity into a new world order. according to Shuaib. the woman flying a giant C-141 transport is portrayed as the natural descendant of Susan B. "feminine. breaking down formidable sexist barriers. even in government and military of the Gulf. There are daily stories now about women soldiers coping with life in the desert. Women of both countries are being turned into the currency with which men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be attempt to maintain the unequal relations between their societies. In the U. with its volatile mix of imperialism and nationalism. a Kuwaiti-British feminist writing in the latest New Statesman and Society." Not only have the conservative societies officials been affectedthantheir ownvictims of of Yet Arab women. Anthony. military intervention has provided a chance for women to hone their bureau- THE THE < previous page page_171 If you like this book.

< previous page page_101 page_172 next page > Page 172 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. The Persian Gulf crisis is not built out of relations between ungendered presidents. nonetheless serve those governments' inter- < previous page page_172 If you like this book. winning have government and military officials been affected gaining full perceptions of manliness and does that mean for theof them have also attempted to design policies toof U. what femininity. A woman soldier who won't pay attention to a male colleague is always vulnerable to lesbianbaiting.S. These agreements. kings.S. like others before it. > next page Which country will play host to the thousands of U. women military. Whichever government agrees to serve If you like thisrecreation site will make agreements with the as a rest and book. soldiers on R and R? Not Saudi Arabia. But few women are talking yet about what sorts of sexual harassment they are likely to experience as the of their usual < weeks pass withpage previous male soldiers who have none page_101 access to foreign women while overseas. First. Pentagon officials still draggingsetting comprehend whatmilitary career opportunities what it means to be "feminine. there is the one another in those military defines that ease the complicated process of soldiers' and soldiers relate to implication that the gendered ways citizenship. Buried in the fine print of government-to-government R and R agreements are stipulations about public health and police authority that directly affect local women's relations with GIs. in turn. is being played out in part by governments attempting to confine women to roles that.S. buy it! next page > . to perfect end runs around chauvinist field commanders. buy it! Pentagon to ensure that U. one must chart how women cratic skills. but many very concept of citizenship? In all the coverage ensure that civilians advances. and to turn up the heat on and men in any particular historical their feet in opening up it means to be "manly" and to women soldiers. two realities come into sharper focus. this international confrontation. male soldiers have direct access to local women without endangering the men's health. 64 percent of women in the military say they have been sexually harassed. If we pay attention to the experiences and ideas of the women involved. even if they briefly shake conventional social norms. And exposure to this risk is made doubly intimidating when the Pentagon persists in its policy of forcing suspected lesbians out of the service. and soldiers. militarization. According to the Pentagon's recently released study." Not only first-class citizenship depends on American women's by their ownacceptance in the If. however. foreign ministers. support a military culture that nurtures misogyny and homophobia. oil executives. The always-artificial categories of "combat" and "noncombat" may indeed be crumbling in the desert.

men's men in any particular historical setting comprehend what a means to be "manly" politics it means to be sense of their own masculinity. Their wives. government to previous page that war was next page > respond to Saddam Hussein. It wasn't American men who were changing their minds. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY gender gap began to shrink. < compared with 8z percent of the men. cables. it was the women. U. the Iraqi Republican Guards.S. John Major. Second. the North is pitted against a South personified by Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein. a 24-point difference is a gender gap of monumental UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this falling on it! proportions.the Gulf War. the bombs began book. in the new. Yet this allegedly new order remains stuck in the old presumption that military power must be the principal tool for wielding international influence. B-52 pilots are all part of a state elite.S. Less than one week before the fighting began. is as much it factor in internationaland whatas is the flow "feminine. Yet. often tenuous. the ABC News/Washington Post poll showed that only 58 percent of the women surveyed. women soldiers and Saudi women driving protesters. social processes. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Februaryand soldiersVERSION OF CHMNew PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTEREDArelate to Ribbon 'Roundthose TOWorldways that ease the complicated process of BY civilians 1991: Tie Yellow one another in the gendered Order militarization. and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. their masculinity unquestioned. the gender gap had shrunk to a mere io points: 71 percent and 8r percent. are not always successful.S. Then. one must chart how women and ests.S. polls in the U. As the bombs rained. If CHM TO PDF Baghdad. as feminists have revealed in the last decade. East was pitted against West. Yitzhak Shamir. George Bush has justified using force against the Iraqis to protect a "New World Order. also unrealistically dichotomized post-g989 order. Bush's world order depends on its own kind of gender gap: George Bush. Colin Powell.< previous page page_101 page_173 next page > Page 173 101 Whether one is tracing attempts to control women. For pollsters." Not only have government of oil. thought page_101 the best way for the U. and military hardware." Whereas.S. By January 20. buy it! next page > . revealed a startling gender gap: American women were far On the eve of less likely than American men to support going to war with Iraq. on January 16. under the oversimplified banner of the old order. Those governmentmilitarizing or demilitarizinghowever. as well as M-16-toting U. and British Tornado and U. every THE THE < previous page page_173 If you like this book. are of course discussed as women but are consequently treated as trivial.

caregivers. Wives who refuse to If you like this who buy it! behave like self-sacrificing "military wives. But as far as the U. and technocrats can celebrate supermoms as models of modernity. and femininity. and friends. a porch pillar. previous page next page > A militarized world order needs women to find rewards in a militarized femininity. soldiers into "our troops" seems to have been the key.S. The current world order is "orderly" onlythat ease the complicated process of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_174 next page > Page 174 101 Whether one arrangement has depended on the control of femininity one idea chart women public power is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. neighbors." diplomats can be served by unpaid diplomatic wives. each one makes it harder than ever to preserve that earlier distinction between < previous page page_174 If you like this book. militarized pax Americana won't shrinkage. the gender gap had to be closed. In "tying a yellow ribbon 'round an old oak tree"or a car antenna. they see themselves as providing moral support to particular sons. We cannot make sense of any government's men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. For the United States to wage a war successfully in the Gulf. national security elite is concerned." Not order in a gender vacuum. and young women who will not see enlistment as a guarantor of "first-class citizenship" jeopardize Bush's global design. soldiers in the Gulf were subjected to the dangers of actual combat that the gender gap collapsed. As well-meaning and as profoundly humane as every ribbon-tying gesture may be. buy it! next page > . imagine their responsibilities to be "manly. daughters. reject military service as their sons' avenue to manhood.S. It was when U.S. multinational corporations can feminize and thereby cheapen labor. Turning U. A lot of women had to be persuaded to move across the opinion divide without throwing overboard their notions of femininity. these women are voluntarily constructing a feminized ''home front" to complement a battle front thatthousands of American women soldiers notwithstandingis thoroughly masculinized. or a shop signmost women probably do not see themselves as endorsing something as grandiose as a new world order. nationalist men can count on their women to pay homage to the nation's gendered culture. and sexual partners. The post-August U.as an must and ofhow women and themselves as workers. affected by and own perceptions of hoped-for world only have government and military officials been gender gap. indebted governments can send maids overseas to page_101 < mail home paychecks. theirits recent dramatic manliness must be explained many of because the not-so-new." mothers book. More likely.S. butprecisely them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that work civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways if national security officials can unless women cooperate.

the military's reliance on two hundred thousand women in uniform has given the U. military today has > previous page next page daughters as well as sons.S. At the same time. the imagery of U. not female ground mechanics.S. maleIf"combat.< previous page page_101 page_175 next page > Page 175 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing one hand."wayswomanor a patrioticSTANDARD BY OF to become a patriotic mother the complicated process civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER wifereal or of gendered that ease patriot on her own merits. Israeli. and German society are waging this war at a sexually specific historical moment. The U.S. then she militarization. on the other. today's military is no longer "other.S. It it means to be Patriotism particular been an arena that women have found especially "manly" and what has always "feminine. Not only U. but many of them have If UNREGISTERED VERSIONmay tryin thoseand "wife. one must chart how women and men in anyhas always historical setting comprehend what it means to bedifficult to enter. Yet the spiritual soul of VERSION OF you like this book. whether or not they themselves are considering signing up. For instance. caring for particular soldiers. British. That makes it an even better instrument for building and entrenching a U. page_101 < The Gulf War has made this myth of the wartime family even more potent. the nation becomes a family. but also Saudi. global power will be of male top guns. senior partners and Saudi junior partners may create a new." The military looks every day more like General Hospital. more milita- THE THE < previous page page_175 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . it includes single parents and husband-soldiers married to wife-soldiers. Governments encourage women to imagine that being a loyal female member of a family is synonymous with being a patriot. on theor demilitarizing social processes. on an air war." TO PDF it! So long as the allies continue to rely BY CHM remains intact.S. Kuwaiti. Japanese. Egyptian. news of a Saudi fighter pilot's first victories in the air has consequences for women. It can even claim to be a means for American women to achieve full political status as people who can "die for their country.S. buy CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED the institution. society. Iraqi. The wartime coalition between U." for an Oliver North to gain entrance thanofficials been affected by their own perceptionspath been easier Not only have government and military for a Betsy North. vicarious.designed not-so-new world order. military a new cloak of legitimacy. and objecting to the Bush policy. For many women. the only of manliness andnarrow doorways marked "mother" also attemptedato designcannot become a recognized policies to ensure that is through the femininity. this war has sparked new debates among Saudi men about just what constitutes Saudi nationalism: can Saudi nationhood withstand dependence on other countries' men to fight its battles? Thus. For women in wartime. The institution doesn't seem such an anachronism." To many American women.

< previous page page_101 page_176 next page > Page 176 101 Whether one Saudi nationalist masculinity. buy it! next page > . just as all wars have been. setting comprehend what barriers thatbe "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. While there are at least seventy-five hundred female American Vietnam veterans. previous page next page > The Gulf War is being waged in the shadow of the sexual politics of another war. I noticed yellow ribbons still tacked up on my neighbors' front porches. The Gulf War itself has been launched by a president who wielded masculinity nervously in his 1988 electoral campaign. alienated male Vietnam vet whose image looms over the present war." Not only have but also blessed militarily?government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness Americans havebut many ofgenderhave only attempted to design decades. In postwar Saudi Arabia. have become more organized in articulating developed their own relate to one another public gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. it is the unappreciated. but today he is a potent figure inspiring complex emotions.S.will Saudichart how women and men in any particular historical be faced with patriarchal it means to are not only sanctified religiously reaching out for political rights. He has taken fifteen years and a lot of celluloid and paper to create. buy it! a cultural legacy of gendered guilt: the betrayed male vet. It is for him as much as for the U. one must women. collective manliness appeared to be jeopardized by page_101 < the country's slide in global economic competitiveness. those perspectives. their color drained by months of rain and < previous page page_176 If you like this book. soldiers actually in the Gulf that many women seem to be tying yellow ribbons around their trees and antennas. and femininity. and have voted into office more women willing to give authoritative voice to those perspectives. named the them gap also during the past two policies as women have civilians and soldiersperspectives on manyin thosepolicies. June 1991: "Postwar" Patriarchy As I walked home yesterday in the 100-degree heat of a June afternoon. The Vietnam War left If you like this book. at a time when U. perhaps it would have been much harder to convert the women against a war on January 15 into the women supporting it on January zo.S. to ensure that Similarly. just now rized form of is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. This war is about masculinity. Without the feelings of guilt inspired by the image of the betrayed Vietnam male vet. but it is a historically and socially specific masculinity. without a public discourse that permits the stories of male soldiers to blot out discussions of government policy errors. They drooped now in the heat.

In that sense. Just as atheism is defined by reference to a god. After every war. But it is also critical to watch how other players in the Gulf War use this postwar era to fashion lessons. And thus is If time for vigilance. Many a CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED VERSIONitOF you like this book. wartime embargoesSTANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER gendered ways that ease the complicated political scores of infant deaths in other Iraqi OF in those we have adopted a postwar emotional andprocess of militarization. Many of those lessons are specifically about the relationships between women and men. so > previous heels of next page any postwar era is marked by its relationship to the war it succeeds. Like military strategists today. like their coun- THE THE < previous page page_177 If you like this book." stance. they devoted their postwar energies to pinpointing what ensured that male soldiers had high morale and physical well-being. buy it! next page > . Most of the houses that had proudly flown American processes. buy it! of those horrified by their inability to BY prevent the massive use of military power. Every government involved in this mid-nineteenth-century Middle Eastern conflict came away unhappy about its own performance. and what it means to be "feminine. but this postwar period is as fraught with lessons as the ones that page_101 < followed on the page longer conflicts have been.< previous page page_101 page_177 next page > Page 177 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social flags had one them in. We are The Gulf War lasted less than a year." Not only have government era. for instance. The Crimean War offers a striking example of the postwar politics of gender. Though the fate of Iraq's Kurdish minority hangs We are now officially in the "postwar" and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. were convinced that British soldiers had been ill-prepared to fight in the Crimea. governmentson the losing as well as the winning sidetake stock of how gender either served or undermined their war efforts.takenmust chart how women the yellow any particular best left setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" men in ribbon seemedhistoricalto age naturally in the New England elements. We are generating "lessons. The British military command and its parliamentary masters. but somehow and wind. For the lessons that are presumed to have been taught by the war against Iraq will become the basis for militarizing the next international conflict. but many of to medical also attempted to design policies to ensure that precariously undecided and. or perhaps even by their inability to withstand the seductive attractions of technological wizardry and post-Vietnam patriotism. will use these postwar months to take a close look at the failings of their country's peace movement.experts' reports. according them have are causing UNREGISTERED VERSION communities. this is a militarized time. not a time of peace. thinking retrospectively. And.

No one should have been surprised. nonfelons). During the past decade the military had been relying more and more on the reserves in their global planning. < previous page page_178 If you like this book. disciplinethese are the arenas for lesson-forging that still produce postwar attempts to refine the relations of women to the government's mostly male soldiery. Riyadh. The first postGulf War attempt to change the U. policiesthe ensure that be civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that supposed. and Baghdad.S. But for the media. the military won. after an initial reluctance. one mustattention towomen and masculinityand to the ways that different groups of what it means to be "manly" and what it means to men in any particular historical setting comprehend women might be controlled so that they would not be "feminine. morale. military's relationship to mothering has already been concluded. much of the public. If you like this book. or were they potential allowed to marry? (Were women as wives a drag on a military. was the rampaging venereal disease among male soldiers controllable? (Was it more effective and honorable to impose police restrictions on women in British garrison towns than to humiliate military men by making them undergo compulsory genital page_101 < examinations?) Britain's first national women's political campaignthe Anti-Contagious Diseasespage > previous page next Acts Campaignwas prompted by the nineteenth-century postwar lessons drawn by worried military planners. The Pentagon had deliberately been using women to compensate for the decline in the pool in eligible young men (high school graduates. For several weeks the media carried pictures of infants being tearfully left behind with relatives while their mothers and fathers donned their fatigues and headed for the Gulf. and the Congress.< previous page page_101 page_178 next page > Page 178 101 Whether one in Washington. as long ease the complicated process of militarization. sexuality. they paid special chart how terparts todayis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. it came as a rude shock to see this military personnel formula translated into the apparent abandonment of infants." Not only manliness deemed best suited officials been government's military campaigns. but many of them have two attempted to design should to rank and file practice. protection against venereal disease and debt?) Second. drug-free. buy it! next page > . was dismayed by the stories published during the war of dual-military families that had both parents called up and deployed far from their very young children. London. Representative Barbara Boxer. In jeopardize the sort of have government and military for waging theaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. a progressive California Democrat. it had come to see dual-career military couples as promoting reenlistment and deepening whole families' loyalty to military service. this meant that British officials launched also fierce debates: first. buy it! Marriage.

at a moment's notice." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Yet her bill barely survived its initial hearings. They feared. it would be used to restrict the deployment of mothers in uniform. They must UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. one must chart how women and Barbara Boxer thus saw as one lesson demilitarizing socialneed to put limits on military deployment.the Bush administration's vision of the new worldpolicies to U. What lessons did the Gulf War generate about women's capacity to engage in combat and militaries' willingness to use them for combat? The Canadians had carried on this debate several years before their government sent women and men to fight Iraq.< previous page page_101 page_179 next page > Page 179 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or of the Gulf War the processes. In but many of them have also attempted to design order. women soldiers no longer could be excluded from combat. as well as active-duty soldiers. page_101 < commanders to have control over women. As the result of a court case brought by women's rights advocates under the country's new Charter of Rights. The Boxer bill. the ensure that immediateand femininity.S. as service workers. Defense Department officials. combination will be feasible only if the military can have absolutely free rein in calling up reserves and moving those reserves. andnext page > previous page Bush's conception of the postCold War world makes this need for control over women acute. this of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one not necessarily gendered ways that ease the complicated process have fewer overseas bases. would create a military mommy track. many canny women lobbyists predicted. anywhere at any time. though another in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. So why did the Boxer bill never get off the ground? It would appear that it was killed not only by the Pentagon's opposition but also by the cool reception it received from many women military careerists. And it has always required military as girlfriends. "Women in combat" achieved an even higher profile in this postwar America than military mothering did. If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Barbara Boxer's bill was a very real threat to reliance on this smaller but more mobile force. as mothers. the politics of parentingespecially of motheringis at least as potent in the early 1990s as is the strategic imperative for a mobile military. In personnel terms. if passed. raised manliness objections. buy it! next page > . perhaps rightly. that although the bill sought to restrict deployment of "parents" of young children. But neither they nor Dutch THE THE < previous page page_179 If you like this book. buy it! not be allowed to slow future mobilizations. the men in any very young American children should what it means to be Pentagon's need for soldiers. not surprisingly. as wives. military will UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM reduced responsibilities. Mobility has always been the sine qua non of an effective military. Nonetheless. parenting ofparticular historical setting comprehendtake priority over the"manly" and what it means to be "feminine.

each trying to absorb as many countries as possible into its own orbit. is best understood as involving not simply a contest between two superpowers. more than Olga who felt the government's pressure to retire from the public square." Not only policy of mobilizing military officials been affected by their own perceptions of encouraged economichave government and women to join the labor force without altering the domestic manliness labor. buy it! next page > Vaclav and Olga Havel. while their Yugoslav cousins stifled yearnings for degenerate Barbies of their own. it wasprocess of militarization.13 The Cold War could not have lasted four decades without a myriad of such daily acts and decisions by women and men. Often those gendered politics of national security were played out under the glow of public celebration or the harsh light of public scrutiny. when their governments and what it means to women anyWarsaw Pact countries ever comprehend what it means to be "manly" instituted the Soviet. 12 Thus. then.be "feminine. Czech women's first policies to to provide division ofand femininity. Men tried to suppress fears of emasculation when denied public roles in their country's political life or else took a manly pride in being allowed into the inner sanctum of their state's national security bureaucracy.< previous page page_101 page_18 next page > Page 101 Page 18 Whether one is was the culturally approved norm for women. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Winnie and Nelson Mandela. Even if but had paid employment. American girls dressed their Barbies in the latest doll fashion. < previous page page_101 <><><><><><><><><><><><> If you like this book. buy it! next page > . Government officials devised occasionally uneasy relationships with church officials so that they could collaborate in the entrenchment of patriarchal family values.they many of them have also attempted to designpriority wasensure that a civilians their husbands and children. and the parliament. Women tried to figure out whether being a good mother meant waving a tearful though proud goodbye to a son going off to do his military service or hiding him from the army's recruiters. A double burden chart how women and tication already tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Alexander Sakharov and Elena Bonner. Usually they occurred within ordinary households. the cafe. Betsy and Oliver North. The Cold War. The Cold War was a thicket of gendered relationships that had to be either reshaped or entrenched. but also a series of contests within < previous page page_18 If you like this book. in gendered ways that ease the complicated Vaclav home forand soldiers relate to one another in thosethe name of Cold War perpetuation. an Air Force dress uniform. one must had been carried by men in of particular historical setting since the 1950s. Imelda and Ferdinand Marcos.

actually served in officially designated how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means during the Gulf conflict. and Beverly Byron.S. If the U. and two were taken prisoner by the Iraqi forces. buy CONVERTER in the Gulf. and CONVERTER STANDARD skirmish and soldiersVERSION OF CHM gendered ways that ease landscape of highmilitarization. The British and Australian forces had banned women from whatever they to be "feminine. But a younger generation of Pentagon officials. According to the astute Pentagon-watcher Linda Grant De Pauw. Morale has always been the sticking point: a military cannot afford to take any step that undermines the morale of its mainly male force. The Pentagon itself was divided over the political and logistical wisdom of ending the ban. older military professionals concluded that the Gulf operations had not demonstrated decisively whether allowing women access to combat roles would jeopardize the fighting morale of men in the now-masculinized infantry. contingent became the to ensure that countries watched as the muchmany of them have also attempted to design policies site for this latest UNREGISTERED struggle over femininity. These officials were willing to let the postwar lessons be honed by public representatives. The sight of "women returning in body bags" turned out not to have seriously undercut the legitimacy of the Bush administration's war policy. Again.< previous page page_101 page_180 next page > Page 180 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. civilian and uniformed.those TO PDFthe changing the complicated process of BY civilians in the long relate to one another in masculinity. editor of the journal Minerva.S. and morale among men is dependent in large measure on esteem derived from their sense of manliness. the military would have even more THE THE < previous page page_180 If you like this book. but larger and more visible U.S. it was women members of the House of Representatives who took the lead in raising this postwar issue. had come of age professionally since 1973. Despite UNREGISTERED VERSIONthirteen U. one must chart combat roles women. the start of the military's deliberate efforts to compensate for the end of the male draft by recruiting large numbers of women. buy it! next page > . page_101 < Democratic representative from Maryland. also theoretically eligible for combat.S. Patricia Schroeder. ban on women in combat. OF you like this book. interpreted the Gulf War as proof that the nature of page > previous page next contemporary warfare made the conceptual divide between combat and noncombat irrelevant. and bomber units. technology warfare. armored. fighter plane." Not only have government and military any military). Democratic representative from Colorado. women PDF it!were killed in action STANDARD BY If CHM TO soldiers the U. but observers in both of these deemed to be "combat" (the definition is arbitrary inofficials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. public would legitimate women in combat.

S.S. like other women who had spent yearspage_101 the Equal Rights Amendment. 1991. relate to legislation in those gendered in May 1991 the complicated process militarization. many U. of organized feminists. Navy and U. Air Force for the first time to assign women soldiers to fly combat aircraft. the overwhelmingly male House of Representatives passed the 1992-93 Defense Authorization Bill as amended by Byron and Schroeder to permit the civilian secretaries of the U. the actors have also attempted silence in this postwar debate were civilians and soldiersWhen theone anotherreached the Senateways that ease(sponsored by Bill Roth. but many of themmost notable for theirto design policies to ensure that According to De Pauw. They had become convinced that the and what it means to be Schroeder and Byron legislativesetting comprehend what it means to be "manly"combat ban was a major "feminine. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical initiative. The amendmentwhich formally repeals Section 512 (the army's combat exclusion policy is dictated not by law but by the service's administrative policy) is expected to pass the Senate later this year." Not on their path toward senior promotions. however. Delaware).< previous page page_101 page_181 next page > Page 181 101 Whether one is tracing personnel according to its own needs. no broad-based feminist organization submitted testimony. Also. coming as it did in the wake of a war which frustrated many women whose activism had been devoted to unsuccessful campaigning for peace. stumbling block only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. remembered > previous page next page working for how anti-ERA forces had manipulated women-in-combat anxieties to defeat the amendment. Defense Department officials were assessing how well they had done in ensuring that military wives and girlfriends stayed supportive not only of their men in uniform but also of the military cause at large.S. seemed to leave no space for a more complicated dialogue about women's relationship to a militarized state.abuy it! feminist approach which assigns priority to equal opportunity were profoundly ambivalent about making women's access to combat jobs a political priority. its < leaders. military. So it was without a civilian feminist presence that on May 22. The debate. feministseven those who had this book. Women officers publicly backed the flexibility in deploying militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Although Republican from during the war the National Organization for Women had issued a declaration calling simultaneously for support of women in the Middle East and for an end to all forms of sexism in the U. as in If you like adopted liberal the past.S. buy it! next page > . The Gulf War had provided the department with a chance to try out its < previous page page_181 If you like this book. Farther away from the floors of Congress and from the public limelight.

Since the early 1970s. The once autonomous had taken a particularactivist and interventionist rolewhat it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. originallymilitarythe Young Men's Christiantheir own perceptions of manliness and into the Pentagon. Child abuse and wife abuse became issues to be to ensure was integrated femininity.." they page_101 < spouses learned page could show that dysfunctional families threatened "military next page > previous that if they could get even under-secretaries of the military to sit up and take notice. Men's antiviolence groups the complicatedasked to visit BY administratively." Not only have government and run by officials been affected by Association (YMCA). the UNREGISTERED VERSION familyCHMthis book. inside the to one another in those gendered ways that ease reported STANDARD civilians and soldiers relate Defense OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER being process of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_182 next page > Page 182 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. the military revised family strategies. The Saudi regime of King Fahd had made a no-brothels policy one stipulation of its acceptance of foreign forces. We still know almost nothing about what the consequences of the prostitution prohibition were for militarized masculine THE THE < previous page page_182 If you like this book. While many family members found the authorized groups helpful in everything from sharing fears to figuring out how to deal with creditors. Although officers' wives had recently become more resistant to pressures to perform unpaid labor on military bases. not their own. others who took part said the groups seemed to be intent upon ensuring that women stay supportive of the Bush policy and that they pour their energies into reducing soldiers' worries. As its harsh suppression of the apparently modest women's driving protest later revealed. militaries that had been U. Even farther from public attention in the U. Each group of menthose supporting the monarchy and the emergent oppositionheld up its ability to control Saudi women as the litmus test of political legitimacy. Military Family Resource Center. for girlfriends and partners STANDARD BY Pentagon authorized the creation of OF you like TO PDF it! If support groups buy CONVERTER as well as spouses. allies thought about the lessons of a war fought without prostitutes. Military social workers and military readiness. men likely to have inflated expectations of wifely welcomes.S. men likely to be quick to resort to physical abuse when confronted with the messier realities of ordinary domestic life. bases to give training sessions to men returning from Operation Desert Storm.S. partly in response to vocalmust chart how women and men in any far more historical setting comprehend in military family affairs. the regime was being challenged by male Islamic fundamentalists. in many cases a woman married to a senior officer served as the hub of each support group. During the Gulf War. buy it! next page > . one military wives. but many of them have also attempted to design policiesdiscussed that UNREGISTERED VERSION Department.

disciplined soldiering without prostitution.< previous page page_101 page_183 next page > Page 183 101 Whether In is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in large part because the relationship is a source of much confusion. Perhaps the intensity and brevity of the Gulf conflict will mean that the absence of prostitution will be viewed as policy revisions. buy it! next page > . based on years of experience. Is the military chiefly a public institution that distributes valuable benefits (pride. it has civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process caused friction between local police and military police. Thailand. it has produced marriages design policies to ensure that course. But so long as women have so little control over the terms of debate. and Italy the Pentagon has operated as if prostitution were a what it means to be "feminine. women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and necessary and United States. We don't know. or to those Thai women working as prostitutes who greeted some of the first U. salaries. of of manliness and femininity. independence)? Or is the military best understood as a vehicle for state violence? What should feminists' stand be if the military has become both? The yellow ribbons and the push to end the exclusion of women in combat seem to be intimately connected in the United States of the 1990s. Women inside and outside the country's military are insisting that they have their own thoughts. But not until this war did the U. even their genuine efforts to voice those ideas and press for those aspirations are likely to produce < previous page page_183 If you like this book. Vietnam.S. ships as they made a deliberately If you like this book. influence. skills." of only have government and military officials been affected by that own perceptions integral partNotU.S. is that somewhere in the military someone is trying to figure out whether this war provided lessons for a better way to control sexuality for the sake of more effective warmaking. on their route from the Persian Gulf to Japan. their own aspirations. women in the services. South Korea. Puerto how the mainland sexuality.one Central America. but of AIDS. It has not always been easy to controltheir prostitution. Germany. buy it! scheduled stop at Pattaya. it has threatened the morale of American of militarization. the Philippines. it has meant the spreadmany of them have also attempted to not wanted by the military. Defense Department believe it could sustain the masculine morale needed to ensure motivated. Japan. What we do know. generating no institutionalpage_101 previous page next page > delayed male sexual behaviors known only to waiting girlfriends and wives back home.S. one must chartRico. What are those lessons? Women's relationship to their government's military remains one that is not fashioned primarily by broadly based women's organizations. Or perhaps the policy resulted in < merely an anomaly. military operations.

more military promotions) one must chart how women and Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. She seems to hold a vital clue to rethinking the war. The twenty-four other military women who have told Army investigators how they were sexually abused by their fellow soldiers on the Saudi desert are also American. Fewmany of them askedalso attempted towhat thoughts they ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF in-trays. Her testimony to a Senate committee last month recalling how she had been sexually assaulted by her own sergeant during Operation Desert Storm strongly suggested that this was not. Is this really the best place to start the next phase of postwar rethinking? It is surprising how much sustained. without actually changing the men ways particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and groups have basicin any in which public power is used.< previous page page_101 page_184 next page > Page 184 101 short-sighted gains (more media coverage. congressional debate over women in combat.S. conscious mental effort it takes to think of this war from a vantage point outside one's own society. But Jacqueline Ortiz is an American. For their part. confusing as own perceptions of manliness and femininity. the war that would blot out the tawdriness of Vietnam. August 1992: Rapes In The Desert It's so tempting to begin here with Army Specialist Fourth Class Jacqueline Ortiz. militaryalong with. many men working in peacewhat it means to be "feminine. In this sense. It may be that the military its CHM book. male peace activists have yet to recognize that militarization cannot be reversed until the politics of femininity's relationship to both masculinity and the state are taken seriously. buy it! next page > . as so many Americans wanted to believe. buy it! own political PDF CONVERTER STANDARD out of the Gulf War more thoroughly integrated into the social structure than it has been in the last two centuries. page_101 < It may be that the U. TOmonitored with ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to secretarial in those gendered ways that genuine concern the when they put ribbons on theirone another CHM few PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. perhaps." Not that have government and military officials been affected by their it is. But if THE THE < previous page page_184 If you like this book. is worthy of barely conceded only the issue of women's relationship to state power. If so. but of these men have women exactly design policies to were expressing serious political attention. the militaries of other NATO governmentshas previous page next page > learned how to absorb just enough of the in permit it UNREGISTERED drastically altering If changesthiswomen's expectations and influence to has cometo BY use women without VERSION OF you like TO mission. the end of the Cold War will not mean the end of the militarization of women's lives.

buy it! next page > . however. < previous page page_185 If you like this book. that civilians and soldiers relate to one sheds some light gendered ways that ease the complicated process of return. As there is after most wars. many Kuwaiti men are more violent in their domestic expressions of manliness. onethe Gulf Crisis by imagining men in any particular historical setting comprehend what Kuwait to be "manly" and what it probably the experiences of a Filipina woman working as a maid init means City. government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. is being constructed. The return of Asian women to work as domestic servants. perhaps the entire social order could be strengthened and made ready to repel future military invasions. there was considerable public and private debate over just what had ''gone wrong" that had made the country so vulnerable to aggression and so ineffectual in defense. And as in so many other countries. More Asian women working as maids appear unwilling now to remain silent in the face of sexual abuse by their male employers. Since early January there have been press reports of Filipina women who have taken considerable risks in order to leave abusive employers. Had the country's men sacrificed their masculine military competence on the > previous page next page altar of effeminized degeneracy? Had the country's women frayed the threads of the country's social fabric by neglecting their home duties? If you likesmoke was still hanging over the city of Kuwait when The oily this book. but many back in the Gulf states doing to design policies to ensureTheir Filipina and other Asian women are of them have also attempted other people's housework. then. But other things have changed." Not only have remains valuable today. another in those on the processes by which postwar Kuwaiti society militarization. than with reconstructing Kuwaiti womanhood so that it incorporated a sense of self-reliance. which was not anticipated. taking refuge in the Philippine embassy. in the wake of the war. If Kuwaiti women started to do their own housework. this postwar self-inspection generated judgments of local page_101 < femininity and masculinity. buy it! people began to criticize the prewar dependency on foreign domestic servants. Many Kuwaiti women active in the wartime resistance and in the movement for women's suffrage concurred.< previous page page_101 page_185 next page > Page 185 101 Whether ago it was useful to try to make sense of what was then labeled must chart how women and two yearsone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. They were concerned less with postwar militarization. It is not clear whether the Filipinas now seeking work overseas are more selfconfident and aware of their rights or whether. that analytical stancemeans to be "feminine. provides one piece of evidence that the initial postwar attempt to reorder notions of gender fell short of some reformers' hopes.

estimated that "now there are more rapesbeen affected byduring the perceptions of manliness and femininity. some Kuwaiti women seem to be treating their domestic servants as they themselves are often treated. was told by Filipinas taking refuge in the Philippine embassy that their bruises were as often inflicted by their female as by their male employers. buy it! next page > ." Maternity Hospital. buy CONVERTER STANDARD writing for the New Yorker." Nadia Ghaleb. would likely be rejected by her husband and family. one must soldiers has risen to as On May 3 USA tracingreported. "The number of women being raped by Kuwaitichart how women and men in any a day. Other Kuwaiti women are coming forward to tell of the rapes they endured by Iraqi soldiers during the occupation. Most UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO military CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and that their assailants another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of have reportedsoldiers relate to onewere men in Kuwaiti PDF uniforms. previous page next page > Unfortunately. over whether the cause lies in the continuing lack of firm government control. a nurse at Kuwait City's many as 20 particular historical hospitalcomprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. One Kuwaiti psychiatrist who has been trying to assist these women estimates that perhaps as many as thirty-two hundred women were raped by men of the occupying forces between late August 1990 and February 1991. Consequently. The New York Times reporter provided a cultural context for this August 4 story: Kuwaiti women. the rape victims' long silence does not set Kuwait aside as distinctly non-Western. such an THE THE < previous page page_186 If you like this book. While this cultural explanation for the still-unfolding sexual politics of postwar Kuwait may be valid. even though against her will. or whether it lies buried in the frustrated postoccupation sense of bruised masculinity that some Kuwaiti men have converted into rampant page_101 < misogyny.< previous page page_101 page_186 next page > Page 186 101 Whether one is Today militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. had found it especially difficult to come forward as victims of wartime rape because Arab culture put so high a value on feminine sexual honor and purity that any woman subjected to assault. BY If to like alliances across class and race. There is official disagreement militarization. according to setting records and officials. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that The women being assaulted have included both Asian emigrant women and local Kuwaiti women. he explained. Kuwaiti women who experienced the oppression of necessarily UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you make TO PDF it! Iraqi occupation have not Bonner. which allows some men to do what they want to do without fear of reprisal. nine. Thus. The Kuwaiti women had waited six. even eleven months to tell of their ordeals. Raymond drawn from it the lesson that women need CHMthis book." Not only have government and military officials than there were their own occupation.

militarization.< previous page page_101 page_187 next page > Page 187 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! next page > next page > . "feminine. buy it! If you like this book." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Some of the 130 Filipina women who sought refuge in the manliness and femininity. 9. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. (NYT Pictures) < previous page < previous page page_101 page_187 If you like this book. but many of them have alsoCity in January 1992.policies to ensure that Philippine embassy in Kuwait attempted to design after civilians and soldiers relate to one another inby their Kuwaitiways that ease the complicated process of being abused those gendered employers. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed.

S. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY The U. Major Cornum's reassurance upon her release that she was not sexually abused by her Iraqi captors was taken as evidence by some women's advocates that the combat exclusion rested on false assumptions. or should not. The story that has received the most coverage has been that of Major Rhonda Cornum.or demilitarizingto sustain the ideologymust chart how women and men in any ideas which proved such a potent wartime mobilizing tool "manly" and what it means to be of genderedparticular historical setting comprehend what it means to befor the U. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. That possibility. manliness and femininity. Though serving as a flight surgeon.S. A principal argument used by all governments who exclude women from any job they categorize as a combat position is that as combatants women would be likely to be captured and that in captivity they would become victims of sexual assault. these defenders of combat exclusion insist. women soldiers whose stories of sexual abuse are being told this summer do not have identical stories to tell. At about the time when Kuwaiti women were finding their voices in THE THE < previous page page_188 If you like this book. she was captured by Iraqi troops after her helicopter was shot down. She was one of two American women soldiers who became prisoners of war (POWs) during the conflict. buy it! next page > . The silencing of women to preserve the honor not only of individual men but of a nation turns page_101 < out to be an integral part of the processes of war and postwar order in societies as seemingly different as > previous page next page Kuwait and the United States. one of Orientalism. that The unsatisfactoriness of but many of them have also attempted to design UNREGISTERED VERSION OF silence about the sexual abusesJune and July whenprocess of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD in those gendered ways that ease the complicated women soldiers began to break their own they had endured during the militarization. and thus its very likelihood would erode civilian confidence in any war effort. a job legally defined as noncombat.< previous page page_101 page_188 next page > Page 188 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing serve as fodder social processes.the Orientalist explanation was underscored in policies to ensure U. nor are they being treated by editors and officials in identical ways.led alliance two years "feminine. taken these allegedly liberated American women as long as it had taken their Kuwaiti Gulf War." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of ago. that package explanation does not. and as such she was subjected to intense scrutiny when she was released as part of the eventual cease-fire agreement. It had and Filipina counterparts to come forward publicly and identify themselves as victims of men's sexual violence. is one that citizens on the home front would not tolerate.S.

it had too page_101 < many enticing ingredients for the media to ignore. women and Cornum broke her silence as well. Rhonda Cornum's story was sold to a publisher. she reluctantly If you like this book. contrary to her earlierhave government and military officials been affected by their of herperceptions of manliness and femininity. she had indeed been sexually abused by one own Iraqi captors. men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and in the it means to be "feminine. women in combat. Major Cornum was correct. buy it! next page > . however. She told the Presidential Commission on Women what Military that. and perhaps even be used by those complicated process the militarization." Not only public account. she said. Despite her own attempts to play down the incident. Abortion on demand. When interviewer Terry Gross asked her on August 7 whether "manual rape" would be an accurate description of what thebuy it! had inflicted on her." With Iraq's regime in mid-1992 still defying the insistence of the United Nations and the United States that it disarm and cease attacks against Kurds and Shiites. A month after her testimony. which had been so quietly settled several months earlier in a legislative compromise. in her prediction that opponents of U.Kuwaiti men after it. although.< previous page page_101 page_189 next page > Page 189 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing by Iraqi men during the war and one must chart how Rhonda order to describe their victimizationor demilitarizing social processes. Pentagon who wanted to bolster the now-weakened rationale for keeping combat an all-male preserve. and homosexual rights-these were the reforms that the nation had < previous page page_189 If you like this book.S. but many of them have also media for so many policies to ensure that She said that she had witheld this information from theattempted to design months because she believed civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the in the Congress and of that it would be blown out of all proportion. soldier replied yes. once again burst into the open. The dispute over combat eligibility. and she appeared on prime-time television as well as respected public radio interview shows. the portrayal of an unnamed and thus generalizable Iraqi male as brutal (Rhonda Cornum was suffering from two broken arms when she was assaulted) might have appeared an easy ideological fit for journalists and editors covering this story. Patrick Buchanan delivered a nationally televised speech intended to boost the sagging morale of Republican Party delegates at their Houston convention. women soldiers' entry into combat positions would interpret her experience as validation for their policy stand. she preferred to think of herself as having been "manually molested. Most appealing was the fact that Rhonda Cornum had > previous page next page been assaulted by an enemy male. He listed "women in combat" as one of the planks in the radical feminist-inspired platform of the rival Democrats. on August 17.

have seemed less informed about the Cold War. is a territory only recently opened for exploration. and external tugs from both sides of the Iron Curtain have affected military counterinsurgency doctrines. buy likely to be taken as VERSION OF was certainly evidentit! my own earlier work. To explore the complexities of masculinity in the history of the Cold War calls for more than curiosity about men. by contrast. its alleged opposite. page_101 < Western European. For masculinity is constructed out of ideas about femininity. filled with studies of men in the Cold War. Thus. for examplehas so clearly shaped notions of the subversive woman. This attitudeyou like thisby curiosityCONVERTER STANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF in book. exactly. A biography of Konrad Adenauer or an institutional history of the KGB may be crammed with information about both famous and anonymous men.about the civilians and soldiers dynamics because government-articulated CONVERTER STANDARD Cold War's gendered relate to one another in those gendered the militarization. and to the state. to men. one must chart how women and each of those is tracing over the definitions of masculinity and femininity that would sustain or dilute men in any that rivalry. We have acres of bookshelves of course. Soviet rivalries and the micropolitics of women's relationships to other women. Eastern European.< previous page page_101 page_19 next page > Page 101 Page 19 Whether one societies militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. which was more UNREGISTERED a given. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Those concerned with women in Third World countries shown the most explicit curiosity UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO haveways that ease the complicated process of BY PDF anti-Communismin Guatemala. But that is quite a different topic. We may know the career tracks. those men's sometimes tenuous holds on their own masculine identities served to choreograph their interactions with other officials or their foreign policy inclinations. But the material is there. Furthermore.S. Studies of Soviet. there remains plenty of work to be done in unraveling the relationships between the metapolitics of Communism/anti-Communism and U. buy it! next page > . Philippines. It requires curiosity about women as well." Not only have relationshipsandmilitarism have been pouring forth their own perceptions of Investigations of women's government to military officials been affected by during the last decade. yet leave the reader intellectually starved for an analysis of masculinity. yet be in the dark when puzzling about how. on the other hand. Men in real life learn about and accept or THE THE < previous page page_19 If you like this book. and guerrilla resources in these countries. development priorities. and North American women's relationships to military institutions and militaristic > previous page next page ideas. Chile. partisan alliances. and policy justifications of politicians and bureaucrats who sustained great power rivalries. particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Masculinity. manliness and femininity.

one must warned." Not only have government and military officials been affected by from the perceptions to reelect a Republican president. it was previous was not next page > service in any predominantly male organization whose institutional culture remained imbued with If you like this book.Buchanan chart how women way men in any particular historical would subvert the American society be "manly" and what it means to be to prevent these changes. far less media attention than Major Rhonda Cornum's testimony. desert camp on January 19. buy it! misogyny. now discharged. Army servicewomen were raped or sexually assaulted while serving in the Persian Gulf region during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. whichsetting comprehend what it means to in this dangerous postwar era. Her testimony page_101 < suggested that itpage combat engagement with an enemy that posed a threat to women. she had watched her requests for psychological counseling go unmet at a string of Veterans Administration hospitals which had made no preparations for assisting women soldiers who had been the victims of sexual assault. "at least 24 U. the Army's Criminal Investigation Command began to release its still-tentative findings. 1991. Ortiz went on to tell how her male army superiors had dismissed her complaints and how. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Houston Astrodome. On June 30. a Affairs received twenty-nine-year-old army reservist. military's claim to have transformed itself into the exemplar of a post-Cold War military if Ortiz and her fellow women soldiers had < previous page page_190 If you like this book. His speech was met with enthusiastic cheerstheir own floor of the of manliness and femininity. At any rate. As reported to the Washington Post. buy it! next page > . was "feminine. Her experience. the reports of sexual assault by American military men on American military women hardly caused a ripple in the popular culture. furthermore." Maybe these revelations were too painful or simply too difficult to absorb for a public which wanted so deeply to hold on to one of the few positive legacies of the war: the transformation of a tainted postVietnam soldiery into a soldiery that Americans could be proud of. Ortiz. What would Americans and CNN viewers around the world have thought of the U.< previous page page_101 page_190 next page > Page 190 101 Whether one is to if the Democratic ticket was elected in November. The only and to look forward tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. appeared to be part of a more general pattern of male abuse and bureaucratic neglect. described to the senators how she had been "forcibly sodomized" by her own sergeant in broad daylight in a U. civilians and soldiers Ortiz'sto one another in those genderedCranston's Senate Committee onprocess of Specialist Jacqueline relate testimony before Senator Alan ways that ease the complicated Veterans' militarization.S.S.S. months later. In late July.

" And there was. Now. a final obstacle. Molly Ivins remembered. But only a few observers noted what the media'sby their own perceptions of manliness and government manipulation. They were silenced by a (probably realistic) fear that "the Pentagon would use it as an excuse to keep women out of combat zones. Second. but many of them have also attempted to design policies of ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OFsyndicated columnist Molly Ivins recalled her own process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated frustration. had done to distort the gendered politics to the Gulf War.'' As the end of this summer is being marked by the Republican Party convention in Houston. it seems as though the Gulf War victory is not important enough in many Americans' minds to be decisive in their THE THE < previous page page_191 If you like this book. were beginning to appear. CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. combined withfemininity. some women reporters with knowledge of the assaults of American male soldiers on American servicewomen were prevented from printing those accounts by their editors' personal investment in the portrait they were helping to draw of the new U. according to Ivins. they were afraid to tell their stories for the record. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend subject itself be "manly" and what it means to be summer 1992.< previous page page_101 page_191 next page > Page 191 101 Whether to is their experiences onto the front pages in January 1991 instead of August 1992? By been ableonegettracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Not only have government and military officials been affected processes of self-censorship. buy it! next page > ." previous page next page > Ivins described what seemed to her two editorial roadblocks these stories into UNREGISTERED VERSIONtoabe the realistic understanding ofto gettingAmerican militaryprint BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD so that the reading public could haveOF you like this book. critiques of the media's willingness towhat it means to Defense Department management "feminine. The network of women in the military was buzzing about the rapes. buy it! more how the operated in this alleged "good war. peerless and without fault. In her column printed July 5 in the Boston Globe. "I know that quite a few people in the press knew about the rapes of servicewomen in the Gulf almost 18 months ago. out of chances for promotion and out of the ranks. military as "fearless. and the concern was page_101 < strong and vocal. Although the women soldiers were willing to tell at least some of their colleagues about their experiences." The first barrier was an institutional reluctance to publish a report "so controversial and upsetting" without its being confirmed by an official source. because I tried to get the story out myself. she wrote.S. The fact that the very heart of the story was the unwillingness of military officers to take rape and sexual harassment seriously evidently was not comprehensible or else not important to most editors. in the wake of the Ortiz testimony.

buy it! harassed by American male colleaguestheyou likemeaning of this deceptively brief war will become clearer. and American women's experiences of wartime and postwar sexual assault. warm autumn day. Kuwaiti. an order whose twin flagships have been its consumerist culture and its state military. It was a beautiful. "won" the Cold War in large part because of the superiority of its social order. consequently. bring- < previous page page_192 If you like this book. military officials Americans. more active role in defending their country. militaryonly have government and Perhaps for most been affected by their own this war did of manliness and femininity.S. The Orientalist convictions that two years ago elevated the confident. once summed up Somerville. raised the American male soldier to the status of a model of the New Manhave turned out to rest on a foundation of desert sand. by inference.S. As these women find their voicesthe Filipina maids raped by their < Gulf employers. and the American women soldiers raped and If entire this book. an American woman soldier raped by an Iraqi captor." But even backwaters.< previous page page_101 page_192 next page > Page 192 101 presidential voting choice. of course. as an "unsavory Greater Boston backwater. Massachusetts. it has taken deep enough root in the collective culture to Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. between Filipina. > next page Iraqi soldiers.page previous the Kuwaiti women raped by page_101 the Kuwaiti women raped by Kuwaiti men. perceptions the U. like parades. savory or not. But connecting the dots between these women's experiencesand between their silencesalready suggests that there are serious flaws in the widespread assumption that the U. There are connections. one must chart how women and men in any serious challenge from Jacqueline Ortiz and it means to be women and did it experience withstand a particular historical setting comprehend whatother American"manly" whowhatnotmeans to be "feminine." Not as a postsexist institution. camouflage-attired American woman soldier to the status of a global model of liberationand. buy it! next page > . on the other hand. Somerville celebrated its 150th anniversary with a parade. October 1992: Tailhookers and Draft-Dodgers The New York Times. in its cultural wisdom. As the presidential campaign was grinding on in early September. but many of them have also attempted to design a place to ensure that nothing moreor lessthan sanitize their state's armed forces by showing it as policies where honorable men civilians and soldiers relate to one another with competence and that ease the complicated can take a can handle hardship and deadly technologyin those gendered waysaplomb and where women process of militarization.

< previous page page_101 page_193 next page > Page 193 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing demilitarizing lawn processes. The Grand Marshal of Somerville's anniversary parade was a marine manliness and femininity." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Parades: culture in linear motion. there were high school majorettes and a bevy of local elected officials. Military service seems woven into the very fabric of American popular culture. Neighbors greeted each other. Thinking about militarism in this way reminds us that we all can be militarized. two of them nuns. There was a "Somerville Recycles" float and a Dixieland quartet. the parade page_101 < For the next several hours the nature of this solidly Democratic community unfolded asnext page > previous page advanced. a young black man dressed in a Revolutionary War uniform. The sheer variety was striking. Bill Clinton and the Democrats do appear to be effectively steering public discussion away from weapons THE THE < previous page page_193 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . and making connections is what political consciousness is all about: connecting sexual harassment to congressional culture. so homegrown that it takes an act of perverse imagination to connect these smiling. He strode out in with long-legged. its women's auxiliary. mother and sisters. POWs and MIAs (missingin-action) represented by a man crouching in a simulated bamboo cage carried on the back of a flatbed truck. vendors plied balloonsmeans to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine.front one another CHM spectators Clearly knownwho complicated process of BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OFby many TO PDF a neighbor the had come home. connecting the North American Free Trade Agreement to child care.otherit! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Guard unit. And it appears so benign. easy gait. His in the sun along the relate to greeted in those gendered ways that ease he was as CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. the Veterans of Foreign Wars branch. to a lot of the people UNREGISTERED curb. rode several yards behind him in a chrome-and-polish 1950s classic. Thinking about it this way allows us to make connections. motley-uniformed neighbors to something as grandiose and ominous as "militarism"a dependence on the military for a sense of pride and security. or candidates. It is a noticeably demilitarized campaign. fathers. as girlfriends. Gulf War veterans. one must chart of the parade ing residents out to sit on the curbs or on their plasticsocial chairs along the full lengthhow women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it and iced cherry slush. Vietnam War veterans. connecting heroines of situation comedies to political party platforms. but manyaof them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that sitting general. This is America's first postCold War presidential campaign. waving. route. But every buy contingent was military: the National UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. factory workers.

Dan Quayle enlisted in the National Guard. In reality there are other military worries and puzzles that are also structuring electoral choice. racial politics mixed with class politics. But. It's as if the issue were stranded on its own discourse island. lovers. Clinton worked the Byzantine selective service system If you like this book. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to held upthat Yet the military service record of every presidential and vice presidential candidate is ensure to civilians and public scrutiny. went into the regular army in a noncombat role. The historical evolution of citizenship. one must chart how women and men George Bush's historical over Manuel Noriega and Saddam Hussein appear to be like the Russian Evenin any particular"victories" setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. the articulation of women's public roles. and race that enabled him to enlist as an officer and see combat in the U." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of ruble: nonconvertible. these issues < previous page page_194 If you like this book. Navy during the "good war. the discussion of the presidential and vice presidential candidates' ambiguous relationships to military service seems quite odd in the current national campaign. buy it! next page > . who chose a retired vice admiral for his running mate. The militarization of masculinity proceeds in grand isolation from other militarizingor demilitarizingprocesses. manliness and femininity. Bill Clinton and his vice presidential choice Al Gore shared Dan Quayle's dilemma of < having come to manhood during an unpopular page_101 both had the money to attend college and > previous page next page war. fathers. although he requested a transfer from sea duty. systems and external threats. topics or demilitarizing social processes. Ross Perot. and potential voters." World War II.< previous page page_101 page_194 next page > Page 194 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing that have dominated presidential contests repeatedly since 1948. Masculinity's relationship to any military has never been simple. Thus. And no two careers are identical. defining his young manhood in large part as the loyal son of a senatorial father. the global competition for resources and prestigeall have played their parts in shaping young men's dependence on military service to affirm their manliness in their own eyes and in the eyes of their mothers. buy it! in a way that preserved his educational deferment. militarization. Though both acted out of an ambivalence about the war. scandalized by sailors' harsh language.S. Gore. George Bush the complicated process of excruciating soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease was of a generation. then 98 percent white. class. viewed from the discourse island. buddies. during the "bad war" in Vietnam. had himself served in the navy. the state's military.

And making those necessary connections isn't going to be society that can possible if we don't take seriously the subtle and not so subtle meanings of militarism. the Tailhook Association has been deemed a useful extension of the U. Since these pilots' jobs have been defined by defense officials as combat positions. only men can be tailhookersat least for now. Its annual conventions are all-male affairs. page_101 < Take. but for that very reason women's participation has been an essential ingredient in the celebration. is UNREGISTERED politicaltomilitary service thosethe of thesetheCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM TO PDF military in post-Cold War Americanof one another in what will develop a relate consciousness about gendered ways that ease the complicated process role of militarization. A presidential commission will issue its recommendations just two weeks after the election. and what > previous page next page is now referred to as the Tailhook scandal. from the party's right wing. the story suggests. not quite.< previous page page_101 page_195 next page > Page 195 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing the far horizon. Navy." officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and senior uniformed and civilian navy officials have regularly attended its gatherings in fraternal solidarity. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Connecting the discussion of to each concerns. the lines running web-like between the candidates' military service."to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Tailhookers are navy carrier pilots. the conventioneers are men. one must chart how women one appear only as faintly perceived sails shimmering on social processes.S. they seem more upset about the one American woman assaulted by a single Iraqi captor than about the twenty-four American army women assaulted in the Saudi desert by their own officers. Well." "MIAs.'' "Defense Jobs. for instance. There is a heated debate going on in Washington over whether women will be allowed in combat in the future. Without women to objectify. Because of the government's current gendered conception of combat. and all of them to each other. buy it! next page > . The navy has routinely supplied the association's members with transport. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY UNREGISTERED VERSION they landlike this deck of anit! If CHM TO PDF aircraft carrier. inform our electoral choices. and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means "Combat." "UN could just make out the words painted on their canvas: "Tailhook." "Base Closings. combat. Though nominally private. The majority of the fifteen commissioners appointed last March by the president are Buchanan Republicans. they take their name from the hook that catches their planes as OF you on the book. and the ethos is masculine. these men's military service would be less confirming of their THE THE < previous page page_195 If you like this book.If one got out the binoculars." Not only have government and military Peacekeeping.

Men If you like this investigation anonymously interviewed during the Pentagon's own book. Heads finally began to roll at the top: three admirals disciplined. incident. naval appropriations cut by angry Congressional committees. Coughlin recently told reporter Katherine Boo that when a month later she silent about the watched Anita Hill trying to make male senators see why a woman subjected to sexual harassment would choose to remain silent for so many years.< previous page page_101 page_196 next page > Page 196 101 Whether one is tracing of their citizenship. The point is not that George Bush might have manned such a gauntlet during World War II. Still. is more free from the temptations of sexual harassment. by avoiding fighting in a war he disapproved of. In the American experience. buy it! next page > . Rather. Nor is it that Bill Clinton. at the Las Vegasonly have government andwrap up their post-Gulfaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. connecting the dots between Anita Hill's experience and her own. to date. pre-Cold War. The fifteen hundred aviators and former aviators who to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Then. buy it! of the affair reported that there had been a gauntlet at every convention since at least 1986. and admiral's aide." Not Hilton seemed to need to military officials been War euphoria in a flag of misogyny. the same culture of militarized masculinity. a thirty-year-old lieutenant. Initially. that has provided George Bush the high ground in the campaign debate over military service as an indicator of presidential competence. perhaps evenmilitarizing or demilitarizing social processes." But this time Paula Coughlin decided to take the risk and break the silence. a civilian Secretary of the Navy dismissed. was ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in humiliating hotel corridor ease the complicated process of forced to run the tailhookers' frightening and those gendered ways that gauntlet. This is the same navy. It had become "an honored tradition. she remained militarization. She had learned from her page_101 < years in the navy that a woman who rocked the boat could find her career torpedoed. there one must chart postCold War war manhood. It next page > previous page is still uncertain how many women over the years had endured the annual carrier pilots' assaults in silence. during the < previous page page_196 If you like this book. she "got it" all too quickly. have also pilot. last autumn. it is that the military is not simply a site for performing selfless public service. not a single one of the ungentlemanly officers who manned the tailhookers' gauntlet has been formally charged. but many of them helicopter attempted to design policies toone of the women Paula Coughlin.was the end of a how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means attended the group's 1991 convention to celebrate.

rituals." Not itself. Next month's presidential election will not live up to its promise as the first postCold War election if we continue to treat military service as if it has nothing to do with the American version of militarism. but many of them have also attempted to anything politically. and now postCold War. followed by the MIA in his bamboo cage. To mean design policies to ensure that UNREGISTEREDmore than aof threats dissolved. We were coming to the end of two wonderful weeks of discussions with Vietnamese women's studies re- THE THE < previous page page_197 If you like this book. this military's institutionalized relationships have infused a culture men in distorted individual men's sense of their own manliness and be "manly" and distortion to the that hasany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to have bound that what it means to be "feminine. The TailhookIf CHMthis book. values. the news seemed to come to me down through a long tunnel: the events seemed very far away. It is also the inspirer UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you likewas an of civilians' expectations. one must chart how women and Cold War. reimagined. very nation-stateonly have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. it has to be a Any postwar era is set of dates on a calendar. silences.TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM gendered ways that ease the complicated process of relate to one another in those opportunities recognized. Militarism is a package of ideas. no one who sat with neighbors on the curb in the Somerville sunshine seemed to stifle cheers or hesitate in waving when the military contingents marched by. bases. Ten of us were sitting at a banquet table in a grand though now frayed colonial-era hotel in Hanoi. Looking at any person's military involvement with a sharp page_101 < eye for the culture of militarism requires seeing the military as more than an institution next own previous page with its page > budgets. buy it! next page > . The friendly marine general. and myths. postCold Warstyle. and memories. And even when the scandal was finally out in the open last month. buy it! tradition" for five years. followed by the fire enginethis remains grassroots America.one in BY PDF CONVERTER STANDARD pleasures. and no gauntlet TO "honored Washington raised a public eyebrow. a consciousness militarization. and relationships state of mind. American Masculinity When we first heard that the U. followed by the recycling float. and yet the words gave off eerie vibrations. government was once again bombing Iraq.S. February 1993: Such A Fragile Thing.< previous page page_101 page_197 next page > Page 197 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.

and a single also attempted to design policies to ensure that that civilians and soldiers relate to one were unwilling gendered ways that ease the complicated process of night. we listened to CNN's reporter tell of Kuwait's reorganized military put on alert. threeand femininity. buy it! next page > . Gathered around the television set. It made the news of more American bombing of someone else's city harder to hear. a charcoal many of them have kerosene lamp. hour attack in the name of United Nations sanctions dampen our spirits. another in those to let the news of the Bush administration's eleventhmilitarization. and with rice wine. of Washington's other Arab supporters raising objections. next page > previous page livelier exchanges between women's studies researchers everywhere. in the departure lounge of the Bangkok airport." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions a warm themselves with a bowl of noodle soup or a cup of mud-dark coffee at micro-cafes comprisingof manliness stools. We wished for the new Clinton administration's lifting of the devastating American postwar economic embargo against we wished for page_101 < Vietnam. and our heads were still filled with images of vegetable gardens amid rubble where. Inside. In Ho Chi Minh City it had been mustbut here in women and men in any in midwinter. that we heard the details of the bombing of Baghdad. chart how Hanoi it felt searchersoneboth the north and the south. If you like this book. Out on the streets residents paused amid their "manly" and what it means to be like Seattle particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be New Year's shopping errands to "feminine. three weeks after George Bush has flown off to a Texas retirement and the White House has been occupied by a thirteen-year-old schoolgirl. of the British and French governments' initially supporting Washington. all of us around the table table. butbrazier. Vietnamese and Americans. one hot. Iraq has slipped again to the back pages of the American dailies. and her parents. We continued to toast each other with the local "333" beer. But now it is a different sort of issue that is keeping the American military in the morning headlines. her cat.< previous page page_101 page_198 next page > Page 198 101 Whether in is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. we wished for each other's happiness in the forthcoming Year of the Rooster. the grand imperial city of Hue once stood. The conflicts over the fate of the country's Kurds and Saddam Hussein's weapons program remain unresolved. Clinton's announcement that he plans to keep < previous page page_198 If you like this book. buy it! It was only two days later. only to become cooler when the number of civilian casualties became known. Now. Our own clothes still carried the aroma of Hanoi's charcoal fires. with a potent spiked eggnog. until 1968. even if it was coated with soothing CNN blandness.

then they were secure in their manliness. their sons. jet CONVERTER STANDARD sees heterosexuality as part his arsenal you he TO his buyin all-male formation over Baghdad? By early 1993. that they were fast losing the confidence in themselves that had been born two years before almost to the day. Peter Coz. the starving Somalis. buy it! next page > . pride.S. then they knew who was the enemy. to fight wars? Helping people might be admirable. one must chart how women and his pledge to end the ban on gay men and lesbians serving in the country's all-volunteer military has men treated by many commentators and senior defense officials as if it "manly" and what it to U. but it's not what makes me tick.S. questions of military doctrine and militarized gender had become exquisitely intertwined. these THE THE < previous page page_199 If you like this book. The two worries. Then they knew what it was to have a mission. and fears have underwritten this American military power seem unsure about just what they want in a soldier." Some of his flying comrades saw the Somalia operation. "Not that I have any problem with it. wouldn't it quickly lose its capability to do what it was really designed for. national securityonly have governmentIraqimilitary officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. complicatedmost potent BY CONVERTER STANDARD civiliansinstitution VERSIONa OF CHM TO roles can call into question old notions of of and soldiers searching for new in those gendered ways that ease the relate process military And militarization. Brian MacQuarrie. been in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be were a greater threat means to be "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_199 next page > Page 199 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." explained a thirty-nine-year-old pilot. the flood-ravaged Bangladeshis. however. Marine fighter pilots serving aboard the USS Tarawa last week voiced their own comingled frustrations.In thenew PDFof the Cold War. but manyunrelated. as even more worrisome: if the U. Do they want a young woman who can join her brother on page_101 < the front lines ofpage previous a high-tech battlefield? Do they want a young man who can derive professionalpage > next military pride from a infant UNREGISTEREDcradlingof Somali refugeelike thisin his camouflaged arms? Do they want a man who BY VERSION OF when flies PDF it! If CHM book. But today they didn't feel like real marines when they supplied logistical support for the relief operations in Somalia: "I didn't come in the Marine Corps for that type of thing. to one anotherrole. far from the banks of the Potomac the citizens whose taxes. of are not of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that afterglow the world's UNREGISTEREDiscourse. daughters. military began focusing its attention on helping the beseiged Kurds. They told a Boston Globe reporter. militarized masculinity. then they trusted their commander in chief." Not than a nuclear-armed and dictator. It all had come together in their flights off the decks of this aircraft carrier. Even more importantly.

have not come to a neat end. And only now were most moviegoers learning what recipe of men's profit motives and women's selfdeprecation went into making those women hang up their cleats. would create economic opportunities for women moreprocesses.< previous page page_101 page_2 next page > Page 101 Page 2 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social diverse than the conventional women and side. making way for the remasculinization of America's pastime. Just thinking about the movie as one strolled out of the theater into the soft summer evening air extended that war's "postwar era. which was experiencing the end of the Cold War as an outbreak of virulent nationalisms. the most popular American movie was one shedding new light on a little-known corner of a war that ended a generation ago. They must have ending processes. As people shook their heads in despair at the Croats. North Americans and Europeans lost interest in Central America and turned their fickle attention to Yugoslavia. "A League of Their Own" was packing the cinemas to tell a lighthearted version of the reimposition of conventional femininity and masculinity in the United States at the end of World War II. say. five decades after VE. And they aren't predictable. although many groups and regimes have done their best to dictate the paths such endings will take. to ensure just civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicatedsorting of They fizzle and sputter. were American audienceswith help from Geena Davis's batting and Madonna's fieldinglearning that women played professional baseball with talent and verve before delighted fans while the male players were overseas. buy it! In summer 1992." Not that have government and military a Feminist!) affected by their own perceptions of printing T-shirts only declared "Soy Feminist!" (I amofficials been2 manliness and femininity. evenpage > previous page next generations. and Serbs shooting each other. sometimes they reignite. These messier processes may go on for years. Meanwhile. Warshot and cold areto design policies They don'tthat end.and VJ-Day. Only now. The civil things out. Some of these Salvadoran women were to be "manly" and what it means to rolesin any particular historical setting comprehend what it meansinvesting their postwar energies in be "feminine. Mornings after are times for puzzling. Esmeralda was sending up warning of them have also attempted like love affairs. for wars in Central America and the global Cold War. trying to assess whether one is starting a new day or continuing an old routine. but many signals. Bosnians. one must chart how peacetime men of wife and mother. which intensified so many local conflicts during the last forty years. buy it! next page > . an operatic grande finale. for process militarization.If you like this book. ones not as elegant or as page_101 < conclusive as." For a postwar era lasts as long as people affected by a < previous page page_2 If you like this book.

Luise White's much-praised history of colonized Kenyan women in prostitution. conference table are not women. more policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO that the people on the podium STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to question that those gendered ways that ease the complicated process their bureaucratic posts. 14 Similarly. one on (while still women and resist their culture's ideas about what is natural in male behavior by relyingmust chart howcontrolling) men in any fantasizing about women. It is a one another inreminds us PDF CONVERTER or around the of militarization. Victoria De Grazia's study of Mussolini's policies intended to control women can provide us with fresh insights into Fascist efforts to militarize men's identities. Thus. but many of them have also attempted to design than just personifications of the Cold War to be more than merely idiosyncratic heroes or villains. for instance. by particular historical settingand by working to separate themselves from women. buy it! next page > . page_101 < Thus. by the the 1940s are best understood if we listen to them." This is a question that can reveal the major players in the creation and the perpetuation the women?Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and limitations. comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what Where to women. explorations of women's relationships to militarization should be seen as treasure troves of information about the ways in which men's ideas about their own and other men's manliness have been created. can inform us about African and British men's sexual expectations during both world wars. It is a question that makes us see men as people who have been socializednot always successfullyinto particular gender assumptions and who have had bestowed on them distinct privileges.15 THE THE < previous page page_20 If you like this book.next the previous interest In fact. page > overlooked as well ways in UNREGISTEREDas celebratedwe give the women affectedhasit! male actors' behavior a politics since BY VERSION OFwhich masculinitybuy CONVERTER STANDARD CHM TO PDF functioned in international voiceand if If you like this book.it meansare be "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_20 next page > Page 101 Page 20 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. to take an page in masculinity is not to turn the searchlight away from women. authorities.

" Not only have gays were permitted to openly enlist in this military? Their presence would consequently heightened ifgovernment and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. < previous page < previous page page_200 page_101 If you like this book. one must chart how women and men told one reporter. buy it! If you like this book. but many of as would also attempted to design policies to ensure that as surely remake the American militarythem haveassigning priority to United Nations humanitarian civilians Wouldn't it? missions. buy it! next page > next page > . But it didn't foster aggressiveness and personal competition. the sorts of qualities men in any particular historical setting military preparedness. And wasn't this doctrinal danger that had been so essential for Cold Warcomprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine.and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_200 next page > Page 200 101 Whether the is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.

Asian-American. there was a torrent of American public attention aimed at "women in the military. and 1. for military training in 1991.S. American war since World War II. page > previous pagethe country. and Hispanic-American women who were deployed to Saudi Arabia during the nine-month military buildup page_101 < amounted to four times that number of American military women sent to Vietnam overthe army. wereCONVERTER STANDARD BY If sent to TO PDF women (although they constitute 10.5 percent of Britain's units were women (although they comprise 5 percent of its total military). Kuwait included nine women among the 250 Kuwaiti volunteers sent to the U." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Seven manliness and femininity. The forty thousand white.< previous page page_101 page_201 next page > Page 201 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. only 3 percent of Canada's OF you like the Gulf buy it! UNREGISTERED VERSION forcesCHMthis book. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. 1 During the period from August 1990 to March 1991. African-American. when the Gulf War was prepared for and waged. involvement in contrast. buy it! next page > . but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that The Politics of Constructing the American Woman Soldier UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of More American women fought in a war zone during the 1990-91 Gulf War than had fought in any militarization." This attention sparked a national discussion strikingly akin to the discussions that have occurred in virtually every U. Three-fourths of those women were deployed by the entireBy next decade of U. as civilian nurses in THE THE < previous page page_201 If you like this book.S.6 percent of Canada's entire active-duty force). Even when women were used only marginallyfor example.S. war since the eighteenth century. France deployed thirteen women in its force of ten thousand soldiers.

andtheir own perceptions of manliness and femininity.S.S. officials been affected by that 7 percent the Gulf constituted only 7government and military uniformed contingent. it appears to be women's proximity to the institution of war that is critical. militarized respectability seems to be what occurred in U. 2 What reconciles the unresolved national debate over women's proper place in wartime with the cultural inclination to associate true citizenship with militarized sacrifice? It may be professionalization. and the United States.< previous page page_101 page_202 next page > Page 202 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing 1860-65 Civil Wartheir participation must chart how women and military medical services during theor demilitarizing social processes. understand to be the essential criterion for first-class citizenship. then perhaps women could attain first-class citizenship without jeopardizing the still-gendered political culture. at the dawn of the postCold War If you like this book. The transformation of gendered. buy it! era. in countries as different as Brazil.S. It also makes that desired realm of citizenship gendered. The participation of women inside the U. in the Gulf"manly" and what it means to to "feminine. buy it! next page > .S. uniformed. So. too. Violent sacrifice under state discipline in the name of the previous page next page > nationthis seems to get very close to what many Americans still today. underrepresented the 11 percent women in the total U. Many Americans appear to view war as the institution where more than in any other. culture between 1972 and 1993. For violent sacrifice and state-disciplined service have been imagined in American culture to be masculine domains. military invested the very idea of femininity with extraordinary political salience. Transforming the feminized meaning of respectability has been a major goal of virtually all women's rights movements." Not only have percent of the total U. If American citizensoldiering became professionalizedif it could be liberated from its traditional need to be associated with minuteman amateurismand if professionalization could bestow on American notions of femininity a new coat of protective respectability.design policies to ensure that civiliansdoes soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Thus. and (b) that convergence is suffused with both page_101 < organized violence and selfless sacrifice. it and not seem to be numbers or proportions that determine whether the American public militarization. becomes conscious of the gendered stakes in a given war. but many of them have also attempted to active-duty force worldwide. Rather. Russia. oneinspired public anxieties and men in any disproportionate to setting comprehend what it means to be War: American women sent be hopes quite particular historical their actual numbers. Such a criterion makes the doorway into that desired realm narrow indeed. The peculiarities < previous page page_202 If you like this book. (a) the state and the nation converge.

but also ideas on how best to use women in ways that optimize human resources and relegitimize the military during an era of disintegrating power blocs and changing relations between women and men." and "security" are trickling though the alliance's bureaucratic layers." Not evidence. 3 THE < previous page <><><><><><><><><><><><> page_101 next page > PostCold War popular and elite discussions in the United StatesCONVERTER STANDARD BY THE UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. that military UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHMand uses ofways that ease the complicatedin turn. of BY civilians wide public concern about the meaning gendered femininity. Nor can we tell how (I don't believe we need an ''if") these possible cultural transformations are reshaping NATO's own gendered culture. however.< previous page page_101 page_203 next page > Page 203 101 Whether one is tracing is constructed demilitarizing social processes. We need feminist anthropologists to imagine their "field" as lying inside NATO's Brussels headquarters. But NATO is not the only structure that produces the American < previous page page_203 If you like this book. it is important to confess that we know all too little about the internal cultural dynamics of institutions such as NATO." "threat. the statecomes to rely also attempted to design policies to ensure that military aspiring to replacebut many of them have on women inside its uniformed ranks. Dutch or Italian military thinking has not. Having said this. This provocation. Given NATO's structure of inequality. buy it! If CHM TO PDF about how to use women and men differently to serve military purposes have a significance that extends beyond filling out a cross-national comparative analysis. means to dozens of and what it which to masculinityparticular historical setting comprehend what it But in thebe "manly"societies for means webe "feminine. This ignorance prevents us as analysts of internationalized political culture from determining whether and how genuinely new concepts of "enemy. to must chart how women and of both how femininity militarizing or and how the state's military triesoneorganize relationships between men in any and femininity may be distinctively American. makes the content and function of masculinity more problematic. these American military ideas have insinuated themselves throughout the sixteen member states in the alliance in a way that. buy it! next page > . say. American military thinking over the past two decades has encompassed not only nuclear strategic doctrine and standardized weapons production. process provokesand soldiers relate to one another in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. one can see a similar tendency: when affected militaryor an insurgent have comparableonly have government and military officials beenthe state'sby their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. First. the United States military's gendered manpower formula has had an exceptional influence on other militaries.

that is affecting diverse societies' ideas about militarized masculinity. in fact.< previous page page_101 page_204 next page > Page 204 101 Whether disproportionate influence on ideas about social Literally thousands chart how women military'sone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizinggender. if there is not a page_101 < leadership. morale. Yet Hollywood's films are the most widely distributed. buy it! American military and civilian commentators' reassertion or redefinition of presumptions about what is possible within the ideological confines of femininity and masculinity disproportionately influential. Bombay. many of them have alsoin Carlisle. Each of these training institutions has turned out explicit and implicit lessons about how to ensure bonding and morale. Goldie Hawn's Private Benjamin has spread the imagewe do not know how persuasivelyof the modern single woman who finds fitness and self-assurance in her country's military. and of militarization.S. several hundred Australian.S. buy it! next page > . There were. the to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in three service academies ease the complicated process in Newport. but its impact on popular constructs of the woman soldier has been virtually unanalyzed. evennext page > previous page single woman in the platoon. Colorado Springs. are trainedgovernment and military officials been School of the Americas in Panama. CNN's role in the Gulf War has been much discussed. discipline. U. manliness in femininity. because of the dominance of U. But they were rendered almost invisible. If you and culture has made Second. one must of foreign military and men in any particular historical by their own superiors for means to be "manly" and policy officers. how to cultivate leadership. It was the portrayal of American women's military rolesa < previous page page_204 If you like this book. Similarly. British. especially those taggedsetting comprehend what it senior promotion and thus what it means to be "feminine. Pennsylvania. and human resources managementare profoundly gendered. Rhode Island. And all of these preoccupationsbonding. is the world's most prolific producer of films. West Point. not a Hindi actor's portrayal of a singing warrior prince. not only to the rest of the world but even to their own compatriots. the globalization of communications like this book. not Hollywood. but the Army War College attempted to design policies Navy War College Fort BraggandSouth Carolina. 4 More recently. and how to optimize human resources in different sorts of warfare." Not only have by American military institutions: the affected by their own perceptions of responsibilities. of course.-controlled satellite television companies have internationalized the image of the militarized American woman. It is therefore Sylvester Stallone's Rambo. processes. thethose gendered ways thatat Annapolis. and Canadian women soldiers deployed in the Gulf on the allied side of the conflict. and.-generated news. how to enforce discipline. French.

own priorities. NATO could be reorganized so that the U.S. not because the women are especially admirable but because their images produce such far-reaching.S. NATO might even fade into security insignificance compared to the now hollow.S. media giants. whereas the Pentagon had deliberately restricted news coverage would serve its during the 1983 Grenada invasion and the 1989 Panama invasion.S. What the UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you likeand Indianpublic sees of American women soldiers in BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD Americanand the British. notion of what legitimizes a military carries less weight throughout the rest of the alliance. THE THE < previous page page_205 If you like this book. Or. officials at the time deem most ideologically palatable and supportive of their own foreign policy objectives. many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSIONthe U. government's influence in training and inside NATO and U. Egyptian. alternative news and entertainment outlets might challenge the international influence of the U. Portuguese. Thus. But until such transformations occur. in part to keep the public at home from becoming alarmed about the already growing utilization of American women in "near-combat" page_101 < positions. American news censorship and manipulation. television's global reachthe ideological construction of the American woman soldier generates multiple consequences. this book. after European Community integration. but perhaps soon to be invigorated. but But despite CNN's occasionally subversive operations.S.< previous page page_101 page_205 next page > Page 205 101 Whether portrait. "women in the military" during setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine.of the international discussion of men in any particular historical the war. 5 in the Gulf conflict the same defense officials decided that much expanded next page > previous page (though less than candid) coverage of women sent abroad would bolster popular support for the war. At the same time. the image and reality of American women soldiers call for special attention. In the decade of the 1990s. Defense Department's that ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers influenced byanother CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD coverage was deeply relate to one OF in those gendered ways efforts to get the sort of coverage that militarization. For all of these reasonsthe U.S. buy it! next page > ." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their owngovernment of This portrait would have been distorted even if the news coverage had been immune to perceptions manliness and femininity. we are now learningthat became the basis for most one must chart how women and sanitized one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! this or any other war is thus largely dependent on what the U. Western European Union (WEU) or the increasingly active United Nations peacekeeping force. It doesn't have to be this way. crossnational ripples.

" Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. when those women who were deployed were made virtually invisible. ideological salience for policymakers or the general public. and daughters on the fringes of those institutions.8 One might imagine. made so unpopular by the long Vietnam War.< previous page page_101 page_206 next page > Page 206 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. when most women in uniform were deliberately demobilized. buy it! rediscovered women. femininity legitimized by supportive backstage roles as military wives. if any. buy it! next page > . Congress ended the male draft.S. During World War II there was an awkward tension between. More importantly. Fearing that an all-volunteer force would become disproportionately reliant page_101 < on African-American men. it seems. 6 During the period between the end of World War II. on the other. It is more accurate. and the end of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s. femininity legitimized by direct participation inside explicitly military institutions and. But the developments that made headlines during the war had been in the making since 1972. uniform. surprised many women in militarization. especially reservists. their role in the military had little.7 women comprised less than 2 percent of American uniformed personnel. That was the year that the U. they had more freedom to carve out their own niches and to outmaneuver FBI lesbian-baiters. They If you like this book. Some women who managed to stay in the militaryoverwhelmingly. however. to see the militarization of femininity during those years as simply reconstructed upon women's postwar demobilization. From 1946 until 1972 femininity was imagined by American government policymakers and nongovernment proponents of Cold War culture in a fashion that would harmonize with militarized national security < previous page page_206 If you like this book. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be <><><><><><><><><><><><> "feminine. but many of them lot of also attempted tohad not policies to ensure that the The 1990-91Gulf War may have surprised a have Americans who design paid much attention to civilians and soldiers relate to one another in thosemilitary. girlfriends. on the one hand. white womenreport that their invisibility had its advantages: because their presence was of so little interest. "manpower" planners inside the Defense Department and innext page > previous page the powerful congressional armed services committees apparently looked to other sources for military recruits. then. that American femininity was demilitarized between 1946 and 1972. Itways that ease the complicated process of gendered transformations taking place inside their gendered even.

If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY 9 With the U. Likewise. the gendered trends developing in the others. Thus. or even at odds with. militarized ideal of American femininity. It would be easier to make sense of this history. as page_101 was replaced by the Cold War in American > previous page next page gendered political culture. one must chart male women and working in particular historical setting comprehend what of feminine behavior that sustained the Cold men in any intelligence servicesall were upholding forms it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. if we could picture each of these arenas as producing ideas that flowed smoothly into and thus reinforced developments in the neighboring arenas. there was less ideological confusion over. American femininity.< previous page page_101 page_207 next page > Page 207 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. But. <><><><><><><><><><><><> The history of how these tensions over American femininity emerged in the period from 1972 to 1991 was played out in several arenas simultaneously. but the right thing to support their sons in accepting their draft call-up. the media remains fragmented THE THE < previous page page_207 If you like this book. but they were proving that they could hold on to their respectability while serving as the hot war < patriotic mothers and patriotic wives. to offset the end of the male draft and to forestall a reliance on African-American male volunteers. Perhaps most closely monitored of the arenas where the image of American militarized femininity was being created was that of the media. a great deal more popular as well as official attention was devoted to the tensions between these two notions of militarized femininity." Not only have government and school officials been the dangers of Communism. Foreign Warsall of them. buy it! militarization of. but not necessarily less UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. of course. It may very well be that the politics of militarized femininity going on in one arena were relatively unconnected to. mothers War.S. were fulfilling this Cold War. But we cannot take such a flow for granted. Loyal wives of male engineers working for defense contractors. loyal wives of how officials goals. who believed they were doing many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those patriotic ways that ease the as the Veterans of women who felt proud in doing volunteer work for gendered organizations such complicated process of militarization. despite all the concentration of American media power in the past twenty years. None of these women were making the sorts of sacrifices recognized as bestowing first-class citizenship. buy it! next page > . as well. women teaching elementarymilitary children aboutaffected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. government's decision to vastly increase the numbers and proportions of women in the military.

all Democrats and. comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. buy it! next page > . male military veterans and female military veterans (with their own distinct as well as overlapping magazines and newsletters). able to command considerable committee-level influence: Patricia Schroeder from Colorado. rather than as a single generator chart how women and femininity particular historical setting men in anyor of the woman soldier. those agents which took part in been affected by their own perceptions the manliness and femininity. women returning to their communities as veterans. < previous page page_208 If you like this book. It matters that. given the Democratic majorities in both houses during the 1980s and into the 1990s. women fighting to stay in the If you likeand women being dismissed from the military. feminists of all racial communities. military. but many of them have also attempted tothe burgeoning specialized media. a period of growing tensions between the two constructions of American militarized femininity. one must of images of militarized enough to require considering it in some detail. Chief among those was the Congress. Most were initiated by three women in the House of Representatives. there also were actors in other arenas actively trying to define issues and lessons concerning women's increasing presence in the U. < women in the service academies. Beverly Byron from Maryland (defeated in her 1992 reelection bid). Latinos that ease the complicated process of particularly created by and to one another in those gendered ways (especially with the buildup of the militarization. gay men and lesbians. women leaving home for the military. enlisted men working alongside > women as peers. Each of these outlets carried stories about women in "boot camp" (basic training).S. this book. From 1972 to 1990. wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador)."American have government and military officials creating both images included not only of Within the Not only media. The congressional armed services committeesparticularly the personnel subcommittees in the House and Senateheld repeated hearings on women soldiers over the last two decades. and Barbara Boxer from California (now one of California's two women senators). Each military. mass-market print and electronic media (news and fiction) but also design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relatedirected at African-Americans.< previous page page_101 page_208 next page > Page 208 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Two stories about women in boot camp could look very different if one was constructed in order to interest a mostly male veteran readership while the other was designed to engage a feminist readership. male officerspage_101 previous page next page training women recruits. buy it! story was written or filmed with a particular audience in mind. while the Defense Department did not initiate its energetic recruitment of women in the 1970S because of congressional women's pressure.

During the past two decades. by must chart media in the late by the time the new generations of women recruits were being noticed onethe popular how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" Representatives.11 THE THE < previous page page_209 If you like this book.but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO attract coverage from the most influential of BY civilians and hand. or big-city newspapers. these organized interest sectors paid generally sporadic and occasionally concentrated attention to issues involving women in the military. it was far from being a media event page_101 < on the scale of the Clarence Thomas/Anita Hill hearings. African-American civil rights groups. When the Military Personnel and Compensation Subcommittee of the House Committee on Armed Services held its post-Panama hearings in March 1990 on women in the military. the discussion remained relatively confined to the leaders and other specialists within each of these sectors. the wire services. they barely caused a stir in the news UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you of ordinaryPDF it! 10 If CHM TO Americans.< previous page page_101 page_209 next page > Page 209 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. there were enough women in Congress (the great majority in the House ofand what it meansonly "feminine. In doing so. to be 1980s. when the proportion of women recruited into the military grew from a mere z percent to a substantialand very visible11 percent. the popular newsweeklies. But at other times. control of women soldiers. civil liberties lawyers. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY Called to testify before these congressional committees have been representatives of high school career counselors' organizations. their leaders sometimes shaped the lens through which people identifying with a particular profession or movement viewed women as soldiers. television networks. and the conference did not set off discussions among ordinary members of the black community about the black woman soldier. For instance. relatively little attention was directed to the rapidly growing numbers of black women enlistees. these congressional hearings didgendered ways that ease the complicated process On the other soldiers relate to one another in those not PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. While the 1990 hearings werenext page > previous page monitored by some women's advocacy groups and by the Defense Department. peace organizations. outlets that affect the political consciousness like this book. buy it! next page > . and gay rights groups. although a prominent black civil rights research center organized a conference in the mid1980s to bring together civil rights leaders and Defense Department officials to discuss the particular problems facing blacks in the military." Not only Senate) with enough military to have been affected by their own imagining and two then being in the have government andseniority officialsan impact on the legislative perceptions of manliness and femininity.

often with the help of self-consciously honed public policy. But the day when we will may not be far off.18 <><><><><><><><><><><><> The 1989 revolutions in Eastern Europe brought about the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and a surge of demilitarization. of they become. the more we have exposed the human decision making that undergirds much of masculinity. do be "manly" and what it means "feminine. Czech. others in historical to design policies to there that civilians new soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the have been uncomfortable that this and attention to masculinity could reinvigorate patriarchy. and Japanese feminist scholars energetically at work right now charting the masculinist assumptions that have guided the distinctively post-World War II profession of international relations research. If you like this book.invested for many years in and been hard for many people to accept. 16 Still. We don't yet have feminist-informed studies of such male-dominated institutions as the United Nations Security Council or the Central Intelligence Agency. but it might keep you afloat until the > previous embrace next page sea calms down. There are serious beginnings military officials been affected by their own perceptions manlinesssomefemininity. buy it! next page > . this demilitarization was not guided by feminist insights into the causes of militarization." Not only have government and in exploring how and why masculinity is constructed. European. and Romanian women played central roles in the grass-roots organizing that made the eventual upheavals possible. the more we have learned about the deliberate efforts to circumscribe women's behavior. materialistic.ensureis a danger however: and in works of social theorizing. Hungarian. those conducting the valuable investigations of masculinity start from the essential feminist discovery that we can make sense of men's gendered reactions only if we take women's experiences seriously. "unfeminine" Soviet or Polish woman to justify their Cold War policies.19 In a mirror image of Western anti-Communist regimes' needing the symbol of the overworked. But although Polish. demilitarizing social has been one must chart how women men in any us to believe that men "naturally" feel what theymeans towhat they do.< previous page page_101 page_21 next page > Page 101 That masculinity is socially constructed. Already we have a Canadian feminist's analysis of the International Labor Organization. For the significant work now being done on masculinity is not a repopulating of the political landscape with men in the name of postmodernism. has Whether one is tracing militarizing orMuch political energyprocesses. the Communist regimes had depended on feminism's being so tainted by its association with Western bourgeois individualism that no woman in their own nations would be inspired by feminist analyses or aspirations. the restlessness of women in Eastern Europe < previous page page_21 If you like this book. but many of them have also attempted case studies. and become whatto be persuading particular historical setting comprehend what it feel. buy it! It is a misplaced hope. attention paid to women with the advent of feminist journalism and of with the serious Page 21 women's studies might reach out to the burgeoning literature on masculinity the way a panicked page_101 < swimmer wouldpage an alligator: it's not the ideal lifesaver. East German. Indeed. Without the image of the selfabsorbed.17 And there are North American. Rather. man-hating Western feminist to combat. Those who complicated process of militarization.

and Middle Eastern peace work (the principal areas of American feminist peace activism during the 1970s and 1980s) unprepared for the politics of gendered image-making during the Gulf War. Most American tracing militarizing or paid scant attention toprocesses. American patriot or out of any commitment to the Reagan or Bush administration's global interventionism but out of the apolitical desire to obtain an income. and health benefits fast disappearing elsewhere in an era of high defense spending. buy it! next page > . training. the National Organization of Women. Indeed. while understandable. of women chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means the 1970s and 1980s has means to the emergence of peace activism within the women's movement in to be "manly" and what itmade the be "feminine." Not only military seem to and military officials been affected by their own feminists have issue of women in thehave government be either trivial or ideologically awkward. legislative. They used the concept of first-class citizenship much as the woman suffragists had done two generations earlier.< previous page page_101 page_210 next page > Page 210 101 Whether one is feminist groups have demilitarizing social the issue one must in the military. Central American. This VERSION inattention. and executive deliberations that shaped ideas about militarized femininity. public service cuts. the Women's Research and Education Institute. buy it! against reality. have been of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OFfor military service notCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians a poor woman who one another in those gendered ways that a desire complicated process soldier asand soldiers relate to volunteers CHM TO PDF out of ease the to earn the status of of militarization. and economic recession. On the other hand. most feminist groups did not feel that the image of the > previous page next page woman soldier was significant enough to merit using their very scarce resources to checking that image UNREGISTERED presumption andOF you like this book. When perceptions of manliness the issue. These groups seemed to feel most comfortable when they could treat equality inside the institution of the military and the government's use of the military overseas as separate questions. left many feminists who were BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD active in antinuclear. Questions about peace or militarism were less likely to be raised. It was the classically liberal women's advocacy organizations with national agendas and offices in Washingtonfor instance. these THE THE < previous page page_210 If you like this book. They deliberately intervened in judicial. they but many inclined to reconcile conflicting values by portraying the woman focused onand femininity. trying to influence male state officials' perceptions of femininity. Each of these organizations collected data on military women and in their newsletters addressed issues concerning fairness. and particularly the now-defunct Women's Equity Action Leaguethat did investigate the realities of the lives of women soldiers. page_101 < While this portrait may often have been correct.

buy it! next page > . the must chart how women and Washington-based feminists were more curious about and sensitive to one race and class diversity of men in beginning to historical setting welcoming what it than were other feminist what it They to be women any particularenlist in the newlycomprehend militarymeans to be "manly" and groups. meanswere "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_211 next page > Page 211 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." The Cold War against the Soviet Union and the Communist threat in general could not. peace movement. While DACOWITS had few connections with civil rights. DACOWITS (the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in The Services) has been the preeminent actor within the department. peace. Its members adopted a mandate to search out and publicly report sexist barriers to women's advancement in the three branches of the military. Consequently. In both defining and supporting the post-1972 woman soldier. taking up issues of sexual attentive to relationships between men and womenalso attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that than did feminists working in the harassment and of masculinized divisions of labor more systematically ease the complicated process of militarization. when the government was using few women but wanted to reassure the public that those it did use were conforming to American Cold War conventions of feminine respectability. "Readiness" soon became the criterion wielded by all Washington insiders who tried to influence military personnel policies during the Reagan years." And they were more of manliness and femininity." portray have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions less likely toNot onlyall women volunteers as victims of the "poverty draft. but many of them have inside the military. DACOWITS is made up of prominent civilian womenand now military officers as welland reports directly to the Secretary of Defense. Created during the Korean War. it was these national groups that were best prepared after the Gulf War to respond to the infamous Tailhook scandal involving sexual harassment on a grand scale. Although filled during the 1980s with Republican women appointeeswomen who generally rejected any affiliation with feminismDACOWITS gradually became activist on its own terms. 12 If you like this book. DACOWITS argued. It did so in the name of optimizing national security and military "readiness. buy it! The Department of Defense is itself a complex mesh of interlocking but not always harmonious ideological actors. be effectively waged if women soldiers' full talents were not used and rewarded. And it was the women in these Washington-based liberal women's organizations (and a handful of feminist page_101 < academics known to these groups) that mainstream television and press reporters turned to when previous page next page > constructing images of the woman soldier in August 1990. or < previous page page_211 If you like this book.

Thus the ideological discourses and actual policies derived from notions about militarized femininity are sometimes quite different in the navy. occasionally." She was. by contrast. DACOWITS obtained a certain political legitimacy for that and. military continues to be organized into bureaucratically separate. officials been affected by their own perceptions of Congressional armed have government and militaryWashington-based liberal women's organizations. Although the men filling this position were Republicans within an administration that was singularly uninterested in women's issues. By the 1970s. to be "feminine. Not just the navy's "tailhooker" carrier pilots. TO eyesways that ease thewas not a victim of the militarization. buyprofessionalized citizen-patriot. with their celebrated sense of masculine bravado. buy it! next page > . DACOWITS > previous page next page may have become an architect of the image of the American woman soldier that was disseminated at the UNREGISTERED VERSIONsoldierCHMthis book. and antiquated bureaucratic rules that were out of step with In the process < changes in technology and battlefield doctrine. For instance. the U. CONVERTER STANDARD BY DACOWITS engaged with a multitude of ideological players in the corridors of the Pentagon. though not always equipped with bureaucratic clout. but press. feminist groups tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. had ready access to the Defense Secretary and to congressional committees.< previous page page_101 page_212 next page > Page 212 101 Whether one is and therefore had minimal impact on those groups' perceptions chart woman soldier. complicated process of soldiers' concerns about equity.page_101 of working toward its goals. and marines. a competent female citizen whose public contributions to national defense and whose respectability as a woman were being jeopardized by male soldiers' sexual harassment. air force. one must of thehow women and it men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means did have a political status that got its members a hearing with Defense Department senior officials. services. The civilian. the nationalmany of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure women UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM in the PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered of DACOWITS." Not only service committee members. they generally supported the proposition that the military needed women to enlistand reenlist. presidentially appointed under-secretary for manpower and logistics. many military insiders were not surprised it was the navy that was home to the men who threw the misogynist Tailhook party in Las Vegas in September 1991. manliness and femininity. male superiors' complacency. but the entire navy had the reputation of being especially THE THE < previous page page_212 If you like this book. army.S. often rival. A woman soldier. the department's equal opportunity office was fully institutionalized. "poverty draft. instead. Unlike its Canadian and British counterparts. 13 outset of the Gulf War: the woman OF you like TO PDF it! If as a still-feminine.

who conducted the reviewthe commander of the Naval Investigative Service." Not only have government up military officials been affected by their own perceptions on navy's institutional resistance to giving andtheir historically masculinized culture was what had goneof manliness and femininity. topless dancers. Edwin Dorn of the Brookings Institution. went on to explain to the congressional representatives that the admiral "thought the gesture was funny. buy it! next page > . buy it! The deeply institutionalized defensiveness that permeated the navy was uncovered when an independent investigation was ordered of the navy's own mismanaged initial investigation of the infamous Tailhook convention. an assistant secretary of the Navy. Atalso attempted to design policies to ensure billed as a civilians and soldiers ''an admiral another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated question professional seminar. the same admiral was told by one of his own agents that a women officer assaulted during the convention had recalled saying to her attackers. held what witnesses described as a "screaming match" in a Pentagon corridor with a senior civilian woman official. or hookers. opined that "a lot of female Navy pilots are go-go dancers. An officer who responded so page > < men in the audience who were sporting 'not in page_101 previous page next dismissively to a question about a racial issue probably would have been disciplined. and it probably was to the my unit' buttons. relate to onecrawled under a table to avoid answering a female officer'sprocess of militarization. an admiral. "What the fuck do you < previous page page_213 If you like this book. one must chart how women and men in any particular to investigate the Tailhook scandal noted that be "manly" and what it of the during hearings calledhistorical setting comprehend what it means to perhaps more indicativemeans to be "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_213 next page > Page 213 101 Whether one is exclusivist male culture. but many of them have what the Tailhook convention organizers that in Las Vegas before the much-publicized party. In a particularly damning episode described in detail by the Defense Department's Deputy Inspector General. about opportunities for women pilots. The Defense Department's Office of the Inspector General found that the navy's own effort to find out what had happened in Las Vegas and why was seriously flawed."16 At another time during the navy's own attempt to look into the affair." The witness. The civilian official had protested when the admiral. a respected monitor of the American military's treatment of African-Americans. because of senior investigatory officers' desire to protect not just particular colleagues but also their own institution from outside criticism. 14 One witness before the House Armed Services Committee protective of itstracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. a key figure in controlling the direction of the initial investigation of the Tailhook affair."15 If you like this book.

buy it! next page > . and to congressional committees. officers of women without the U. computer technicians. but Force. deliberately sought out jobs as administrators. men who had been recruited partly with the promise that joining the military would confirm their manliness. as it includes the page_101 < combat units of infantry and armored divisions.S. and its male recruits in particular tend to be immature." Thus.< previous page page_101 page_214 next page > Page 214 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing woman NIS agent told a later investigator] I'll think you're doing?" The admiral responded"and [thesocial processes. armies in most countries. Marines feared that even a small proportion of women in their combat-heavy service would threaten its deeply masculinized image. one must chart how women and remember particular historical setting comprehend what the F word on a regular basis would welcome men in anythis quote forever-'Any woman that would use it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. many Policymakers femininity. It has to service.19 And finally there were the women soldiers themselvesthough "soldiers" is a somewhat misleading term here. though that CHM may PDF CONVERTER recruit such large numbers of people that it cannot be as selective as the other services can. of course. like many of their male counterparts.S. The Army. ethnically and UNREGISTERED the U. Manythough not all of these officers were mainly concerned about the morale of their men. particularly publications aimed at veterans.S. wielded the potent national security concept of "readiness.18 The male officers in the field who were commanding troops in the 1970s and 1980s often were far more ambivalent than their civilian Defense Department superiors about the wisdom of or need for deploying women in traditionally masculinized jobs. likeIf you like this book. Army. foundwaysthey ease of supportSTANDARD BY civilians and soldiers controllers for OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTERlarge numbers of relate to one another in those gendered that that could recruit the complicated process of mechanics and flight militarization. By contrast. too. is also combat-heavy. nurses. and THE THE < previous page page_214 If you like this book. which have also attempted to design roles that UNREGISTERED VERSION each fighterapilot).. But it also stands out because of its need for page > previous page next "manpower. Air many of themhas relatively high proportionpolicies to ensure(e. Some of these male officers had access to the press. For many women who joined the uniformed forces." but they used it to argue that women had no place at the front and that those women who wanted to be there were raising questions about their own femininity and patriotism. They." Not only 17 this type of activity.' "have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness andfor the U. buy it! tends to be the mostSTANDARD BY economically diverseVERSION OF diversityTO be carefully arranged hierarchically.g. jeopardizing the masculinized construction of their combat elite.

like many men. for instance. one must chart how women and men in own internalized feminine identities. education. wanted the training. A 1992 survey of 868 army women. jobs that were militarizeddemilitarizing social processes. tended to be those most outspoken about existing bans on women in combat. What they wanted most. These were the women with perhaps the biggest stake in ensuring that veterans' health and educational benefits were designed to fit women veterans' needs and were sustained by a budget-conscious Congress. not the opportunity to wield instruments of direct violence." kind and was government and military officials been Commission on the perceptions of largest of itsNot only have solicited by the presidentially appointedaffected by their ownAssignment of manliness the femininity. they were not necessarily imagining enlisted personnel wanted the ban on women those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. revealed that while 60 percent attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in in combat lifted. but many of them have also of women officers and 54 percent of women Women in and Military. Only 15 percent of the army women surveyed in the aftermath of the Gulf page_101 < War expressed apageto serve in combat roles. they reported. which was one of the or their any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. and steady income that the military provided. independence from families. They themselves. 20 you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_215 next page > Page 215 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or but which did not jar the masculinization of American soldiering nutritionists. buy it! If Women in uniform themselves did not have a monolithic image of their own femininity or of the military's impact on it. These were the women who saw themselves as staying in the service for twenty years and so tagged combat exclusion as a principal barrier to their promotion. One gets the impression that it was the women careeriststhe officerswho were more likely to have the confidence and the contacts to speak out when they felt they were being harassed or being denied a hearing by their immediate superiors. Enlisted women often were more frustrated by day-to-day harassment and by the military's inadequate medical services for women. The women officers are the ones who have been most apt to be in contact with the liberal women advocates in Washington and most likely to be interviewed by congressional subcommittees and television talk-show hosts. thus privileging their < previous page page_215 If you like this book. were institutional > previous desire next page reforms that would remove the barriers currently barring women from promotions. Women career officers. The combat ban. buy it! next page > . was the spikiest barrier. they said. themselves as combat volunteers.

wartime needs in the 1940s. And because only 19 what it of all to be "manly" in what it 1990s are the American woman historical setting comprehend percent meanswomen officersandthe earlymeans to be "feminine.S. House of Representatives Armed Services Subcommittee on Personnel in France or Turkey? Do women's groups with equal opportunity agendas have access to the "manpower" bureaucrats in the defense ministries in Britain or Italy? Have gay liberation activists turned their attention to homophobia inside the military in Israel or India? Do racial minority rights organizations monitor discrimination inside the military with the help of state-established agencies in Canada or Germany? Do Australian or Dutch base commanders agree with most American base commanders' decision to carry pornographic magazines on their base newsstands?22 For all the outpouring of recent feminist scholarship on World War II. page_101 < previous page next page > Do journalists from the mainstream national media in Japan or Norway call on field officers to voice their opinions VERSION soldiers? UNREGISTERED on their women OF you like this book. Such an examination also prompts us obvious process to ask hard questions about how the image of the woman soldier is constructed and reconstructed in other countries as well.< previous page page_101 page_216 next page > Page 216 101 Whether and their experiences in the demilitarizing social processes. buy it! next page > ." Not only have 21 white women careerists' ideas have tended to receive the perceptions of African-American women. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Is there an equivalent of the U. in either the Cold War or the post-Cold War era.S. manliness and American image-makingthem have also attempted to design policies to ensure that These distinct femininity.notways that ease theof them separately of BY civilians us that the VERSION OF in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD gendered been constructed through someprocess or complicated simple reminds and soldiers relate of militarized femininity has militarization. one must creating women and concerns one is tracing militarizing orcomplex cultural political process that waschart howthe image of men in any particular soldier. we still today have only an incomplete picture of the interactive processes that redefined and/or entrenched American femininity and masculinity to suit U. But what we have THE THE < previous page page_216 If you like this book.government and military officials been affected by their own most visibility. but many of arenas do But looking at each UNREGISTEREDideologyto one another CHM overlap.

These women called officials in Washington and insisted that such a policy not only was unfair to women but also threatened to undermine the much-valued esprit de corps within the < previous page page_217 If you like this book. By 1983. <><><><><><><><><><><><> War were the < The military operations that preceded the Gulfpage_101 occasions for several of these ideological > previous page next page arenas of the 1980s to overlap in ways that highlighted the contradictions between the two forms of militarized American femininity. setting comprehend what itIt is with this "manly" and what it means turn "feminine. due to the skillful internal lobbying of a handful of women officers. At Fort Bragg.< previous page page_101 page_217 next page > Page 217 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. In fact. Defense Department civilian officials. the main launching point for the Grenada invasion. Whereas DACOWITS. and Washington-based liberal women's advocacy groups were the principal actors shaping the image of the woman soldier between 1972 and 1983. civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. one must chart very particular learned from this burgeoning work is that those earlier ideological processes involved how women and men in any particular historical resources. military male and female officers. and limitations. This higher visibility was on the minds of Defense Department public relations officials when they did their best to limit the mainstream media's coverage of women's roles in the invasion. the Grenada invasion opened up the regendered military to wider popular view. congressional committees. buy it! next page > . The 1983 invasion of Grenada and the 1989 invasion of Panama If you like this book. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that War." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of our attention to the construction of images of Americanor any other country'swomen soldiers in the Gulf manliness and femininity. specialized academic researchers. several women officers saw that they were about to be separated from their assigned units and thus deprived of the chance to take part in the Caribbean operation. buy it! becamequite consciouslygendered precursors to Operation Desert Storm. those roles were widerand closer to the masculinized inner sanctum of combatthan many members of the American public had realized. these women had become committed to making the senior grades and had learned that the obstacles put in the way of their careerist aspirations could be surmounted only by leap-frogging over their immediate superiors. means to be awareness that we need to to be actors with their own anxieties.

buy aCONVERTER STANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF war as having besmirched or even corrupted any U. Military operations in 1989 would be morally just and professionally conducted. Women ever to masculinized frontline roles. 170 American women soldiers took part in one must chart how women and divided units." Not only have careerists and their Washington supporters. it seemed less threatening to respectable femininity for eight hundred U. The result was But this time. Women soldiers' femininity. hence more popular debate over women's proper roles in the military. in the eyes of many Americans. Neither soldiers taking drugs nor soldiers frequenting prostitutes made the headlines during the Panama invasion. it! that was seen by many Americans UNREGISTERED VERSION OFof the entire book. buy it! next page > .< previous page page_101 page_218 next page > Page 218 101 Whether one Eventually." The specter of Vietnama war that had tainted the image you like this military. the Panama invasion six yearsof For many of these women government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions manlinessaand femininity. soldier who took part in itwas being exorcised in Panama. Consequently. be "manly" and what it teams. Was she in combat? The question was politically salient enough to require a response from the president's own press officer. signal corps specialists. public support and was portrayed as short and "clean.is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. The most widely reported incident treadingand definingthis fine line during the Panama invasion came when Captain Linda Bray led a small team of male soldiers to take a well-defended Panamanian military dog kennel. The Defense Department claimed that Captain Bray's operation was not combat and that the military was upholding the long-standing ban on women in combat.S. however. The discussion. The press and the general public were less sure.S. interrogators. could be sustained even close to the front lines if they conducted themselves professionally and if their behavior increased America's respectability in the world. but many of a regendering ofattempted to design policies to ensure that later was logical next step in forcing them have also battle maneuvers. 23 be "feminine.the invasionas military police. men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to and members of bomb means to helicopter pilots. press and and BY civilians and soldiers relate be one another in safe TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD television media refused to to kept such a those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of much wider coverage of militarization. was affected by the overall cultural politics of the Panama invasion. There were no stories told of rape. women soldiers to be involved in this war. but next page > they were doing < were indeed revealed to be inching closer thanpage_101 previous page so in a war that had broad U. But there was no popular delegitimation of the war following the Bray story.S. THE THE < previous page page_218 If you like this book. UNREGISTERED VERSIONatOF CHMdistance. truck drivers.

She ways that ease the complicated soldiers occurs. The great majority of them were positive. But inside the military. buy it! next page > The stage was now set for American image-making during the 1990-91 Persian Gulf War.< previous page page_101 page_219 next page > Page 219 101 Whether one was new activism on or part of women in Congress to one must chart how ban Instead. Moreover. if they did soaffected by their with professionalof manliness and femininity. The policy resulted in a flood of stories about American women in the Gulf. Now we know that stories of rape and assault by American male soldiers on their female comrades were not reported either by field commanders or by journal- < previous page page_219 If you like this book. It was emboldened by public opinion polls that showed a majority in favor of widening women's military roles. of them units where so much to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers Bray experienced new pressures. investigations (which found no misdeeds). but many in field have also attempted of the daily construction of women competence. Women made up 12 percent of the total U. African-American. since the Panama invasion showed how artificialmeans to behow accepting the Americanto be "feminine. with no media notice." Not only have government and military officials been voluntarily and own perceptions public was of having women serve in frontline roles. But it was the Army that stood out: black women had signed up and re-enlisted in such extraordinary numbers in the 1980s that on the eve of the Gulf War they constituted 47 percent of the enlisted women in the armyfour times their proportion among women in American society. That particular gender battle had been won. Linda Bray. In April 1991. and Native American women together made up 38 percent of all women in the four branches. 24 < previous page page_101 <><><><><><><><><><><><> If you like this book.25 When the Bush administration deployed thousands of troops to Saudi Arabia following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Latina. Asian-American. who resented all the media attention she had received. she was mistrusted by her troops. military active-duty force.dismantle the combatwomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it it was and "manly" and what it means altogether. no attempts were made like those witnessed in 1983 to cull women from units that might serve in near-combat roles. left the military. buy it! next page > .S. Lindarelate to one another in those genderedand her unit were subjected to process of militarization. the Pentagon seemed more confident that the military's public legitimacy would not be undermined if it allowed the mainstream mass media to cover women soldiers. thereis tracing militarizing thedemilitarizing social processes. she tried to match physically the men she served with and ultimately broke her hip.

with its promises of material wellbeing and free markets. Those few feminists who warned that reunification without feminist guarantees could be a disaster for women were seen as out of step. During those turbulent months. BY masculinist presumptions about power or in those gendered ways Communist complicated process of civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. one Olga Havelhow women and men in famous in her own right rather than as an imprisoned playwright's loyal and But. 20 It often appeared ahead of male-led organizing because the regime was preoccupied with monitoring the masculinized coffee houses and universities and thus was page_101 < caught unprepared for the political activism that flowed out of the theaters and the churches. Whereas the bringing down of the old regime had been a process shaped by struggles between politicized women and men in East Germany. and book. Thus.21 Democratization and demilitarization have commonly been presumed to serve women's interests. Cities such as Berlin. built diverse umbrella organizations. But even these consciously feminist women of East Germany couldn't direct the course of the next stage. Soon after. German reunification was a virtually all-male political process. buy it! a while they couldn't be ignored by the male contestants for power. the government-to-government bargaining sessions that ultimately produced German reunification.< previous page page_101 page_22 next page > Page 101 Page 22 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing action much earlier. men were not design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF public life until after the that ease the regimes had crumbled. sites of previous page next page > women's organizing.what it means to be "feminine. but many of them have also attempted to challenged to rethink their own glimmers of organized feminist consciousness. 12 percent of single mothers in eastern Germany would be among the ranks of the unemployed. buy it! next page > . many East German women joined many East German men in voting for Helmut Kohl's Christian Democratic Party. initially appeared to provide a contrast. within two years after reunification. unlike the becomeany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly"wife. women's groups presented detailed UNREGISTERED VERSION OF youautumn mobilized thousands of women inSTANDARD BY If CHMthis like TO PDF CONVERTER public rallies." Not only and government and military officials been affected informed by only the faintest revolutions in Eritrea haveNicaragua. Demilitarization loosens the bond between THE THE < previous page page_22 If you like this book. Even they might have found it hard to believe that. must chart might have might have translated into gender-conscious politicalsocial processes. For platforms. most of those in Eastern Europe wereby their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. They wedged their way into the bargaining rooms and into the transitional regime. Dresden. and Weimar were East Germany the sites of feminist organizing in 1989.

In the post-draft U. and an officer. militarized culture. But that control was insisted upon not by the U.Vietnam war. rape. civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that easein which formal education This is an accolade that carries great positive value in an American society the complicated process of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_220 next page > Page 220 101 Whether one is the war. this war was under strict sexual control. 26 Assisting in this image-making was the seeming sexual orderliness of the Gulf War. protecting military information and bolstering the morale of her male subordinatesas more important than worrying about her sexual well-being. she went to great lengths to explain to journalists that she had downplayed this admittedly unpleasant incident because. were portrayed as acting like professionals. No other U. but by the Saudi regime of King Fahd. finally admitted that she had been sexually assaulted by one of her Iraqi captors. buy it! next page > . she counted other challenges she faced as a prisoner of warfor instance. A professional woman soldier." Not only have government and military officials women. The media stories dealt with the latter anxiety.S. Unlike the U. ally had < previous page page_220 If you like this book.maximum mediahow women and men in were portrayed as doing a job comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means soldiersany particular historical settingand in so doing enhancing the country's military competence. This was a highly unusualperhaps uniqueagreement for the U. book. Even women reservists and enlistedbeen affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity.S. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that professionals in the sense of intending a military career. To be a "pro" means to be taken seriously. when the massive viewing audience assured one must chart influence. buy and boyfriends left behind. the Saudi government required that the U. it appeared. a new form of guaranteed respectability.S. government prohibit both alcohol and prostitution in its Saudi operations. it! common in World War II. which was filled with stories of prostitutes.S. Fearing that its internal fundamentalist opposition would exploit any rumors of sexual promiscuity to challenge the regime's political legitimacy. women ists. But during tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. a year after the war.to be "feminine. being a professional was no longer at odds with being a citizen-patriot. > previous page next page was neither morally loose nor suspiciously manly. so If you like this children. military to enter into. When Major Rhonda Cornum. government. and drugs. as a professional soldier. Professionalism also provided a page_101 < protective shield.S. a flight surgeon. and publicly conferred licensing have come to be seen as guarantors of social respect and economic success.S. many of whom were not They were professionals. by emphasizing husbands.

So when the Pentagon began calling up whole reserve units from around the THE THE < previous page page_221 If you like this book. With the Pentagon's blessingsince military couples reduce rival loyaltiesgrowing numbers of wives and husbands had enlisted together in the reserves in the 1980s. often veterans of active-duty forces. it was often a necessary source of income to make middleclass ends meet. Not be "manly" and most U. women discovered that they could satisfy their desire to take part in unusual physical activities and perhaps acquire new skills without having to choose between military participation and having a family. it was the story of the mother-as-soldier page_101 < leaving her infant in the care of a mere father or perhaps a grandmother. pay from military reserve duty had begun to look as though it would provide a welcome financial cushionwith virtually no risk.< previous page page_101 page_221 next page > Page 221 101 Whether to impose such a condition. buy it! next page > . not the least of which is extra pay. soldiersanythis war without losing theircomprehend what it means tountil a year after what it means to be "feminine." Not only crewshad gone home would American women soldiers their to tell stories which troopsand the camera have government and military officials been affected bybegin own perceptions of manliness and femininity. In addition. The reserves hold several attractions. who hold civilian jobs during the week and commit themselves to military duty several weekends each year. one must chart how women managed one is tracing militarizing orIt seemed to guarantee that American women could serve as and men in in particular historical setting feminine respectability. but many and brothels also attempted a design policies to ensure that made it clear that the ban on alcohol of them have did not provide to watertight guarantee that American UNREGISTEREDwould not suffer indignities at the hands of their comrades. More than just a cushion. buy CONVERTER plan for a time UNREGISTEREDrealized that the Defense DepartmentPDF it! years had begun to STANDARD BY If CHM TO in recent when the active-duty forces would be subjected to personnel cuts by an increasingly budget-conscious Congress. By the eve of the Gulf War. demilitarizing social processes. women comprised 13 percent of all military reserve soldiers. previous page next page > The public had not VERSION OF you like this book. The department's personnel planners had started to integrate the reserves into their regular battle planning. If there was one media theme that momentarily shook the legitimacy of the gendered American military. The most controversial aspect of mobilizing forty thousand women in a force of half a million Americans to fight in Saudi Arabia was motherhood.S. In an era when many young families could not meet mortgage and car payments without the contribution of two salaries. 27 STANDARD BY civilians and field relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of women in thesoldiersVERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER militarization. The reserves are made up of men and women.

Two body bags"did not have the to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of But the two stories that many observers were anticipating would shatter the apparent acceptance of manliness suchfemininity. The image that fit feminist peace activists' perception of the U. American women became prisoners of war. to battle women who were taken prisoner design policies to"came home in women in and proximity but many of them have also attempted to and women who ensure that civilians and soldiers relate negative effects that were expected. buy it! quality of the "front" and "rear" distinction for a decade. This was an image that liberal women's advocates in the Congress. In fact. The American image that came out of the Gulf War was of the professionalized. buy it! next page > . could ''die for their country. The emergence of the militarized image must give pause to those feminists who argue that militarism is integral to American patriarchyincluding feminists who supply the intellectual context and energy for campaigns and institutions all over the country. state and its role in the worldthe woman joining up to escape povertydid not gain much credence in the popular culture as a result of this war. in the officer corps. even if they censored their own accounts of their ordeals. These events had an effect quite contrary to that foreseen by many nervous policymakers. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend treated this development with surprise and dismay. the American military women who died had the chance to prove that women. Feminist observers had been pointing out the mythical If you like this book. five in combat. The media country. many young women foundor demilitarizing social processes. and in Washington lobbying organizations had been constructing and promoting for the past two decades.< previous page page_101 page_222 next page > Page 222 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing themselves having to leave behind very small children. but now the general public could see for itself. what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Thirteen women died in the war. militarized woman patriot. For these women's experiences made clearer page_101 < than ever that being confined to noncombat jobs did not assure protection from capture next death > previous page or even page given the weaponry of contemporary warfare.S. like men. And it wasn't for lack of coverage. and both survived." Violence under state discipline for the sake of sacrifice for the nation thus remained the norm for American first-class citizenship. in DACOWITS. <><><><><><><><><><><><> < previous page page_222 If you like this book.

The actual assignment of women to fighters and bombers was deliberately left by the politically savvy architects of the amendment to the civilian chiefs of the Air Force and Navy. Congress passed in August Representatives and VERSION of several keygendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. The appoint a commission to study the wholenext page > question of < Congress instructed President George Bush to page_101 previous page women in combat and transmit its conclusions to both the president and the Pentagon. 1991 an amendment to the defense appropriations bill that would end the formal ban on women flying combat airplanes. gay and lesbian DACOWITS. The later revelations of antimilitarist feminist groups took part in this postwar legislative If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Rhonda Cornum's rape while a prisoner of war might have made the bill's designers wish that they had left the White House and the armed services with less discretion.Gulf. "feminine." Not only military officers. the liberal feminists monitoring the commission believed that several appointees were deliberately intended to assuage the ideological anxieties of the Republican party's right wing. The history of the presidential commission underscores the ways in which the concept of women in combat has been shaped and reshaped by the gendered politics of an entire political system. The congressionally legislated. presidentially appointed Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Military consisted of fifteen members. For THE THE < previous page page_223 If you like this book. womenhave government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. at the initiative of women in the House of UNREGISTERED with the supportOF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those liberal male senators.< previous page page_101 page_223 next page > Page 223 101 Whether one is of the militarizing or demilitarizing forces from the one the politics of women and In the aftermathtracing withdrawal of most American social processes. buy it! next page > . 28 None of the UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. Focusing on her experience rather than on those of American noncombat women assaulted by their own fellow soldiers permitted the majority of the members of the presidential commission and conservative senior officers to dig in their heels once again. women's liberal organizations. Again it is the Armed Servicesbe "manly" and what itin Congress. at a time when the lessons of the Gulf War seemed less salient than the rivalries between the center and the right inside the president's own political party. buy it! process.must chart howimage-making men reverted to their previous setting comprehend what it means to Committee members means to be have in any particular historicalarenas. George Bush and his aides chose its appointees in early 199z. Thus. increasingly. are the principal have also attempted to design policies to ensure that legal rights advocates whobut many of themplayers. and. From the start. a wing being courted in the February primaries by conservative candidate Patrick Buchanan.

the commission's members had split eight to seven. those gendered number of these individuals. and to be "manly" and whatvice president "feminine. This recommendation was a clear rejection of the congressional women reformers' principal recommendation. but these people are really members of to design policies towould prefer to civilians and go home and to one another . "Some of many of them have also attempted the ultra-right who ensure that Education and femininity. Herres.W. because I believe we should send the best.inBy appointing a ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. such as those in the infantry and armored divisions. On the question of women's assignment to naval < previous page page_224 If you like this book. Only defense < officials and Pentagon-watchers. a senior it means to be Elaine Donnelly. buy it! next page > .30 For many in the audience. . the president have women soldiers relatebake cookies." 29 After six months of study costing $4 million. . who spoke with emotion of his support of his own daughter who was training to be a navy pilot: "I'm asked."31 As expected. voted against allowing women to serve as combat pilots on the grounds that women were not meant to be killers. Robert T. when most media attention was turned elsewhere. . Two of the men who voted for the lifting of this ban were the commission's head. According officials been affectedthe Women's Research and manliness Institute. not gender. the commission's majority voted to continue the exclusion of women from ground combat jobs." Not only have government and military to a representative of by their own perceptions of of the conservative Heritage Foundation. one among the women were instance.must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means Kate O'Brien. And my answer is yes. the commission's If women continue to be most surprising recommendation was thatyou like this book. the two conservative women.O.? . 1992. among them page_101 previous page the most stalwart civilian and uniformed next page > advocates of women soldiers' rights. .< previous page page_101 page_224 next page > Page 224 101 Whether Bush tracing nine men and demilitarizing social processes. a member of Phyllis Schlafly's Eagle Forum. buy it!prohibited from flying combat aircraft. Donnelly and O'Brien. lines. The vote was along ideological. has preordained a decision that would preclude women from serving in combat. one isselectedmilitarizing or only six women for the commission. Draude. November 3. attended the press conference. and Marine Corps Brigadier General Thomas V. the commission announced its recommendations on election day. a retired air force general and former vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. would you let your daughter fly in combat with the possibility of her becoming a P. On this first recommendation. they had selected it as an opening wedge that they hoped would lead to an eventual lifting of the ban on women in all combat jobs.

had just been elected to the Senate and had the backing of many of the liberal feminist groups that supported an end to the combat ban. In Congress. he argued. Upon hearing the commission's page > previous page next recommendations. in the new Congress she would be joined by thirty-nine other women representatives. a leading proponent of women soldiers' expanded career opportunities. Then the commission head. by great number of people willingness to grant some new service opportunities officials been affected "A their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and submarines. The Clinton White House. General Herres." Soon afterwards. the members to ensure that will not believe we credibly consideredthem have also attempted to design policies voted eight to six to UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHMserve on combat ships. Patricia Schroeder remained in the House of Representatives and had the sort of seniority that translated into chairing an armed services subcommittee. most of whom defined themselves as feminists. She was the admiral's aide who was the first military woman to formally charge male navy combat pilots with sexual harassment in the page_101 < wake of the 1991 Las Vegas Tailhook Association convention. she told a reporter.is tracing militarizing sided with exclusion. on the other hand. 32 One of the observers in the audience was Lieutenant Paula Coughlin. the House Armed Services Committee chair was THE THE < previous page page_225 If you like this book. but many of the issues. men in any the members to give something to the reformers. the new president was already risking high-ranking military officers' anger with his announced intention to end the ban on homosexuals in the military."33 "I thinklike this book. Its recommendations were to be sent to the president and to the secretary of defense." Not only have government and military to women.< previous page page_101 page_225 next page > Page 225 101 Whether one the majority initially or demilitarizing social processes. would be under no political obligation to follow the advice of conservatives and would be actively pressured to end all combat exclusion by many of the liberal women's rights groups that had backed his campaign. on the one hand. With Representative Les Aspin selected by Bill Clinton to head the Department of Defense. but she would have little seniority in the upper house. If the commission didn't show appealed to particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what itameans to be "feminine. buy it! the commission wasSTANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER and selected for just VERSION OF you The commission was only an advisory body. Barbara Boxer. one must chart how women and combat ships. except complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the for amphibious vessels amend their recommendation to allow women to TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. buy it! next page > . the composition of predetermined UNREGISTERED this outcome. Both were about to undergo changes as a result of the Clinton victory.

< previous page page_101 page_226 next page > Page 226 101 Whether one Ronald Dellums. however." Not only have government and political maneuvers even after Defense Secretary Aspin Women in combat would remain fodder formilitary officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Thus. used the Gulf War to make their point. the military was doing in the 1990s what it had done at the height of World War II: in war it used all competent soldiers. to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be first seven top policy posts. the military won the legislative day. They. Here. Its counterargument that in page_101 < aprevious page next page > new era of reduced military manpower it would need optimum flexibility with all of its personnel persuaded Boxer's colleagues to drop her amendment from the post-Gulf War legislative agenda. These spokespeople claimed that. If you like this book. Then-representative Barbara Boxer had introduced legislation to force the Pentagon to end its practice of calling up women and men with very young infants for active duty. too. Their goal was to allow homosexual Americans access to the sort of military service that remains in the United States the sine qua non for first-class citizenship. Meanwhile. but lifted the ban in May 1993. these legal activists came away from the Gulf War hoping that court actions that were slowly whittling away at the rationale for the ban. with educated military "manpower" in short supply. Secretary Aspin nominated seven men to his "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relatefeminist congresswomen's inability to compel the Defense Department to of In another arena. conveniently turning a blind eye toward suspected gays and lesbians in the ranks. revise its gendered warmaking formula failed much more quickly. buy it! In a third arena. would together move the government to end the ban altogether.35 <><><><><><><><><><><><> After the end of the Gulf War. buy it! next page > . however. plus the support of a president newly elected with a decisive gay vote. gay and lesbian legal rights groups stepped up their pressure to force the Defense Department to end its ban on homosexuals. 34 At the Pentagon. one must chart how women rights. the popular media turned its attention to the faltering American domestic economy. an or demilitarizing Democrat who had long supported women's and taken over byis tracing militarizingAfrican-Americansocial processes. most of the country's feminist advocacy organizations were feeling ideologically stymied by the issue of women soldiers as well as stretched thin trying to meet their primary commitmentscommitments that seemed distant < previous page page_226 If you like this book.

But she isn't smiling. Onanother CHM TOdoesn't have much patience with talk process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one OF in those she PDF CONVERTER STANDARD doesn't put up with VERSIONthe other hand. one must chart how women and from militaryis tracing militarizing orlikely in the 1990s that the image-making politics surrounding men in in the American military would continue to what it means of those who and what it means to women any particular historical setting comprehend be in the handsto be "manly" felt comfortable with be "feminine. Thus. gendered ways that ease the complicated of postCold militarization. she is a serious citizen doing her job. buy it! < previous page < previous page page_101 page_227 next page > next page > ." Not militarized femininity. The ideal American been affected of the own perceptions professionalized only have government and military officials woman soldierby their1990sstill wears of manliness and femininity. She UNREGISTEREDharassment. THE UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. War militarism either. it seemed demilitarizing social processes. Under her helicopter pilot's high-tech helmet.< previous page page_101 page_227 next page > Page 227 101 Whether one issues. she's a pro. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE If you like this book. Her eyebrows attempted plucked. but many of them have also are neatly to design policies to ensure that lipstick in the Pentagon advertisements.

Nationalism. and across the Baythe University of California was itself in the mid-1960s a largely white institution. and Sierra Leonetried to figure out whether the Communist Party's success in China was the result of nationalist resistance to Japanese invasion or of effective mobilization of land-hungry peasants." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Eight manliness and femininity. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Israel." Like anyone coming into political consciousness. Chicano. but many of them haveCold War Feminism. buy it! next page > . buy it! gatesin Berkeley and Oakland.S. I made the journey in a very specific context. the U. and Militarism after the also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of I came of age intellectually and politically (a bit belatedly) at Berkeley in the mid-1960s. undifferentiated "Berkeley. It wasn't an militarization. Mine was the graduate student subculture of a young comparative politics beginning page_101 to loom on American academics' page > < discipline. Despite the presence of large communities just outside the university If you like this book. at a time when Southeast Asia was just Asian-American.. It was news when the first woman was chosen to be Head Teaching Assistant. Feminism was not yet in the Berkeley lexicon. and neither I nor most of my friends noticed that the word woman scarcely ever crossed the lips of political science lecturers. We < previous page page_228 If you like this book. and African-American previous page next intellectual horizon. What was on our minds was nationalism. In seminars and coffee houses we friendsearnest graduate students from Vietnam. in the nearby farming valleys.< previous page page_101 page_228 next page > Page 228 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. There were few tenure-track women professors (none among the fifty in political science).

< previous page page_101 page_229 next page > Page 229 101 Whether the new African states through the lens of social processes. the page > previous page next discipline of comparative politics. More- THE THE < previous page page_229 If you like this book. Today I'm not so sure. And page_101 < Marxist class analysis often made nationalist interpretations appear to us rather naive. strategies. didn't seem capable of telling the difference between hollow puppetry and nationalist legitimacy.but many of them have alsoin Laos and Vietnampolicies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and toward relate to military intervention. When the U. liberal individualism informed the popular study of electoral behavior. but with notable regularitycan grease the wheels of militarization. Many of those who. government's involvement attempted to design crept from political movement. At the same time. In the mid-1960s. and unequal international divisions of labor. and with like wake of of the collapse of colonial empires. was infused PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY what effects people in any country developed a distinctly national consciousness with effective national institutions to match." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their the Black Power AfricanAmerican community as the civil rights movement was being overtaken by own perceptions of manliness and femininity. why. seemed to most of us a step in the right direction. are sounding the alarm against nationalist parochialism are people who seem more comfortable with centralized elites. buy it! If CHM TO with curiosity about how. cultural hegemony. buy it! next page > . in the morning light of the postCold War era. Berkeley was not. And that development. too conscious of how nationalist ideologies. perhaps. a milieu in which nationalist interpretations held a corner on the intellectual market. a process that ultimately marginalizes women. I've become too aware now of the ways in which men have used nationalism to silence women. one must chart had women and looked atone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizingthe nationalist movements which how given them men We were just starting to pay attention to the emergence of nationalist thought within the birth. I'm wary of my own new skepticism. and structures have served to update and so perpetuate the privileging of masculinity.in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. arising as out of the proliferation of new nation-states in the UNREGISTERED VERSION OF youit didthis book. And these critics rarely couple their critiques of nationalism with a call for the dismantling of patriarchy or pay attention to feminist analyses of masculinity inside nationalist movements. In recent years I've come to see how nationalismnot inevitably.S. however. Still. when. if and when it did occur. we criticized that ease the complicated process manipulation soldiers full-scaleone another in those gendered ways a Washington establishment that of militarization.

But that may be the point. made invisible women's contributions to creating the conditions that made these these elections elections possible: The percentage of page_101 < previous page women in Czechoslovakia's parliament dropped from 29. thus.3 to 8. In the pre-reunification election of March 1990. 22 It is not that those Cold War legislatures in which Eastern European women had held a quarter or a third of the seats had wielded effective influence.4 to 5.< previous page page_101 page_23 next page > Page 101 Page 23 Whether one is tracing it should make the state more transparent and one must chart how women men and the state. Democratization and men in any particular up the public spaces. the percentage of women in East Germany's parliament slipped from 33." Not only have government and military officials been the two processes are not designed agendas to be reimagined. They hadn't. · The percentage of women in Romania's parliament fell from 34. civilians and soldiers relate to onein Eastern Europe revealedways that ease the complicated results of The democratic elections of 1990 another in those gendered the tenacity of patriarchy.6. 20. buy it! ·The percentage of women in Hungary's parliament plummeted from 26. The process of militarization. the legislative agendawhich assigns priority to restricting Polish women's freedom of reproductive choiceis being hammered out with little organized influence by Polish women. thus.5. now he had < previous page page_23 If you like this book.6 to 20. buy it! next page > . Demilitarization and democratization together infused these once drab and impotent bodies with new vitality and new power.2 to 13.5. where a conservative woman has been made prime minister. If you like this book.6 to 7. But such changes will take place only ifaffected by their own perceptions ofin manliness as femininity. next page > The percentage of women in Poland's parliament dropped from 20. porous. Even in Poland.2. Legislatures became places where one could give meaningful voice to public concerns. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that such a wayandto reprivilege masculinity. parliamentary elections in December for a unified German legislature managed to return the same proportion of women.militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.23 If a man had never felt comfortable spending his waking hours fixing his car or building a garden shed.5.5 percent. it what means to be "manly" and what it means to simultaneously opens historical setting comprehendshoulditpermit more voices to be heard and policy be "feminine.

When I looked at the Soviet military.< previous page page_101 page_230 next page > Page 230 101 Whether many tracing have broken out of the confines of processes. Nor did I ask whether the Nepali women whose sons and husbands joined the Gurkha regiments were themselves pressed to adopt hopes and rationales that were feminized complements to the more visible masculinized militarism. gender. by how differently the Hmong and the ethnic Lao uncurious about peoples experienced the Laotian national revolution that I didn't pause to ask whether women within each of these communities might be having quite different experiences from those of their husbands. I didn't see men. I was so struck. with. For CONVERTER STANDARD If a fleeting moment in the late 1970s. and have carved out a space in over. for instance. even if they fall shortofficialsemancipation and their own perceptionsof. Kazakh. One result of this stunning lack of curiosity was that I was analytically unprepared for the anticonscription movement led by women-as-mothers inside the ethnic Russian community in the 1980s. I saw Russian. derived from many men's apparent desire to assert their THE THE < previous page page_230 If you like this book.musemyprint over how Gurkha villages were sustained when BY OF CHM TO PDFworld remained virtually ungendered. But I didn't pursue the question. I did you like this book. not in harmonious alliancebut many of themnationalist attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSIONatOF CHM TOthe next decade ease a half 1 was remarkably of BY civilians work in those heady yearsanother in those gendered ways that and the complicated process My own and soldiers relate to one Berkeley and for PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. A few years later. leaving so many women to fend for themselves. and sons." Not that have government and military of full been affected by are achieved in spite of consequences ofonly activism.2 Having so little curiosity about gender. buy it! next page > . I didn't ask about how the military's ethnic division of labor was shaping perceptions of masculinity among women and men within the Soviet Union's various ethnic communities. manliness and femininity. Another result was my surprise at the potency of militarism's lure among men in at least some non-Russian ethnic communities in the late 1980s. I naturally didn't see masculinity as problematic. page_101 < brothers. I was exploring how state officials wielded ethnicity to construct > previous page next page trustworthy state armies and police But intellectual UNREGISTERED VERSIONforces. buy it! in the British recruited so many of their men. too one is women militarizing or demilitarizing socialdomesticity one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend not to means to be "manly" and what it the public arena through nationalist activism for me what itweigh carefully the antipatriarchalmeans to be "feminine. patriarchal have also men. and Ukrainian officers and conscripts organized in ways that ensured a Russified state dominance.

the bumper sticker and any chuckles it once provoked seem modern fighting quaint. and Laotian parents encouraged "their children" to get a French education so that they could secure future jobs in the French colonial civil service. one must chart how women and men inthe Massachusetts Turnpike in the 1980s. in fact. Daughters' futures probably were being fashioned as wives of colonial civil servants. they left nationalistsand prenationalists and antinationalistsungendered. it was their sons on whom such hopes were being pinned. As insightful and helpful as Ben Anderson's and other landmark books of this era were in charting new ways to think about the creation of nationalist ideas. it is. onewhat it means to be "manly" bumper sticker Along any particular historical setting comprehend would occasionally see the and what it means to be "feminine." Nothing more. masculinity in the face of both rivalor demilitarizing social processes. we ultimately imagined the creation of a national community to be more simple than. Yet a person working directly for the French colonialists and a wife married to that bureaucrat would not experience identical co-optive pressures. For all the variables we revealed.< previous page page_101 page_231 next page > Page 231 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing ethnic communities and the Red Army. Khmer. In his 1983 book Imagined Communities. Consequently. "Armenian Air Force": such an obvious oxymoron. for instance. I was not alone in the gender-blindness of my analysis. for all the sophistication we applied. But in the 1990s. It didn't contain the cultural "stuff'' to send aloft a Armenian masculinity was to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. Its humor was based on a naively limited understanding of how Armenian or perhaps any masculinized nationalism could be militarized. force. If you likeAnderson.buy it! Benedict this book. He described how Vietnamese. page_101 < previous page next page > Although it shouldn't give me much comfort. but many of chuckle. left masculinity and femininity unexplored. A corollary: we underestimated the amount and variety of the power at work in the construction of a national consciousness and a nationalist movement. Our understanding of nationalism suffered. civilians and soldiers relate informed by victimization. we also underestimated the power it took to < previous page page_231 If you like this book. 3 Were mothers and fathers diluting their national consciousness in the hopes that their daughters would obtain colonial bureaucratic jobs? More likely."Air Force. buy it! next page > . Presumably no more needed to be said on the bumper sticker for "Armenian Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness andcars behind to get a good them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that the drivers in femininity.

4 I found myself newly curious about his mother. to learnany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. I began to search out the women. required overcoming the parochial domestic preoccupations of women like his anxious mother. ideology and Becoming a feminist in the late 1970s (again. one had to also look into the kitchen and the bedroom. and about her son's anger at her.5 One could not fix one's analytical sights only on the plaza or on the convention floor to make sense of the evolution of nationalism. Prodding French Canadians to throw off the twin oppressions of English domination and feudal French provincial rule. buy it! next page > . I began to reread some of the renowned texts page_101 < on nationalism with new eyes. buy it! and like TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY UNREGISTERED VERSION OF youthe women in the chorus. women's relationships to men in the domestic sphere have been politically salient. White Niggers of North America. but many of them in positions to have their ideas policies to recorded have ensure that begun to notice that the nationalists have also attempted to design UNREGISTERED most oftowondering whatthose TO PDF has that ease heard and STANDARD BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM gendered ways meant. To young Pierre.for nationalist movements as forms of social mobilization. For instance. his seemingly apolitical mother represented the epitome of pre-1960s Quebecois passivity. We thought of ourselves as specialists in power. it was she who had urged her uppity son to obey the conservative priests at school. We are only today militarization. belatedly). while recently rereading Pierre Vallieres's classic Quebec nationalist autobiography. feminists have disclosed that women and men within nascent national communities often THE THE < previous page page_232 If you like this book. It was she who had dampened his father's working class Quebecois spirit. By taking women's experiences seriously. I started to pay special attention to the relations between the men at stage frontIf CHMthis book. Since the 1970s domesticity has been a contested sphere in Quebecois nationalist imagining and organizing. Pierre Vallieres argued. Feminist analyses reveal that nationalist movements are more suffused with power and evolve more erratically than most nonfeminist accounts suggest. scribbling them in in the margins.< previous page page_101 page_232 next page > Page 232 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Therefore." the last severalgovernment and military officials been on scholarlytheir own perceptions of It is only in Not only have yearsthanks to the impact of feminism affected by curiositythat we have manliness and femininity. one must chart how women and build a new nation-state. > previous page next page where absent altogether. often finding them in the shadows or. but really we had only begun men in where to look for it. both for nationalism as an of relate one another in exactly that fact CONVERTER the complicated process been men.

but many of them have also attempted to designto stop the ensure that republic. Romanians from pursuing their goal of reunification with Romania. 10. 6 But many If you like conferences it! more occur when there is no one taking minutes." Not onlynationalism broke and after 1991 in virtually every former Soviet perceptions of As have government out military officials been affected by their own manliness and femininity. "feminine. (© Nistratov/Eastnet/Select) page_101 < struggle with each other over whose experiencesof humiliation. these Russian women living in Moldova tried policies to civilians and soldiers railway into the capital in order to prevent Moldavia's ethnic relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. only by considering oral historiesnot only of women who who have become nationalists. How have so many women been persuaded that women's specific concerns could be put on the political back burner for the sake of a newly emergent or newly politicized nation? We need better answers to the < previous page page_233 If you like this book. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig.< previous page page_101 page_233 next page > Page 233 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but also of women who held back. buy it! next page > . one must chart how women and (Image has been removed. Thus. or of women who joined but later became disenchantedcan we uncover the actual processes by which women's relationships with men have shaped and reshaped any national community or nationalist movement. of insecurity. buy or around strategy tables. of solidaritywill define the > previous page next page community in its new national manifestation. Many of the struggles between women and men during the formative period occur on the floors of nationalistthis book.

white and militarization. In seminars and newsletters. buy it! next page > . one must chart how or access to question of whytracing militarizingan end to domestic violence. and Los Angelessprang the idea of raising money to take out a full-page advertisement in the New York Times in which African-American women would make their own statement. or for appointment tosetting comprehend what itbeen delayed "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. CONVERTER was formed in PDF and Irish who include Jews. Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Hindus.8 Fifty thousand dollars THE THE < previous page page_234 If you like this book. 1989. dozens of African-American women began to meet informally to discuss not only the hearings but also their own difficulties in having their analyses heard. without the filter of any organization or any media. but many ofgroup formed in attempted to design policies to ensure Arab and that Women Against Fundamentalism is a them have also UNREGISTERED VERSIONAfro-CaribbeanTOBritain by women Catholics." altogether. Chicago. ItSTANDARD BY OF in those Protestants. Detroit. however. AsianIf CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY British patriarchal buy leaders are today using nationalist rhetoric to persuade state officials outside their communities to allow them to run state-funded shelters for women victims of domestic violence. Its members have been developing an analysis that could be widely relevant to students of nationalism. The 1991 Senate Justice Committee hearings delving into Anita Hill's accusations of sexual harassment by Clarence Thomas were seen by many African-American feminists as just one more instance in which they were squeezed out of a public arena. or for equality in marriage women and men in any particular historical leadership positions have means to be or denied nationalist legitimacy land titles. Ann Arbor. San Francisco. Washington. Thus. maleit! marginalization of women. civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Asian Muslims. Rather than remaining silent this time. in the turbulently gendered wake of the threats against Salman Rushdie's life. Women Against Fundamentalism has been tracing the ways that the most conservative page_101 < members of the women's respective communities have used nationalist anger and hopesnext page > previous page to mobilize wide supportincluding support from the British statefor the perpetuation of the control and political UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. Out of these spontaneous and usually intense conversationsin Boston.< previous page page_101 page_234 next page > Page 234 101 Whether one is women's calls for or demilitarizing social processes. Atlanta. 7 African-American feminists have long struggled to carve out a political space where they could speak of violence against women perpetrated by men from both inside and outside their community without being charged by African-American men with nationalist betrayal.

what it means to be "feminine. if politically comfortable.them have also attempted to design Abdulahad ensure that civilians ending with Deborah Zubel of Philadelphia. We will not be silenced. andand soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. 1991. the Chicago Defender. but many of Their namesbeginning with Tania policies to of Washington. or diverting women? The black women who < previous page page_235 If you like this book. an African American woman who was maligned and castigated for daring to speak publicly of her own If you like this book. They continued: ''We speak here because we recognize that the media are now portraying the Black community as prepared to tolerate both the dismantling of affirmative action and the evil of sexual harassment in order to have any Black man on the Supreme Court." Not only costly to women and military officials political terms." The writers objected to the effort on the part of some black nationalists to portray the Senate hearings conducted by an all-white Judiciary Committee as solely a racist event. their own perceptions of space to speak can behave government in financial as well as been affected byA total of I.C.< previous page page_101 page_235 next page > Page 235 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing women and men of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds to pay for were raised in small donations fromor demilitarizing social processes.603 Africanmanliness and femininity. we understand sexual harassment as both. published in the Sunday New York Times on November 17. 9 "We page previous are particularly outraged by the racist and sexist treatment of Professornext page > Anita Hill.. and the Atlanta Inquirer absorb was that African-American women would no longer allow others to interpret their experiences. to pour their complex daily negotiations of a sexually organized racist society into a narrow. silencing. funnel." Which "nation's" imaginings have proved most potent in the process of persuading. they took strong issue with any white feminist commentators who portrayed the hearings as solely a sexist event: "As women of African descent." the signatories explained. Likewise. We want to make clear that the media have ignored or distorted many African American voices. Their final sentence: "No one will speak for us but ourselves. buy it! next page > . one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and Acquiring the the advertisement's publication in the Times as well as in six prominent black papers. Pennsylvaniaappeared in the ad when it was D. American women signed the statement. "AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN IN DEFENSE OF OURSELVES" was the group's self-designed page_101 < headline." The essential message the organizers and signatories insisted that readers of the New York Times. the week in which Clarence Thomas was sworn in as a Supreme Court justice. buy it! experience of sexual abuse.

" Not debatesall lead complicatedly textured lives. we have left ourselves ignorant of menas menin the histories of nationalism. buy it! next page > . buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY should note) to the VERSION OF you likemother. Commentators seeking to explain. now a new rift was opening between urban and rural Kurds. expectations. sexual practices. sexual UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and or sheer exhaustion.< previous page page_101 page_236 next page > Page 236 101 Whether one is York Times ad. Frankfurt. These urbanized migrants were the ones who created new notions of Kurdish identity no longer dependent on loyalty to clan chiefs. of course. and Berlin. but many of them have also than the pressures ofpolicies loyalties. it was the migrants. and unpaid labor. for example. can be None of these explored unless men in any period of nationalist mobilization are investigated in terms of their own family dynamics. soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. when these urbanized Kurds sought to bring their new messages home to the villages in eastern Turkey. 10 But was that the principal gap? A majority of the Kurds who migrated to Turkish cities and to Europe were men. Because we still know too little about women's page_101 < experiences of nationalism. the or demilitarizing social processes. who created new political organizations in which theories and skills could be honed. one must chart how women and signed the New tracing militarizing British white women and women of color organizing the Women men in Fundamentalism rallies. beyond the reach of the Turkish police." what would we learn about the uses of of masculinity in the mobilization of national consciousness? These often difficult and private struggles between women and men over the relevance and meaning of the nation need to be charted over time. especially those in Germany. So it was to increasingly femi- THE THE < previous page page_236 If you like this book. they often met with a cool. Perhaps many women have found formal ongoing Quebeconly have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness about ideas and strategies less "persuasive" attempted to design family to ensure that arguments and femininity. Kurds for centuries had been divided along clan lines. However. feudal notions of Kurdish identity among Turkey's Kurds in the 1970spoint to the million or more Turkish Kurds who migrated out of eastern rural villages searching for jobs in Ankara. > previous page next page If we paid as much attention to construction the "patriotic father" as we have (productively. why nationalist concepts and agendas began to overtake older. arguments that nationalist feminists find persuasive possibilities. the Francophone women trying to carve out space to take part in the Againstany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. one UNREGISTEREDconstructionthe the "patriotic of TO PDF it! If CHMthis book. even hostile response.

buy it! If you like this postmobilization icon.12 Similarly. the condemnation of La Malinche. was used by nineteenth-century Mexican male intellectuals as a brick in their new edifice of Mexican < previous page page_237 If you like this book. the likely corollary has been reaffirmed sense among politicized male nationalist mother? Ifhave government and military officialsabeen affected by their own perceptions of manliness and that masculinity is the most reliable launchpad for nationalized political consciousness. in the 1960s.< previous page page_101 page_237 next page > Page 237 101 Whether one societies militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. dancer. Caetano Veloso has recently admitted that perhaps they were wrong when. he and his fellow Brazilian nationalist intellectuals charged Miranda with selling out to North American money. as they allegedly were during the prerevolutionary reign of the Shah. the entire national project would be jeopardized. 11 In a more self-critical spirit. the Indian woman who was given by her tribe to the Spanish conquistador Cortés and who later acted as his translator and his mistress. male Brazilian cultural nationalists are beginning to reassess their earlier attitudes toward the singer. cheapening authentic Brazilian song and dance in the process. It is precisely because women are relied on to be the bearers of culture that they are so suspect in many nationalists' eyes. and film star Carmen Miranda. Most of the lessons and myths are fraught with page_101 < gendered memories. new areas of political autonomyis a time of lesson-fashioning and mythmaking. buy it! next page > . Turkish Kurds femininity. If Iranian women succumb to (are seduced by?) Western materialism. previous page next page > Woman-as-traitoror as a potential traitoris a common book. Carmen Miranda might have been more a source of nationalist pride for her popularization and creative development of national traditional forms. one must chart urban/rural and nized village is tracingthat these freshly politicized nationalist men returned." Not only they did. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered waysit succeeds orcomplicated process of The postmobilization period of any nationalist movementwhether that ease the fails at creating a state militarization. Contemporary Iranian nationalist cosmology assigns an important place to women as vulnerable to foreign materialist allures. Women or carving out as well as men have to live with those lessons and myths. Did this how womengender men in any particular historical setting comprehend what to Pierre Vallieres's image of his nongap encourage those men to imagine women in ways akinit means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. They will form the bases of national identity and of strategies for sustaining gains or recouping losses.

It is precisely because sexuality. is an example of Mary Robinson. 13 men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. in a largely UNREGISTERED VERSIONboth toCHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiershas attemptedanother in those gendered ways thatthat she will symbolically ceremonial post. As president. to subtly redefine the very meaning of the Irish nation. Mary Robinson has risked becoming an Irish Malinche. When they are represented as sexual partners and as bearers of national traditions. In trying to accomplish the latter.< previous page page_101 page_238 next page > Page 238 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or not only as a social processes. but a very fineoften treacherously fineline. at the same time. For she has made gesturessuch as visiting AIDS patients in the hospital. and domestic laws prohibiting homosexuality. Robinson has reached out to precisely those women who have embraced the patriarchal policies of the Catholic Church and the major parties. buy it! next page > . a feminist presidential reinterpretation of Irish identity is a political high-wire act. offering solice < to a gay male partner at his lover's funeral. Irish women's rights in Europe. divorce. she relate to one OF meet popular expectations ease the complicated process of militarization. as debates over European integration. women can either acquire nationalist prestige or lose it. She is clearly a postcolonial representative of the Irish nation. the have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manlinesswho has had to walk many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that a woman and femininity. andpage_101 previous page next page asking feminists to teathat announce that this president > imagines the boundaries of the Irish as people whom nationalist UNREGISTERED VERSION nationCHMthis book. reproduction. resolution of the war in Northern Ireland. not only outside the many Irishactually OF you including within itCONVERTER STANDARD BY If politicians and the state's current legal systemlike TOare buy it! presume PDF nation but present a real threat to it. contraception. and child-rearing acquire such strategic importance with the rise of nationalism that many nation- THE THE < previous page page_238 If you like this book. represent the nation as it exists in Irish citizens' minds and. La Malinche was popularizeddemilitarizingtraitor to her nation but alsochart source of humiliation because of her sexual subjugation.14 Thus far. Moreover. Robinson appears to be winning the symbolic contest because so many Irish women and meneven those who oppose her positions on divorce and abortion because they believe that either would undermine Irish nationhoodnonetheless believe she brings to the presidency a kind of visibility and modern style that is winning Ireland new international respect. how is society going to value it?"15 But in the 1990s." Not onlyIrish feminist lawyer who was elected president of Ireland in 1991. one must as a how women and identity. explaining that "if feminists don't value the work of women who stay at home. and abortion are all merging in a potent nationalist brew.

Likewise today. Bosnian. or denigrate the nation. and Serbian feminists began to alert the international media to rape being wielded in Bosnia as an instrument of militarized. They have a hard time being heard inside many nationalist movements and have often risked their nationalist credentialswhich many of them prizein speaking out. Bangladeshi women who had been raped during the war of secession from Pakistan were rarely asked to help build the identity of the new nation.< previous page page_101 page_239 next page > Page 239 101 Whether become newly aware of their need to exert social processes. though news of their rapes had the effect of mobilizing the anger of many Bangladeshi men. A gynecologist who treated the survivors said that she believed the rapes were intended to humiliate the Muslim women: "They were raped because it was the goal of the war. Telling her story to an American newspaper reporter two months later (a story afterward confirmed by other sources). militarization. Too often missing in enemy is imagined to be other men. as false and oppressive. one must chart how women alist men one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing control over the women. Mirsada told of forty village women who were abducted and raped by Serbian male soldiers. The external If you would book. masculinized nationalism. They have > previous page next page permitted men to hear the feminized nation beckoning them to act as "her" protectors. In the early 1990s. denounce theways thatwoman-as-traitor and its obverse. woman-as-patriotic-mother. Not a "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. as is usually the case. Controlling girls andand men in becomes a man's way of protecting or reviving the means to be few nationalist women have women any particular historical setting comprehend what itnation. Thus." 16 A European < previous page page_239 If you like this book." Not efforts by policing other women. but many of them havepart by investigating relations between women civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered myth of ease the complicated process of themselves." a young Bosnian Muslim woman named Mirsada was told by a Serbian soldier who abducted her from her village of Brezovo Polje in June 1992. women who have been raped are more symbols than active participants in countries such as Sri Lanka and Kashmir. page_101 < Rape and prostitution have been central to many men's construction of the nationalist cause. Other nationalist women. Thus. buy it! next page > . "We have orders to rape the girls. men wholike this defile buy it! this gendered nationalist scenario are the voices of the actual women who have suffered rape or have been compelled to seek an income from prostitution. however. Croatian. relations perceptions of assisted in those only have government and military officials been affected by their own between manliness women and men can be understood in also attempted to design policies to ensure that nationalist and femininity.

they have walked into proliferating beauty sexualized. Such sexist expressions were defined as pornography and prohibited under the old regime. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it worthy loci "manly" and what it activism. for the marriageable man with a good income and a two-car garage."25 Some women even seem to be taking pleasure in the widespread availability of pornography. "And imagine what it's like coming into a colleague's office to discuss a policy. women have filed out of the parliaments. for financial security.< previous page page_101 page_24 next page > Page 101 Page 24 Whether one outlet for his energies. The shriveled consumer markets of the Cold Warthe price paid for Cold War expenditures on bloated armies and protected weapons factoriesnurtured aspirations among the double-burdened women that can only now be pursued: for beauty. free-enterprise escort services. 24 Nor have they done so necessarily against their wills. means to be for re-emergent civicmeans to be "feminine. Does the of manliness and femininity. buy it! If many women in their own objectification. in many men's eyes. You sit down and have to put your cup of coffee on a glass-topped coffee table which is displaying assorted cut-out photographs of nude women. but many of them have also attempted to design democratization of parliaments equal the defeminization of parliaments? policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM been masculinized. buy it! next page > ." A Czech feminist who worked in her country's environmental affairs ministry is describing the new bureaucratic culture of post-1989 Prague." became have government important to allow more than a handful of own perceptions LegislaturesNot only thereby places too and military officials been affected by theirwomen. CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY "Now there are calendars full of nude women everywhere in the ministry. Russian and Eastern European page_101 < feminist social commentators who have observed the postrevolutionary traumas of the last several years > previous page next page explain that consumerism is being woven into the democratized fabric of civic life in ways that co-opt UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. their popular cultures have been BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in have TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD While Eastern European nations' legislatures those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. nude women's photos on office walls have become so commonplace that most women office workers feel they have no space to object. and joint-venture overseas marriage services. for pleasure. But with the emergence of capitalism and liberalism in the 1990s. It was precisely because the legislatures were transformed by the an alternativeis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. As contests. Filipina feminists allied with women working as prostitutes servicing THE THE < previous page page_24 If you like this book. end of the Cold War that they became. franchised brothels.

next page rape did to each one of the Serbian male soldiers who took part in the assault of Brezovo Polje. Bosnian Croatian nationalism. he had had no history of sexual assault on women. It was only after being recruited into one of the several Serbian nationalist militias in 1992 that Borislav Herak's unstable mix of alienation and anger was turned into the stuff of which a militarized nationalist rapist could be made. not all of them nationalist. told an American journalist that he had been close to his Muslim brother-in-law during his years in Sarajevo before the war. explained fully. buy it! next page > . who didn't think to question his commander's order to rape Muslim women whom his militia was hold- < previous page page_240 If you like this book." Not only have government and military officials beencannot completely understand any of Rape has been part of many wars. This was the young man. and traced forward as well as backward in time. in Bosnia masculinization and militarization of Serbian nationalism. comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. drank heavily. He had done poorly in school. and women. physically intimidated his father. Borislav Herak. and Bosnian Muslim nationalism. described accurately. And while he had wished for girlfriends he didn't have and stored stacks of pornographic magazines in his room at home. consequencesunless male soldiers' sexual abuse of women ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of taken seriously. militarization. He also confessed to the reporter that it was while serving as a fighter in the militia that for the first time in his life he could acquire things that he felt had heretofore been beyond his reach: videos. Neither masculinization nor militarization of any ethnic group's nationalist page_101 < consciousness ispage We need to be more curious. femininity. He recalled what a revelation it had been to him when older Serbian men in his militia explained to him and other new recruits how Muslims. We need to figure out what the experience of > previous automatic. since the Ottoman Empire. its but many of them have also attempted to design policies to on all sides is warits causes. then. had been the cause of Serbian misfortune. We affected by their own perceptions manliness and its paths. But he had not thought of the Muslims in his extended family or his neighborhood as the source of his unhappiness.< previous page page_101 page_240 next page > Page 240 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing thousand Muslim women chart how in Bosnia Community investigation team estimated that twentysocial processes. and grumbled about his dead-end job pushing a cart in one of the city's textile factories. one must were rapedwomen and men in any particular historical setting 17 between April 1992 and January 1993. If you like this book. we need to consider what the rapes and reports of rapes reveal about the Thus. buy it! One Serbian soldier. television sets.

19 What she did not realize was that Croatia's male-led regime had outlawed abortion in the name of Croatian page_101 < nationalism.7 percent. by the end of the civil war it was projected to drop to ''around minus 3 or 4 percent. buy it! next page > . I will never give birth. buy for the sake of what the regime called the work like "Renewal of the Republic of Croatia. because while the rate of natural population growth in Croatia at the end of 1990 was 0."20 If the wartime losses were factored into the forecasts. the nationalist lawmakers called for the passage of a package of laws aimed at restructuring the family so that more Croatian children would be born and cared for. one must chart how made sense ing captive inis tracingoutside the Bosnian town of Vogosca. the provisions included the following: It is urgent and necessary to eliminate all errors and infiltrations of an Anti-Life-Mentality from medicine. He followed the implicitthem have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF Marianna." And "feminine." Such a renewal was required. His commander's explanationwomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it "good for raising the fighters' it means to be to Borislav Herak: raping Muslim women was. "the situation for the biological continuation of the nation will be alarming. Schoolbooks even today continue THE THE < previous page page_241 If you like this book. In fact." Not only have government him and his colleagues to murder by their own perceptions of he presumed that his commander meantand military officials been affectedeach of the women after they manliness and femininity.gendered pregnant as a resultcomplicated process of BY civilians Bosnian woman. the proposal's nationalist backers argued." To reverse this trend. As translated first by a Swiss feminist and then by a British feminist. a to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD Another and soldiers relate non-Muslim. in those became ways that ease the of being raped by male militarization. a coalition of Croatian. school books." she asserted. the nation was on the road "to certain extinction of the population. "Never. and British feminists were calling on previous page next page > women's rights advocates to mount an campaign protest the Croatian UNREGISTERED to control women'sinternationalTO PDFtoCONVERTER regime's proposed BY STANDARD If CHMreproduction it! legislative program VERSION OF you and this book. he was told.means to be "manly" and whatmorale. Swiss." Given that a majority of Croatian families in 1992 had two or fewer children. they claimed. 18 had raped her.< previous page page_101 page_241 next page > Page 241 101 Whether one a motel militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in 1992. but many of orders. and to remove the prescriptions which stem from the times of the communist partyline. television and the print media. soldiers for twenty-four hours in a Serbian-controlled camp. She by then was seeking refuge and an abortion across the border in Croatia.

be granted preferentially to families with several children. Remove working mothers with children from factories and from other places of heavy work which are unsuitable for them. . and vice versa. it will stimulate the family and couples with children. other conditions being equal. "feminine. Fighting Non-womanhood: The demographic situation is aggravated by a further evil: late marriages between the ages of 35 and 50." and this atmust chart how women and to teach Croatian children about the "population social processes. < previous page page_242 If you like this book. If you like this book. . one a time when the natural men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be population growth in Croatia has sunk to zero. For the demographic renewal it is necessary that the creator of the programme for renewal of Croatia give first priority to the following issues: (a) Extension of small family economies. Licenses for private enterprises." Not only have government and military(USA): We want to linkby their own perceptions of Linking of Croatia with Europe and America officials been affected Croatia with similar Promanliness and femininity. (b) The page_101 < production of healthy. employment and diverse other functions shall. Switzerland and France. natural food (for Europe!). The new tax policy of Croatia will not support this Non-Womanhood. buy it! The Republic of Croatia must draft legislation and safeguard conditions which will ensure that the highest profession in the Republic will be that of the mother as educator of children. buy it! next page > .< previous page page_101 page_242 next page > Page 242 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizingexplosion. child prostitution and pandering. (c) Investment in and extension of family tourism (the > previous page next page return of the population to the islands). We should apply the child benefit policy of Germany. but manyAmerica and to work out a programme of revitalization. whereby one child or even no child at all is born in these marriages. the Croatian soldiers relate linked with that those gendered and the American complicated process of militarization. . control private cinemas and video clubs. Increase and stimulate extension of child benefits. In this way thousands of work places in Croatia would become vacant. The issue of Natality movements in Europe and of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and family shall be to one another inof the European ways that ease the family. Fight against pornography. The womenmothersshall be freed from factory work and receive benefits and a salary for mothers as educators.

buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY The postCold War era's feminist politics have responded to this merger in new forms of international campaigns. buy it! next page > . In addressing the militarization of Croatia. have been kept off the international legal agenda is that so many governments.OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another militarization. Serbia. the principal players in United Nations human rights and war crime tribunal negotiations.< previous page page_101 page_243 next page > Page 243 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. A primary reason why forms of violence against women. in which Croatian history. however.22 Consequently. peace movements. that these two processes were not moving along merely parallel tracks. are opposed to any outside agency being given authority to intervene in any activity deemed to be related to the "family. not just those of the mainstream but also the alternative press outlets interested in human rights. The point here is." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Setting up youth clubs and societies. but also domestic violence and prostitution. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. what it means to be Child care facilities shall setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and "feminine.'' The family is held up in international law. VERSION 21 in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of UNREGISTEREDshall be explored. sports and arts etc. as the basic unit of the sovereign nation-state and thus as sacrosanct. local feminists have developed skills in compensating for the loss of independent local media outlets by forging new links to European and North American media." The negotiations by which any condition is assigned such a designation are ideologically complex and bureaucratically tedious. Bosnia and. The nationalist wars in page_101 < the former Yugoslavia were being fought in such a way as to make these patriarchal political processes > previous page next page merge in the lives of women. Macedonia. as feminists try to raise rape to the status of a violation of human rights and as a punishable war crime. most recently. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensuresoldiers. as currently written in UN documents. literature. not just rape. they will be faced with two challenges: first. one must chart how women and Tighten criteria for the divorce of marriages with children. and the conditions of women. men in any particular historical be reduced to a minimum and gradually eliminated. they must overcome govern- THE THE < previous page page_243 If you like this book. the virtue of that manliness and femininity. time that the nationalist ideals of the manly Serb fighter were being constructed in Thus at the same Bosnia. efforts were being made to reconstruct the woman-as-mother in Croatia. They also have sought to enter the growing international debate over what should be included as internationally recognized "human rights" and "war crimes.

The If you like this book. and equally important. second. but we know little about the masculinist meanings that insurgents have derived from their clandestine video viewings. buy it! next page > . the U. they mustbe "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. but didn't ask the women themselves how they analyzed their poverty. His effort is all the more valuable for its feminist contributions analyzing mythical heroines.25 Elsewhere in the world. women's sexuality was the object of intense nationalist discussion. buy it! thousands of women working in the discos and massage parlors providing sexual services to American sailors had stood at the center of a nationalist mural of humiliation. relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of name of theirsoldiers23 militarization. there is anecdotal evidence that the American film Rambo has been used to build the morale of insurgent men in the Philippines and Chile." turning have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of ethnic groupNot onlytheir outrage over the rapes of their "own women" into a self-serving justification manliness and femininity. and children's fairy tales. a topic treated with growing seriousness. In contrast. their parenting choices.< previous page page_101 page_244 next page > Page 244 101 Whether one is tracing militarizing to accept United Nations jurisdiction must area how officials ment officials' long-standing refusalor demilitarizing social processes.S. but many of them have for attempted to design policies to ensure in the for escalating the militarization of masculinity andalso imposing more restrictions on women that civilians and safety.24 Popular culture. Filipina feminists in the movement envisioned a nationalism that required that they organize with the prostitutes and listen to them in order to make sense of the bases and thus of the costs and attractions of neocolonization in the 1990s. or how these mean- page_101 next page > < previous page page_244 If you like this book. naval base at Subic Bay inspired a wave of Filipino nationalism. three-volume archeological dig into popular culture's historic part in constructing "English" patriotism. Raphael Samuels has made a start with his ambitious. is playing a gendered role we can scarcely yet define in the makingand unmakingof national consciousness. Here again. one in anychart thosewomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to prevent nationalist men of one define as a "family" matter. and their often rocky relationships with Filipino men. popular health discourse. <><><><><><><><><><><><> < previous page Until it was closed in November 199z. The former relied on the women in prostitution as symbols. But nonfeminist nationalist organizers in the Filipino anti-base movement differed markedly from their feminist nationalist compatriots.

and ethnicized oppressions. demilitarization is sexualized. of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TOthemselves that the men in their lives process of BY civilians and soldiers shape women's attitudes toward PDF CONVERTER STANDARD constructed in one erarelate to one another in those gendered ways and ease the complicated in the militarization. THE < previous page page_101 next page > UNREGISTERED VERSION<><><><><><><><><><><><> OF you like this book. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE Like militarization. Militarized forms of manliness may be all that some of the younger Cambodian. thousands of men must be persuaded to change their ideas of what is right and naturaland even pleasurableto do as men. one must chart how womencreate men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to American and what it means to be a nascent women's movement today are learning (and what impatient be "manly"feminists still may have "feminine. But each was prolonged and made more ferocious by American and Soviet infusions of direct and indirect aid and encouragement. Men returning from wars have sexual expectations. buy it! next page > . Each of these wars was fueled by its own particular internal sparksits class disparities. To end each of these Cold Warproxy wars. Other men return from war zones anxious about jobs. Nicaragua. But they are more than bit players in any country's demilitarization. but many Those fantasies could throw light on how political priorities desires and even fantasies seriously.< previous page page_101 page_25 next page > Page 101 Page 25 Whether one is tracing militarizing naval base learned what Eastern European feminists trying to and American sailors around Subic Bay or demilitarizing social processes. and Lebanon. wars have been endingoften raggedlyin Angola. Lebanese. Ethiopia. Writing off as merely a victim of false consciousness a Russian woman who sends her name to a new marriage service for American men risks missing a chance to gain a new understanding of how the postCold War world is being constructed. El Salvador. A year after victory but still in desert fatigues. Fathering is one form of demilitarized citizenship." Not only hoping to sow the seeds of political consciousness must take own women's to learn): any woman have government and military officials been affected by their other perceptions of manliness and femininity. proud men hold up their newborn babies. not just for their own well-being but with a sense of the male breadwinner's familial responsibilities. factional rivalries. No women are inside the photographer's frame. Cambodia. sometimes to the regime and sometimes to the insurgents. Namibia. Afghanistan. following era. With the many-stranded winding-down of the Cold War. The precise recipes for militarized masculinity will differ. or Ethiopian men have known. < previous page page_25 If you like this book.

< previous page page_101 page_26 next page > Page 101 Page 26 Whether Each tracing militarizing hand in his grenade launcher or his combat boots and women and however. Perhaps he has been manliness by femininity. one must chart how to imagine a demilitarized role for historical his society will depend on means to be "manly" and what it means to men in any particular himself insetting comprehend what it his own experiences as a vigilante. a unit commander. Vietnamese women and men are still in the process of demilitarization." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of squad assassin. absorb. an army conscript. Perhaps he found emotional satisfaction in a rarely felt intensity of friendship among men. These women may rebel against the sorts of expectations leaders will try to impose on them in the name of postCold War ''political stabilization. sacrifice. in turn. Each of these women." It can take years to demilitarize a society. Or he may have felt energized by his new license to wield violent force.one is man's willingness toor demilitarizing social processes. buy it! next page > . Or humiliatedand other men and thus sees demilitarization attempted toto regain his manlyensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one in his military role than he ever did as a the complicated process of perhaps he has felt more importantanother in those gendered ways that ease shopkeeper or civil servant. Some women. in his interactions with women workmates. page_101 < deprived of the support and comfort formerly supplied by his wife or mother. but many of them have also as a chance design policies to dignity. however. previous page next page > Just how a man (or adolescent boy) has experienced militarization and how willingly he sheds the habits If you like this women it! and expectations of militarization will redound on thebook. to coax.000 Vietnamese soldiersoverwhelmingly malewere demobi- < previous page page_26 If you like this book. or may not think donning a veil is a proper price for peace (in the home or in the government). During 1990-92 alone. as she always has been. and tutor. may not want to have another child. may have grown used to having sex only on occasional leaves. Masculinity and femininity will be among the political territories where the struggles for demilitarization will have to be played out. will be counted on. buyhe returns to. a death be "feminine. may not want to give up their jobs. His new definition of his masculinityor his refusal to redefine his identitywill be played out in his family life. 500. and in his exchanges with women who are perfect strangers. Or perhaps he felt lonely. militarization. long after most Americans and Europeans have turned their attention elsewhere. He may have been embarrassed in front of his buddies when he vomited every time he saw a person being wounded. or a nighttime civil guard.

< previous page

page_101 page_27

next page >

Page 101 Page 27 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and lized. 26 Some had fought in the earlier war against the United States and its Saigon ally. Many were men in any then but historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" Cambodia. The young boys particularwere conscripted to fight the succeeding war in neighboring and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have due in large measure to officials been affected by their own perceptions conclusion of that conflict,government and militarythe new cooperation between Washington and of manliness and femininity, but many wives after long separations. It has also thrown thousands of Moscow, has reunited husbands and of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that men UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF regime to feel nervousSTANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another market, causing the CONVERTER over process of onto the already strained Vietnamese laborin those gendered ways that ease the complicatedthe lack of militarization. jobs for men who believe they have made patriotic sacrifices. These scores of male veterans are searching for jobs at a time when Hanoi is cutting support to unprofitable state companies. Women's own waged work, as well as the continuing high birth rate, have thus become issues not simply of page_101 < economic planning but also of demilitarization. previous page next page > It is no coincidence that prostitution has spread. Women's Federation activists UNREGISTEREDjournalists estimate that thereLocalbook,one hundred thousand women expressing TO PDF CONVERTERare working as STANDARD BY If CHMthis alarm. Vietnamese VERSION OF you like are now buy it! prostitutes in Ho Chi Minh City and another thirty thousand in Hanoi.27 We often think that increasing numbers of women are pressed into prostitution because of militarization. But there are forms of demilitarizationsuch as in Russia or Vietnamthat can bring rising prostitution, as men look for new enterprises and as women are displaced from other forms of livelihood. In September 1991, the Hanoi newspaper Lao Dong reported that "hundreds of girls have been sold to brothels in Phnom Penh and southern China."28 An American reporter assigned to Phnom Penh in early 1992 went to the disco at Le Royal Hotel, only to see "swarms of Vietnamese prostitutes descend on unaccompanied men." He offhandedly speculated that, "with lighter skins and more experience than Cambodian women, they dominate the market, and apparently find Phnom Penh more profitable than Saigon."29 These articles did not explore what these Vietnamese women had done before working as prostitutes, who had transported them to Cambodia or southern China, or who owned the brothels in which some of them worked. Prostitutes were mentioned either as features on the landscape or as indicators of economic stress. Women working as prostitutes

THE

THE

< previous page

page_27
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_28

next page >

Page 101 Page 28 Whether much more to tell. They or demilitarizing social processes, one the chart how women and may haveone is tracing militarizingmay help us to describe more accuratelymustways in which women's men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be Moscow's rapprochement. and men's sexual relationships are being re-formed by Washington's and"manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that <><><><><><><><><><><><> civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. The postCold War era is a period in which many new militaries are being created: at least a dozen are being crafted in Africa alone. Eritreans and Namibians are creating new state forces. Planks of peace Mozambique, < agreements and page pledges in Angola,page_101 South Africa, Togo, Rwanda, and page > previous democracy next Mali all include promises to reorganize the state's military, to demobilize some soldiers, and to retrain and resocialize others. Former Cold War sponsorslike this book, buy lending agencies such as the World Bank If you are joining with it! to press for cuts in weapons purchases and defense expenditures which only a few years ago were justified in the name of development and security. Africa specialists in the U.S. State Department have called together academic researchers to share ideas about how best to steer nervous or reluctant African governments toward demobilization. 30 Suddenly the attitudes and behaviors of young African men about to lose their prestige or even their livelihoods have had to be imagined as serious foreign policy concerns. Would their mothers, wives, and sisters also be imagined in the discussions of African demilitarization? The impact of military downsizing on African women's marriages, their safety, their sexuality, and their farming need to be on State Department and World Bank agendas. The breakups of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia are spawning new, autonomous state forces. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have begun creating their new militaries even while units of the old Soviet military still are barracked on their soil. While most of the Asian republics of the former USSR thus far are finding military association with the Russiandominated Commonwealth of Independent States to be politically wise, the Armenians, Georgians, and Ukrainians have begun to fashion their own military institutions. Meanwhile, the disintegration of Yugoslavia has produced new Slovenian, Croatian, and Bosnian state forces. And peace accords are

< previous page

page_28
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_29

next page >

Page 101 Page 29 Whether radical reformations of existing state defense institutions in one must chart how women requiringone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes,El Salvador, South Africa, and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Cambodia, and Lebanon. "feminine." Not only have governmentprompt government officials to make decisions about whetherof Every one of these new militaries will and military officials been affected by their own perceptions to manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to how to policies to ensure that recruit women, whether to inaugurate compulsory military service, design and UNREGISTERED VERSION OF acknowledge homosexuality easeinstill disciplinedecisions of BY civilians and soldiers men, andone another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD the complicated enthusiasm in young relate to whether to in those gendered ways that in the ranks. These process are militarization. only the beginning. Governments creating new militaries will also make deliberate decisions about whether to manipulate masculinized ethnic stereotypes to enhance officers' authority, how to control soldiers' wives, whether to condone military prostitutionwith what safeguards for male soldiersand page_101 < whether to turn a blind eye to wife battering within soldiers' homes. previous page next page > As they reach these VERSION OF CHMthis book, buy it! existing TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED decisions, to whichIf you likemilitaries will they look to provide models? Canada? BY Finland? The United States? India? It is important to record which groups are invited to sit around the policymaking table when these crucial decisions are made. Whose credentials will be deemed relevantthose of prostitutes? Of school teachers? Of mothers? The large industrial states are reacting to the end of the rivalry between the great powers by forecasting substantial personnel reductions"downsizing" is the American bureaucratic term. But cutting back on the number of soldiers a military needs is never a simple numerical operation. Will African-American women, who currently comprise 45 percent of all the women in the U.S. Army's rank and file, make up such a large percentage after the cuts? In the wake of the Los Angeles riots, will there be more pressures on the Pentagon to continue to serve as a major socializer of African-American men, even if this means organizing troop reductions so that more white soldiers are given early demobilization? 31 If German leaders respond to calls to end male conscription and introduce an all-volunteer force, will women be allowed to enlist in greater numbers than they are now? What about Turkish-German men? And what will happen to the peculiar relationship of Scottish men to the British army if historic Scottish regiments are merged into less regionally

THE

THE

< previous page

page_29
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_3

next page >

Page 101 Page 3 Whether one is that painful or exhilarating experience to assess their one current relationships and conflict employtracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes,own must chart how women and men in any aspirations. particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." postCold have era: while the 1989revolutions in Eastern Europe are being recorded as the So, too, the Not only War government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness Cold War, the rivalry between the have also attempted to allies which defined loyalty and end of the and femininity, but many of them superpowers and their design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to oneso many countries didn't simply end when the complicated process on a subversion for so many people in another in those gendered ways that ease Vaclav Havel appeared of militarization. or when Berliners shook hands through the dismantled wall. The Cold War is having a Prague balcony multitude of endings. Most of those endings aren't hosted by government officials or filmed by television crews. page_101 < previous page next page > The configuration of ideas and behavior on which we bestowed the shorthand label "the Cold War" existed because many people far from theyou like spotlight wereit! If public this book, buy willing to see, or were pressed into seeing, the worldand their neighborsin a particular way. Thus, to end that Cold War is to make myriad transformations in the ways people live their ordinary lives. Whom can I trust? What are my loyalties? Are there alternatives to the government's expectations of me? The Cold War began and was sustained as people individually came to have certain answers to these questions. The Cold War is genuinely ending only as people come to have fresh answers to the old questions. These questions will not have the same meanings for women as they do for men. The Cold War depended on a deeply militarized understanding of identity and security. Militarization relies on distinct notions about masculinity, notions that have staying power only if they are legitimized by women as well as men. And the ending to a particular war cannot undo decades of deeper militarization. For instance, it is true that in the November 1992 presidential election in the U.S., the Gulf War victory seems to have had surprisingly little effect on voters' choices. A mere 25 percent of voters interviewed on election day said that the Gulf War "mattered" to them as they tried to decide whether to cast their ballots in favor of the incumbent who had led the country in that war or his principal challenger, who had never made defense policy decisions or served in the military. Most of the minority who told exit pollsters that that war had mattered to them voted for George Bush. 3 And yet

< previous page

page_3
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_30

next page >

Page 101 Page 30 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how notions of distinct units? If the Gurkha Brigade falls under the same British budgetary ax, will Nepaliwomen and masculinity undergo profound transformation? A what it means to be "manly" is rarely it means to be men in any particularahistorical setting comprehendsubstantially reduced militaryand what just a smaller "feminine." Not any have government and military officials been its relationships to the women and military. Cuts in only military's personnel usually alter significantlyaffected by their own perceptions of manliness country's various social classes and ethnic attempted to men in the and femininity, but many of them have alsocommunities. design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM or proposed are being tiedthe complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to created, redesigned, TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD Not all of the militaries being one another in those gendered ways that ease to orthodox, sovereign militarization.French and German officials have proposed the formation of a new European defense nation-states. force under the aegis of the previously dormant WEU, the Western European Union. Such a force has the attraction to some of being separate from NATO and at arm's length from U.S. influence. page_101 < previous page next page > Simultaneously, the United Nations peacekeeping forces, drawn from the militaries of its member states, are being looked upon by the governmentsCHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book, buy it! and Third World countries as offering BY If of many industrialized the best hope for a genuinely postCold War, nonimperialist military. Others worry that so much preoccupation with the UN's new military responsibilities will draw money and value away from the organization's less glamorous, somewhat less masculinized development efforts. Like any other institution, the United Nations is susceptible to masculinization and militarization. Thus we are entering a period of global history when perhaps more new militaries are being designed and launched than at any time since the multiplication of new states during the decolonialization of the 1950s. However, the point is not that militaries have been fixed institutions during the Cold War and are only now being projected into uncertain orbit. A military isn't like a Georgia O'Keeffe painting or an I. M. Pei buildingwhen it's done it's done. A military is forever in a state of becominglike a compost heap. The questions we must pose today to understand just what is happening in the Ukraine or South Africa are questions we should have been asking of any military in 1951 and 1985. They are questions that come out of an awareness that any government trying to use its military to sustain its domestic authority and its influence with other states will attempt to use ideas about femininity and mascu-

THE

THE

< previous page

page_30
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

but has been a foregone also attempted in any country's military since foregone conclusion." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of whether gay men and lesbians should be allowed into the country's new military. If the Estonian bureaucratic discussions sound at all like those in the United States. In the London headquarters of the once-somnolent WEU. Of principal concern for designers of the Estonian military will no doubt be the If you like this to soldier will question of whether permitting gay men and lesbians book. off-the-record anecdotes. another official is having to figure out how to respond to the official referred to as Mrs. then. She and her committee have looked forward to the mid-1990s. when in all probability a number of WEU forces that now rely on male conscriptionsuch as France. Another matter for official debate will be whether a homosexual man lacks the sort of manly qualities presumed to be needed to wield a gun.< previous page page_101 page_31 next page > Page 101 Page 31 Whether one as ideas about race and class to get the social force it feels it can trust. Lesbians will be considered quite differently. Baarveld-Schlaman. It never many of them have conclusionnot to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered waysthe twentieth century. while the Americans and British do. buy it! enhance or jeopardize the new military in the eyes of the country's citizenry. though with far less confidence than they > previous page next page did even five years ago. so she cannot be dismissed cavalierly. historical settingcorridors of Estonia's means to be "manly" and what it means to be At this any particular someone in the comprehend what it fledgling defense ministry is mulling over "feminine. Canada. risk physical danger. Faxes will likely be sent to Brussels to ask NATO about the policies of its fifteen allies on homosexual soldiering. Germany. So there willof homosexuality became an object of explicit state manipulation in that ease the complicated process be militarization. That decision is not a manliness and femininity. one must chart how women and men in moment. with soldiering. advice from psychologists. and Italywill have forsaken that < previous page page_31 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . follow orders. She is formally titled the vice-chairman of the WEU's Defense Committee. not incompatible. linity as well is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing armed processes. discussions. and sly asides. memos. and support fellow soldiers under stress. Back will come faxes saying that the Dutch and Canadians no longer see heterosexuality as a requisite page_101 < for effective soldiering. then Baltic concern over lesbians will be voiced in terms of their being "too" compatible. and elsewhere. Baarveld-Schlaman has submitted a formal report that surveyed the status of women in the union's member forces and found it wanting. Mrs.

< previous page page_101 page_32 next page > Page 101 Page 32 personnel formula and militarizing or demilitarizing social point. a twenty-five-year-old modern languages. She was joined by twenty-three-year-old Rosa Maria Santos. is moving in the direction the page_101 < report recommends. In 1992. security arrangements. there will be more and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to that women can bring to soldiering. At that processes. with one of the most patriarchal of Western European militaries." colleagues urge the entire and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of She and her Not only have governmentWEU not to drag its feet until that day arrives. Upon graduation. is that discussions of such topics among gay men and lesbians have served to underscore for everyone the state-sanctioned artificiality of the heterosexualized soldier. however. but instead to take manliness and femininity. educational attainments. buy it! training camping. Not that there is agreement among gay and lesbian activists in any country over whether military service offers a chance for homosexuals to gain first-class citizenship. the Portugese defense ministry cautiously opened the officer corpspage > previous page next to women. If the WEU is ways thatmore the complicated processWar militarization. the question of how and when to use women to compensate THE THE < previous page page_32 If you like this book.33 At about the same time. Joana Costa Reis. the barriers them are also attempted to design women to ensure that the initiative now to lower but many of whichhavekeeping the proportion of policies in the military well UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians percent throughout one another in those gendered to play a ease active role in postCold of below 10and soldiers relate toWestern Europe. What is true. was one of the first UNREGISTERED VERSIONthought officerstudent ofwould allow her to pursue STANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER her interests in applicants for the fifteen slots. they will become the first women officers in Japan's military. she one must chart how women Whether one is tracing moved toward volunteerism. predicts. it cannot afford to deprive itself of such potentially valuable "manpower.34 The creation and reorganization of so many military institutions are occurring at a time when gay men and lesbians are more vocal and better organized politically in a wider array of countries than ever before." Nor can it afford to be so far out of step with changes in all other sectors of European socioeconomic life.35 Similarly. and commitment be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Japan's Self-Defense Agency admitted thirty-nine women cadets into the National Defense Academy. buy it! next page > . 32 Portugal. appreciation for the skills. who quit her job in order to pursue a career in the army. survival skills. Militaries have never conducted their discussions about the sorts of sexuality they deemed best suited for soldiering under such a public gaze. and guns. She OF you like this book.

< previous page

page_101 page_33

next page >

Page 101 Page 33 Whether one of the kinds of men the demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how addressed for shortages is tracing militarizing orgovernment trusts with its weaponry can no longer bewomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be within the safe confines of ministerial offices. Women officers in NATO have their own organizations. "feminine." Not only have legislators, and military officials been affected by their Canada, and Civilian feminists, women governmentand civil rights lawyers in the United States, own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to harassment and discrimination Scandinavia monitor closely their governments' responses to sexual design policies to ensure that in civilians and soldiers any refinements in the those gendered ways As ease the complicated process promotions as well asrelate to one another in definition of combat. thatamong gay men and lesbians, of militarization. however, there is no consensus among feminists about how women should regard military service. Some feminists in each of these countries see the state's military as a potential site for economic advancement and for political legitimation and never use the concept of militarism to gauge that military's impact on assessment of page_101 < the social order. page previous Other feminists start with questions about militarism. They begin their next page > their country's military with a wary belief that a military is essentially a patriarchal institution, even if it occasionally sees fit to enlist women into youfold.this As each new country joins the ranks of If its like 36 book, buy it! nonconscription militaries and as governments are tempted to reach out to at least a small sector of women, these debates will grow more common. They are already going on in Italy.37 The form of military force that is inspiring perhaps the greatest hope is the United Nations peacekeeping force. It inspires optimism because it seems to perform military duties without being militaristic. And its troops at first glance appear to escape the distorting dynamics of militarism because they may not depend so heavily on patriarchal masculinity. According to one UN official, who observed UN peacekeeping soldiers in Namibia in the 1980s, local women seemed to view men soldiering under the UN's banner as less alienating, more approachable, and perhaps more trustworthy than men soldiering for any of the several rival governments. This official reported that she witnessed a higher proportion of marriages between UN soldiers and local women than she believed had occurred between, for instance, American soldiers and local women in Korea.38 To date we in fact know amazingly little about what happens to a male soldier's sense of masculine license when he dons the blue helmet

< previous page

page_33
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_34

next page >

Page 101 Page 34 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, agreements, or "codes of or armband of the United Nations peacekeeper. The contents of formalone must chart how women and men in any particular United Nations comprehend specific host to be "manly" and what it means to it conduct," between thehistorical setting Secretary andwhat it means officials are kept secret. This makes be "feminine." instance, for government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of difficult, forNot only havewomen in a host country to find out what suppositions about male manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies policing. The peacekeeping soldiers' sexuality are written into the code's provisions for health andto ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTERmasculinity thanof BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another for a state calls forth different notions of STANDARD crucial question may be whether soldieringin those gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. soldiering for a nonstate international agency does. What exactly happens to a Canadian or Fijian male soldier's presumptions about violence, about femininity, about enemies, or about his own sexuality when he is placed in the position of maintaining peace between two warring armies? If a man can discard page_101 < inclinations and page previous presumptions with just the switch from one set of stenciled initials to another, itpage > next may mean that militarized masculinity is only shirtsleeve-deep. 39 UNREGISTERED peacekeeping unitwhether inthis book,Cambodia, or Somaliais in practice a If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Any United Nations VERSION OF you like Bosnia, buy it! compilation of soldiers enlisted in and trained by particular states. There is no direct UN recruitment. There is no UN basic training. From the UN-sanctioned action in Korea in the 1950s through the UNsanctioned action in the Persian Gulf in 1991, U.S. presidents refused to allow U.S. soldiers to be commanded by anyone but a U.S. officer. Only in early 1993 did President Bill Clinton permit a small group of noncombat soldiers left behind as peacekeepers in Somalia to be commanded by a nonAmerican, a Turkish general operating under UN authority. On the other hand, there are certain governments which have quite consciously viewed UN peacekeeping as a priority mission for their soldiers, and this purpose has undoubtedly filtered down through the ranks in as yet unanalyzed ways. Ireland, Fiji, India, Ghana, Finland, and Malaysia are among the countries whose governments have routinely contributed troops to UN missions. Canada's former prime minister, Brian Mulroney, announced in early 1992 that with the end of the Cold War his country's military would see UN service as its most important function after self-defense. From the south came rumblings of displeasure. Washington officials saw the Mulroney declaration as a diversion of Canadian military resources from NATO.40 They were right.

THE

THE

< previous page

page_34
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_35

next page >

Page 101 Page 35 Whether new women militarizing or demilitarizing Finnish contingent on loan to the UN, and Finland's one is tracingvolunteer soldiers serve in the social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to Australia's military has just deployed its first women soldiers to Cambodia on UN duty. Nonetheless, be "feminine." Not only have government and as overwhelmingly male as most their own perceptions of United Nations peacekeeping forces remainmilitary officials been affected by state militaries. With such manliness and it must have the same sort of have also attempted to design other, more conventional a composition, femininity, but many of them policies around masculinity aspolicies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to how United Nations force commanders ease the complicated process of forces do. We have yet to hear one another in those gendered ways that imagine male sexuality. Are the militarization. blue-helmeted men on duty in Cambodia explicitly ordered not to patronize prostitutes? What steps are taken to prevent AIDS and other forms of sexually transmitted diseases among UN peacekeepers? Each of these policies will be informed by ideas about women, about the roles women must play if a male page_101 < soldier is to be able to do his job. previous page next page > United Nations male peacekeepers are as likely to have mothers, girlfriends, and wives as the male soldiers of any other military. Just as inIf you like this book, buy it! the contributions of these women those more orthodox forces, are accepted as natural, even if policies are devised to ensure that they fill these roles. Nowhere was this clearer than in the New York Times 'discussion of the proposal that Britain's famed Gurkhas, the celebrated troops recruited from Nepal, should serve as the core of a genuinely nonstate United Nations peacekeeping force. 41 The advantage of this proposal was not only that the Gurkhas, being citizens of an impoverished Asian country, would cost less than Canadian or Finnish soldiers. Nor was it only that Gurkhas had established a record of battlefield competence and discipline. It was also an unstated plus that the Nepali men serving in the Gurkhas apparently didn't need the company of their wives while stationed abroad and didn't compensate for their wives' absence by engaging in alienating abuse of other countries' women. These Nepali men seemed to have learned a kind of militarized masculinity quite unlike that of their British, American, or French counterparts. While such different constructions may indeed exist and while they may make one set of men better at postCold War international peacekeeping than another, such a proposal leaves out the women. Gurkhas have earned this reputation for celibate soldiering because of what their wives absorb, are compelled to absorb, because they live under British military policies for wives. Nepali women at home in Darjeeling, India, or in

< previous page

page_35
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_36

next page >

Page 101 Page 36 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and (Image has been removed, No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. 2. "feminine." Not only have government and a womanofficials been affected to UN own perceptions of The relationships of military in a war-torn country by their manliness and femininity, but many of themto local men are not simple. Here a Somali peacekeeping soldiers and have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM husband and aCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those TO PDF U.S. marine oncomplicated process of woman is standing between her gendered ways that ease the a UN militarization. peacekeeping mission, February 1993. (AP/Wide World Photos)

THE

page_101 < previous page next page > page_36 < previous page next page > UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book, buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE
If you like this book, buy it!

< previous page

page_101 page_37

next page >

Page 101 Page 37 Whether one is tracing militarizing or their lives in ways that have made life easier for British defense villages in the hills of Nepal construct demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend to use means to be "manly" and what it means to planners. They have made it possible for the British what ittheir husbands in ways that have given the be "feminine." image of the government and military officials been Gurkhas theNot only haveideal postCold War peacekeepers. 42 affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity, not the particular marriage practices ofto design policies to ensure making What is distinctive here is but many of them have also attempted Nepali women. Rather, by that civilians and soldiers relate toreminded that one cannot assess which forms of masculinity are most of Nepali women visible we are one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. postCold War world unless one asks, Where are the women? The end of the superpower suitable for the rivalry that has shaped the distribution of aid, the construction of fears, and the ferocity of hostilities has not made masculinity irrelevant in international relations. To make sense of how masculinity is being page_101 < demilitarized and remilitarized today, one must pay attention to women and to ideas about femininity. > previous page next page The Australian woman soldier donning the UN's blue helmet to serve in Cambodia, the Vietnamese If Hotel's disco, the international civil servant devising policies woman trying to find a client in Le Royal you like this book, buy it! to bolster the morale of UN troops, the recently demobilized Khmer Rouge guerrillaall are partners in a postCold War dance.

< previous page

page_37
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

buy it! next page > . militarism. Ironically. What does it mean for women to ''theorize" when the subject is state-sanctioned violence? Is it easier to get to the root of things when one is under extraordinary pressure or when one has the space to think? the requisite resources"a room of one's < Most women lacksomething more fundamentalpage_101own"to produce poetry. a personal computer. CONVERTER STANDARD theorizing that one might read over coffee or discuss with friends exists because some women in some countries have had the physical security necessary for devoting their energies to a project beyond day-today survival. Other women can't engage in sustained thinking and writing about war and militarism because they lack a sense of elementary safety." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Two manliness and femininity. The feminist BY If CHM published. > previous page next But women need than privacy. the more a government is preoccupied with what it calls national security. buyThey need physical security. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. and peace are pre- THE THE < previous page page_38 If you like this book. the less likely its women are to have the physical safety necessary for sharing their theorizing about the nation and their security within it.< previous page page_101 page_38 next page > Page 101 Page 38 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Thus one has to start trying to make sense of militarization with the realization that those women in the world with the most urgent need to discover the underlying causes for war. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Turning Artillery into Ambulances UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Some Feminist Caveats militarization. and theory. Not many books of feminist theory are coming out of Somalian refugee camps or Sarajevo cellars these days. novels. and business page connections to write down their ideas and get themTO PDF it! UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book.

have something to teach a dozen American young men about national security doctrines? She < previous page page_39 If you like this book. is only the tip of the proverbial iceberg. Societies in the grip of foreign or civil war andbe "feminine. No single explanation of why militarization occurs. and why the very concept of a peaceful society is derogated as "feminine. and of militarization. page previous next page > They don't all agree." Not by militarized regimes have not been hospitable affected by their own perceptions of those dominatedonly have government and military officials beento women's need to print their ideas. Should she go further and insist on using feminist concepts to make sense of military budgets. women who question their own subordination are often perceived as threats to national civilians Millions of relate to 1940s France. and hardware. Angola. and soldierswomenin one another in those gendered ways and in 1990s Bosnia. in 1980s Cambodia. that ease the complicated process security. buy it! next page > . manliness and femininity. therefore.< previous page page_101 page_39 next page > Page 101 Page 39 Whether one is tracing militarizing or to write down their thoughts and to must chart how published cisely those with the least opportunity demilitarizing social processes. a woman who presumes to theorize about militarism is too frequently dismissed. <><><><><><><><><><><><> Militarization poses a special problem for any critic wanting to be taken seriously because it has wideranging effects on so many different groups that it evokes a plethora of explanations. why it persists. Peruhave thought hard about why it is men who soldier. far from publishing houses or even Xerox machines. one have their wordswomen and men in any particular other women. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that On the contrary. Would an Asian woman. seems adequate. even from the politest of men. What appears here and elsewhere in print. buy it! outside academia. as if she had wandered uninvited into the men's locker room. why rape is deemed so natural a complement to war. who teaches a national security course in New York. at comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to and circulated among historical setting home or abroad. Rajini Balachadran. tells of the raw incredulity that greeted her when she walked into her university classroom on the first day of the term. a woman in a sari." That is. she is likely to be greeted by raised eyebrows and barely suppressed smirks. If you of the disagreementimportant disagreementis going on A lot like this book. millions of women whose ideas have never sat invitingly on a bookshelf have engaged in feminist theorizing about page_101 < militarization. doctrines. Two feminists can employ feminist curiosity and feminist tools of investigation and yet come to quite different convictions. Furthermore.

of the Gulf War. they think of BY TO PDF A second. their in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Does this election behavior. Pollsters > previous page next page may categorize these men as veterans. gendered ways that ease the Vietnam War and his Clinton's status as the only despite militarization. other straws in the wind to watch: the willingness of American voters to vote for women congressional candidates who refuse to define national security in terms of military strength. Bill Clinton garnered the most votes: 41 of Even among military veterans interviewed military officials been affected by their own perceptions manliness and femininity. but many of them have also attempted to21 percent. Californian or as elderly. CONVERTER STANDARD interpretation is that. although their page_101 < proportions are growing) do not now make "veteran" a central part of their political identities. when their UNREGISTERED VERSION as butyou likethey weighbuy it!own electoral choices. the willingness of young men to THE THE < previous page page_4 If you like this book. as veterans. The veterans' electoral percentages may suggest that many men who have performed military duty (only 5 percent of American veterans are women. one more admirable than any of many Americans may now be imagining their postGulf War military to be must chart how women and men civilian institutions.< previous page page_101 page_4 next page > Page 101 Page 4 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. compared with George Bush's 38 percent Perot's design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF the thoseand Rosshis opposition tothe4complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relatenonveteran of CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD to one another in three. the willingness of defense contractors and women living in towns now dependent on military bases to imagine life with seriously reduced armed forces. men and women. perhaps more remote If themselves as African-American or OF CHMthis book. to challenge defense officials and intelligence security experts publicly. mean that Americansat least the 55 percent of adults who votedcan be thought of as demilitarized? There are other tests of demilitarization." Not only have government andby the pollsters. buy it! next page > . and despite his campaign pledge to lift the existing ban on gay men reluctant support and lesbians serving in the military. which helped produce the Clinton presidency. many American men are rethinking the role of military solutions and of militarized values in their country's future. the willingness of Bill Clinton and his advisers to resist opting for military solutions as a way of proving the nonveteran president's masculine trustworthiness. This was despite percent. the willingness of Americans to confront their economic problems without blaming the Germans and the Japanese for their past reluctance to spend extraordinary amounts of public funds on defense and without pressing the Japanese or the Germans to rearm in the 1990s in the name of competitive "fairness". the willingness of American elected legislators themselves.

Their principal concern is the political economy of arms manufacture. Not only have government and militarywhen she been affected by their own perceptions of manliness security concepts. buyitit! significant that most defense to investigate whether is policymakers are men. resources. Thus. profits drive military doctrine. these theorists believe it is in the boardroom rather than the war room where we should look for the origins of wars. There are two principal nonfeminist theories intended to anyone trying explain why the military's influence and militaristic values often come to sprawl so insidiously over a social landscape. to engage in feminist analysis.2 Capitalists and their public representativesincluding those "state capitalists" who claim to be socialistsconflate the interests of business with the interests of the nation. Neither theory requires one If you like this book. figurativelyitbombing her incredulous male students intobe "feminine. both hot and cold. buy it! next page > . according to them. no previous page next page > matter what its economic system. one that first week pouring out men in doctrinal terms and weaponry comprehend what means to be "manly" and what it means to esotericany particular historical setting jargon. especially for The currently fashionable. not vice versa." Only then could she get their attention officials introduced critical assessments of submission. Where are the women? Men and women who see capitalism as the moving force behind the military's expanding influence believe that government officials enhance the status. many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that establishedand femininity. Some observers take hope from reports that the global arms trade is on a downward path: its total value in 1991 was $22 billion worldwide. < previous page page_40 If you like this book. then the end of communist forms of state capitalism in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe will not bring peace. Neither prompts one to ask.< previous page page_101 page_40 next page > Page 101 Page 40 Whether one is without some lingering pain. If these theorists are right. The first is that militarization is a logical consequence of page_101 < capitalism. to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. Both are persuasive. Capitalism's critics have concluded that major business firms with overseas investments are at the root of military interventionism. Neither theory's proponents are very curious about masculinity or femininity. The composition of the military itself is of only passing interest to these critics. and authority of the military in order to protect the interests of private enterprises at home and overseas. but 1 civilians and soldiers relatecompeting theories of militarization throw up other obstacles. The second is that militarization derives from the inherent inclinations of any state. as she social how she spent must chart how women and smiles now. nottracing militarizing or demilitarizingrecalls processes.

market imperatives may indeed compel the new political leaderships to dismantle their armament factories.5 These kinds of complex relationshipsrelationships that are hard to reduce to pure economicsdrive the continuation of international arms sales. Despite a few pilot conversion projects in the local arms-producing regions of Russia and the newly independent Slovakia. But. the United States. partnerwhich is sometimes realistic. the former Soviet Union. persuaded book. This arrangement provoked unhappiness among Japanese defense contractors but assuaged the guilt of some of their senior political elites at the same time as it cushioned the postCold War fall of American defense-dependent companies. 3 The greatest single factor responsible forto be "feminine. .6 A dismayed Russian arms conversion specialist described the mood: "Everybody is now eager to sell arms: foundations. In the short term. to send home thousands of conscripts. sometimes notthen it accounted for 18 percent of the world arms exports in 1992. . while much of the media coverage has been aimed at arms sales to the Middle East after the Gulf page_101 < War. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another European Community that is seen complicated process Union. If thein those gendered ways (EC)ease the as a single trading of militarization. was not any cutback in Western arms sales.< previous page page_101 page_41 next page > Page 101 Page 41 Whether one that figure translates or an astounding amount of killing capacity. . and Kazakhstan and the quasi-capitalist economy in China are sowing the seeds of future remilitarizationboth in these countries and among their new trading competitors. and Britain. and to slash their inflated defense budgets. China. Washington.4 For instance. whole regions . the United States. rather. this prediction already seems to be coming true. cooperatives." Not only have government and military officials been it was the their own of the Soviet drop. looked to Europe and Asia for its largest previous page next page > weapons customers. it is how women and and although is tracing militarizingintodemilitarizing social processes. however. the current promotion of capitalist economies in Russia. THE THE < previous page page_41 If you like this book. according to the forecasts of this first group of theorists. one must chart actually 25 percent men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means this less than the total value of the world arms trade in 1990. Poland. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY unwillingness to send troops to the OF you likein TO PDF it! Tokyo defense officials expensive new AWACS radar surveillance planes from American defense manufacturers rather than build the equivalents at home. in fact the leader in the arms trade. enterprises.affected bydissolution perceptions of manliness 1992. the largest arms exporters had become. Germany. buy it! next page > . By and femininity. in order. And. still for their UNREGISTERED VERSIONPersianCHMthis insisting that the Japanese compensate to buy If Gulf 1991.

. and workers < previous page page_42 If you like this book. . They one already using their lendingways that easerestrain Third World clients on the world soldiers relate to are another in those gendered authorities to the complicated process of militarization.. government officials. any military-industrial complex. and foreign government authorities. and they arehow women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be at the lowest prices imaginable. Some officials may welcome reduced this book."8 A corollary to this explanation of militarization is that increasing numbers of workers in all the affected countries have become dependent on military spending for their own livelihoods.expenditure by aid recipients . The term now used for this arms-restraining policy is conditionality. others would subsume scientists under labor. While workers and owners may have conflicting needs.design policies to ensure that development. from using scarce resources for the purchase of weaponry.< previous page page_101 page_42 next page > Page 101 Page 42 Whether one requesting permission to sell arms to remedy processes. buy it! next page > . . Essentially. an astute observer of development aid politics. But not all aid officials in all lending > next page agencies are lining up behind conditionality. femininity." 7 A capitalist economy creates a political life that feeds on militarism. unionized labor. defense manufacturing executives.9 The capitalism-as-cause theorists generally take for granted that it is men who are the corporate executives. may be the institutions usually thought of as the affected by their own perceptions of manliness andthe World Bank many ofInternational Monetary Fund." Notitonly have government and military officials been international promoters of capitalist Oddly enough. If you like military buy it! warns: ". Still other observers would add to the web local civic boosters: those mayors and their small business allies who see weapons factories as good for their communities. officials of the powerful international lending institutions belatedly have concluded that arms purchases from abroad are not good for Third World development and that page_101 < they can restrict page previous such expenditures by tying strings to their loans. Nicole Ball. weaves a complex web of interdependency among four groups: home government officials. either in its pure capitalist form or cloaked as state capitalist socialism. but and the them have also attempted to that will be the principal dampeners civilians and arms trade. Othersespecially those involved with foreign affairs and defense issues as well as with day-to-day relations with borrower governmentsmay want to avoid jeopardizing their favorable relationship with the borrowers by raising the sensitive issue of military reform. "feminine. one must chart ready to sell arms Everybody is is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social their position. Some commentators would add scientists to these groups.

on the other hand. buy it! next page > . do entice readers with this parenthetical note: "A particular page > previous page next group of (typically male) actors constitute the 'founding fathers. the day-to-day routines of the defense industry. We need to travel much deeper into the actual processes. but as advertisers or bureaucrats or corporate functionaries.13 These are but a few pieces in a patchwork quilt of knowledge.11 We know that white men comprise 50. they do not believeprocesses. Yet. Yet theorists Peter Hall and Ann Markusen. THE THE < previous page page_43 If you like this book. one must chart howor try to and explain this male predominance. both become of themcapitalists or the representatives of capitalism.7 percent. then.S.8 percent. in describing the scientist-entrepreneurs who founded the companies which eventually became the most page_101 < prominent U. white men comprise a mere 9. people who put on elaborate arms fairs to sell French and British weapons are seen. Here are a few glimpses. The chief executive officer (CEO) of General Dynamics it means to is men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and whatis a man. Similarly. and a significant proportion of them are women of color. buy it! If CHM actors who CONVERTER STANDARD BY America's "gunbelt." Women's existence in military-industrial complexes. while women of color comprise only 8. That is. if we are to find out what needs to be done to convert even a single weapons factory into a producer of goods more relevant to the post-Cold War world. but many simply have also attempted to design policies to ensure that societal consequences. is almost invisible in this influential body of theory. so be "feminine. We know that a growing proportion of the South Africans employed in the country's weapons companies are women.' " 10 Typically male? No more is said. not as men. defense contractors. We know that in any country's defense industry women do most of the clerical work and most of the electrical wiring that needs to be done to turn out modern weaponry.9 percent of Silicon Valley's professional employees. the UNREGISTERED VERSION OFformidablegendered ways that ease the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers up South Africa's in those state weaponry establishment (Armscor) and the people who have builtrelate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization.< previous page page_101 page_43 next page > Page 101 Page 43 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social that it is useful to investigate women most involved in militarization. Readers UNREGISTERED VERSION OF youof the TO PDFhave created what the authors call are left to wonder about the maleness of any like this book. for themilitary officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. of the assembly-line work force." Not only have government and purposes of dissecting the militaryindustrial complex's the defense minister of Sweden. and women of color 45 percent.12 We know that 32 percent of all the defense workers in Los Angeles are women.

Sexual harassment had been as integral to missile-making as was the collusion between the Pentagon and defense companies. and the gender gap seemed to close again. The prewar sense of insecurity and passivity seeped back into the spirits of wirers and welders. and took pride instead with being "on the map" as they began to imagine that their employment future was a little more secure. she was pleased affected finally landedperceptions of manliness and femininity. Women as well as men around Jean Alonso became excited. but many of them have also attempted to and a military to ensure that When the diplomatic process in the Persian Gulf was being aborted design policiesconfrontation seemed civilians and soldiers relate workmates in Andover. The only organized attempt at opposition to the war came from our informal women's group. she noticed a gender gap inevitable to Alonso and herto one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. Within six months. The weapons that the workers were producing made the headlines. It was as hard as ever to get the nervous male union leaders to pay attention to sexual harassment. a Raytheon employee working one must chart how women and In an unusualis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! issue of harassment on the bargaining table. however. Still. The union local'spage_101 was 47 percent women. forgot talk of a women's committee in the union local. developing: "A kind of pre-game excitement seemed to be stirring among some of the men.g. the capitalist-centered explanation is compelling." Not her have government and military officials been to have by their own a "real" job. 14 single mother in onlyearly forties." This was a group that had initially come together to press the male leadership of the electrical workers' union to take membership women's < sexual harassment seriously. and the fuel to keep it in motion) was $490. on the company's famed Patriot missile.. the Gulf War broke out. When a self-conscious feminist opened her morning paper in 1985 and read that the average operating cost for a single American aircraft carrier (e. < previous page page_44 If you like this book. Raytheon began laying off workers at its missile plant. Yet women had found it hard to get the If you like this book. As a to be "feminine. no one wanted to rock the corporate boat. she remembers. At this juncture in the evolving political tension between men and women at Raytheon. and because the New England recession was jeopardizing jobs. described the reality of gender on the factory floor means to be "manly" and what it means men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it of the American military industry.< previous page page_101 page_44 next page > Page 101 Page 44 Whether one testimony. spare parts for the ship's eight hundred daily repairs. Massachusetts. not including wages.410 per day. food for the crew. buy it! next page > . Jean Alonso. butnext page > previous page concerns were pushed far down the agenda.

its esprit de corps. Bureaucrats have their own worries. are inclinednext page > previous page nature. buy it! next page > . centralized structure of a state. and even long. When public power is hierarchically structured and is invested with vast material resources and UNREGISTEREDin the lives of citizens. teamwork. Next to such men.process of BY civilians and lot of relate to though they render gendered men. Russia's Boris Yeltsin.did not turn immediately to and concepts of masculinity or of cultures comprehend what means to be "manly" and what it means to men in any particular historical settingof misogyny. Serbia's Slobodan Milosevic. Who can be be "feminine. their own satisfactions. and their own loyalties to their agencies' own parochial interests. these to coercion. ordinary civil servants appear gray and uninteresting. But they are far from bloodless. will determine whether weapons industries wither or thrive. a sense of prized community. buy it!all but inevitable. the economic interdependencies we now callhave also attemptedcomplexes policies to ensure that UNREGISTEREDsense even one another CHM womenandways thatmenvirtually invisible." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of profiting from such incredible expenditures? Theories about how capitalism and state capitalism foster manliness and femininity. the nervous guardians of their own power. however.CHMthis book. as ease the complicated They make a soldiersVERSION OF in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. real or imagined. explanations for militarization has grown out of the conviction that once political power A second set of is organized into the formal. Shared water coolers. Saudi Arabia's King Fahdthese men. for the people working inside any large government establishment. 15 The relative lack of accountability of civil servants. It wasitonly natural if she wondered. This less tangible factor helps to explain why military budgets grow even in peacetime and are so hard to cut when enemies disappear. THE THE < previous page page_45 If you like this book. those who control that state tend to expand the use of state-sanctioned force to ensure compliance within the society and to protect it from outside < assaults. States by their very page_101 theorists argue. pales in importance next to the secrecy with which most militaries operate.< previous page page_101 page_45 next page > Page 101 Page 45 Whether one is tracing militarizing usually gender-sensitive thoughts one must chart how women she might have been excused if her or demilitarizing social processes. STANDARD BY If militarization appears symbolic centrality VERSION OF you like TO PDF CONVERTER Headline writers urge us to look at politicians as the chief architects of Cold War and postCold War militarization. tedious meetings can create a small but intense world. office gossip. An innovative weapon or even a new all-weather boot not only serves the government's overall security doctrine but also may represent a bureau's own mission. but many of them military-industrial to design have the ring of plausibility.

we can understand why state elites have ruled by coercion and threat and have engaged in vast military enterprises since well before the emergence of either industrialism or capitalism. Russian chauvinism.< previous page page_101 page_46 next page > Page 101 Page 46 Whether one is tracing militarizing the sense of global danger nurtured by must chart how retain their Military bureaucrats have relied on or demilitarizing social processes." Now. It is a person's location in the hierarchy of public power that matters. resurgent new threats to feed citizens' to one of diffuse danger: militant Islam. Nor are they. one the Cold War towomen and men in any particular historical legislators and independent journalists have hesitated to lift means to cloaks of secrecy. Even elected setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what itthis cloak be "feminine. generally takes the masculinization of public life for granted. except as voiceless victims. These supposed international dangers are more than cultural constructs based on imagination as well as fact. to justify military and civilian page_101 < officials' protective secrecy. If you like this book. It has been secrecy which has helped to fuel militarization by keeping previous page next page > assessments of threats and the rationale for weapons development unexamined. State-focused theory. < previous page page_46 If you like this book. and drug warlords loyal to no state. Using this approach. If the extreme militarization which was the hallmark of the Cold War era was fueled by the political cultures of both the Soviet Union and the United States. Women are thus virtually invisible. buy it! The appeal of state and bureaucratic theories of militarization lies in their ability to explain parallel developments in countries with otherwise different political and economic systems. like capitalism theory. Women can symbolize the consequences of state power unleashed but presumably do not play any special role in sustaining that power. The masculine character of a state elite (even when the nominal ruler might be a woman) is seen as unproblematic. as victims. but many of themlooming. buy it! next page > . looked to for explanations of a state's militarizing tendencies. military bureaucrats may be tempted to that civilians and soldiers relate sense another in those gendered ways anti-Islamic imperialism. Such theories also allow us to adopt a longer historical view. with by superpower rivalry ended for fear of being only have government and "nationalofficials been affected the their own perceptions of manliness and communist threat no longer have also attempted to design policies to ensure conjure up and the allegedfemininity. irrational outbursts of nationalism. then maybe it is the inherent nature of states that we need to understand in order to find the cause of militarism's sprawl. They can also serve." Not charged with jeopardizing military security. Japanese rearmament. as they did during the Cold War.that ease the complicated process of militarization.

yet leave unquestioned why most of the snipers. Harder questions will produce more radical answers." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Taking seriously the politics of culture and of military manpower has page_101 < allowed feminists to reveal that ideas about masculinity and femininity are central to the creation and > previous page next page reproduction of militarism.< previous page page_101 page_47 next page > Page 101 Page 47 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. then we will discover that the refugees of the civil war in Bosnia are mostly women and their dependent children. In this way we would not get to the heart of those gendered notions of work and danger that went into designing the snipers' rifles or selling the artillery guns. theory has paid too little attention to cultural politics and to the mundane politics of militarism. By the mid-1980s. and field commanders on all sides are men. This perspective has also exposed the surprising amount of public and UNREGISTERED VERSION OFmaintainingbook. Paying attention to consequences alone is useful. buy it! If CHM TO PDF constructions of manliness and private power that states have devoted to you like this particular CONVERTER STANDARD BY womanliness. not causes. For when we ask how manipulations of masculinity and femininity shape the causes and not just the effects of militarism. If we are satisfied with asking Where are the women? only when examining the impacts of militarism. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be <><><><><><><><><><><><> "feminine. buy it! next page > . internment camp guards. It will show that militarism in its Cold War and its post-Cold War guises requires a lot more power to sustain than even the most cynical nonfeminist critics have imagined. both of BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD relate economic relations as gendered ways of all thethe complicated process ease relations sustaining focus almost exclusively onto one another militarization. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that As powerful as the state-centered explanations UNREGISTEREDcapitalist-centered and CHM the most seriousthatof militarism have been. but too timid. Such questions are being posed by British and American women working in conversion campaigns aimed at dismantling the military-industrial structures of mutual admiration and dependence.000 women of all racial groups working for American defense contractors. there were an estimated 232. then feminist analysis will reveal exactly how power works." It is in these realms that feminist theory has discovered the seeds of militarism and the fuel that perpetuates it. Each military "manpower. A feminist analysis of power is particularly persuasive when it reaches beyond an approach which looks only at consequences. No longer were weapons companies dependent on THE THE < previous page page_47 If you like this book. for instance.

One study found that American page_101 < women workingpage industries in the mid-1980s were earning only 64 cents for every dollar previous in civilian next page > earned by men. one must chart hownot only had women's labor become a crucial element in the military-industrial to be "manly" hierarchical sexual men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means complex. they were needed to sustain the militarized economy and thus the Cold War. < previous page page_48 If you like this book. that they stop imagining that. or about the impact of conversion on families of defense workers-were being either trivialized or ghettoized. defense contractors relied on women working in the lowest-paid assembly and clerical jobs. buy it! next page > . where women workers predominate. their analysis of the industrial side of militarism would automatically aid women. cut their payrolls by two thousand workers each. Just as Rosie the Riveter had been sent back to the kitchen with the winding-down of arms production at the end of World War II. Low-paid women assembled military-designed computer chips and typed complicated defense bids." Not had have government and military officials rested. militarization. major British defense contractors.17 Women as well as men took part in the International Economic Conversion Conference held in Boston in 1985.< previous page page_101 page_48 next page > Page 101 Page 48 Whether one is tracing duration. about conversion of electronics companies.S. it became clear that men outnumbered women as speakers and that questions about women's particular concerns-for example. so women working in arms factories today were likely to be the most vulnerable to long-term unemployment as the end of the Cold War shrunk the number of defense contracts-unless there was conscious thinking about how conceptions of masculinity and femininity had shaped the defense industry. But in the course of the three days of workshops and panels. division of laboronly become a pillar on which that complex been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. as low-paid workers many single mothers.18 In early 1992 alone. The same study found that women in the defense-related industries made even less: a If you like working buy it! mere 51 cents for every dollar earned by the men this book. were less likely than policies to ensure to derive civiliansfromsoldiers relate to one another in those gendered wayscivilian sectors of the U. women and women merely ''for the militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. British Aerospace and Ferranti.around them." as in World War II. but aand what it means to be "feminine. but and/or of them have also attempted to designworking-class men that Women. They insisted that their male colleagues pay attention to these questions. By the later years of the Cold War. because they were working for a progressive cause.process of benefits and military spending. So the women caucused. 16 Even more than companies in that ease the complicated economy.

S. suggest something about the masculinist cultures of defense factories. the New York Times reporter in Beijing. women and men in working for defense companies had lost their jobs. buy it! next page > . and the weapons makers are gatherings of men. Feminists in local and national conversion campaigns are asking why it is that so many male workers in ship. than. Even among those male union leaders who can see the wisdom of page_101 < converting an industry from arms production to socially useful production. more proper work for a man. one must chart how one-fifth of Financialone is tracingLondon estimated that. . but many of them have also attempted to design U. "the core of a remarkable Chinese military-industrial complex . Such a STANDARD violence and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated may militarization." These masculinized rituals restrict what can be put on the agenda. and aerospace factories are enamored of their jobs. Similarly. report that domestic UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER patternprocess of BY civilians has increased when men have been laid off from defense companies. bargaining sessions between the military professionals. is misogynynext page > previous page bred by their encouraging rank-and-file male workers to believe that women workers are insignificant to militaryUNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. the legislative overseers. more powerful than the Foreign Ministry itself. one is likely to read with great interest a recent article by Nicholas Kristof.< previous page page_101 page_49 next page > Page 101 Page 49 Whether observers in militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. The patriarchal assumption that military-related work is really men's work reinforces militarization and the hegemony of the military-industrial complex in ways that may be crucial for the maintenance of this militarizing alliance. far from the factory floor. between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. They are social exchanges that require certain unspoken assumptions about what men talk about and what they don't mention for fear of appearing "unmanly. With feminist lenses in place. assembling buses or hospital equipment. means to be "manly" and what it means to be Britons any particular historical setting comprehend what it 19 How many of them were women? We do "feminine." not know. say."21 The executive desks of Poly Technologies are staffed not simply by technocrats and party loyalists- THE THE < previous page page_49 If you like this book. Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and family service agencies and battered women's shelters in the policies to ensure that Counselors in femininity. describing the seventeenth-floor offices of Poly Technologies. tank. . buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY industrial processes?20 Many male employees in weapons factories may be working against their own class-based interests because they imagine that making fighter planes (or artillery guns or spy satellites) is somehow more serious.

ensure that as when flying femininity. Air Force jet and what it means to men in anyas service in a U." Not only have government and military officials been affected by in a own housing agency willingness of young women to feel as much first-class citizens when workingtheir city'sperceptions of manliness and a helicopter for the navy. at other times they view the alternatives with contempt and go home with a renewed sense of the superiority of their own homegrown formulas for being "real men. but many of them haveof tests of demilitarizationpolicies to It is longer civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated subtle of because the militarization of the last three generations of Americans has been so deep and soprocessthat militarization. we scarcely yet know how to map its gendered terrain. The evidence coming in so far suggests that the end of superpower rivalry is not in itself guaranteeing an end to the militarization of masculinity on which it thrived. The list also attempted to design is longer. and France never served in their governments' militaries. Chile. masculinity is not abstract. The militarization which page_101 < sustained Cold War relationships between people for forty years required armed forces next page > previous page with huge appetites for recruits. aid technocrats. nor is it monolithic." In fact. If you like this harderbuyuproot those ideas than it was to It may prove book. to it! dismantle a wall.S. it also depended on ideas about manliness and womanliness that touched people who never went through basic training. But rarely are these comparisons used as spring- < previous page page_5 If you like this book. Patriarchy does not come in ''one size fits all. On the other hand.< previous page page_101 page_5 next page > Page 101 Page 5 Whether one is in United Nations or demilitarizing social processes. A lot of women and men in Poland. Sometimes men try to mimic those forms of masculinity. Army unit in Saudi Arabia ormeans to be "manly"flying over Libya. traveling executives. South Africa. yet between 1945 and 1989 their lives were also militarized. Feminists have shown in their research and in their campaigns for reform that ideas about what constitutes acceptable behavior by men can share patriarchal tendencies and yet vary in surprising ways across cultures. tourists. the be "feminine. migrant workerseveryone who moves between cultures watches for signs of what constitute appropriate ways to be manly in different societies. This book is about the varieties of masculinity and femininity that it took to create the Cold War and the sorts of transformations in the relationships between women and men it will take to ensure that the ending processes move forward. overseas troops.S. buy it! next page > . one guarantor how women and imagine servicetracing militarizingpeacekeeping forces as being as much amust chart of their fragile manliness particular historical setting comprehend what it a U." So it's not just anthropologists who compare masculinity across cultures.

< previous page

page_101 page_50

next page >

Page 101 Page 50 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart how women and (Image has been removed, No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. 3. "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Russian conversion: a woman whose factory recently assembled manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSIONtanks nowthose TO PDF irons. ease the complicated process of BY OF in assembles steam CONVERTER STANDARD civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM gendered ways that (Steven Erlanger/NYT Pictures) militarization. ungendered cogs in China's militarized state machinebut by fathers, sons, and sons-in-law. The first head of Poly Technologies was the son of a famous general; consequently he rose quickly through the arms manufacturing company, carrying with himpage > < ranks himself and then moved over to the new page_101 previous page next his intimate ties to the army. The next company director obtained the position because he married a daughter of Chinese VERSION OF you like this book, buy it! UNREGISTERED leader Deng Xiaoping. Daughters and marriage are significant docks If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY

THE

THE

< previous page

page_50
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_51

next page >

Page 101 Page 51 Whether one is tracing militarizing of China's thriving postCold War one sales to Burma, Pakistan, from which to launch examinations or demilitarizing social processes, armsmust chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it its top rulers," Kristoff speculates, "appear and Syria. "Family links between Beijing's arms dealers andmeans to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not why China's weapons and military officials been affected by their own perceptions and to be one reason only have government industry has rapidly become a major exporter in recent years,of manliness be femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that why it willand difficult to curb." civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. <><><><><><><><><><><><>

page_101 < Feminist theorizing has demonstrated that both capitalist-centered and state-centered theories may have > previous page next page
dramatically underestimated the power it requires to militarize any society. Decisions about whether men and women should be trained together, policies designed to identify homosexuals, memos about If you like this book, buy it! men's access to prostitutes, meetings to hammer out a policy that defines the carrying of umbrellas as "unmanly" for army officers, official debates over whether to turn a blind eye toward rape during wartime or soldiers' wife battering in peacetimeall are exercises of public power intended to construct gender in such a way as to ensure that militarization stays firmly on the rails. One of the most striking characteristics of militaries themselves is that they are almost exclusively male. While an estimated 430,000 women were serving as uniformed personnel in the world's regular military units by the end of the 1980s, they nowhere challenged state militaries' essentially masculinized culture. 22 Of the scores of state militaries that have been designed in the past fifty years, only in the U.S., Israel, Canada, and South Africa have the active-duty forces been even slightly less than go percent male. Thus, while we are learning more and more about the typically overlooked women who have served as soldiers, generically the military remains an overwhelmingly male institution.23 This has been so in cultures and historical periods that otherwise share little in common. Something that existed in tenthcentury China as well as in nineteenth-century Britain and in late twentieth-century Kenya has produced in their state institutions for organized violencethat is, their militariesa profound dependency on maleness. But maleness alone has not been deemed sufficient to guarantee the formation of militaries that states could trust. In all the societies for

< previous page

page_51
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_52

next page >

Page 101 Page 52 Whether have tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes, one must chart not women and which weone is information, ideas about what it means to be malethat is, masculinity, howmere men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" effective and biological malenesshave been considered by militarizers to be the sine qua non ofand what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of trustworthy soldiering. manliness are composed ofbut many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Militaries and femininity, men as a result of quite conscious political policies. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHMpresumed cultural andease the State officialsthemselves BY civilians and soldiers an explicit link betweenthose TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD complicated process of primarily malecreate relate to one another in the gendered ways that physical properties of maleness militarization. and the institutional needs of the military as an organization. The boys and men who are typically recruited or pressed into service as foot soldiers or ships' crews are drawn from the relatively powerless strata of state societies: peasants, poor urban dwellers, and members of those racial, ethnic, or religious page_101 < communities held in contempt by the state elite. Yet, for a military to serve the state's interests, these > previous page next page boys and men must to their officersmen who are social strata. The UNREGISTEREDbe bound of that glue is masculinity. PDF it! from quite differentSTANDARD BY VERSION OF you like this book,usually If CHM TO In buy CONVERTER often try to use glue is camaraderie; the base fact, nervous commanders the alleged common bonds of masculinity to reduce the all-too-obvious class and ethnic tensions among their troops. 24 But masculinity has been so intimately connected to militarism that it is no wonder there have been questions about whether the two are analytically separable. According to one view, masculinity cannot be militarized, cannot be transformed, because it is inherently militaristic in the first place. In most cultures that we know about, to be manly means to be a potential warrior. Any man who claims that it is not and never will be in his nature to soldier is therefore taking a risk. He will more than likely be thought of by his friends, neighbors, and governors as less than masculine. We know from countless historical accounts and oral histories how widespread this risk is. Yet only if we can show that masculinity is separable from militarist values and presumptions can we imagine masculinity being demilitarized. By contrast, other feminists believe that masculinity and militarism, although tightly interwoven at certain times and in certain cultures, can be and sometimes have been pried apart. According to this approach, these two ideological constructswhat it means to be a male and the values and beliefs that make military modes of thinking and behavior

THE

THE

< previous page

page_52
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_53

next page >

Page 101 Page 53 Whether one is tracing militarizing histories. For instance, processes, radical demilitarization of Costa seem right and naturalhave distinct or demilitarizing social despite the one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be its national what notions to Rican society ever since the adoption of its 1948 constitution eliminated"manly" andarmy, it meansof be "feminine." are only have sharply enough military officials been affected by their own perceptions of masculinity Notstill etchedgovernment and in the culture to have sustained patriarchal privileges for men manliness and femininity, but many of them liveliest attempted to design By remaining alert to and to have provoked one of Latin America'shave alsofeminist movements.policies to ensure that the civilians relationship relate to masculinity and militarism in ways that ease the complicated process of dynamic and soldiers between one another in those genderedany particular country or ethnic community, militarization. we are likely to assess more accurately how much public power it takes to ensure that ideas about what it means to be "manly" serve militarism. This awareness, in turn, underscores the political quality of masculinity: it is a set of ideas deserving the attention not just of militarists but of every citizen. < Those like myself who believe that militarism page_101 from masculinity are especially interested in > previous page next page is separable conscription. If all cultures constructed ideas about manliness such that soldiering was part and parcel of If you like this book, buy it! any man's proving his manliness, then governments' conscription efforts would be a lot easier. And in fact popular ideas about "becoming a man" in many societies do make it difficult for a young man to find language and imagery that will permit him to resist military call-up without jeopardizing his status as masculine, not only in the eyes of his father, mother, and male and female friends, but often in his own eyes as well. Yet, in countries as different as Turkey, Nicaragua, the United States, Guatemala, Iraq, and Israel, young men by the thousands have avoided the military draft, either by leaving the country or by resisting the law directly. Often it has been less a young man's refusal to join the military than his path of avoidance that has determined whether others considered him to have forfeited his claim to masculinity. Thus, in the 1990's in the U.S. there is still public controversy over the different paths chosen in the Vietnam War era by Muhammad Ali (conscientious objection on religious grounds), Dan Quayle (joining the National Guard), and Bill Clinton (seeking college deferment). 25 What remains constant in these American cases, as well as in less celebrated instances in many other countries, is masculinity's special salience. What varies is how masculinity can be constructed and reconstructed so as to allow for some

< previous page

page_53
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

< previous page

page_101 page_54

next page >

Page 101 Page 54 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing service for young men within the hallowed "manly" avoidance of the state's compulsory military social processes, one must chart how women and men in any particular territory of manliness.historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only begins to lose its legitimacy, the tensionbeen affected by their and men's If the state's military have government and military officials between masculinity own perceptions of manliness and femininity, but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that compulsory military service can become the case in both Lithuania and South Africa by UNREGISTERED VERSION OFacute. This wasPDF Soviet military as violating their of BY civilians and soldiersLithuanian men camein those TO in the CONVERTER STANDARD the late 1980s, when relate to one another CHMservice to see gendered ways that ease the complicated process militarization. nationalist values and when growing numbers of South African men questioned the apartheid-upholding mission of the South African military. But the emergence of such tension doesn't just happen. It is the result of conscious politicization of masculinity by those who have a stake in prying manhood away page_101 < from service in a state military. previous page next page > In South Africa the VERSION OF you like this book, buy it! UNREGISTEREDorganization of an anticonscription campaign by young white menSTANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER became the occasion for confronting attitudes binding masculinity (especially as defined in the white community) to state military service. These attitudes are exemplified by the white serviceman who told researcher Jacklyn Cock, "I grew up during my National Service. I became a man, physically fit and independent. I'd heard it was tough but I never imagined how tough it would be. I handled it." Another young man described to her the interactions which socialize conscripts into a militarized understanding of their own masculinity: "Basics . . . is tough, you're in a situation you don't want to be in. It's very physical, you've got to fight for yourself and there's lots of group pressure too. If one guy lets the group down he feels like dirt 'cos they all get punished. This grueling 'Rambo Syndrome' takes its toll. The victims are usually 'weaklings' or those who refuse to become 'Rambos.' " By the end, another man recalled, "the army does 'make a man of you.' It brings out the best in people. I learned to relate to people better. My own personal belief in myself and my capabilities deepened . . . I learned to push myself forward, to be more aggressive, to get my own way." Even those men who as soldiers found the brutalizing of black South Africans unfair and distasteful discovered that widespread ideas about masculinity made it difficult for them to act: ''The SA army cultivates this macho, tough boy image. I was wary of breaking with this." 26

THE

THE

< previous page

page_54
If you like this book, buy it!

next page >

ideas about masculinity as they exist in civilian culture are often not by themselves sufficient for building the kind of armed force the government deems necessary. "The more manly thing to do is not to be a soldier. Christ was the greatest and most manly man who ever lived. blisters." By 1989. buy it! Nudged along perhaps more by feminist critiques thisconventional masculine values than by the end of the U. men in a number of countries have formed what they call the men's movement. With a far-from-coherent philosophy and no small amount of defensiveness.S. The role of the drill sergeant. in part because its male readers think reassessing the meanings attached to the warrior can have immediate importance in their everyday relations with women and other men. For the first time. but also challenging deeplypage > previous page next ingrained white ideas about masculinity. a nineteenth-century European invention. If masculinity "in the raw" were sufficient. men who have been attracted to this movement have been reassessing the idea of the warrior." duties in the black townships so repugnant that been affected own lives.< previous page page_101 page_55 next page > Page 101 Page 55 Whether the is tracing of an anticonscription campaign. As one man explained. 27 If you like of book. Robert Bly's book Iron John has become a best-seller. testifies to the imperfect fit between even the notion of masculinity which encourages compliance with conscription and that required for effective < previous page page_55 If you like this book. Men who had their violentNot only have government and military officialsthey took theirby their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. one must no longer could drown men in others.Soviet rivalry. there comprehend what it the suicides of young white men who found out the any particular historical settingwere press reports onmeans to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. the official list of conscientious objectors page_101 < stood at 1. but question out loud whether their killing and policies to ensure that gone through service began to many of them have also attempted to designbeating of African women and civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways own ideas of masculinity. and humiliations of basic training.28 Although they do promote compliance with conscription. the militaristic voices chart how women and But with one organizingmilitarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Some men began to reconstruct theirthat ease the complicated process of militarization. He wasn't afraid to admit weakness. drawing on their Christian beliefs. It is far from clear. not only directly confronting the South African state. To acknowledge weakness is the greatest strength. buy it! next page > . there would be little need for the sweat.289. howevereither in Bly's own writings or in his readers' interpretationswhether the ultimate consequence will be a reconstructed notion of manly adulthood that is immune to the old siren call of militarism. often children was indeed "manly.

are indeed page_101 < separable. the latter are mere "twinkie eaters. combat was salient. In is tracing militarizing or demilitarizingconstruct were inseparable from militarism. ensure that the separability of masculinity from militarism remains invisible. but they don't eat steak. Even before the introduction of so many women into U. If men of different ethnic or racial groups are formally relegated to noncombat roles because they are not trusted by the government with its < previous page page_56 If you like this book. more recently. It was used by men to construct hierarchies of militarized masculinity among themselves. as well as combat's status as a proving ground for upwardly mobile officers. Thus. previous page next page > THE UNREGISTERED VERSION<><><><><><><><><><><><> OF you like this book.S. Many serve when there are no battles to fight. combat continues to have an ideological potency. either.of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure natural step UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another manhood. mechanics. For instance. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE Relatively few men who have been in the military have been in combat. buy it! next page > . they don't eat quiche." Not only any government and military officials conscription by their as to make it appear drill sergeants." 29 That is. the men from the women. no state men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to would risk its legitimacy with harsh conscription laws. one must chart how women and soldiering. that government ease the complicated process toward their culturally acceptable status of in those gendered ways thatis using political resources to of militarization. every time a government develops a training program to turn male enlistees into soldiers. and military institutions would not need to hirebe "feminine. if masculinity as a social social processes. Nevertheless. Still.< previous page page_101 page_56 next page > Page 101 Page 56 Whether one other words. although tightly intertwined. a woman officer in the U. and accountants. in large measure because it is wielded as a criterion to divide "the men from the boys"and. the fact of being in uniform hasn't always been enough to reassure a man of his own masculinity. but many their mothers. and their fathersthat military service is a that to young menand to their girlfriends.S. havetime a government fashions a male been affectedpolicy soown perceptions of manliness and femininity. Millions perform their duties far from actual combat. instructors. and other forces. it is inadvertently acknowledging that in reality masculinity and militarism. that so much political energy has been devoted to defining combat and to defending those definitions. That is. as cooks. It is for this reason. On the American fighter pilots' pyramid of masculinity. Air Force reports that the men she knows who fly fighter planes today enjoy imagining that they are more manly than the men who pilot transports.

anthat civilians and has always had mixed meanings. it is mythologized. soldiers relate to one another in thosethe one hand. will have the requisite courage and honor. 30 Every modern military has an official definition of combat. grandfathersNot only have government rolesmilitary officials been are allowed their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. It would not means to be if men whose fathers or take on any particular historical setting comprehend what itbe surprising "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. then the masculinized military hierarchies men in important racial connotations as well. Being an ordinary foot to ensure even if they are consequently subjectedthem have also attempted to design policies soldier. but many of to injury and death. Human frailty could be transcended by acts of heroism that were possible only in military combat. any more than it is simple in its relationship to class stratification in theIf you like this book." Not even among the fifteen NATO allies is there a uniform definition of this slippery thing called combat or a standard policy regarding women soldiers' participation in it. The ideological potency of combat rests on the wobbly presumption that it is knowable and unchangeable. that accords combat so much of its political power. he is more likely to be covered with mud than with glory. questioned. < previous page page_57 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_57 next page > Page 101 Page 57 Whether one African-American men demilitarizing social processes. But it is the risking of death in the name of a larger cause. as is tracing militarizing orwere until the 1950s. the presumption that only masculine people can partake of combat preserves in the patriarchal state the justification of the rule of men: only they. the influence and agenda of the women's movement. buy it! next page > . But the definition varies by country and by regime. according to cultural definitions of femininity. The soldier is doing a "man's job". therefore. On gendered ways that ease to complicated process infantryman. and he enjoys only that page_101 < autonomy and acknowledged adult manhood that he can manage to conjure up in his own imagination. just as masculinity is presumably knowable and unchangeable. Ancient Greek thinkers argued that combat offered men the hope of immortality. Once combat." likely to face the enemy in a more intimate way than even the most macho of fighter pilots. buy it! civilian world. Thus. he is low on the status ladder. and the military's own need for and shortage of "manpower. one must chart how women and weaponry. the official perception of contemporary weaponry and battlefield tactics. On the other hand." were barred from combat and take pride when they affected by to enter such positions. whether on the ground or in the air. one's claim themasculinity cannot beof militarization. > previous page next page Masculinity. he's the epitome of the combat "grunt. is not simple in its relationship even to combat.

< previous page page_101 page_58 next page > Page 101 Page 58 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. one must chart how women its like masculinity." Not only have government of the past decade is instructive. it loses much ofand men in force.S. interior electricians. If CHM the U.S. buy it! definition of combat. or while repelling assault by fire. the U.S. that there have page_101 < been debates and power struggles which." they continued. is exposed in its artificiality." ''Direct combat. and a substantial risk of capture. maneuver. Army published its long-awaited list. It included all its job titles. Nowhere are these principles UNREGISTEREDclearly than in the contestlike this book." In 1983. "takes place while closing with the enemy by fire. combat and noncombat. if now invisible. "Direct combat. military's demonstrated more VERSION OF you over TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY In 1982. or shock effect in order to destroy or capture. close combat or counterattack. but many each has have also attempted to design policies to ensure that of as of them tried to anchor down an obviously floating definition UNREGISTEREDgone through combat and masculinityPDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM TO are ways that ease the complicated process of relate to one another in those gendered socially constructed. for men only. was newly defined as "engaging an enemy with individual or crewserved weapons while being exposed to direct enemy fire. everything from guitar player to nuclear medicine specialist to HAWK pulse radar repairer." 31 They then set about trying to code every job in the Army according to its likelihood of being subjected to "direct combat. buy it! next page > . and plumbers as combat positions. but also that much combat not only reveal that both militarization. Army bureaucrats revised their 1978 definition of combat. The issue of which. The list set off a howl of protest from women in the military because it meant that henceforth many trade jobs would be considered to be combat positions and thus closed to women. U. The contortions perceptions of On this point the American experience and military officials been affected by their own the Pentagon manliness andhave and Congress femininity. a high probability of direct physical contact with the enemy's personnel. The army spokesperson explained that technological and tactical advances in warfare had made it imperative now to include carpenters. jobs were exclusively THE THE < previous page page_58 If you like this book. culturalany particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. its reliance on human manipulation. have been swept offstage in anext page > previous page deliberate attempt to make the victors' stance appear more natural than it ever was. Feminists have been at their most persuasive when they have shown that behaviors and ideas that are passed off as natural and uncontested have in reality been fought over." an activity to which only men could be assigned. if any. political currency has been invested in trying to construct these concepts for the sake of preserving the patriarchal order.

this alliance did battle with those in the Pentagon who wanted to expand the definition of combat so as to preserve as wide as possible a field of clearly masculinized military operations. one must chart how women male became is tracing militarizing military's reliance on women soldiers increased. 32 If you like this book. The solution: keep page_101 < combat as the male-only preserve. carpenters were taken off the list of combat jobs. Send the women back. but redraw its conceptual boundaries so that it sprawled over page > previous page next a much wider landscape. During the late summer and autumn of 1983. the and deliberate recruitment of women volunteers. It was well placed to monitor the army's ideological maneuvers and to blow the whistle on them. perhaps more important theoretically. and Congress. Senior qualifications lost when Congress ended themilitary officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Carolyn Becraftone of the capital's most energetic and astute lobbyists on behalf of military womencould report with pride < previous page page_59 If you like this book. Thus. where they belonged. For example. comprising liberal feminists in Washington-based research institutes. The word battle of 1983 also encouraged the Washington alliance of liberal feminist insiders to press for further contractions of the boundaries of combat in the name of opening up more military jobs to ambitious women and allowing women into even the inner sanctum of combat.33 But. By 1983.< previous page page_101 page_59 next page > Page 101 Page 59 Whether one more awkward as the or demilitarizing social processes. One result was that the army had to surrender some. but many of them have to attempted to to middle-ranking field civilian and uniformed army policymakers seemedalsobe respondingdesign policies to ensure that civilians and irritation at the one another in those women ways in their the in jobs traditionally commanders'soldiers relate toincreasing numbers ofgenderedplacedthat easeunitscomplicated process of militarization. if not to the nursing corps. at least to the radar room. which was apparently threatened by their having to work side by side with women. was causing strains in the army. It meant that they had to worry more about the morale of their men. the Defense Department. though not all. this struggle also generated an impressive paper trail. Having more women in their units meant these officers had to pay more attention to matters like sexual harassment. of its expansionist goals. which will make it impossible for anyone in the future to assert that militarized masculinity is as natural as dandelions in July. by 1990. reserved for men. instituted to it means for the numbers and educational men in any particular historical setting comprehend what make up to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and draft in 1973. a politically skilled women's lobby had emerged. buy it! next page > . buy it! But by 1983.

the ruling Liberal Democrats have pushed Meanwhile. for instance."6 So trying to make sense of the processes that are ending the Cold Waror prolonging it under new guisescan't be accomplished by painting the world with broad brushstrokes. so that Japanese male officials can demonstrate to U. And it is an enterprise that rewards those who take seriously the experiences of ordinary women and men. reports were page_101 < circulating that many Kuwaiti men had been taking out their postwar frustrations by sexually assaulting > previous page next page Kuwaiti women and Asian domestic servants. At the same time that these maneuvers were taking place. one must of the how women and men in any Will the historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be fewer wars?particular United Nations breed a less violent form of security? "feminine. however. buynew masculinity have Kuwaiti men been BY TO of CONVERTER STANDARD learning from their VERSION OF CHMthis Japan. but many of themanswer may be quite different from what ensure that about appropriate masculine behavior? The have also attempted to design policies to UNREGISTEREDof relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER has been a debate BY STANDARD civilians and soldiersVERSION and women since that same war. media watchers reported that the biggest increases in Japanese magazine sales were occurring among monthlies like Popeye. aimed at young men who wanted to learn not about rifles or jets but about "how to live happily in big cities.S. over sending Japanese troops overseas. buy it! next page > . It requires a curiosity that pays attention to differences as well as similarities.S. 5 sorts UNREGISTEREDAmerican mentors? If you likeWhatbook. The rationale was not to make war but to keep peace as members of UN teams. In Kuwait. in PDF it! through a reluctant parliament a bill legalizing the deployment of Japanese troops abroadto Cambodia. to the ideas of Kuwaiti men and women of What has been happening government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions manliness and femininity. a year after the Iraqi retreat. soldiers in joint military maneuvers for the sake of national revitalization. who follow the breadcrumbs leading from national and international elite decisions back to the daily lives of people who seem to wield little political influence. and European male officials that they have come of age politically. as United Nations peacekeepersfor the first time since the end of World War II. the reestablished monarchy was encouraging Kuwaiti men to train with U." Not only have since the Gulf War. Simultaneously. THE THE < previous page page_6 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_6 next page > Page 101 Page 6 Whether one is tracing the big questions of international politics: Will the end chart Cold War mean boards for investigatingmilitarizing or demilitarizing social processes. as they have plunged into happening to those Japanese men OF in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.

Better than posing war and other forms of violence as alternative objects of attention.35 In 1992. however. 34 1989in the U. but many had commanded army companies that played combat roles in civilians and soldiers relate Panama. thereby also demasculinizing the state which it serves? Or do these battles won by women page_101 < stalking the corridors of state power have the effect of relegitimizing the military at a time whenpage > previous page next it was about to seem an anachronism? If you like this book. invasion of to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. until recently even human rights groups have averted their eyes when the abuse took the form of sexual assaults on women by soldiers of the state." Not had have government and deployed to the been affected by their own perceptions of that 248 women onlybeen among the sailorsmilitary officials Persian Gulf in 1987 aboard the destroyer manliness and and that two women of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that tender Acadia. be "feminine. if despicable. however. rape is getting more attention as a state-generated act of war. Do they subvert the military by depriving it of its historic claim to masculinity. because of reporting by feminists in Bosnia. and Croatia. While feminist researchers such as Susan Brownmiller and war correspondents such as Daniel Lang twenty years ago documented the role of central government policies about militarized masculinity in acts of wartime rape.femininity. Serbia. Some wars have been more fruitful than others in providing women with the impetus and resources for thinking about the connections between state violence and gendered hierarchies. one must chart how women and men in any force women flew setting comprehend what it means to be of air-to-air what it means to year that airparticular historicalon the mission to bomb Libya as copilots"manly" and refueling planes. For those feminists and others seeking to sort out the relationship of militarism to the state. act.< previous page page_101 page_60 next page > Page 101 Page 60 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social been opened to women in 1986. rather than merely a private. is seeing them as connected forms of state-licensed male violence.S. While it concentrated on the treatment of women in < previous page page_60 If you like this book. war has provided the most urgent context for feminist theorizing. these victories may seem problematic. buy it! <><><><><><><><><><><><> Of all forms of state-organized violence. Amnesty International (perhaps pressured from the inside by its large number of women staffers) issued its first international report on rape as a widespread form of state denial of human rights. buy it! next page > . For instance. the same that Peacekeeper and Titan missile-launching positions had processes.

taking seriously the diaries and oral histories of ordinary women. the patterns become more intriguing. buy of Japanese women. but can also > next page "open doors" for women. among others. but by no means simpler. Peruvian. a focus on wars can distort our understanding of how state-organized violence reshapes relations between women page_101 < and men. thus helping to reinstate the very regime which had denied women political rights? As horrible as the THE THE < previous page page_61 If you like this book. Amnesty International policies to ensure that more than and femininity." Not only have government and military forces been affected by their own perceptions of either ignored assaults by men in its police and armyofficialsor responded to those abuses with nothing manliness taps on the offenders' wrists. or. a newly alert international community. The report confirmed detention. be "feminine.37 The recent revival of interest in Rosie the Riveter. 36 If one doesn't consider the possible connections between war and other forms of violence. its is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. does it undermine these pillars of patriarchy? To answer this important question we have to take a closer look at the state itself: is the state really so powerful that it can contain all the contradictory forces let loose by wartime mobilization? Controversy continues to swirl around the British suffrage movement's split over support of the government's war effort in 1914 because of this larger question of whether war is more likely to strengthen or undermine patriarchy. means to be "manly" and what it means to reports anylocal women activistssetting comprehend what itand Philippine governments. experiences scholars BY CONVERTER STANDARD World War I and II VERSION OF CHM European. one must chart how women and men in by particular historical that the Indian. paradoxically. Every day there are fresh indications how complex the of UNREGISTEREDwere for American. In Kuwait in the mid-1990s a similar debate is bubbling: was the prewar Kuwaiti women's suffrage campaign advanced politically by the efforts of the many women who stayed in the country and actively resisted the Iraqi invasion. has reawakened a classic debate among feminists: does war reinforce the dominance of men and masculine conceptions of virtue and worth.If you like this book. and Canadian. but many of them have also attempted to design called on governments to risk UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers of masculinity for the sake of guaranteeing their ease the complicated the eyes of weakening the power relate to one another in those gendered ways thatpolitical legitimacy in process of militarization. the mythical American woman factory worker of World War II. Essentially.< previous page page_101 page_61 next page > Page 101 Page 61 Whether one charges could be applied to the general conduct of war as well. TO PDF it! As feminist embark on the reconstruction of the past from below. buy it! next page > . There page previous is a common belief that intense militarization does not only privilege men.

They also acknowledge that. continued race and gender stratification of war work < previous page page_62 If you like this book. A less sanguine view of the possibilities for change derives from a close monitoring of relations between women and men. expectations of women and men are irrevocably changed by their wartime experiences. and ambivalent. These feminist historians recognize." Not only have government and military officials been affected bygender relationships doof Those feminists who. but many of them havewith all the powersdesign policies powerful enough to believe that the ruling elite. see wars as opportunities for challenging their own perceptions not manliness and femininity. these analysts note that such jobs are often deskilled at precisely the time that women are allowed to take them. labor leaders. But still they contend that in societies as disparate as Britain. to inflate the patriarchal state into an omnipotent creature. and government > previous been made next page officials to keep women war workers from mastering masculinized skills. is to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to onecontradictions let gendered total warfare. empty-headed sex symbols replace the images of strong women that filled the wartime movie screens and women's magazines. after the fact. and that emotional blackmail If you to this book. An analysis of postwar politics is critical for making sense of wartime politics. even when equipped also attempted to of the state. decades after a war has ended. buy kitchens or to low-paid "women's jobs" can be and has been used to convince women likeretreat to their it! when the war is over and the "boys" come home to reclaim their jobs. and between women and the state. for example. in the war's aftermath. for instance. buy it! next page > . Rather than being impressed. that women gain access to shipbuilding jobs during a war. that efforts page_101 < can be and have page by an alliance of male business executives. despite all such state and private attempts to restore the status quo. Theycomplicated process of control the social and ideological another in those loose by ways that ease the do well to remind us not militarization. in the long run should must chart how women and foreign occupation and militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. The genie cannot be so easily stuffed back into its patriarchal bottle.< previous page page_101 page_62 next page > Page 101 Page 62 Whether one is tracing the war that followed were. Any state is only as crafty and controlling as the people who make and implement its policies. short-sighted. And the people inside the state are often disorganized. and women do not suddenly lose their hard-won skills or their new sense of public place. confused. Furthermore. Zimbabwe. and Vietnam. one Kuwaiti feminist theorists men in as particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be count itanyan opportunity as well as a tragedy? "feminine.

making them appealingly susceptible to systematic analysis. It tempts us to underestimate the kinds and amounts of political power it takes for governments to wage wars because it ignores the decisions taken and policies implemented in the prewar period that lay the cultural groundwork for waging war and that make fighting another day feasible and tolerable. Men have to be socialized from boyhood to see their masculine identities tied to protecting women while tolerating violence. systems (as in Norway) that a woman who refuses to pass as a masculinized politician can hope to have a genuine chance at running the government. THE < previous page page_101 next page > UNREGISTERED VERSION<><><><><><><><><><><><> OF you like this book. to ensure dominate postwar public lifenot incidentally have also attempted to design policiesactually or that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO It is thusCONVERTER STANDARD BY vicariously. Far from liberating how women and serves to one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Women have to be prepared from girlhood to admire men in uniforms and to see themselves as bandaging the wounds inflicted by violence rather than wielding it. Yet focusing our attention on war isn't sufficient analytically. and not the apparently diffuse processes of militarization. Nor does militarization end with the peace treaty. one must chartwomen. Can the policies meant to make prostitution safe for soldiers on leave really be discussed in the same breath as the continuing threat of nuclear weapons? Wars also capture our attention because they appear to have recognizable beginnings and endings. those men affected by the own perceptions though more men than women are killed in military officials been who survivetheir war continue to of manliness and femininity. along with many feminists. soldiers relate to one the state in wartime. buy it! next page > . Militarizing gender before the first shot is fired is necessary for governments preparing for war. In other political systems postwar politics remain the politics of privileging the masculinized way of conducting public life. and the burying of the dead. believe that it is war that demands explanation. are understandably impatient with analyses that tend to blur war into other seemingly less life-threatening processes. Even to be "feminine. wartime men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means experience only demonstrates the extent to which women's lives are controlled by male elites." Not only have government and most wars.< previous page page_101 page_63 next page > Page 101 Page 63 Whether divide and thus to weaken women's collective strength. the welcome-home parades. PDF only in relatively demilitarized political civilians andthe chief defenders of another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE Those who. < previous page page_63 If you like this book. but many of them because they can claim to have been.

eliminate them. In the defeated country. Thethat civilians and of both relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of governments soldiers the victors and the losers are likely to see in their women citizens the reproducers militarization. In reality. Somalia. Iraq. state-sponsored hostilities. heroic. and true that peace has been on the short end of the theoretical discussion. page_101 < To chart the postwar militarization of women and of men. Iran. of the next generation of soldiers. Cambodia. The postwar era militarized thus becomes the newest prewar era. women are encouraged to restore a comforting sense of must chartby relinquishing whatever autonomy they gained while comprehend away. husbands. peace is often discussed as if it were a static condition: the absence of overt. andvoila!peace.< previous page page_101 page_64 next page > Page 101 Page 64 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. as if all one needed to do was to determine the causes of war. after war there is peace. and lovers. and individual and collectivenext page > previous page resistance to those gendered militarizing pressures. building the state. Nicaragua. social processes such as capital formation. None of these expectations imposed on women are likely to be fulfilled unless ideas about femininity and masculinity can be successfully militarized in the postwar era. and waging war have great aesthetic appeal when < previous page page_64 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . and masculine. but many of them havethe sexual needs of occupying soldiers. The feminist answers derived from North American and European experiences before and after World War II will become sharper and more politically reliable once they are tested in these ten countries. often feminine. manliness and drawn into prostitution to service also attempted to design policies to ensure women may befemininity. we might pay particular attention in the coming years to the relations between women and men and If you likewomen and the state in Zimbabwe. terms. Before war there is peace. then peace becomes merely the absence of all these stirring qualities." Not only have government militarized officials been affected by their own perceptions of emotional and physical damage done toand military sons. Thus. Ethiopia. one normalcy how women and When war is over. In this formulation. means to be "manly" and to repair the men in any particular historical setting the men werewhat it Women are also expected what it means to be "feminine. 38 <><><><><><><><><><><><> Peace is conventionally juxtaposed with war. logical. between this book. buy it! El Salvador. Indeed. the dichotomy has been so widely assumed to be obvious. and Kuwait. When war is seen as active. Croatia. peace has lacked adequate theoretical attention from patriarchal intellectuals because it has been defined in negative.

and gender relations within Britain and its colonies. 39 We must nonetheless think about violence and oppression in ways that keep the distinctiveness of page_101 < militarism sharply etched. Lack of peace. perceptions of manlinessstart from feminists and femininity. Yet the Owenite feminist women did not analyze state armies or the government's claim to need to recruit and arm such globally ambitious military forces. even in the cause of criticizing such male scholarsis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. one must chart how women and processes. Africa. lay in the oppressive structures of patriarchal marriage. the war zone was not India. it was marriage. Yet it remains limited in its ability to help us understand the relationship between peace and militarism because it fails to trace the links between the patriarchal oppressions imposed locally and those imposed militarily overseas. they argued. and because they see policies to ensure and UNREGISTERED the conditions anotherto define TO PDF CONVERTER controlviolence of BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM peace as women's achievement of STANDARD relate tomore likely in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process one oppression can take.40 Their analysis rings all too true today. men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. the opposite of peace was not militarism. A century and a half ago. ethnic. They were addressing members of a society governed by an imperial state." Not only have government and military officialsthis war/ peaceby their own Perhaps because Feminist thinking about peace is not necessarily locked into been affected dichotomy. they are over their militarization. buy it! next page > . it was the British domestic household. THE THE < previous page page_65 If you like this book. buy with UNREGISTERED it enough to conflate youwives'TO PDF it! their husbands' reluctance to take BY If CHM frustrations CONVERTER STANDARD on child care with the problems of military wives coping with pressures from the military to perform all the tasks of motherhood as well as unpaid volunteer service on the base. I believe.< previous page page_101 page_65 next page > Page 101 Page 65 Whether one select topics on which to focus their energies. own lives. to lump wife battering and wartime rape together > previous page next page as if they required identical uses of public power or involved identical relationships between masculinity and the state. For Owenite feminists. It is not enough. Nor is VERSION OF all like this book. but many of them have also attempted to designhow many forms that of women's lives. British feminists in the Owenite socialist movement were militant in challenging the oppressiveness of marriage for women. This rediscovered analysis of marriage is provocative and useful insofar as it deepens our understanding of genuine peace. speaking to women and men whose political leaders were militarizing economic. or the Caribbean. In these women's theoretical framework.

Seen as < previous page page_66 If you like this book. One would also urge domesticand soldiers relate torally another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. If one believes and military officialsthe chief obstacle their own then one would manliness a woman in a violent marriage to have not only a rally design for more restraints on encourage and femininity. however complex these links may be and however many other issues claim our energies and resources. the concept of militarization seems vague. on the grounds that stopping legitimized oppression in personal relationships is the most theoretically efficient way to end militarism. 41 But a feminist working in an underfunded local battered woman's shelter might see militarization as a surface symptom of more basic assumptions page_101 < in the culture about marriage. Analyzing militarization casts a theoretical spotlight on a convergence of social processescultural. rather than imagining war and peace as opposites.book. <><><><><><><><><><><><> In contrast to the apparently limited definition of war. reproduction. we must clarify the ways in which "peacetime" conditions such as those under which American and European women currently live actually foster wartime conditions such as those faced by women in Armenia.would urge the antimilitarist activist to enlist If you like this one buy it! in the struggle against wife abuse." Not only have government that militarization is been affected by to peace. speakers at each rally to describe the causal links between a husband's abusive behavior and the wider militaristic culture that legitimates all forms of violence. perceptions of effective social change. but many of them attendalso attempted toto press policies to ensure that civilians batterers. one must chart how women and men in argument among women activists over how what it means to be "manly" in what it produce current any particular historical setting comprehend to maximize scarce resourcesandorder to means to be "feminine. Moreover. It's harder to assign dates at its beginning or its end. and heterosexuality all of which are essential to > previous page next page the maintenance of male privilege and the permission for interpersonal violence on which such dominance often rests. The practical and theoretical links between heterosexist domination and the military's exploitation of women need to be clearly drawn. and political.< previous page page_101 page_66 next page > Page 101 Page 66 Whether one is debate over the opposite of peace and the obstacles to achieving peace is reflected in the This theoretical tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but also a one to sharply cut postCold War military spending. Following this line of thought. property. economic. buy it! next page > . But its temporal diffuseness becomes its feminist theoretical strength.

buy it! next page > . Finally. to Armenians' collective notion of masculinity? Has it undergone a radical militarization since the mid-1980s? If so. But since militarization can be explained only by naming its causes. its analysis does have the inherent potential for pushing us to watch for any changes in a particular culture. what it means by feminists. for example. and still others as BY If CHM TO simply CONVERTER STANDARD an economic process. what it means to be "manly" andliberation. have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend division of labor.wayscan trace any complicated process of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization permits the investigation of in those gendered We that ease the community's or militarization. colonization. sons. especially those experienced firsthand. nationhood. and compatriots and in their relationship to this new state. but also for Armenian women. design policies to ensure UNREGISTERED VERSION OF ideological change. have used the Rosie the Riveter myth to explore the state's ideological manipulations of women's family and work expectations. the enemy. reproduction. What is happening.ideas over decades and generations to see how presumptions about masculinity are either government's bolstered or challenged by other ideological constructs such as authority. and to be "feminine. but remain relatively ignorant of how the Iraqi Baathist regime promoted women into civil service posts in a strategy for fighting its prolonged war against Iran during the 1980s. buy it! diplomatic process. page_101 < previous page next page > This is not to say that all analysts of militarization give sufficient attention to its ideological dimensions. the concept of militarization is especially valuable for anyone embarking on theorizing because it encourages rather than dampens cross-cultural dialogue. American women. but many of them have also attempted to exploring the concept of that To make sense of distorted ideas about masculinity and femininity. and the state. militarization is analytically compatible with other processes examined a processone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Not only sexual harassment. such as industrialization. sexual pleasure. What did this policy mean for Iraqi men's expectations of marriage and employment when they returned home after Baghdad and Teheran signed their cease-fire agreement? 42 Third World women theorizing about war and peace and militarism THE THE < previous page page_67 If you like this book. some treat it as merely a technological process. North American and Western European women have drawn their questions and hunches mainly from wars. some as PDF a UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. for instance. not only for the nascent Armenian state. in their relations with their husbands. this has profound implications.< previous page page_101 page_67 next page > Page 101 Page 67 Whether rather than an event.

" Not only have government and toward women been affected by their own perceptions investigations into how men learn to behavemilitary officialsand toward other men in ways that mire of manliness and femininity. in base town discos. It has influenced fathers' hopes for their sons and voters' presumptions about electable candidates. in torture chambers. 43 < previous page page_101 <><><><><><><><><><><><> If you like this book. Yet the very breadth and depth of militarization in so many countries makes it difficult to develop unambiguously feminist theories of militarization. military authority. in factories. in political parties. themilitarizing or demilitarizing socialis the concept that best shows how power is men to distort relations between women and men. one must chart how women and have been. It takes culture seriously. buy it! next page > Our own historical period may rank as the most thoroughly militarized in history. Militarism has shaped the design and marketing of children's toys and of adult fashions and entertainments. the very darkness of our timeswhether measured in megatonnage of nuclear explosives or in numbers of refugeeshas tempted many to dilute their distinctly feminist approach. have become militarizedthan perhaps at any previous time. Feminist theorizing is distinctive insofar as it reveals how much of social practice depends on deliberate manipulations of gender. in guerrilla camps.< previous page page_101 page_68 next page > Page 101 Page 68 Whether one is tracing most convinced that militarization processes. Military expenditures. They have deemed all sites to and what it means used in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" be useful for their to be "feminine. and from Thailand them in militarism. movements. in legislatures. from India to to design policies to ensure that to civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated Guatemala have turned their observations toward men's behavior in police stations. buy it! next page > . They have discovered how militarization can be and has been promoted in each of these settings. and in bedrooms. Still. in peace process of militarization. perhaps. but many of them have also attempted South Africa. more people in more societies have been dependent on or controlled by the military and military prioritiesthat is. Militarized mythologies of valor and safety have influenced the self-esteem and security of millions of people. and militaristic values and ways of thinking have influenced the flow of foreign trade and have determined which countries receive agricultural assistance. it is on the lookout for even the most seemingly trivial efforts of state officials to shape ideas about what it means to be womanly or manly. Although the < previous page page_68 If you like this book. with disastrous consequences for women. Feminists from Chile to Korea.

despite the best efforts of a militarizing state to manipulate ever-potent notions of masculinity. mothers alarmed over the conscription of their sons. a feminist analysis implicates patriarchynot just the THE THE < previous page page_69 If you like this book. UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. a proponent of feminist theorizing must show convincingly that if the social constructions of femininity and masculinity are ignored or trivialized. when gender considerations are left out of the explanation. andpage_101 that their own male honornext page > previous page men who feel is violated by soldiers who rape their wives and daughters. Thus. but many of them have also attempted men and women whoensurethreat to The composition of campaign is diverse: to design policies to see a that UNREGISTERED an antimilitarismOF CHM often PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiersVERSIONof force to quellgendered protest.< previous page page_101 page_69 next page > Page 101 Page 69 Whether military beliefs and influence cannot be sustained unless fueled must hierarchical spread ofone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Most radically. citizens alarmed over the government's < willingness to lease land for foreign bases. buy it! next page > . and our actions will fail to reverse these trends. A man may feel so threatened in his masculine identity that he may refuse to admit that the meanings assigned to femininity and masculinitynot just as abstractions. analytically and strategically. aboriginal people who fear the of relate to one another in those TO democracy in the government's use popular ways that ease the complicated process militarization. To overcome these very real theory-in-action dilemmas. officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. some may have hesitated to press means to be group that has come together men in any particular historical setting comprehend what itthe issue in a "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. At the very least. oneby the chart how women and arrangements of gender. and as objects of forced conscription. but as part of his everyday guide to behaviormight shape his idea of what is a trivial issue as opposed to what is politically significant. in contrast to other forms of gender oppression. however. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Militarization. a feminist must demonstrate exactly what is lost. parents desperate to locate ''disappeared" children. workers opposed to their employers' stubborn dependence on military contracts. escalating demand for uranium deposits under their already scarce lands." Not only have government and military out of quite different concerns about militarization. we all will fail to grasp why people's lives have become increasingly dominated by military values and agendas. At the same time. really does injure men. literally as well as figurativelyon the battlefield. in jail cells. demanding his public attention. they are hard to convince of the need for a feminist analysis of what causes and perpetuates militarization. men can be mobilized as allies in antimilitarist campaigns.

Jacqueline Cock. Seungsook Moon. although these If you likenow book. buy it! next page > . Beverly Grier. and Marla Erlien. I would like to thank the editors and conference organizers who prompted me to think about just how the dynamics between masculinity and femininity constructed the Cold War and today are directing its sputtering end: Beth Hess and Myra Marx Ferree. John Blydenburgh. John Gillis. Jan Pettman. Nishkala Suntharalingam. aboutbut many of them havemuchattempted to design policies tois too much still to civilians and soldiers relate to one watching those gendered ways do ease the women and process of figure out. Margaret Cerullo. Kathleen Barry. and togetheract out their relationships with militarism. and Lorenza Sebesta. Amy Virship. Kate Tentler. Melissa Gilbert. Octavia Taylor. Dessima Williams. Julie Wheelwright. rivalries. There is too also still to keep an eye on.quiteit! chapters this read buy differently than they once did. It doesn't men quite particular pronounce that comprehend is over. Ann Smith. Mark Miller. Fadia Faquir. and Elizabetta Addis. Nira Yuval-Davis. There ensure that ideas about enemies. Not if by the Cold War one means a densely seemin any time yet tohistorical settingthe Cold War what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. Other chapters I was < prompted to write initially by people who had page_101 see the need for a conference or for page > previous page next a the insight to collection that would tackle some of the postCold War puzzles occupying so many of us inside and outside academia. Keith Severin. Some of the ideas spelled out in the chapters that follow were first posed when the Cold War was still under full sail. Sally Deutsch. Saralee Hamilton. Lynn Wilson. And curiosityone must chart cautious. I have had the good fortune to be able to try out hunches about wartime and postwar American society with Sharon Krefetz. I have rethought them in light of the events of the last three years. Valeria Russo. can make one how women and This book is inspired not by pessimism but by curiosity. Cynthia Peters. Elaine Salo. Pronita < previous page page_7 If you like this book. Thus. Seira Tamang. And a lot of what needsanother in and explaining has to thatwith how complicated menalone militarization. Marie Aimée HelieLucas. Saundra Sturdevant. and Lilo Klug. Ann Holder. Ximena Bunster. Eva Isaksson.< previous page page_101 page_7 next page > Page 101 Page 7 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Connie Sutton." Not only have government and military officials not only large and lethal militaries but of woven web of relationships and attitudes that have sustained been affected by their own perceptions also manliness and femininity. Zena Sochor. Among those friends and colleagues who have generously acted as guides to militarizing and demilitarizing cultures about which I still know all too little are Lois Wasserspring. Elizabetta Addis. Alison Cohn.

militarization. Isn't the Cold War's those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE < previous page page_70 If you like this book. and not just the hierarchical statein must chart how women and capitalist one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! next page > . however temporarily < stanched. THE UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. have government message may be difficult affected women and perceptions of rid." Not all. onethe causation of militarism.page_101 previous page next page > and yet again. It men entire patriarchal structure of privilege and control it means be dismantled if societies are to to is thein any particular historical setting comprehend what that must to be "manly" and what it means be be "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_70 next page > Page 101 Page 70 Whether military-industrial complex. unfortunately. Thisand military officials been for manyby their own men to hear in manliness and collapse of the second them have and the consequent reduction in to ensure that the wake of thefemininity. once and foronlyof militarism. lies dormant. capable of rising again. accomplishment? No. but many of superpoweralso attempted to design policies tensions between UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM curtain enough to warrantthesense of reliefprocess of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in final gendered ways that ease a complicated and nuclear-armed alliances. As long as patriarchal assumptions about masculinity and femininity shape people's beliefs and identities and their relationships with one another.

was part "Steve Canyon" strip. She was neither the Dragon Lady nor Cheetah. serving as a flight surgeon with Allied page_101 < commandos intopage famedof that group of British. I began to formulate ideas about what it was like to be my father in World War II Burma by reading "Steve Canyon" comics. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. for months at a time. on the other hand.< previous page page_101 page_71 next page > Page 101 Page 71 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. essentially as a single parent. who made sense of her father's death in the Vietnam If you like this book. < previous page page_71 If you like this book." My mother. buy it! next page > .like novelist Bobbie Ann next page > previous Burma. But it was a golden-haired Steve Canyon who was my comic strip passport to wartime Asia. didn't inspire wartime comic book creators. Rambo civilians andMilitarized Masculinity Histories of soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. U. the teenage Kentucky girl. And I don't remember her ever reading these strips.S. I grew up with a blue-haired Superman fighting Nazi spies.." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Chapter Three manliness and Canyon andbut many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Beyond Steve femininity. buy it! War by watching TV reruns of M*A*S*H. She cooked meals and provided a home-away-from-home for my father's army air corps friends when they and he were back in the United States between overseas duties. My father. 1 Perhaps even the men who actually served in those unconventional commando units today mingle their memories with images from ''Steve Canyon" and "Terry and the Pirates. She took care of my brother David and me. Much and Australian soldiers who inspired Milton Caniff draw his Mason's character in In Country.

obstacles. General Norman Schwarzkopf. one must chart how women andit men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means I be "manly" and what it means to be was presented in popular culture or in the lives of family members. and of the tough commander who could cry. of Reaganesque National Security Council bureaucratic entrepreneur Lt.been affected by aboutown perceptions of manliness and femininity. I didn'tbut manydebates. whether Each of us in is tracingway took for or demilitarizing social processes. Col. dolls. remembrances with my brother who is a veteran of a militarized peace. was accomplished. attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to my another enticingly cryptic diaries from those years. and television series. In 1986. 2 page_101 < How have men from different cultures had their notions of manhoodand womanhoodshaped andpage > previous page next reshaped by officials so as to permit to imagined to UNREGISTERED VERSION governmentsthisto be camouflaged in order for the ideologicalbe BY OF you likehad wage the sorts of wars they have STANDARD If have book. share forty-five years later.to didn't give any thought to whether "feminine. "Rambo" became a convenient shorthand for a complex package of ideas and processes. listen to my father describe plans for commando reunions in London and California. as I read one mother'sin those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. or costs. setbacks. For many of us.< previous page page_101 page_72 next page > Page 101 Page 72 Whether one our own militarizing granted a symmetry between masculinity and militarism. Rambo's brand of militarized masculinity was compared with those of World War II movie idol deck officer John Wayne. a film shot in Cuba and the Crimea about an independent. Sylvester Stallone's character inspired fashions.3 At the same time. that I have begun to ask questions. "Rambo" slipped quickly into the global lingo. by people as different as Filipino guerrillas and antiCold War Finns. It is only now.4 THE THE < previous page page_72 If you like this book. and compare "Steve Canyon" reprints with the latest "Rambo" cartoon narratives. rough-and-tumble Russian commando. imagine of them have also strategies. "natural"? In the late 1980s. buy CONVERTER necessary? What contradictions or failuresCHM TO PDF it! symmetry between masculinity and militarism to appear unproblematic. For a time it was the top film in both the United States and Great Britain." Not masculinity and militarism had to officials I didn't wonder their how that forging the link betweenonly have government and militarybe forged. Moscow viewers of smuggled Rambo videos had the chance to see a Russian counterpart on the big screen. Mikhail Nozhkin. Rambo videos were being viewed on VCRs around the world. buy it! next page > . Rambo caught the imaginations of millions of people. star of Solo Voyage. Oliver North. was nicknamed "Rambo" by local movie fans.

" Not only have While other and military officials placed economic. social constructions of masculinity. government critical analysts have been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Third. militarism's reliance on particular forms of masculinity is apparent in societies with otherwise dissimilar cultures and uneven levels of industrialization. But he remains a warrior on a winning side. buy it! next page > . Its remarkable cross-culturalthis book. Second. one must war and peaceand of men in any particular understanding of how notions about means to be "manly" and what means to militarized peaceis an historical setting comprehend what itmasculinity and femininity haveitpromoted be "feminine. these feminine parts. The varieties of militarized masculinity may deserve more of our attention. But now I wonder if they are enough.appealan appeal fueled by immense infusions of corporate capitalseemed to confirm a three-part feminist analysis: first. 5 In the 1990s. Particular variations do not only spring from diverse cultural groundings. And Rambo's evolution confirmed them. when there is such hope for a genuine rollback of page_101 < earlier decades' militarization. racial and bureaucratic and sustained the military. this feminist assertion needs to be taken very seriously. nor is he Oliver North or Norman Schwarzkopf. they may also be dictated by historically specific militarisms.6 These arguments were persuasive.< previous page page_101 page_73 next page > Page 101 Page 73 Whether one is important contributions feminists have made to the analysis of chart how women and One of the mosttracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. militarizing masculinity cannot succeed without making women also play specifically feminine parts in the militarizing process. confident in asserting that the omission of genderof femininity and masculinityfrom any explanation of how militarization occurs risks not only a flawed political analysis but also perpetually unsuccessful efforts to roll back militarization. feminists have concentrated on theattempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and of more and more evidence in those gendered ways that ease made feminists process of accumulationsoldiers relate to one anotherfrom more and more societies has the complicated increasingly militarization. next page > previous page Rambo first appeared at a time when feminists were asking more questions about militarism than they If you like popular buy it! had since the 1920s. entrench and extend the grip of militarism. although vital. The patterns stage front. must be kept ideologically marginal. not just elite interests or state bureaucracies and their cosmologies. While something of a maverick with his < previous page page_73 If you like this book. but many of them have also social constructions of gender. Rambo is not Steve Canyon. Steve Canyon may get a bit confused when he moves from comic-strip World War II to a comic-strip Indochina war.

called for a brand comprehend masculinity that served the and without depriving men in any particular historical setting of militarizedwhat it means to be "manly"state what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been and his by their own perceptions the low-ranking white American male of his sense of individualityaffected emotional attachment to of manliness and femininity. having survived postwar reeducation camps and refugee camps. He tries to reopen a war that his own state's officials want to be over. Dutch. politically disaffected.CHM TO PDF it! If instead. Perhaps CONVERTER STANDARD militarization.8 How have Kuwaiti. is a no less them have also attempted cultural policies he belongs to women. engage buy CONVERTER STANDARD defies official hierarchies but restores a nation's "pride" in its military. one must chart according to and simplistic portrayal. Butto ensure that a UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDFhis dark ease the complicated process of BY civilians era soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that complexion is meant to signal to different and in the evolution of American militarism. Chinese. in individualistic military adventurism that BY therapy groups or march in peace parades. German. if not won. What little information is available about Vietnamese ARVN veterans who have made it to the United States suggests that some of them. there have been few investigations into the postwar lives of our Vietnamese comrades-in-arms: the soldiers of the Army of Vietnam (ARVN). World War II. Egyptian. Russian. Belgian. pre-Gulf page_101 American militarized male. He openly defies his superiors. Thus. 7 Today's Rambo but many ofmasculinized or militarizedto design icon. Croatian. Polish. Other ARVN veterans have become dysfunctionally dependent on the women in their families. War type of < Rambo is a peculiarly post-Vietnam. he doesn't feel as though he's at war with hisprocesses. Italian. His message is > previous page next page for those American men who are pained by national humiliation and elite betrayal: don't go to veterans' UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. how women this blond persona. his cartoon-dependent audience that he is out of the political mainstream. buy it! next page > . THE THE < previous page page_74 If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_74 next page > Page 101 Page 74 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social superiors. Japanese. have turned their masculinized. Iraqi. militarized humiliation toward intimidation of their fellow Vietnamese Americans. He is so unconnected to his fellow men and women that he rarely speaks in whole sentences. Saigon's forces. Do men from other societies have the same responses to militarized national humiliation? Americans preoccupied with veterans have been curiously uninterested in the soldiers of other countries-even their own former allies. and keep your emotional distance from women. or French constructions of masculinity been affected by their own twentieth-century military losses? Humiliation is both a gendered and an enculturated emotion.

consequence that Rambo will be absorbed (or rejected) in quite dissimilar ways. buy it! next page > . manliness and femininity. Klaus Theweleit. repentant. but many ofChris Stowers/Panos Pictures) (© them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of So we might expect it to be militarized in quite dissimilar ways in different countries. "feminine. page_101 < "Did you ever consider whether men in countries that lost their wars really think that they actually lost? > previous page next page "10 It may be that men and women in the same country (on "the same side") carry into contemporary If you like whether buy it! political action quite contrary presumptions aboutthis book. has delved into the most intimate fantasies of men in the Freikorps. the German historian. 4. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed. there is anything to feel humiliated. The Finnish feminist Eva Isaksson has asked. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. So it is always useful to examine the current trend in militarizing masculinity in the context of what particular men think of as the last war. with the militarization.< previous page page_101 page_75 next page > Page 101 Page 75 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Rambo comes to postCold War Russia. or defiant about. 9 The very definition of a war that is "lost" is problematic. For example. 1992. Moreover. What he has < previous page page_75 If you like this book. men of different social classes may conceive of a war's outcome in ways so disparate as to produce quite dissimilar relationships between their senses of masculinity and the state military.

ethnic groups. one that is not idle speculation in the postCold War 1990s. Japan indeed had the world's third largest military THE THE < previous page page_76 If you like this book. starting with Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone. These Russian and Ukrainian men want to professionalize their militaries.12 In this postCold War world. They want to shed the amateurist masculinity of a conscript-dependent army. embrace or discard notions of military humiliation and redemption.S. have resisted acknowledging Japan's World War II errors and at the same time have pressed their colleagues to enhance the nation's military strength.< previous page page_101 page_76 next page > Page 101 Page 76 Whether one that this militarizing or of men were social processes. Let us take another example. buy it! next page > . it was rooted them have also attempted to design policies lost. but many ofin these men's particular experience of a war to ensureFirst World UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TOparticularCONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another the men in PDF classes. we need to take seriously the militarizing dynamics of "postwar" eras. By the time the Berlin Wall fell. to understand howin those gendered ways that ease the complicated nations of militarization. when Washington spokesmen suggested that the men who are the leaders of Japan could not be "mature" international actors unless they deployed troops abroad. manipulatedNot authorities government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness to Theweleit. How does military humiliation resonate a generation later among women and men in contemporary Japan? U. however.and middle. many of the lower. the that Accordingand femininity. one must chart how women and discovered is is tracingparticular groupdemilitarizingmilitarized in large part by their desperate flight men femininity. But historical setting hatred for women it produced." by only have from 1918 through World War II. 11 In other words. UNREGISTERED post-Soviet armies? According to recent reports. They want to project a newly confident militarized masculinity through the wielding of the kind of high-tech weaponry that they believe allowed American soldiers to shake their own emasculating memories of past defeats. buy to sideline observations of the Gulf War.BY VERSION OF CHM TO defeat CONVERTER STANDARD ranking male officers of both countries If you like this thatPDF it! lessons they have drawn from their are marrying book. which was so what it means to be fromin any particularthis flight and the comprehend what it means to be "manly" andeffectively "feminine. and process War. A recent succession of Liberal Democrat prime ministers. presidents and their men have been pressuring their Japanese counterparts to remilitarize and became particularly insistent during the Gulf War. these are not the only lessons being drawn. wasn't fueled an ahistorical misogyny. How are the page_101 < Russian and Ukrainian men who felt the sting of a lost war in Afghanistan converting that memory into > previous page next page hopes for their new.

one budget (muchis tracing militarizing or demilitarizing socialits territory). however. but many of them have also with professionalized "top guns. pushed through the parliament in 1992. 9of its constitution. Yet the New York Times chose to headline its report of the men's arrival as "Japanese Sun Again Rises Overseas. Some of them are closely monitoring what they believe < previous page page_77 If you like this book. The first six hundred Japanese soldiers shipped overseas under this act. their own perceptions of manliness into popular hopes for a military force filled attempted to design policies to ensure that was translated and femininity. Carrying briefcases instead of rifles and wearing berets instead of helmets. must chart how women and menJapanese popular historical setting comprehend what it means to remilitarizedanddate. Despite the government's legislative victory." Nowhere civilians and soldiers relate to one another inand parliamentary debate over the reinterpretation of Article this clearer than in the country's 1991public those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization." Notdo nothave government and military officials been affected by Nor have they yet wartime defeat only appear to have generated a Japanese Rambo syndrome. bases on processes.< previous page page_101 page_77 next page > Page 101 Page 77 Whether one of which goes to maintaining U. Corporatized and commercialized masculinity evidently is not as easily translated into militarized masculinity as it was in Britain in the 1930s. these Japanese engineers scarcely appeared to be models of military imperialism. would reconfirm If you like this book. Japanese soldiers in fact were so poorly paid and held in such low repute that the military fell 14 percent short of its recruitment targets. who were members of an engineering corps. In the United States there is enough postCold War economic anxiety for many Americans to ignore the two decades of Washington pressure on the Japanese to remilitarize and instead to imagine Japanese peacekeeping engineers as the direct descendants of the Imperial Army. some otherwise patriarchal page_101 < politicians in both the ruling Liberal Democratic party and its leftist opposition remained unconvinced > previous page next page that wielding military power abroad. buy it! Japanese national influence or bolster its male citizens' collective sense of postwar manliness. are not quite ready to shelve Woolf. permits the government to send units of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (SDF) overseas to serve in noncombat roles with United Nations peacekeeping troops. Memoriesto be Yet in any particular notions of masculinity have not seemed easily be "manly" to what it means of "feminine. when Virginia Woolf charted that conversion in her landmark essay Three Guineas.14 Japanese feminists. even under the blue and white banner of the UN. This change." 13 In 1989. were sent to keep Cambodia's fragile peace by rebuilding roads and bridges. buy it! next page > .S.

5. efforts by the government to transform postwar economic models of Japanese masculinity and femininity to make OF more amenable to a U. "feminine. tell us about how men in that society might be drawn to support militarism or to reject it? <><><><><><><><><><><><> THE THE < previous page page_78 If you like this book. peacekeeping operation? This militarization. In every country where Rambo has become a cultural hero. 15 UNREGISTERED VERSION them you like this book. newspaper story seems designed to provoke in Americans memories of an aggressive past. men in other countries did not respond to Rambo's individualistic defiance as many American men did in the 1980s. students of militarization need to describe exactly what qualities of both the character and the narrative are attractive to that society's men. if subtle. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY Thus. in turn.< previous page page_101 page_78 next page > Page 101 Page 78 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them have also attempted to UN's Cambodiato ensure that take part in the design policies UNREGISTERED approval of troops being sent togendered ways that easea the complicated process of BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD relate to one another in those photo accompanying U." Not only haveis the meaning assigned toofficials been parliament'stheir own perceptions of What government and military the Japanese affected by 1992 manliness and femininity. men in various societies do not sift alleged national humiliations through the same militarized sieves.S.S.backed military buildup. buy it! next page > . No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. (© Robin Morgan/Gamma Liaison) page_101 < previous page next page > are important. What do these qualities.

British officials had to find ways to persuade local male rulers that their personal authority and status would be enhanced if they allowed the British to build them "proper" armies filled with "proper" soldiers. No rights) men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Fig. buy it! build armies out of local colonized labor. Japanese male soldiersbeen affectedUN their own perceptions of have government and military officials arriving for by duty manliness and femininity. Are we certain about that? Another territory whose exploration might provide us with a clearer understanding of the varieties of militarized masculinity is page_101 < that of military recruitment and training programs. buy it! next page > . One of its successful imperial strategies was to If To like this book. 6.< previous page page_101 page_79 next page > Page 101 Page 79 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. in Cambodia them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in thoseWorld Photos) that ease the complicated process of (AP/Wide gendered ways militarization. A drill sergeant is a drill sergeant is a drill sergeant. Then the officials had to persuade thousands of male peasants and nomadic herdsmen that their manhood would be enhanced within their own families and communities if they would enlist in the newly created. Finally." Not only September 1992. "feminine. previous page next page > The British government is an old hand at militarization. but many oflook more bureaucratic than militaristic. yet not burden the < previous page page_79 If you like this book. the officials had to devise complex formulas for marriage and child-rearing to permit the soldiers to feel respectable as husbands and fathers. British-controlled armies. you do that. one must chart how women and (Image has been removed.

Spike Peterson. Serena Hilsinger. manliness and Richard Moser. as she has done so splendidly for the past seven years. William Murphy and Sarah Anderson of the Press tracked down photo credits. Her lively vision of what university press publishing can be ensures that an author working with her doesn't think she has to choose among scholarly care. Laura Zimmerman." Not deepened by conversations with Mary Katzenstein. and Sandra Whitworth. Pat Miles more than once.S. to CONVERTER small measure If CHMthe book. Naomi Schneider. military is taking as it adjustsor tries to avoid adjustingto new sexual and means turnsin any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it racial to be "feminine. It has informed much of The UNREGISTERED VERSION OFto chartthis book. My writing coaches continue to be Gilda Bruckman. I am grateful. she showed me how to write with readers in mind. is visible. too. and is influencing so many people trying you like this postCold it! the energy and irreverent intelligence of a small handful of women scholars. and Ellen Cooney. burgeoning field of research and teaching now recognized as Gender and page > next International Relations. caught me on the verge of making too-simple assumptions about why people act the way they do. buy War world is fieldin noSTANDARD BY TO PDF fact that the due is named. page_101 < There is a wholepage previous new. My understanding of the continuing twists and men that the U. Linda Grant DePauw. one must chart how women and Gupta. thank goodness. And. Candida Lacey talked through much of this book with me from its beginning. I am UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians to the congressional one of Representative Beverly Byron for supplying me with transcripts of indebted and soldiers relate tostaff another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. Madeline Drexler.femininity. Stephanie Atkinson. among whom I am especially indebted to Ann Tickner. Cortez them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Mary Wertsch. Jackson Katz. hearings and Pentagon reports. buy it! next page > . and a good read. Edwin Dorn. Alison Bernstein.< previous page page_101 page_8 next page > Page 101 Page 8 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. energized me with her enthusiasm. and Gary Lehring. to the two anonymous reviewers who contributed their suggestions for revision. and Carol Cohn. editor for the University of California Press. Production editor and copyeditor Erika Biiky and Liz Gold asked just the right questions before it was too late. Joni Seager has done a much better job of making sense of military THE THE < previous page page_8 If you like this book. but many of Enloe. Doreen of politics has beenonly have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptionsLehr. Philippa Brewster is a primary reason why I keep trying to push out from shore these fragile crafts called books. political commitment.

less visibly.17 That is. masculinity could not be militarized in India or Nigeria in exactly the same ways as it was militarized in Scotland. however. buy it! next page > . there was a heated intraministerial battle over whether it should recruit West Indian women and whether those women enlistees should be permitted to serve in Washington or London or be kept in the colonies. always shaped by the been affectedof time and place. it appears that considerable adaptation was required to make this imperial strategy work. when. Campaigners writing in their journal The Dawn noted that British male officials believed that.< previous page page_101 page_80 next page > Page 101 Page 80 Whether one is with too many noncombatants. The British government used Indian and Caribbean men as soldiers. 16 manliness and historical process was of them havematter of exporting British notions of militarized This complex femininity. The bureaucratic debates over how to reduce venereal disease (VD) among British soldiers stationed abroad became a discussion of differences in the militarized sexuality of British soldiers and that of the empire's foreign soldiers.19 The Japanese government used Korean men. and Malaysia. they launched an international campaign to expose the British government's policies toward military prostitution in India. Nigeria." Not only have government and military officials peculiarities by their own perceptions of subtle mix of persuasion and coercion. It involved ato be "feminine. one must chart howprocesses. having won the repeal of the patriarchal Contagious Diseases Acts. for some reason. manuals and eavesdropping on British colonial officials' reminiscences. men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means Creating modern armies out of traditionally gendered materials was never an easy task. buy it! in formal reports and is typically ignored entirely thismilitary historians. Furthermore. Fromcomplicated training of manhood to soldiers relate communities in those gendered ways that ease the reading old process militarization. but only in 1992 did its < previous page page_80 If you like this book. This subject was rarely talked about If you like by book. women) from their respective colonies. Nothing was automatic about any of these women and British military tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Indian male soldiers did not use Indian women as prostitutes in the same ways as British male soldiers posted in India did.18 World War I and World War II were both fought by major powers with men (and. But it was analyzed at length by British feminist reformers in the 1880s. but many more than a also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians anddifferent ethnicto one anotherin India. page_101 < women in these page were thought of by the empire's security architects as playing next different > previous countries slightly page roles in order to sustain the "manly soldier" needed by the empire.

and North African men. sexuality. Evidently. The export of training is often an instrument for promoting the sale of military equipment. colonized societies experienced the militarized standards of manhood or how their experiences shaped postwar nationalist movements and the relations between local men and women and between imperial and colonized men. Can contemporary British military strategies for turning 1980s British middle-class men into officers and working-class (often." Not only have government and military officials American. sub-Saharan. the British government signed an agreement to start training Mozambican soldiers. continues to export its military training expertise energetically. page_101 < Nor have we been curious enough about how postcolonial military policies concerning training. and been these War I or World UNREGISTERED VERSION weaponrylike military influenced by of the World patterns and War BY OF you haveTO PDF it! If CHM II interactions between colonizing and colonized this book. which smoothed the way for this military training agreement.< previous page page_101 page_81 next page > Page 101 Page 81 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Zimbabwean officials have been pleased with the impact of the British military program on its own army. but it is also more. The British government. South Korea.to be "feminine. despite its shrunken empire. forcing chart how women and successors admit that the military itself had also had a formal policy ofone mustKorean women to work men as prostitutes. Puerto Rican. buy it! next page > . Reports suggested that it was the Zimbabwean regime of Robert Mugabe. marriage. Out of these but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSIONwith few exceptions. one another CHM TO we know littleease the complicatedfrom the of militarization. the Philippines. Hawaiian. OF in those gendered ways that about how the men process combined military operations. and Germans used East African men. In November 1986. unemployed) urban men into useful soldiers be applied to rural Zimbabwean and Mozambican men of different ethnic groups with no adjustments? THE THE < previous page page_81 If you like this book. CONVERTER STANDARD career military curricula of Morocco. wars male officials drew lessons about what sorts of masculinity "worked" in Filipino men.'' historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means the for itin any particular20 The French military used Vietnamese.PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to But. a force that had to be rebuiltand remasculinized. in fact. and Jamaica might be good places to start in understanding the varieties of masculinized military cultures around the world. with the demobilization of most of the women guerrilla fightersat the end of the Zimbabwean revolutionary war. a supporter of the besieged Mozambican government. page > previous page next leadership. buy Studies men. the Americans used Native been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity.

Alternatively. page_101might conclude that U. will return to civilian society after military service as more productive farmers. soldiery) are too "wild" or disorderly to serve the regime's goals of national unification. previous page next page > Israeli. or. the government contracted the U. East German or Argentinian approaches to militarizing masculinity will produce the kinds of soldiers they thinkIf you need. Thus. For the line may be quite fine between a form of masculinity that is enhanced in its combativeness and discipline and one that is impatient with perceived inadequacies in the manliness of civilian superiors. but many of them have also that the traditional constructions of masculinity in male citizens to be "undisciplined": that is. or perhaps simultaneously. and state security. an especially mas- < previous page page_82 If you like this book." Not masculinity. the ruling Sabah family. in the wake of Kuwait's embarrassing military occupation by Iraq. Perhaps it suggests that the country's male officials imagine their own constructions of only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. and more responsible fathers.S. more loyal government supporters. they worry attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians societies (or at least in the ethnic communities from which they choose to recruit process of their ownand soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicatedmost of their militarization. And the buy it! they like this book. Army Rangers.< previous page page_101 page_82 next page > Page 101 Page 82 Whether one is tracing importing or demilitarizing to gain by subjecting their military men to foreign What do officials of themilitarizinggovernments hopesocial processes. buy it! next page > . they < technology that requires literacy and patience. exporting officials are more than eager to comply. French. appeared to waffle on the question of reshaping its soldiers' masculine identities. the current elite might imagine that the conventions of manhood among the male population are too dismissive of the sort of modern weapons Thus. social order. On the one hand. subjected to such manipulation. autocratic and patriarchal but not known for the militarism of its male members. Certainly all of these assumptions are encouraged in the exporting governments' own recruiting promotions. British. husbands'. one must chart how women and training? Perhaps such a policy setting comprehend what it means of the elite with their society's current men in any particular historical choice implies the disappointment to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine..S. and brothers' new attitudes? Some regimes have had rather ambivalent feelings about employing foreign trainers to improve the forms of masculinity propping up their state militaries. Elite officials who invite foreign soldiers to train their men may go so far as to imagine that their own men. until recently. What do the importing officials assume about the reactions of their women citizens to their fathers'.

white American soldier wading through a Vietnamese rice paddy carrying an almost toylike M16 rifle. masculinized memories. system which relies less on themany of them have also manhood than on masculinized ensure that UNREGISTEREDthe Sabah regimeOF ignored the militaryways that easeof numbersSTANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered competence the complicated process 21 Simultaneously. they are likely to have their institutional roots in the 1950s training programs in the Philippines THE THE < previous page page_83 If you like this book. international liaisons. and better soldiers than the men from the cultures they have been sent to train. page > previous page next however. the Sabah regime has continued to use a political patronage system to promote military officers. more inventive. there was a full-page photo showing a tall. buy it! next page > . and sexuality? 22We won't have a true picture of the complex political experience we so glibly call the Vietnam War until we have a feminist history of Saigon's army. Usually there is a strong element of ethnocentrism and even outright racism blended into these paternalistic. a manliness and femininity. militarized.< previous page page_101 page_83 next page > Page 101 Page 83 Whether force. more disciplined. page_101 < The flow of consequences from the internalization of military training has never been one-way. but criterion of militarized attempted to design policies to personal loyalty. "naturally" braver.S. one And chart how women and culinizedone is tracing militarizing or demilitarizingwith Kuwaiti soldiers. It would seem that neither promotion of militarized masculinity nor acknowledgment of women's capacities to confront violence serves to secure the current regime." it means to be "feminine. VERSION has CHM TO PDF CONVERTER of Kuwaiti of militarization." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of hand. to conduct desert training exercises social processes. intelligence. And whatever the masculinized. What ideas did the militarized Big Brother bring back to the United States about his militarized little brother's bravery.] and what On the other colonel any particular"the best momentscomprehend what it means to be "manly"Marines. buy it! that make them. militarized memories American military advisors brought back with them. or theirSTANDARD If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER own societies returned from their assignments withOF you like this book. a publication devoted to recalling the brave deeds of rank-and-file American men (not women) who served in Vietnam. he is carrying a much more potent and heavier piece of weaponry. women who took part in the anti-Iraqi resistance. loyalty. Next to him walks a shorter Vietnamese man in battle fatigues. The men UNREGISTEREDwho have acted aslasting notions about the masculine traits inforeign advisors have BY VERSION colonial officers. more professional. the ARVN. In the January 1987 issue of an American magazine called Vietnam Combat. must a Kuwaiti lieutenant men in recalled that historical setting of my life were working with the [U. as men.

but many ofsimplyhave also attempted to design flows. and American characters in "Steve Canyon" regularly joke with each other about their respective manliness." centuries. to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. The Australian. Britain's Sandhurst. in recent years there have been rumbles of discontent throughout NATO because its American partner's call for the If you like this book. theyensure that international processes. their policies. with tentacles reaching forward to 1980s training programs in El Salvador and Honduras men in any particular historical setting comprehend and it means and from there into 1990s training programs in PeruwhatKuwait. and fears with coordinated military actions. buy it! < previous page page_84 If you like this book. more women and men were pressed to harmonize their resources. the U. These institutions are postWorld War II phenomena. next page > previous page <><><><><><><><><><><><> A third arena in which possibly diverse forms of masculinity have to be harmonized for the sake of effective military operations is in the joint military maneuvers of international alliances.S. buy it! next page > . the government-run jungle combat schools in Malaysia and Nigeria. their debates.< previous page page_101 page_84 next page > Page 101 Page 84 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S. the militarization of masculinity been affected by their own perceptions manliness and femininity. These are not them amorphous cultural ebbs and policies to are specific civilians and soldiers relate to one another in thoseresearchedwaysdocumented. military's international training school in Panamaall are potential page_101 < sites for researching the international processes of militarizing varieties of masculinity. The U. There is friendly competition among them for local Asian women. skills. be studied: their routines. Milton Caniff's wartime comics hint at the dynamics between men from different cultures who have been thrown together by their governments in joint operations. Army's institutions to Fort Bragg. have government and military officialshas been driven by both domestic and of For several Not only then. For instance. Scottish. one must chart how women and and Panama. their language. There are also historical and contemporary processes that can be gendered and that ease the complicated process of militarization. based largely on elite male officials' presumptions about what worked and what didn't work during World War II military operations. Most critics of these sprawling global alliances have focused on the friction generated between the supposed allies by trying to synchronize dissimilar legal and industrial institutions. the Philippine Military Academy. As the major powers during the Cold War grew determined to create separate and competing networks of military alliances around the world.

The Warsaw Pact had little problem here. The differences between countries' official attitudes toward women serving in the uniformed services have been far more blatant inside NATO. The Cold War was marked by falling birth rates throughout the European regions of the Warsaw Pact. buy be But. they could at least respond to the double burden placed on women in their societies by having fewer children. with the exception of the Soviet Union's Muslim women. buy it! next page > . If the women of Russia. Although much less talked about. alliance. produce sons who could be enlisted OF you like this book. Poland. On THE THE < previous page page_85 If you like this book. many women went on to the next step: they began refusing the role of compliantly militarized mothers. government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. As the alliance came undone after 1989. The alliance's legislators and military bureaucrats have shaped and reshaped their respective personnel policies with one eye on the personnel needs dictated by military doctrine and the other eye on the preservation of the ideological bond between masculinity and military service. But the member countries' solutions have been strikingly different." it the disadvantage of and what it means Washingtonparticular historical setting comprehend what to means to be "manly"each country's own to be "feminine. incompatible forms of militarized femininity and masculinity have also been reconciled within military alliances. since across the < alliance there was official agreement that malepage_101 could guarantee the virtual next page > previous page conscription exclusion of women from its militaries. but many of Soviet Union's East European partners resented Moscow's own simmering internal discontent.< previous page page_101 page_85 next page > Page 101 Page 85 "standardization" of NATO tanks. or demilitarizing social seemed to be must chart how women and Whether one is tracing militarizingrifles. Estonia. so that by 1990 NATO revealed a somewhat awkward disparity." Not only have Before its demiseand hastening its unravelingthe Warsaw Pact suffered its needy defense contractors. the them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSIONwhich it rationalized PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one OF in those gendered ways that ease cohesiveness of the military imposed unequal division of labor. Suddenly. oneone more attempt by men in any to compel everyone else to "buy American. and computers hasprocesses. as the alliance disintegrated.another CHM TO as necessary for thethe complicated process of militarization. and Czechoslovakia couldn't influence their regimes' military doctrine. sons' relationships with their mothers took on strategic salience for the Warsaw Pact. 23 The principal obligations of women in the Warsaw Pact countries were to UNREGISTERED VERSION in their adolescence PDF it! compliant mothers STANDARD BY If CHM TO and to CONVERTER of soldier sons. few women seemed eager to meet the alliance's needs.

Spain. Officials of what was then If you like but kept them in West Germany used women for military purposesthis book. respectively). one must had enlisted enough women to make up over 10 percent of comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to men in any particular historical settingall active-duty personnel. disproportionate influence in NATO." Not been skeptical of and and hostile officials been affected large numbers of women and who had initiallyonly have government evenmilitary to the idea of taking in by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity.S. officials naturally began to measure their alliance partners' social sophistication partly by their ability to incorporate at least token numbers of women without jeopardizing the military's still-crucial identification with masculinized patriotism. Italy's conservative Christian Democratic policymakers. The Italian government. and Canada. both dependent on volunteers. a mere 459women were listed as serving in the uniformed ranks of the West German forces. chart how women and the one hand.S. There is more talk of redefining "security. buy it! next page > . in the mid-1980s. The Norwe- < previous page page_86 If you like this book. buy it! civilian roles so as not to call up dark memories of Nazi wartime exploitation of women. For instance. by 1990. like the West German. As these changes take place. The Dutch were among the pioneers in allowing women to enter combat jobs. the first Dutch women boarded combat ships. accepting a > previous page next page handful of women volunteers into their forces (9. and Turkey did make begrudging. and radar specialistsnow tended to hold up these civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways the U. the disparate gender politics among its member governments take on even more importance. however. is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that training them to be more than secretaries. U. government's figures as proof of their military's social enlightenment. page_101 < Defense policymakers in Portugal. there is no consensus within NATO about whether masculinity should enjoy an exclusive hold on combat. nurses.< previous page page_101 page_86 next page > Page 101 Page 86 Whether one the forces of the U. relied on male conscripts to fulfill its NATO quotas. American representativeseven those be "feminine. and 152. Because ofthat ease the complicated process of militarization. token gestures. There was a flurry of nervous speculation along NATO corridors in Brussels when. wouldn't even salve NATO headquarters' tender feelings by engaging in tokenism: they persisted in excluding women from their military altogether. 24 Today NATO is struggling to define for itself a new raison d'etre in the wake of the disappearance of the Soviet threat. 96.S." of NATO's spreading its wings and taking on broader social issues. Thus.

25 and often with femininity. Women who have served in noncombat nursing corps have been among the casualties of war for several generations. it has become ever more clear that combat is a delicate ideological instrument. There are also growing differences within NATO over the supposed relationship between homosexuality and "national security. Is combat killing other human beings? No. and now-unified German NATO member states have stubbornly resisted attempts by some women's rights activists to open combat jobs to women soldiers. only four of the alliance's fifteen membersBritain. Portugal. yet it must be defined broadly enough to preserve what are imagined to be the militarily useful distinctions between men and women. It has to be defined narrowly enough to allow military planners to recruit and deploy women to fill the perceived gaps in manpower. as each male elite within NATO has." Not only have government military be officials been by laws by their own perceptions of women's advocates had insisted that theand military made to abide affected against sex discrimination. Greece. and Denmark had lifted theirmeans towomen in combat. and Portugalstill clung to explicit bans on gay men and lesbians in their armed forces. navigated its way between gender conventions and military "manpower" needs. armored. Is combat vehicles such as submarines OF you like this combat being killedin uniformby the jet CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD No. Canada. oftenmeans to be "feminine. irreducibly masculine. the United States. manliness and little change in the virtually all-male composition to design policies to or pilot corps." By early 1993.. each has sculpted its own idiosyncratic definition of combatand thus of what is. Spain. As the British. and Israel's policy of imposing no ban but blocking the promotions of known homo- THE THE < previous page page_87 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . often clumsily.ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers The alliance survived. Yet. the governments one must chart how gian government soon followed the or demilitarizing social processes. All of the American women soldiers killed during the Gulf War were assigned to "noncombat" roles.S. U. By 1990. buy it! allow women to serve onenemy?"real" BY If fighters. Australia had just recently lifted its ban. but many of them have also attempted of infantry. French.relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization.< previous page page_101 page_87 next page > Page 101 Page 87 Whether one is tracing militarizing Dutch. Among other governments closely allied to the United States.women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it bans on be "manly" and what it because Luxembourg. Defining combat has been a political high-wire act. allegedly. American page_101 < policymakers (reluctantly) allowed women in the underground bunkers to serve on crews trained to previous page next page > launch deadly intercontinental nuclear they would board UNREGISTERED VERSION ormissiles beforebook. of Belgium.

.28 As the debate over gays and lesbians in the military raged to the south of them. which decriminalized homosexuality. what it Michelle 1986in any particular historical setting comprehendfrom themeans to be "manly" andIn 1989 means to be "feminine. hinted that the time had come when the military's antihomosexual policy would lose parliamentary support. claiming it violated attempted to design policies to ensure that Department of femininity. The local press was far more interested in Canadian soldiers' peacekeeping operations in Bosnia." Not only have government and military resign from affected by challenged the ban of the Douglas. having been intensely lobbied by gay rights groups. the Canadian federal militarization. By 1991. court judge Andrew MacKay ruled in favor of Douglas. being If you like this book. [that] this is a sensible measure of decriminalization whose purpose is to tidy up the difference between military and civil law.29 Months later the parliament as a whole moved to drop homosexuality as a criminal offense in the military code."30 But lesbians and gay men would continue to be discharged if discovered. however. page_101 < Canadian defense officials were taking concrete steps to dismantle their military's institutionalized previous page next page > homophobia.27 But it wasn't until a year later that the Canadian Department of National Defense formally announced that it would no longer prohibit gay men and lesbians from serving.< previous page page_101 page_88 next page > Page 101 Page 88 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Canadian defense officials told reporters that dropping their own ban had scarcely caused a stir in Canada. The Canadian parliament was pressed by feminists andhow activistsand men to end the exclusion of lesbians and gay men what it Canadian armed forces. It was the only arm of the British government which parliament had exempted from the Sexual Offences Act of 1987. old arguments. a House of Commons committee reviewing military manpower policies. on the other hand. < previous page page_88 If you like this book. buy it! next page > . continued its exclusion of gay and lesbian soldiers." 26 The court ordered the government to pay Douglas $100. or gaining security clearances in the armed forces. Faced civilians and officials who to one another in to believe their ways that ease the complicated process of with defense soldiers relateno longer seemed those gendered own. . buy it! promoted. a Canadian lesbian who had been forced toofficials beenthe air force. the Conservative government agreed: "It is now the view of the government .their own perceptions of manliness and National Defense. concluding that her constitutional rights had been violated and that any prohibition of homosexuals from the country's armed forces was "contrary to the Charter. one must chart gay women in sexuals was being challenged.000 in compensation. but many of them have alsothe 1981 Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Britain's military. Begrudgingly. having access to career courses. In 1991.

but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that of its American military partner on the issue of homosexuals in the military. the Labour cabinet. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical on by comprehend what it planners as a partner in what means of NATO. Finally. who had become conscious of the potential support to be garnered from THE THE < previous page page_89 If you like this book." Not only conduct of war in the Persian officials ruling Labour Party own perceptions of maneuvers and in the have government and military Gulf. buy it! next page > .32 As the gay vote became strategically visible during the 1992 presidential campaign. Defense officialsoften to UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO aboutways that ease the complicatedfrom of BY civilians and colleagues in the health ministry worried PDF CONVERTER men process the dismay ofsoldiers relate to one another in those gendered such a ban deterring gaySTANDARD militarization. gay.S. government faced multiple court actions brought by women's. buy it! homosexuals. In the wake of George Bush's loss. Thebeen affected by theirrefused to get ahead manliness and femininity. Australia is not a member Debates in Canada and militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Within the Republican Party a chasm was opening between Christian conservative activists who campaigned against homosexual rights and establishment party regulars. the question of the political significance of the ban on homosexuals in the military became a national issue. participating in AIDS prevention programsinsisted in early 1992 that the Canadian and British reforms were not pertinent to Australia. One consequence of the American gay political mobilization was that the U. who believed that a platform of intolerance would lose Republican candidates more votes than it would attract. and civil liberties groups challenging the legality and the logic of discharging women and men accused of homosexuality. the battle for control of the party became even more intense. when gay and lesbian soldiers fought at least two wars: one against the Axis powers and a second against officers and psychologists devising ever-more-subtle tests to weed out homosexuals.< previous page page_101 page_89 next page > Page 101 Page 89 Whether one is tracing Britain became grist for the Australian political mill. many of them in elected office. political mobilization among lesbians and gay men is light-years ahead of where it stood in the 1940s. as well as members of parliament and the general in late 1992.page_101 following the recommendation of apage > previous page next Labour party committee. 31 If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY In the United States. but has been countedsetting Washington strategicmeans to be "manly" andPacificitjoint to be "feminine. Clinton's campaign managers. became involved in the debate. < public.33 AIDS activists and gay and lesbian rights activists had been visible participants in the Democratic Party's 199z national convention. But when the attorney general took the side of a lesbian who challenged her dismissal from the military. the prime minister ordered the Australian defense ministry to drop its ban on UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book.

They insist that ideas hold water. buy it! < previous page page_9 If you like this book. But they don't let me get away with much. one sense of how environmental involvement in environmental crises than I'm afraid Isocial done in makingmust chart how women and men in has affected women's and men's continuing what it means to militaries. and what it means to be neglect any particular historical setting comprehend relationships withbe "manly" We desperately need to "feminine. Any writer who is lucky enough to process of To the students at Clark University I owe in those gendered ways that ease the complicated teach militarization.< previous page page_101 page_9 next page > Page 101 Page 9 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing have processes. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one anotherspecial thanks. pages from start to finish. that they have a bearing on real lives. Students who have worked with me in political science and women's studies courses at Clark have been generous. 7 Her ideasand her talent for telling it like it is with passion and humorhave influenced these manliness and femininity. that they go someplace. buy it! next page > . What more page_101 < could a writer want? previous page next page > If you like this book." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of do both. knows that students make the best critics.

It seemed that if their candidate won. one must chart how women and men in any leaders would treat the new president's what of the ban be "manly" and Democraticparticular historical setting comprehend liftingit means to as a non-issue. but many of them have before the law. ease the complicated American relate to one people were militarization.36 Clinton tried to reassure current military commanders that he would seek their advice when devising the implementation of the policy reversal.35 In the decade between 1982 and 199z alonea decade in which the proportion of women soldiers had grown rapidlymore than seventeen thousand soldiers had been dismissed on grounds of homosexuality.S. Bill Clinton announced this book. He made the announcement on Veteran's Day. speaking in Little Rock to a mostly male audience of veterans from several wars. however. previous page next page > Before his inauguration. what it means to be "feminine. and gives senior officers a sense that they can bond with subordinates over whom they wield authority. 34 If many of the two-thirds of American men disapproving also perceive the military as a public institution in which they have a special stake. A gender policies to ensure that when deserved equal job and equal rights also attempted to design gap emerged. said they believed homosexuality was an acceptable lifestyle. a former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and adviser to Clinton." during thehave government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Polls taken Not only campaign showed that 80 percent of American voters believed that homosexuals manliness and femininity. buy it! next page > . then they would likely feel personally page_101 < threatened should homosexual men be accepted as able to soldier. only a third of their male women polled counterparts agreed. armed forces whose institutional culture had been informed by the 1944 antihomosexual ban and its rationales. He sought to soften the blow to those senior officers who believed that lifting the ban would undermine the institutional cultureusually discussed in terms of "morale" and "discipline"which brings young men and women into the military's recruiting offices. persuades mid-career and noncommissioned officers to reenlist. came out in favor of ending the ban. Through retired Admiral William Crowe.< previous page page_101 page_90 next page > Page 101 Page 90 Whether one is voters. a number of admirals and generals informed Clinton that he would face resistance if he tried to THE THE < previous page page_90 If you like this book. all of whom had served in U. gay and lesbian tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. UNREGISTEREDopportunitiesaccepted homosexualityPDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians andasked whether they another CHM TO as aways that Almost 50 percent of process of soldiersVERSION OF in those gendered lifestyle. A significant number of these senior officers remained unconvinced. buy it! UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you likethat he remained committed to liftingSTANDARD BY If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER the ban on homosexuals in the military.

many of them have also attempted need.general explained hiswomen and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what waiting to opposition to the lifting of the ban this way: ''We were standing in this shower tent. that gay men and lesbians served in virtually all branches of the U. some that matters. buy it! than about their commanders. military. Gay marines "can be themselves here and then go back to the base and do their jobs. however. On the other hand. ." he explained.39 On bases back in the United States.< previous page page_101 page_91 next page > Page 101 Page 91 Whether one is deemed an armed forces tradition. of these same senior officers told a New York Times reporter they realized that there were probably gay men in the shower line. The owner of Friends Lounge. The commanders of Camp Lejeune. Would I be been affected by their own perceptions line for 35 minutes for a five minute showermilitary officialscomfortable knowing gays were there of manliness line with us? No. One marine corps one must chart how own upset what they tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes.S. implementation was left largely to the discretion of officers down the chain of command. They told Simon that it felt possible to reveal their sexual orientation to their heterosexual comrades in the sand-swept trenches precisely because the heterosexual and homosexual troops had so many more important worries in common. buy it! next page > . while he was covering the Gulf War many American gay men and lesbians servingIf you like Arabia told him they felt less anxious about their peers in Saudi this book.S. told Eric Schmitt of the New York Times that approximately 70 percent of his patrons on weekends were military personnel. the largest Marines base on the East Coast." 37 It seems ensure that standing inand femininity. But under the ban. page_101 < that these officers believed was essential for military morale and discipline. It was this secrecy. butIt just introduces a tension you don'tto design policies toto be the knowing civilians and soldiers relate Clinton's announcement that he ways that keep his campaign pledge. it meansin be "feminine. often dependent on the attitudes of particular local commanders. and yet for the last four years neither the local police nor the Marines authorities had bothered him. had adopted a policy of lax enforcement. In this sense. this denial of identity. for instance. they had had to keep their sexuality secret. In the wake of to one another in those genderedintended toease the complicated process of militarization. previous page next page > according to National Public Radio reporter Scott Simon. naked. . < previous page page_91 If you like this book. military policy on gays and lesbians resembled the institution's policy on prostitution: as long as it was not allowed to become an issue among the wider electorate." Not only have government and . the U. a gay bar close to the base. the implementation of the ban on gay men and lesbians also was erratic.38 On the other hand.

000 troops. Michael Gary. policy has been based on the claim that not only particular acts but even an identity that might dispose one to participate in such < acts "seriously impairs the accomplishment of page_101 mission. In UNREGISTERED VERSIONfrom active duty 1982 the Defense Department reported that I.42 In that year. many gay men and lesbians in and what forces sincein any particular historicalin 1982. that figure book. now outaffected by their own perceptions of manliness of femininity. the U. suggesting that those members of the services with the least access to the sorts of privileges that insulate one from investigators' instrusion were those most vulnerable to punitive action.43 Either gay men and lesbians were far more likely to seek out naval careers. during the same year enlisted personnel were four times more subject to discharges based on homosexuality than were officers.3 people for every 10.44 Commanders and investigatory officials in the several branches also seemed much more alarmed at the presence of lesbians in their ranks than that of gay men. and the Army 2. as opposed to just 3.i women for every 10. or homophobia was not uniform across the services.000.4. takes the form of a Defense Department directive which covers not only homosexual The ban itself behavior but "a propensity to engage in homosexual conduct. buy it! next page > .< previous page page_101 page_92 next page > Page 101 Page 92 Whether because the implementation demilitarizing so apparently fluid while the ban itself. comprehend what it means to be "manly" the armed it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been of the army and the founder of an adopted a strategy of considerable caution.S.45 This discrepancy took on particular meaning when. recalled.3. by 1992.000 under its command on charges of homosexuality. Moreover. the Navy discharged 7. buy of military personnel were discharged OF you like thison groundsCONVERTER STANDARD had dropped to less than 800. while the Marines discharged only 3. the Air Force 2. especially precisely one is tracing militarizing or of the ban was social processes. associationand gay and lesbian many ofof West Point. but alumni them have also attempted to design at Fort to ensure Paso. one must chart how women and men being explicitly codified setting was rigid. "When I waspolicies Bliss in Elthat I UNREGISTERED gay bar to one another CHM TO paranoid of being seen in town. when the ban on gays became an electoral issue for the first time." That is. following THE THE < previous page page_92 If you like this book.800 BY If CHM TO PDF it! homosexuality. Defense Department figures revealed that during 1992 women were more than twice as likely to be dismissed from active military duty on charges of homosexuality than were men: 8."41 The very vagueness of the 1982 > previous page next page the military directive allowed implementation to vary widely." 40 process of BY civilians hours to a relate in Tuscon because I was so PDF CONVERTER STANDARD drove sixand soldiersVERSION OF in those gendered ways that ease the complicated militarization.4 men for every 10.000 troops.1 for every 10.

Sometimes it has taken the form of exclusion from combat roles. new challenges to the masculinized congressional culture. men. gay and lesbian manliness and conservative activists inside have also attempted to design policies to ensure that rights activists. the lack of affordable childcare. a fullPresidentone is tracing militarizingthatdemilitarizing social processes. confident. membersgovernment andin the Senate and House of Representatives. Women If you like this to make it! have been subjected to a variety of pressures intendedbook. Hillary Rodham Clinton's role in the Clinton presidency. the Navy's failure to prosecute Tailhook sexual harassers. Still it is possible to unravel this paradox fully only if one recognizes that the gays-in-the-military debate is part of a much larger American postCold War debate about the kind of gender order that guarantees this society's national security. heterosexualized masculinity. buy them aware that they are not wanted in the military. < The discrepancypage less puzzling if one page_101 previous becomes next of sees the persecution of lesbians as the persecutionpage > women in an institutional culture long dependent on masculinity. legitimate unity. legitimized society now that comparison with a demonized Soviet Union no longer provides that sense of confident. prospective women cabinet officers' access to legal household employees.< previous page page_101 page_93 next page > Page 101 Page 93 Whether Clinton's announcement or he intended to go ahead with his decision to lift the ban. and sometimes it has taken the form of accusations of lesbianism. How each regime in an alliance goes about resolving its military's < previous page page_93 If you like this book.femininity. one must chart how women and men national debate historical 46 All the major participants in that be "manly" and what of Staff. individual voters calling civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered attention ease the complicated gay the White House and radio talk showsappeared to focus their ways that not on lesbians but onprocess of militarization. sometimes it has taken the form of sexual harassment." Not only have of both parties military officials been affected by their own perceptions of ordinary soldiers. this seems a contradiction: the military acts as if lesbians are the chief threat to its culture. buy it! next page > .47 At first glance. whereas military and civilian policymakers talk as if lesbians aren't an issue and gay men are the threat. In this context. scalein any particular broke out. but many of them and outside the Republican party. the prevention of AIDS. setting comprehend what it means to debatethe Joint Chiefsit means to be "feminine. and the proposed tolerance of gay men and lesbians in the country's military are all tied in a knotty bundle. those most likely to lead to promotion. Together they pose the question of what sort of relationships between women and men will provide the basis for a unified.

" Not only have the right to serve in the officials been as a form of liberation. and (e) gendered ways that ease the complicated process the elite'sand soldiersVERSION OF in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD militarization.< previous page page_101 page_94 next page > Page 101 Page 94 Whether "manpower" militarizing or demilitarizing potent each country's women's how women and genderedone is tracing dilemmas depends on (a) howsocial processes. on the other hand. but the last decade's tilt toward expanding the roles of women in the alliance could come to an unheralded end and. cartographers. engineers. They have also needed psychologists. (c) how movements are to assertinggovernment and militarystate's military affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. If. factory managers. buy blatant homophobia within the begin to BY CHM TO GermanCONVERTERplanners alliance STANDARD wield more influence within NATO OF you like this wanes.to a halt. who come from the classes and ethnic groups trusted by the present regime. one must chartmovement and lesbian/gay movement are and setting comprehend to work together. civilian of them is in the attempted to design policies (d) how that tightly woven the image ofbut manymanhoodhave alsofabric of patriotic citizenship. book. will be the product of the dynamic between these domestic conditions as they continue to be worked out through page_101 < the once unequal and currently transitional structure of NATO itself. Are the forms of prescribed masculinity identical for an aerodynamics engineer and a bomber pilot? Has our fascination with the social construction of a Rambo or a "top gun" blinded us to the sorts of gender THE THE < previous page page_94 If you like this book. the temptation for younger American and Canadian women to imagine first-class citizenship as resting on military service. a political shift inside NATO is accompanied by a joint decision to save the alliance by transforming it into a broader social policy instrumentthus redefining "security"then perhaps even those member regimes currently unenthusiastic about modest moves to demasculinize their forces will find it strategically useful to continue the expansion of women's roles in NATO. buy it! next page > . The "manpower" politics of a multinational military alliance such as NATO. The dismantling of the Warsaw > previous page next page Pact has not brought these gendered politics If and French defense UNREGISTERED VERSION andIfU.S. defense establishments in the most advanced industrialized societies have needed more than foot soldiers and generals. with it. it! influence PDF might decline.to ensure militarized UNREGISTERED of nationalone another CHM how available for military service young men are of BY civilians definition relate to security is. <><><><><><><><><><><><> Ever since the machine gun and aerial bombing revolutionized warfare. consequently. and physicists. (b) how committed it means to be men in any particular historicalhow willing they are what it means to be "manly" and whatthose "feminine.

the pet dog. sexual possession. humor. Cohn tried to understand why her male companions wanted to "pat the missile. small children." As she spent more time with these men. you like thiswhich buy it! to permit them to sustain their individual sense of legitimacy and to bond together around a denial of death. affectionate domination. seemed culture: a set of facades. They relied on a distinctively sexualized language." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Most of our descriptions of civilian workers." But patting had a more ambiguous meaning for these male defense intellectuals. going along with them page > previous many of next on field trips to laboratories. Patting removes the object's lethal purpose. Such a denial was a crucial thread in the bond that held them together in their peculiar.< previous page page_101 page_95 next page > Page 101 Page 95 Whether experienced militarizing and women employed processes. which describes how study" very close to homeis Carol another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. The creatures one pats are small. submarine bases. for they constantly seemed to want to deny the actual function of the weapons whose uses they were hired to devise. buy it! next page > ." Thus. and war games. etiquettes. It is also what one does to babies. though they spent their days talking with each other about the finer points of nuclear war. she began to piece together their masculinized If and hopes book. a particular group of civilian men have created a masculinized subculture to sustain their military work. to get a close look at the nuclear-armed Trident submarine. Connecticut. After a trip with a group of defense intellectuals to the General Dynamics Electric Boat facility in Groton. ''Patting is not just an act of sexual intimacy." She wondered. intelligence. scientists. business managers. harmlessnot terrifyingly destructive. The most deservedly celebrated feminist ethnographya "village civilians and soldiers relate to one Cohn's study of American defense intellectuals." As Cohn explains. "What is all this 'patting'? What are men doing when they 'pat' these high-tech phalluses?" Then she began finding an answer to her own question: "Patting is an assertion of intimacy. one and chart how women and pressuresone is tracingby those menor demilitarizing social in the industrialmust scientific establishments men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be on which militaries now depend? "feminine. a man who refused to pat the missile might have his manhood called into question and at the same time might crack open < previous page page_95 If you like this book. Cohn found a group of men who. militarized "village. cute. and intellectuals in military manliness and are of Americanmany of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that contract work femininity. were "unusually well endowed with charm. concern. fears. but men. I liked page them. and page_101 < decency.

and their notions of action seem more cerebral than physical. However. dream. And they seem to thrive on competition and to see both the scientific world and the larger world as places where rivalry is the norm. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting most likely what it means to be "manly" and openly refused to pat the missile wouldcomprehend be dismissed as "hysterical. the Lawrence manliness and femininity." 48 what it means to be "feminine. research which that ease the complicated process another in those gendered Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI. Admirers of Sylvester Stallone might disparage the Livermore men as "nerds. previous married next page > except when they take breaks to drink cokes great ice They don't appear UNREGISTERED VERSION wear youor consumePDFquantities ofhavecream. buy it! next page > . He is barely curious about varieties of masculinity.STANDARD BY If CHMthis book. they appear unlikely candidates for military basic training: they are too contemptuous of collective discipline. Livermore is ways is scheduled toesoteric research forof BY civilians and soldiersVERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD relate to oneor "Star Wars"). and joke.CONVERTER mounted on the they don't rifles backs of their pickup trucks. Most of them seem to live at their computer terminals. The older men who recruited these young scientists in the 1980s deliberately played upon their competitiveness to attract them to SDI weapons research. Still. as much as grant money. Their need for them. they don't OF army surplus fatigues. is what makes this generation of male scientists militarizable.< previous page page_101 page_96 next page > Page 101 Page 96 Whether one is tracing of which his male companions lived their militarized lives. continue into the midmilitarization. They have a penchant for boyish pranks. And federal decision-makers who have imagined militarization to be the bedrock of American security need for those ice cream-consuming pranksters to feel those reassurances. A woman who the delicate shell insidemilitarizing or demilitarizing social processes." but their notions of masculinity have been no less essential for milita- THE THE < previous page page_96 If you like this book.is not a feminist. the women whose 1990s.49 page_101 < Few of them arepage or have girlfriends. buy it! like TO to be particularly violent." Nothas reported on another and military officials beenmasculinizedtheir own perceptions of William Broad only have government civilian subculture of the affected by military. Broad less dramatic labors or emotional validation sustain SDI research and political lobbying are left off his canvas. but many of them have also attemptedsitedesign policies to ensure that Livermore National the to of the most the UNREGISTERED Laboratories in California. Their cherishing of competition is the ideological trait that makes them likely candidates for militarization. they clearly find deep reassurances of their own manhood in the militarized science they do. Yet he does provide us with an inside look at how these male scientists talk.

cross-generational." The discovery that regular visits were being made by men to the single women's barracks had set off an official discussion about the dangers of venereal disease. but so too are the principal male actors' notions about themselves as men interacting with women and with other men. just outside the laboratory's gates. and the authority of the army and of civilian officials. "We did decide to continue it." one official tells Rhodes.< previous page page_101 page_97 next page > Page 101 Page 97 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! next page > . in the curiosity suddenly wanes. own perceptions manliness and femininity. one must chart rizing American society than those of jet bomber pilots or M16-wielding "grunts. Rhodes's failure of curiosity rests on assumptions about the sexual needs of male scientists. Not only are the roles that women played outside his realm of historical curiosity. But we learn nothing more. "men would be men. Nor do homophobia doesn't seem but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians responsible for the moraleanotherLivermore scientists seem to thinkthe complicated process of the men and soldiers relate to one of the in those gendered ways that ease they require brothels and militarization. Rhodes slips into a lighthearted section on the ways members of the Los Alamos community entertained themselves with a tantalizingly brief account of an official debate over prostitution and "loose women. 50 But when it comes to the gendered dynamics of this militarized scientific enterprise and the peculiar community it fostered buy it! New Mexican desert. For instance. Rhodes and his interviewee seem to share some unspoken. to send off warning sirens when a young male engineer eschews girls. For instance. masculinized understanding that. the needs of men. It may be that militarized masculinity takes one form when men are socialized into the < previous page page_97 If you like this book. Why hasn't anyone in the Defense Department massage parlors suggested that these "Star Warriors" be sent to VD classes as their soldier counterparts are? page_101 < Richard Rhodes's new history of the making of the U. Rhodes's If you like this book. Referring to the visiting routine. atomic bomb has been glowingly described as > previous page next page exhaustive and comprehensive." That understanding shuts the door on what might have been a revealing exploration into the ways in which militarized male scientists match or diverge from their infantry counterparts.S." Notneeds have government and military officials been affected by theirinstitutionalized of recruits' sexual only not shared by their army or navy counterparts." how women and men men who lure scientists into militarized laboratory communities be "manly" andnotions about their The in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to appear to have what it means to be "feminine. even in the Manhattan Project.

uniformed military THE THE < previous page page_98 If you like this book. But common transformations may not create bonds of trust or respect. buy it! products and by regular contact with BY If involvement PDF CONVERTER STANDARD their sense of manhood is boosted by theirCHM TO with such military officers. one must chart how women and men is euphemistically called setting comprehend whatin any particular historicalconventional warfare. When a corporate contractor's wife refuses to make adjustments in her marriage to accommodate such steps toward deeper militarization. she may send small tremors through her country's military-industrial complex. Marriages can be strained when husbands become more and more involved in secret work.< previous page page_101 page_98 next page > Page 101 Page 98 Whether one is tracing militarizing or quite a different form when men are socialized into the world of world of nuclear warfare planning anddemilitarizing social processes." Not only have government and of how masculinityand affected by their own perceptions of Still to be written are feminist descriptions military officials been thus femininityare constructed within manliness and femininity. It would be a mistake.what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. all the parts automatically work together in smooth precision. when their business days are shaped by state security concepts. or when their professional colleagues are military professionals. William Broad's SDI scientists and Carol Cohn's defense intellectuals both talk quite contemptuously of the military officers and the civilian politicians they deal with." like some sort of surrogate militarized mothers. The wives and lovers of these men have to make adjustments in order to support and validate these choices. but many of them have also attempted to design policiesdo ensure sense that that companies and factories reliant on defense contracts." "nerds. to imagine that because each one of these cogs in the increasingly complex military machine seems to be shaped by notions of masculinity. receive the ideological or monetary rewards that their male counterparts do from working do not seem to on weapons. they may be encouraged to see themselves as supporting "our boys. I think. From Hilary Wainwright we to UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM usually feminized electrical units ofhave a process of BY civilians and soldierswomento one another in those TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD relate working today in the gendered ways that ease the complicated factories at least some British defense militarization. and electronicspage > previous page next companies who have made conscious decisions to pursue local and foreign defense contracts? Perhaps UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. "Grunts. buy it! next page > . armaments.'' "the brass"each role may be masculinized and militarized. 51 But what of white-collar middle managers and senior page_101 < executivesthe largely masculinized management strata of aerospace." "defense intellectuals. Conversely. However." "captains of industry.

and South Africa may come closest to replicating the current American masculinized and militarized division of labor. But are Russian weapons engineers afraid that other men will call them nerds if they carry calculators clipped to their belts? Are Israeli defense intellectuals as prone as their American counterparts are to looking down upon uniformed military men? Israeli men working as engineers in the country's large weapons industry are said to sympathize with their male counterparts in uniform because the engineers. France. at the can be militarized may shed light on tensions and contradictions within those military systems. exposing them as less impermeable. Each country may be distinguished by its own brand of tension between militarized masculinities. failed relationsfemininity." Not only translated into comments about the other group's tenuous hold on perceptions of mutual derision were have government and military officials been affected by their ownmanliness and manliness and with women. Moreover. <><><><><><><><><><><><> culture. Each prides itself on its capacity to absorb information and make plans. different groups of < previous page page_99 If you like this book. next page > previous page subculture need not induce intellectual paralysis. serve as military reservists until the age of fifty-five. one must chart how (as they see men of various ranks often dismiss scientists and intellectuals as too removed from reality women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and if some of this it). buy it! next page > . Britain. militarizing societies do not all construct the same divisions of labor or the same varietes of masculinity to sustain their military systems. Such an effort could show us what any government serious about demilitarization needs to do. Not many societies. more fragile. Looking closelybuy it! varieties of ways in which masculinity If you like this book. To a soldier. and page_101 < Putting Rambo in his place and acknowledging varieties of masculinity bound by time. It would not be surprising what it means to be "feminine. Each of these states has been trying to build its own scientific and industrial military infrastructure.< previous page page_101 page_99 next page > Page 101 Page 99 Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of militarization. have a conscription system that promotes this empathy between men socialized into different forms of militarized masculinity. Israel. too. patting a missile is a far cry from firing it. The former Soviet Union. Consequently. however.

Massachusetts. Beaches and manliness and femininity. She co-edited (with Wendy Chapkis) Of Common Cloth: Women and > previous page next page the Global Textile THE UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. She is the author of many books. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE < previous page page_i next page > . including militarization." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Bananas. Comparative Politics of Pollution and Does Khaki Become You? The Militarization of Women's Lives Pandora page_101 < (also published by Industry. Ethnic Conflict and Political Development. but many of them haveBasesattempted to design policies to ensure that also UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Cynthia Enloe teaches at Clark University.< previous page page_101 page_i next page > Page 101 Page i Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies.Press).

buy it! next page > next page > page_iii If you like this book. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that Sexual Politics at the End of ways that ease civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those genderedthe Cold War the complicated process of militarization. Cynthia Enloe < previous page < previous page UNIVERSITY page_101 OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY LOS ANGELES LONDON If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_iii next page > Page 101 Page iii Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! ." Not only have government andThe Morning After military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity.

ISBN 0-520-08335-0 (alk. University Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of manliness and femininity. Man-woman relationships. Feminist theory. The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data page_101 < Enloe. I. p. England UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of © 1993by militarization. Cynthia H. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that London. California comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine.ISBN 0-520-08336-9 (pbk.3dc20 92-43416 CIP 98765432 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information SciencesPermanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. cm.< previous page page_101 page_iv next page > Page 101 Page iv Whether one California Press University of is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. Title.: alk. Sex role. paper) 1. Post-communism.. 3.48-1984. Includes bibliographical references (p. 2."of California Press. Cold War. buy CONVERTER STANDARD BY UNREGISTEREDsexual politics at OFend of theTO PDF it! If CHM Cold War / Cynthia Enloe. buy it! next page > . paper). 4. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting Berkeley and Los Angeles. ANSI Z39. 1938previous page next page > The morning after: VERSION the you like this book.@ THE THE < previous page page_iv If you like this book. 5. Ltd. ) and index. HQ1233.E55 1993 305.

buy it! next page > . 2. U.S. Filipina women. 187 10. Salvadoran soldier. Belgrade. November 1992. previous to Russia. 233 11. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that 1.< previous page page_101 page_ix next page > Page 101 Page ix Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. 78 If you like this book. September 1992. Russian factory worker. Russian women protesting in Moldova. 79 7. to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of 14 civilians and soldiers relate 1951. February 1993. Japanese troops in Cambodia. Angola. 258 < previous page page_ix If you like this book. militarization. 1992. New York. Rambo comespage 1992. January 1992. 1991. Serbian woman protesting conscription. marines leaving Subic Bay Naval Station. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. 131 8. next page > 5. Somali woman. buy it! 6. Women voters in Luanda. 36 3. Air raid drill." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Illustrations manliness and femininity. 159 9. Kuwait City. Japanese troops. 50 75 page_101 <4. 249 12.

one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of For Clark University students past and present manliness and femininity.< previous page page_101 page_v next page > Page 101 Page v Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY THE . but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of page_v < militarization. buy it! page_101 next page > UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. page previous next page > THE < previous page If you like this book.

" Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Contents manliness and femininity. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine.< previous page page_101 page_vii next page > Page 101 Page vii Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. 1 1. buy it! next page > . Bananas Militarized and Demilitarized 102 5. the State. buy it! 4. Feminism. Beyond Steve Canyon and Rambo: Histories of Militarized Masculinity 71 If you like this book. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that List of Illustrations relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of ix civilians and soldiers Introduction militarization. the Soldier. The Gendered Gulf: A Diary 161 7. The Politics of Constructing the American Woman Soldier 201 8. Nationalism. and Militarism after the Cold War 228 9. Turning Artillery into Ambulances: Some Feminist Caveats previous page next page > 3. and the Entrepreneur142 6. Are UN Peacekeepers Real Men? And Other PostCold War Puzzles 10 38 page_101 <2. It Takes More Than Two: The Prostitute. Conclusion: When Is Postwar Postpatriarchy? 252 Notes 263 Select Bibliography 301 Index 319 < previous page page_vii If you like this book.

Women Weed. Maids and Empires Domestic Servants and the IMF 'Down Big Yard': Maids and the State Conclusion 9 195 Conclusion: The Personal is International Notes 202 Index 239 THE THE < previous page page_viii next page > .< previous page page_101 page_viii next page > Page 101 Page viii Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of Women in Banana Republics militarization. one must chart how women and 6 124 men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be Carmen Mirandaonly have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of on My Mind: International Politics of the Banana "feminine. buy it! If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY 7 151 Blue Jeans and Bankers The Benetton Model The Banker and the Seamstress Making Women's Labor Cheap 'The Light Industry Girls' An Earthquake is Only the Beginning Conclusion 8 177 'Just Like One of the Family': Domestic Servants in World Politics Nannies. Women Clean Brothels and Bananas page_101 < previousLand Reform next page > Patriarchal page Conclusion UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book." Not 'I'm Chiquita Banana and I've Come to Say' manliness and femininity.

one must chart how women and Havein any particularfor Their Compulsory VD and what itTests to be "manly" and what it means to be 89 men to Wait in Line historical setting comprehend AIDS means 13 "feminine. Carmen Miranda: A Hollywood Publicity Shot 15 130 United Brands Company's Recording for Children of the 'Chiquita Banana' Song page_101 < previous page next page > 16 131 Banana Logo Stickers From Some of the Largest International Banana Companies If you like this book.< previous page page_101 page_x next page > Page 101 Page x Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. buy it! 17 139 Women Using Chemicals to Clean Bananas in a Honduran Packing Plant 18 'Are My Hands Clean?' Sung by Sweet Honey in the Rock 158 19 163 A Levis Factory in the Philippines: Women Sew the Distinctive Back Pocket Design 20 164 At the Same Factory." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own90 perceptions of US Sailor with femininity.Prostitute in Olongapo also attempted to design policies to ensure that manliness and a Filipino but many of them have civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process of 14 126 militarization. Men Are Assigned the Higher-Paid Cutting Jobs 21 172 Mexican Garment Worker Sewing a Banner That Reads 'We Demand the Right to Unionize' < previous page page_x next page > .

THE THE < previous page page_xi next page > . the daughter of a tribal chief who acted as an intermediarypage > next between her own people and colonizing Englishmen. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that I began this book thinking about Pocahontas and TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHMended it mulling over easelife of Carmen Miranda. as if confirming that the OF you like this book. She died prematurely of a heart attack. she later married one of these English settlers and travelled UNREGISTERED VERSION colonial enterprise wasbuy it! a civilizing mission. These women were not the sorts of international actors I had been taught to take seriously when trying to make sense of world affairs. Carmen Miranda lived three centuries later. But the more I thought about Pocahontas and Carmen Miranda. workers and emotional comforters. Here I consider women-as-consumers. but also on the control of women as symbols. but her life has remarkable parallels with her Indian foresister's. but each woman made me think in new ways about just how international politics works. of BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that the the complicated process Pocahontas is buried in Highgate Cemetery in London and Carmen Miranda has a museum dedicated to militarization.< previous page page_101 page_xi next page > Page 101 Page xi Whether one is tracing militarizing or demilitarizing social processes. the more I began to suspect that I had been missing an entire dimension of international politics I got an inkling of how relations between governments depend not only on capital and weaponry. indeed returned to her New World homeland. She never If CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY to London." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions of Preface manliness and femininity. and the processes by which they have been created. These logos. marketed and assigned meaning. her in Rio. page_101 < Pocahontas was page previous a Powhantan Indian. I also began to see that brand names like Benetton and Chiquita Banana are more than merely vehicles for making international politics relevant to the already harried book-buyer. for she died of civilization's coal dust in her lungs. perhaps brought on by the frenzied pace of life in the fast lane of America's pop culture. one must chart how women and men in any particular historical setting comprehend what it means to be "manly" and what it means to be "feminine. however. Neither is the usual starting point for thoughts about contemporary international politics. She was a Brazilian grocer's daughter who became a Hollywood star and the symbol of an American president's Latin American policy. consumers. expose another neglected international political relationship.

more realistic about next page > previous us.must chart how women and demonstrates. Some ways that ease the complicated process of why international politics operate another in they gendered of the most exciting work is being done by militarization. perceptions of manliness and femininity. has been of inestimable help in keeping it focused. Women in the World. such as Swasti Mitter. as a what kinds of power have constructed the international political system as we know it. It has only been possible to make the attempt because I have had the wise and generous support of insightful friends and colleagues. one Furthermore. but many of them have also attempted to design policies to ensure that of The chapters that follow are just a beginning. We have wrinkled our brows together over the stickier analytical points. more just and ultimately more rewarding for women as well as men." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own 'consumer goods': tropical beaches. Laura Zimmerman. co-author of the ground-breaking feminist atlas. I am especially indebted to these pioneers. From these revelations may If you like this book. Others who have read chapters and given me valuable suggestions and caveats include Margaret Bluman. buy it! come fresh proposals for making relations between countries less violent. Other feminists are also seeking a better explanation civilians and soldiers relate to one in the waysthose do. always remembering the wider world beyond the author's study or the editor's office. my agent for this book. as social processes. But as I pursued my hunches about the light that Pocahontas and Carmen < previous page page_xii next page > . and we have laughed out loud over some of the more bizarre discoveries. The idea for this book grew out of conversations with Philippa Brewster. One thing became more and more clear as this sometimes daunting project evolved: it makes a big difference to work with feminist editors. Superb copy-editing has been done by Daphne Tagg. There was much less chance of my slipping into parochial assumptions with her as a constant sounding-board. Serena Hilsinger. reading every chapter. as tourism in both industrialized and Third Worlddemilitarizing global political actors. Chandra Mohanty and Peggy Antrobus. It is probably a bit insane to take on the topics covered in this book. passing on gems of information that a mere political scientist would never have seen. never forgetting the audience. has also encouraged me to think that the questions posed were important ones for women committed to genuine social change. Margaret Bluman. As the Notes make clear. women's sexuality. Those whom Adrienne Rich has referred to as 'the women in the back rows of politics' are about to be given the serious attention they have long page_101 < deserved. the editor for this book. are likely to become much smarter. All of page result. Third World feminist theorists. companies and their government allies are it means to be "manly" and what it means men in any particular historical setting comprehend what marketing things not usually thought of as to be "feminine. Ximena Bunster and Margaret Lazarus. Candida Lacey. friend and director of Pandora Press conversations which ranged from feminist musings about polyester fashions and film stars to puzzling over the international politics of feminist publishing. the services of flight attendants. First and foremost has been Joni Seager.< previous page page_101 page_xii next page > Page 101 Page xii Whether one is tracing militarizing or countries. A political scientist is often a bit intimidated by historians and archivists.

Among the many others who shared their special knowledge with me were Beryl Smedley. Judy Wachs. Raquel Tiglao. No one made Miranda might shed onmilitarizing or demilitarizing social to tread on historians'chart how women and men in more at home in this adventure than David what it means to be "manly" and Library. page_101 < Mary Ann White. indebted to each of them for their daily acts of friendship. Linda Richter. THE THE < previous page page_xiii next page > . world of tourism history. So I am. Theresa UNREGISTERED VERSION OF you like this book. Serena Hilsinger and Lois Brynes. Jacqui Alexander. of the Thomas Cook Archives in London. Wendy Mishkin. that me feelany particular historical setting comprehendDoughan. Antoinette Burton. Anita Nesiah. Susan Parsons. but many to make full use ofattempted to design policies to ensure that UNREGISTERED VERSION OF CHM TO PDF CONVERTER STANDARD BY civilians and soldiers relate to one another in those gendered ways that ease the complicated process Schlesinger Library. Ann Englehart of manliness and both encouraged me of them have also the splendid resources of Radcliffe College's Barbara Haber femininity. Pam Moffat. Caroline Becraft. Edmund Swinglehurst. Saralee Hamilton. Gay Murphy." Not only have government and military officials been affected by their own perceptions and treasure-house of surprising information about British and imperial women's history. Ann Holder. Peter Armitage. Laurel Bossen. In addition to my own digging. Rachel Kerian.Philippe Capellan. Saundra Studevant. I knew I had processes. Lois Wasserspring. Sr. CortezTO PDF it! Bourgois. Elaine Salo. Joanne Liddle and Eva Isaksson. Shari Geistfeld and Deb Dunn. Elaine Burns. especially Joni Seager. David Enloe. librarian of the Fawcett what it means to be "feminine. Janice Hill. I was aided by the research skills of my brother. as ever. Over the three years during which this book has taken shape I have had my share of misgivings. opened up theof militarization. buy CONVERTER STANDARD Laliberte. Sidney Mintz. but have reminded me of the point of pursuing feminist puzzles. Elizabeth Odour. Sandina Robbins. Sally Davis. Patrick Miller. Peg Strobel. > previous page next page Georgina Ashworth. Soledad Perpinan. Lucy BY If CHM Enloe. Mary McGinn. Julie Wheelwright. Nira Yuval Davis. one must ground. Beth Schwartz.< previous page page_101 page_xiii next page > Page 101 Page xiii Whether one is tracing international politics. Christine White. as well as Lauran Schultz. Gilda Bruckman. Generous friends not only have put up with my occasionally odd preoccupations. Nien Ling Lieu.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful