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RAIN-WATER HARVESTING
Panen air hujan merupakan suatu metode memanfaatkan air hujan untuk keperluan domestik dan pertanian, cara ini telah banyak diaplikasikan di berbagai penjuru dunia. Rain Water Harvesting as a method of utilizing rain water for domestic and agricultural use is already widely used throughout the world. It is a method which has been used since ancient times and is increasingly being accepted as a practical method of providing potable water in development projects throughout the world. It has wide application also in urban and peri-urban areas where the reliability and quality of piped water is increasingly being questioned. Despite these facts the percentage of households using rain water harvesting both in urban and rural areas is remarkably low. DELAPAN PRINSIP KEBERHASILAN PANEN AIR HUJAN: 1. Begin with long and thoughtful observation. Use all your senses to see where the water flows and how. What is working, what is not? Build on what works. 2. Start at the top (highpoint) of your watershed and work your way down. Water travels downhill, so collect water at your high points for more immediate infiltration and easy gravity-fed distribution. Start at the top where there is less volume and velocity of water. 3. Start small and simple. Work at the human scale so you can build and repair everything. Many small strategies are far more effective than one big one when you are trying to infiltrate water into the soil. 4. Slow, spread, and infiltrate the flow of water. Rather than having water run erosively off the land’s surface, encourage it to stick around, “walk” around, and infiltrate into the soil. Slow it, spread it, sink it. 5. Always plan an overflow route, and manage that overflow as a resource. Always have an overflow route for the water in times of extra heavy rains, and where possible, use the overflow as a resource. 6. Maximize living and organic groundcover. Create a living sponge so the harvested water is used to create more resources, while the soil’s ability to infiltrate and hold water steadily improves. 7. Maximize beneficial relationships and efficiency by “stacking functions.” Get your water harvesting strategies to do more than

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hold water. Berms can double as high-and-dry raised paths. Plantings can be placed to cool buildings in summer. Vegetation can be selected to provide food. 8. Continually reassess your system: the “feedback loop.” Observe how your work affects the site, beginning again with the first principle. Make any needed changes, using the principles to guide you.
These principles are the core of successful water harvesting. They apply equally to the conceptualization, design, and implementation of all waterharvesting landscapes. You must integrate all principles, not just your favorites, to realize a site’s full potential. Used together, these principles greatly enhance success, dramatically reduce mistakes, and enable you to adapt and integrate a range of strategies to meet site needs. While the principles remain constant, the strategies you use to achieve them will vary with each unique site.

Rainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater. Rainwater harvesting has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers in a process called groundwater recharge. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses, tents and local institutions, or from specially prepared areas of ground, can make an important contribution to drinking water. In some cases, rainwater may be the only available, or economical, water source. Rainwater systems are simple to construct from inexpensive local materials, and are potentially successful in most habitable locations. Roof rainwater is usually of good quality and does not require treatment before consumption. Household rainfall catchment systems are appropriate in areas with an average rainfall greater than 200mm per year, and no other accessible water sources. There are a number of types of systems to harvest rainwater ranging from very simple to the complex industrial systems. Generally, rainwater is either harvested from the ground or from a roof. The rate at which water can be collected from either system is dependent on the plan area of the system, its efficiency, and the intensity of rainfall. Sistem Penangkapan Hujan di Permukaan Lahan Ground catchments systems channel water from a prepared catchment area into storage. Generally they are only considered in areas where rainwater is very scarce and other sources of water are not available. They are more suited to small communities than individual families. If properly designed, ground catchments can collect large quantities of rainwater.

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www.lifewater.org/resources/rws1/rws1m.htm

Sistem Penangkapan di Atap Bangunan Roof catchment systems channel rainwater that falls onto a roof into storage via a system of gutters and pipes. The first flush of rainwater after a dry season should be allowed to run to waste as it will be contaminated with dust, bird droppings etc. Roof gutters should have sufficient incline to avoid standing

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water. They must be strong enough, and large enough to carry peak flows. Storage tanks should be covered to prevent mosquito breeding and to reduce evaporation losses, contamination and algal growth. Rainwater harvesting systems require regular maintenance and cleaning to keep the system hygienic and in good working order.

www.constructionresources.com/products/servic...

www.lakotawatercompany.com/.../view/16/28/

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Tanggul Bawah-permukaan: Subsurface dyke A subsurface dyke is built in an aquifer to obstruct the natural flow of groundwater, thereby raising the groundwater level and increasing the amount of water stored in the aquifer. The subsurface dyke at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University with the support of ICAR, has become an effective method for ground water conservation by means of rain water harvesting technologies. The sub-surface dyke has demonstrated that it is a feasible method for conserving and exploiting the groundwater resources of the Kerala state of India. The dyke is now the largest rainwater harvesting system in that region. Pengisian Groundwater Rainwater may also be used for groundwater recharge, where the runoff on the ground is collected and allowed to be absorbed, adding to the groundwater. In the US, rooftop rainwater is collected and stored in sump. In India this includes Bawdis and johads, or ponds which collect the run-off from small streams in wide area. In India, reservoirs called tankas were used to store water; typically they were shallow with mud walls. Ancient tankas still exist in some places.

www.wrd.org/water_quality/recycled-water-grou...

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Keuntungan / Manfaat di daerah perkotaan Rainwater harvesting in urban areas can have manifold reasons. Some of the reasons rainwater harvesting can be adopted in cities are to provide supplemental water for the city's requirements, to increase soil moisture levels for urban greenery, to increase the ground water table through artificial recharge, to mitigate urban flooding and to improve the quality of groundwater. In urban areas of the developed world, at a household level, harvested rainwater can be used for flushing toilets and washing laundry. Indeed in hard water areas it is superior to mains water for this. It can also be used for showering or bathing. It may require treatment prior to use for drinking In New Zealand, many houses away from the larger towns and cities routinely rely on rainwater collected from roofs as the only source of water for all household activities. This is almost inevitably the case for many holiday homes. Kualitas Air Hujan As rainwater may be contaminated, it is often not considered suitable for drinking without treatment. However, there are many examples of rainwater being used for all purposes — including drinking — following suitable treatment. Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain animal and bird faeces, mosses and lichens, windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx). High levels of pesticide have been found in rainwater in Europe with the highest concentrations occurring in the first rain immediately after a dry spell; the concentration of these and other contaminants are reduced significantly by diverting the initial flow of water to waste as described above. The water may need to be analysed properly, and used in a way appropriate to its safety. In the Gansu province for example, harvested rainwater is boiled in parabolic solar cookers before being used for drinking. In Brazil alum and chlorine is added to disinfect water before consumption. Socalled "appropriate technology" methods, such as solar water disinfection, provide low-cost disinfection options for treatment of stored rainwater for drinking. System Sizing It is important that the system is sized to meet the water demand throughout the dry season. Generally speaking, the size of the storage tank should be big enough to meet the daily water requirement throughout the dry

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season. In addition, the size of the catchment area or roof should be large enough to fill the tank.

PENGISIAN GROUNDWATER Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface. Recharge occurs both naturally (through the water cycle) and anthropologically (i.e., "artificial groundwater recharge"), where rainwater and or reclaimed water is routed to the subsurface. Groundwater is recharged naturally by rain and snow melt and to a smaller extent by surface water (rivers and lakes). Recharge may be impeded somewhat by human activities including paving, development, or logging. These activities can result in enhanced surface runoff and reduction in recharge. Use of groundwater, especially for irrigation, may also lower the water tables. Groundwater recharge is an important process for sustainable groundwater management, since the volume-rate abstracted from an aquifer in the long term should be less than or equal to the volume-rate that is recharged.

www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/qapp/lid_design/...

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Recharge can help move excess salts that accumulate in the root zone to deeper soil layers, or into the groundwater system. Another environmental issue is the disposal of waste through the water flux such as dairy farms, industrial, and urban runoff. Vadose zone The vadose zone, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the portion of Earth between the land surface and the phreatic zone or zone of saturation ("vadose" is Latin for "shallow"). It extends from the top of the ground surface to the water table. Water in the vadose zone has a pressure head less than atmospheric pressure, and is retained by a combination of adhesion (funiculary groundwater), and capillary action (capillary groundwater). If the vadose zone envelops soil, the water contained therein is termed soil moisture.

Cross-section of a hillslope depicting the vadose zone, capillary fringe, water table, and phreatic or saturated zone. (Source: United States Geological Survey.)

Movement of water within the vadose zone is studied within soil physics and hydrology, particularly hydrogeology, and is of importance to agriculture, contaminant transport, and flood control. The Richards equation is often used to mathematically describe the flow of water, which is based partially on Darcy's law. Groundwater recharge, which is an important process that refills aquifers, generally occurs through the vadose zone from precipitation. In speleology, cave passages formed in the vadose zone tend to be canyon-like in shape, as the water dissolves bedrock on the floor of the passage. Passages created in completely water-filled conditions are called phreatic passages and tend to be circular in cross-section.

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RAIN GARDEN
A rain garden is a planted depression that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas like roofs, driveways, walkways, and compacted lawn areas the opportunity to be absorbed. This reduces rain runoff by allowing stormwater to soak into the ground (as opposed to flowing into storm drains and surface waters which causes erosion, water pollution, flooding, and diminished groundwater). Rain gardens can cut down on the amount of pollution reaching creeks and streams by up to 30%.

www.flintcreekwatershed.org/rain_garden.html

Native plants are recommended for rain gardens because they generally don't require fertilizer and are more tolerant of one’s local climate, soil, and water conditions. The plants — a selection of wetland edge vegetation, such as wild flowers, sedges, rushes, ferns, shrubs and small trees — take up excess water flowing into the rain garden. Water filters through soil layers before entering the groundwater system. Root systems enhance infiltration, moisture redistribution, and diverse microbial populations involved in biofiltration.[2] Also, through the process of transpiration, rain garden plants return water vapor into the atmosphere. A more wide-ranging definition covers all the possible elements that can be used to capture, channel, divert, and make the most of the natural rain and snow that falls on a property. The whole garden can become a rain garden, and all of the individual elements that we deal with in detail are either components of it, or are small-scale rain gardens in themselves.

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rainwise.seattle.gov/solution_brochures/rain_...

www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/2702.htm

Mitigating the impact of urban development In developed areas, the natural depressions are filled in. The surface of the ground is leveled or paved, and water is directed into storm drains. This causes several problems. First of all, streams that are fed by storm drains are

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subjected to sudden surges of water each time it rains, which contributes to erosion and flooding. Also, the water is warmer than the groundwater that normally feeds a stream, which upsets the delicate system. Warmer water cannot hold as much dissolved oxygen (DO). Many fish and other creatures in streams are unable to live in an environment with fluctuating temperatures. Finally, a wide variety of pollutants spill or settle on land surfaces between rain events.[6] The initial rinse from each runoff event can wash this accumulation directly into streams and ponds.

dluzius.org/

Excess water from an expanding area or increasing development density is cumulative. Flooding results from ever smaller events requiring upgrades of drainage infrastructure. Areas compacted by heavy equipment during past construction activities remain less permeable long after vegetation is reintroduced. Both groundwater recharge and subsurface flow paths are disrupted. Strategies to retain water and soil at their source can slow this harmful cascade. Rain gardens may be located near a drainpipe from a building’s roof (with or without rain barrels), although if there’s a basement, a French drain may be used to direct the rainwater to a location farther from the building. Normally, a rain garden — or a series of rain gardens — is the endpoint of drainage, but sometimes it can be designed as a pass-through system where water will percolate through a series of gravel layers and be captured by a drain under the gravel and carried to a storm water system. Rapid pass-through

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systems reduce peak discharge and extend hydraulic lag time of the discharge — reversing urbanization’s major hydraulic impact. However, rapidly drained systems do not achieve pollution removal rates that more slowly percolating rain gardens do.

www.gardenforglobalwarming.co.uk/2008.html

Runoff volumes from impervious surfaces in many urban cities make green roofs necessary to reduce peak volumes to magnitudes that areas available for rain gardens can handle. While some rain garden wash through is acceptable from heavy storms that dilute pollution, depression focused recharge of contaminated runoff is avoided by proper rain garden design. The simplest fail safe for handling polluted runoff is for a garden with one inlet not to accept more volume than it can handle, and not pond to sufficient depth to push water into the water table faster than required for adequate biofiltration. Rain gardens are beneficial for many reasons: improve water quality by filtering run-off, provide localized flood control, aesthetically pleasing, and provide interesting planting opportunities. They also encourage wildlife and biodiversity, tie together buildings and their surrounding environments in attractive and environmentally advantageous ways, and provide significant partial solutions to important environmental problems that affect us all. A rain garden provides a way to use and optimize any rain that falls, reducing or avoiding the need for irrigation. They allow a household or building to deal with excessive rainwater runoff without burdening the public storm water systems. Rain gardens differ from retention basins, in that the water will infiltrate the ground within a day or two. This creates the advantage that the rain garden does not allow mosquitoes to breed.

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www.oeconline.org/author/TeresaH

History Rain Gardens The first rain gardens were created to mimic the natural water retention areas that occurred naturally before development of an area. The rain gardens for residential use were developed in 1990 in Prince George's County, Maryland, when Dick Brinker, a developer building a new housing subdivision had the idea to replace the traditional best management practices (BMP) pond with a bioretention area. He approached Larry Coffman, the county's Associate Director for Programs and Planning in the Department of Environmental Resources, with the idea.[8] The result was the extensive use of rain gardens in Somerset, a residential subdivision which has a 300–400 ft² rain garden on each house’s property.[9] This system proved to be highly cost-effective. Instead of a system of curbs, sidewalks, and gutters, which would have cost nearly $400,000, the planted drainage swales cost $100,000 to install. [8] This was also much more cost effective than building BMP ponds that could handle 2-, 10-, and 100-year storm events. Flow monitoring done in later years showed that the rain gardens have resulted in a 75–80% reduction in stormwater runoff during a regular rainfall event. This is also referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), and is cited by the EPA on their website as a success on the Stormwater Case Studies section of their website. This webpage has many links to information on Prince George’s County’s literature on implementing LID in a community. Some de facto rain gardens predate their recognition by professionals as a significant LID tool. Any shallow garden depression implemented to capture and retain rain water within the garden so as to drain adjacent land without running off a property is at conception a rain garden — particularly if

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vegetation is maintained with recognition of its role in this function. Vegetated roadside swales, now promoted as “bioswales”, remain the conventional drainage system in many parts of the world from long before extensive networks of cement sewers became the conventional engineering practice in the USA. What is globally new about such technology is the emerging rigor of increasingly quantitative understanding of how such tools may make sustainable development possible. This is as true for wealthy developed communities retrofitting bioretention into built stormwater management systems, as for developing communities seeking a faster and more sustainable development path. Characteristics Rain Gardens A rain garden requires an area where water can collect and infiltrate, and plants to maintain infiltration rates, diverse microbe communities, and water holding capacity. Transpiration by growing plants accelerates soil drying between storms. This includes any plant extending roots to the garden area.

www.co.brown.mn.us/brownswcd/News.html

Simply adjusting the landscape so that downspouts and paved surfaces drain into existing gardens may be all that is needed because the soil has been well loosened and plants are well established. However, many plants don't tolerate saturated roots for long and often more water runs off one's roof than people realize. Often the required location and storage capacity of the garden area must be determined first. Rain garden plants are then selected to match the situation, not the other way around.

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Soil and Drainage When an area’s soils are not permeable enough to allow water to drain and filter properly, the soil should be replaced. This mixture should typically containing 60% sand, 20% compost, and 20% topsoil. Deep plant roots also create additional channels for storm water to filter into the ground. Sometimes a drywell with a series of gravel layers near the lowest spot in the rain garden will help facilitate percolation. However, a drywell placed at the lowest spot can become clogged with silt prematurely turning the garden into an infiltration basin defeating its purpose. Depression focused recharge of polluted water into wells poses a serious threat and should be avoided. Similarly plans to install a rain garden near a septic system should be reviewed by a qualified engineer. The more polluted the water, the longer it must be retained in the soil for purification. This is often achieved by installing several smaller rain garden basins with soil deeper than the seasonal high watertable. In some cases lined bioretention cells with subsurface drainage are used to retain smaller amounts of water and filter larger amounts without letting water percolate as quickly.

www.backyardwisdom.info/blogarchives/003951.php

Rain gardens are at times confused with bioswales. Swales slope to a destination, while rain gardens do not; however, a bioswale may end with a rain garden. Drainage ditches may be handled like bioswales and even include rain gardens in series, saving time and money on maintenance. Part of a garden that nearly always has standing water is a water garden, wetland, or pond, and not a rain garden. Using the proper terminology ensures that the proper methods are used to achieve the desired results.

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Plant Selection Plants selected for use in a rain garden should tolerate both saturated and dry soil. Using native plants is generally encouraged. This way the rain garden may contribute to urban habitats for native butterflies, birds, and beneficial insects. Well planned plantings require minimal maintenance to survive, and are compatible with adjacent land use. Trees under power lines, or that up-heave sidewalks when soils become moist, or whose roots seek out and clog drainage tiles can cause expensive damage. Trees generally contribute most when located close enough to tap moisture in the rain garden depression, yet do not excessively shade the garden. That said, shading open surface waters can reduce excessive heating of habitat. Plants tolerate inundation by warm water for less time because heat drives out dissolved oxygen, thus a plant tolerant of early spring flooding may not survive summer inundation.

www.rivanna-stormwater.org/raingardens.htm

WATER GARDEN Water gardens, also known as aquatic gardens, backyard ponds and garden ponds, have become popular in recent years. They have also been famous in Chinese and European history.

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This water garden features water lilies and elephant ear plants.

Usually referring to a man-made feature, these gardens typically combine a pool with aquatic plants and often ornamental fish. Fixed items such as rocks, fountains, statuary, waterfalls and watercourses can be combined with the pool to add visual interest and integration with the local landscape and environment. Types of water gardens • Containers • Natural ponds • Wild River • Halka lever Man-made ponds Bogs Lakes

A water garden in a private residence.

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Man-made ponds In the sixteenth century, Europe was recovering from the Black Death and towns were growing and prospering again. Renewed interest in Greek thought and philosophy led some aristocrats to reconsider the works of Hero of Alexandria in hydraulics and pneumatics. His devices, such as temple doors operated by invisible weights or flowing liquids, and mechanical singing birds powered by steam, motivated several European princes to create similar clever devices to enhance their public image.

Waterfall and pool in rock garden on the campus of the University of Alberta.

In Italy especially, some princes took things a stage further and constructed large water gardens incorporating mechanical devices in water settings. The best-known is the Villa d'Este at Tivoli, constructed in 1550 AD. A hill presented several fountains and dozens of grottoes, where water-driven figures moved or spouted water. Within 50 years there were imitations all over Europe; the best-known today is the Hellbrunn Palace, full of performing figures (human and animal), fountains that erupt without notice, and a waterpowered puppet theater. Wild river One chooses a spot on the banks of a fast-moving river, and places rocks in the path of the water to make a small waterfall. The rocks interfere with the waterflow, causing splashing and bubbles to form. The water splashing makes a pleasant sound and new habitat for fish, crustaceans and wildlife that feed on the fish and the crustaceans. The river's water level may vary considerably, so proper location of the rocks requires ingenuity to achieve good aeration from the splashing. Finding a good placement of rocks is similar to arranging a Zen garden or Japanese rock garden. A well-done, intuitive placement of rocks can stimulate a feeling of peace or Zen while also achieving a practical effect, since the splashing water

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adds valuable oxygen to the river and may prevent hypoxia. The more bubbles formed, the more dissolved oxygen is being placed in the river. Flora Typical water garden plants are divided into 3 main categories: submerged, marginal, and floating. 1. Submerged plants are those that live almost completely under the water, sometimes with leaves or flowers that grow to the surface such as with the water lily. These plants are placed in a pond or container usually 1-2 ft. below the water surface. Some of these plants are called oxygenators because they create oxygen for the fish that live in a pond. Examples of submerged plants are: • Water lily (Hardy and Tropical) • Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) 2. Marginal plants are those that live with their roots under the water but the rest of the plant above the surface. These are usually placed so that the top of the pot is at or barely below the water level. Examples of these are: • Iris or Flag (Iris) • Water-crowfoot (Ranunculus fluitans) • Bulrush (Scirpus lacustris) • Cattail (Typha latifolia) • Taro, Elephant Ear, roots for poi (Colocasia esculenta) • Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia) • Lotus (Nelumbo) • Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata) 3. Floating plants are those that are not anchored to the soil at all, but are free-floating on the surface. In water gardening, these are often used as a provider of shade to reduce algae growth in a pond. These are often extremely fast growing/multiplying. Examples of these are: • Mosquito ferns (Azolla) • Water-spangle (Salvinia) • Water-clover (Marsilea vestita) • Water lettuce (Nile lettuce) (Pistia stratiotes) • Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Some areas of the United States do not allow certain of these plants to be sold or kept as they have become invasive species in warmer areas of the country, such as Florida. Algae are found in all ponds. There are hundreds of species of algae that can grow in garden ponds but they are only usually noticied when they become

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abundant. Algae often grow in very high densities in ponds because of the high nutrient levels that are typical of garden ponds. Generally alga attaches itself to the sides of the pond and remains innocuous. Some species of algae, namely the dreaded 'blanket weed' can grow up to a foot a day under ideal conditions and can rapidly clog a garden pond. On the other hand, free floating algae are microcopic and are what cause pond water to appear green. Fauna: Fish Often the reason for having a pond in a garden is to keep fish, often koi, though many people keep goldfish. Both are hardy, colorful fish which require no special heating, provided the pond is located in an area which does not have extremes of temperature that would affect the fish. If fish are kept, pumps and filtration devices are usually needed in order to keep enough oxygen in the water to support them.

Fish in a pond In winter, a small heater may need to be used in cold climates to keep the water from freezing solid. Examples of common pond fish include: • Goldfish (Common, Comet, Shubunkin varieties, Wakin and the Fantail varieties. With the possible exception of some of the fantail varieties, the fancy goldfish are not suited to pond life.) • Koi (Nishikigoi, Butterfly Koi and Ghost Koi) • Golden Orfe • Golden Tench Rosy Red Minnows • Mosquitofish Eel • Catfish Bass • Acipenser Carp • Crucian carp Bluegill

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Snails Small aquatic snails are usually in ponds which have plants. Some people purchase Apple snails to keep in their water garden. Another common variety is the Melantho snail. Amphibian & Reptile Ponds located in suburban and rural areas often attract amphibian life such as common frogs, fire salamanders and reptiles such as turtles and snakes. Predators Garden ponds can attract attention from predators such as (in North America) raccoons, heron/birds, snakes, and domestic cats. These predators can be a danger to fish. Owners of koi are often particularly upset by this as some varieties of koi can be very expensive.

GARDEN POND
A garden pond is a water feature constructed in a garden, normally either for aesthetic purposes or to provide wildlife habitat. The UK charity Pond Conservation has estimated that there are about two million garden ponds in the UK.

www.mooseyscountrygarden.com/water-garden-pon...

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Habitat Garden ponds can be excellent wildlife habitats. However, knowing how to make a good wildlife pond in practice is rather a matter of trial and error at present because there is remarkably little reliable information available about how to create good wildlife ponds. Despite the popularity of garden ponds, despite dozens of books and web-sites offering advice about making garden ponds, in fact there have been virtually no studies of garden pond wildlife, the best designs for wildlife ponds or of how garden ponds should be managed to maximise their value for wildlife. As a result of this, advice about the making of ponds for wildlife is plagued by the repetition of a range of myths about ponds. These myths were first identified in the early 1990s by Pond Conservation and described in an article in the magazine British Wildlife. The Garden Pond Blog, started by a member of Pond Conservation, aims to dispel some of these myths and help people make better garden (or backyard) ponds. Although people often say that garden ponds make a great contribution to the protection of freshwater wildlife there is in fact no evidence one way or the other to determine whether this is really the case. This is because there have never been any careful studies made of garden ponds compared to ponds in the rest of the landscape. Because of this garden pond owners have the potential to make many original and valuable observations about the ecology of small waterbodies because so little is known about ponds generally, and specifically about the smallest natural ponds, which garden ponds replicate.

www.reflectionbywater.com/.../garden1.htm

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photos.gardenweb.com/garden/galleries/2006/09...

Not everything about garden ponds is good. Although invertebrate animals such as dragonflies and water beetles, and amphibians can colonise new ponds quickly, garden ponds also cause problems. In particular, garden ponds can be pathways for the spread of invasive non-native plants. In the UK the non-native species Crassula helmsii and Myriophyllum aquaticum, which cause considerable practical problems in protecting freshwaters, are both escapees from garden ponds. Ponds may be created by natural processes or by people; however, the origin of the hole in the ground makes little difference to the kind of wildlife that will be found in the pond. Much more important is whether the pond is polluted or clean, how close it is to other wetlands and its depth, particularly whether it dries out from time to time and how many fish (if any) there are. Naturally, ponds vary more in their physical and chemical conditions from day to day, and even during the day, than other freshwaters, like rivers. People often install pumps in garden ponds to counter these natural tendencies, particularly to maintain higher levels of dissolved oxygen: although this is probably not necessary for wildlife generally, it may be essential to keep fish in a small pond. For ponds with polluted nutrient-rich tapwater added to them, filters can be used to reduce the abundance of algae.

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Water supply and loss Ponds outside of gardens are fed by five main water sources: rain, inflows (spring, streams, ditches), groundwater and surface runoff. The wildlife value of ponds is greatly affected by the extent to which these water sources are polluted: the less pollution the better. Garden ponds are often filled with tap water; since water supplied for drinking often has high levels of nutrients which, when too abundant, pollute the pond, this gets the pond off to a bad start. Chemical pond treatments said to maintain the 'ecological balance' in ponds have rarely been carefully tested to assess their effects: although some of these treatments may have beneficial effects (for example, adding chalk to a pond polluted by phosphorus could precipitate the nutrient from the water and prevent it from being taken up by algae) most freshwater scientists would not currently consider these an effective solution to pond management problems.

www.justliners.com/

Garden ponds are generally not fed by inflows or groundwater, except in the biggest gardens. Usually the pond will be filled by a combination of rainwater and surface runoff and lost to evaporation. One can make a garden pond/ koi pond that generally ranges in size from 150 gallons to around 10,000 gallons. However, if evaporation exceeds the amount of water added from rain or surface runoff, the pond may dry out during summer. This is not harmful biologically because many freshwater plants and animals (perhaps half of all species) are well adapted to periods of drought, and worldwide so-called

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'temporary ponds' (ponds which usually dry out once a year) are an important natutral habitat type. However in a garden, a pond which dries out in summer may be a bit disappointing for the owner since this is the time when most people will be spending time enjoying their pond. And of course some animals, particularly fish, cannot survive periods of drought. Indeed, drought is nature's way of telling fish they are not wanted in a particular place! Amphibians, on the other hand, often benefit from ponds which dry out because this removes the major predators of tadpoles and newtpoles (fish) and, provided the larvae emerge before the pond dries out, the drought presents no problems for the amphibians. In soils which lack natural clay, additional water loss to drainage and permeation is prevented by a liner. Pond liners are PVC or EPDM foils that are placed between the soil of the pond bed and the water. Liners can also be made from puddled clay, and ponds on free-draining soils can even be self-sealing with fine sediments washed into the pond.

RETENTION BASIN
A retention basin, is a type of best management practice (BMP) that is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay. Sometimes called a wet pond or wet detention basin, it is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a permanent pool of water in its design.

www.lindenhurstil.org/lakescom/npdes2.htm

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It is distinguished from a detention basin, sometimes called a dry pond, which temporarily stores water after a storm, but eventually empties out at a controlled rate to a downstream water body. It also differs from an infiltration basin which is designed to direct stormwater to groundwater through permeable soils. Wet ponds are frequently used for water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, flood protection, aesthetic improvement or any combination of these. Sometimes they act as a replacement for the natural absorption of a forest or other natural process that was lost when an area is developed. As such, these structures are designed to blend into neighborhoods and viewed as an amenity. Design features Storm water is typically channeled to a retention basin through a system of street and/or parking lot storm drains, and a network of drain channels or underground pipes. The basins are designed to allow relatively large flows of water to enter, but discharges to receiving waters are limited by outlet structures that function only during very large storm events. Retention ponds are often landscaped with a variety of grasses, shrubs and/or wetland plants to provide bank stability and aesthetic benefits. Vegetation also provides water quality benefits by removing soluble nutrients through uptake.[4] In some areas the ponds can attract nusiance types of wildlife like ducks or Canada Geese, particularly where there is minimal landscaping and grasses are mowed. This reduces the ability of foxes, coyotes and other predators to approach their prey unseen. Such predators tend to hide in the cattails and other tall, thick grass surrounding natural water features.

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bydianedaniel.wordpress.com/2009/03/

DETENTION BASIN

A detention basin is a stormwater management facility installed on, or adjacent to, tributaries of rivers, streams, lakes or bays that is designed to protect against flooding and, in some cases, downstream erosion by storing water for a limited period of a time. These basins are also called "dry ponds", "holding ponds" or "dry detention basins" if no permanent pool of water exists. Some detention ponds are also "wet ponds" in that they are designed to permanently retain some volume of water at all times. In its basic form a detention basin is used to manage water quantity while having a limited effectiveness in protecting water quality, unless it includes a permanent pool feature. Detention basins are designed to intercept a volume of storm water, temporarily impound the water and release it shortly after the storm event. The main purpose of a detention basin is quantity control by reducing the peak flow rate of storm water discharges. They are designed to not retain a permanent pool volume between runoff events. and most basins are designed to empty in a time period of less than 24 hours. The treatment efficiency of detention basins is usually limited to removal of suspended solids and associated contaminants due to gravity settling. The efficiency can be increased by incorporating a forebay or pre-settling chamber for the accumulation of coarse sediment, facilitating periodic cleaning in order to prevent washout by subsequent runoff events. Detention basins can limit downstream scour and loss of aquatic habitat by reducing the peak flow rate and energy of storm water discharges to the receiving stream, but their removal of pollutant of potential water quality concern can be limited. A diagram of a typical detention basin is shown below.

www.ecn.purdue.edu/.../detention_systems.htm

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Functions and design Detention basins are storm water best management practices (BMPs) that provide general flood protection and can also control extreme floods such as a 1 in 100-year storm event. The basins are typically built during the construction of new land development projects including residential subdivisions or shopping centers. The ponds help manage the excess runoff generated by newly-constructed impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots and rooftops. A basin functions by allowing large flows of water to enter but limits the outflow by having a small opening at the lowest point of the structure. The size of this opening is determined by the capacity of underground and downstream culverts and washes to handle the release of the contained water.[3] Frequently the inflow area is constructed to protect the structure from some types of damage. Offset concrete blocks in the entrance spillways are used to reduce the speed of entering flood water. These structures may also have debris drop vaults to collect large rocks. These vaults are deep holes under the entrance to the structure. The holes are wide enough to allow large rocks and other debris to fall into the holes before they can damage the rest of the structure. These vaults must be emptied after each storm event.

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Dry detention basin www.abbey-associates.com/splash-splash/pictur...

Extended detention basin A variant basin design called an extended detention dry basin can limit downstream erosion and control of some pollutants such as suspended solids. This basin type differs from a retention basin, also known as a "wet pond," which includes a permanent pool of water, and which is typically designed to protect water quality. While basic detention ponds are often designed to empty within 6 to 12 hours after a storm, extended detention (ED) dry basins improve on the basic detention design by lengthening the storage time, for example, to 24 or 48 hours. Longer storage times tend to result in improved water quality because additional suspended solids are removed.

frontpage.et.byu.edu/.../HW2008/Assignment27.htm

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PANEN AIR-HUJAN HARVESTING
Deskripsi Umum

:

RAINWATER

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams. The techniques usually found in Asia and Africa arise from practices employed by ancient civilizations within these regions and still serve as a major source of drinking water supply in rural areas. Commonly used systems are constructed of three principal components; namely, the catchment area, the collection device, and the conveyance system. 1. Daerah Penangkapan Air Hujan Rooftop catchments: In the most basic form of this technology, rainwater is collected in simple vessels at the edge of the roof. Variations on this basic approach include collection of rainwater in gutters which drain to the collection vessel through down-pipes constructed for this purpose, and/or the diversion of rainwater from the gutters to containers for settling particulates before being conveyed to the storage container for the domestic use. As the rooftop is the main catchment area, the amount and quality of rainwater collected depends on the area and type of roofing material. Reasonably pure rainwater can be collected from roofs constructed with galvanized corrugated iron, aluminium or asbestos cement sheets, tiles and slates, although thatched roofs tied with bamboo gutters and laid in proper slopes can produce almost the same amount of runoff less expensively (Gould, 1992). However, the bamboo roofs are least suitable because of possible health hazards. Similarly, roofs with metallic paint or other coatings are not recommended as they may impart tastes or colour to the collected water. Roof catchments should also be cleaned regularly to remove dust, leaves and bird droppings so as to maintain the quality of the product water.

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Land surface catchments: Rainwater harvesting using ground or land surface catchment areas is less complex way of collecting rainwater. It involves improving runoff capacity of the land surface through various techniques including collection of runoff with drain pipes and storage of collected water. Compared to rooftop catchment techniques, ground catchment techniques provide more opportunity for collecting water from a larger surface area. By retaining the flows (including flood flows) of small creeks and streams in small storage reservoirs (on surface or underground) created by low cost (e.g., earthen) dams, this technology can meet water demands during dry periods. There is a possibility of high rates of water loss due to infiltration into the ground, and, because of the often marginal quality of the water collected, this technique is mainly suitable for storing water for agricultural purposes. Various techniques available for increasing the runoff within ground catchment areas involve: i) clearing or altering vegetation cover, ii) increasing the land slope with artificial ground cover, and iii) reducing soil permeability by the soil compaction and application of chemicals.

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Membersihkan vegetasi penutup lahan: Clearing vegetation from the ground can increase surface runoff but also can induce more soil erosion. Use of dense vegetation cover such as grass is usually suggested as it helps to both maintain an high rate of runoff and minimize soil erosion. Kemiringan: Steeper slopes can allow rapid runoff of rainfall to the collector. However, the rate of runoff has to be controlled to minimise soil erosion from the catchment field. Use of plastic sheets, asphalt or tiles along with slope can further increase efficiency by reducing both evaporative losses and soil erosion. The use of flat sheets of galvanized iron with timber frames to prevent corrosion was recommended and constructed in the State of Victoria, Australia. Pemadatan tanah secara Fisika: This involves smoothing and compacting of soil surface using equipment such as graders and rollers. To increase the surface runoff and minimize soil erosion rates, conservation bench terraces are constructed along a slope perpendicular to runoff flow. The bench terraces are separated by the sloping collectors and provision is made for distributing the runoff evenly across the field strips as sheet flow. Excess flows are routed to a lower collector and stored. Pemadatan tanah dengan perlakuan Kimia: In addition to clearing, shaping and compacting a catchment area, chemical applications with such soil treatments as sodium can significantly reduce the soil permeability. Use of aqueous solutions of a silicone-water repellent is another technique for enhancing soil compaction technologies. Though soil permeability can be reduced through chemical treatments, soil compaction can induce greater rates of soil erosion and may be expensive. Use of sodium-based chemicals may increase the salt content in the collected water, which may not be suitable both for drinking and irrigation purposes. 2. Sarana Pengumpulan/Penampungan Air Hujan Tanki Penyimpanan: Storage tanks for collecting rainwater harvested using guttering may be either above or below the ground. Precautions required in the use of storage tanks include provision of an adequate enclosure to minimise contamination from human, animal or other environmental contaminants, and a tight cover to prevent algal growth and the breeding of mosquitos. Open containers are not recommended for collecting water for drinking purposes.

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Various types of rainwater storage facilities can be found in practice. Among them are cylindrical ferrocement tanks and mortar jars. The ferrocement tank consists of a lightly reinforced concrete base on which is erected a circular vertical cylinder with a 10 mm steel base. This cylinder is further wrapped in two layers of light wire mesh to form the frame of the tank. Mortar jars are large jar shaped vessels constructed from wire reinforced mortar. The storage capacity needed should be calculated to take into consideration the length of any dry spells, the amount of rainfall, and the per capita water consumption rate. In most of the Asian countries, the winter months are dry, sometimes for weeks on end, and the annual average rainfall can occur within just a few days. In such circumstances, the storage capacity should be large enough to cover the demands of two to three weeks. For example, a three person household should have a minimum capacity of 3 (Persons) x 90 (l) x 20 (days) = 5400 liter. Rainfall water containers: As an alternative to storage tanks, battery tanks (i.e., interconnected tanks) made of pottery, ferrocement, or polyethylene may be suitable. The polyethylene tanks are compact but have a large storage capacity (ca. 1 000 to 2 000 l), are easy to clean and have many openings which can be fitted with fittings for connecting pipes. In Asia, jars made of earthen materials or ferrocement tanks are commonly used. During the 1980s, the use of rainwater catchment technologies, especially roof catchment systems, expanded rapidly in a number of regions, including Thailand where more than ten million 2 m3 ferrocement rainwater jars were built and many tens of thousands of larger ferrocement tanks were constructed between 1991 and 1993. Early problems with the jar design were quickly addressed by including a metal cover using readily available, standard brass fixtures. The immense success of the jar programme springs from the fact that the technology met a real need, was affordable, and invited community participation. The programme also captured the imagination and support of not only the citizens, but also of government at both local and national levels as well as community based organizations, smallscale enterprises and donor agencies. The introduction and rapid promotion of Bamboo reinforced tanks, however, was less successful because the bamboo was attacked by termites, bacteria and fungus. More than 50 000 tanks were built between 1986 and 1993 (mainly in Thailand and Indonesia) before a number started to fail, and, by the late 1980s, the bamboo reinforced tank design, which had promised to provide an excellent low-cost alternative to ferrocement tanks, had to be abandoned. 3. Sistem Pengangkutan Air Hujan Conveyance systems are required to transfer the rainwater collected on the rooftops to the storage tanks. This is usually accomplished by making

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connections to one or more down-pipes connected to the rooftop gutters. When selecting a conveyance system, consideration should be given to the fact that, when it first starts to rain, dirt and debris from the rooftop and gutters will be washed into the down-pipe. Thus, the relatively clean water will only be available some time later in the storm. There are several possible choices to selectively collect clean water for the storage tanks. The most common is the down-pipe flap. With this flap it is possible to direct the first flush of water flow through the down-pipe, while later rainfall is diverted into a storage tank. When it starts to rain, the flap is left in the closed position, directing water to the down-pipe, and, later, opened when relatively clean water can be collected. A great disadvantage of using this type of conveyance control system is the necessity to observe the runoff quality and manually operate the flap. An alternative approach would be to automate the opening of the flap as described below. A funnel-shaped insert is integrated into the down-pipe system. Because the upper edge of the funnel is not in direct contact with the sides of the downpipe, and a small gap exists between the down-pipe walls and the funnel, water is free to flow both around the funnel and through the funnel. When it first starts to rain, the volume of water passing down the pipe is small, and the *dirty* water runs down the walls of the pipe, around the funnel and is discharged to the ground as is normally the case with rainwater guttering. However, as the rainfall continues, the volume of water increases and *clean* water fills the down-pipe. At this higher volume, the funnel collects the clean water and redirects it to a storage tank. The pipes used for the collection of rainwater, wherever possible, should be made of plastic, PVC or other inert substance, as the pH of rainwater can be low (acidic) and could cause corrosion, and mobilization of metals, in metal pipes. In order to safely fill a rainwater storage tank, it is necessary to make sure that excess water can overflow, and that blockages in the pipes or dirt in the water do not cause damage or contamination of the water supply. The design of the funnel system, with the drain-pipe being larger than the rainwater tank feed-pipe, helps to ensure that the water supply is protected by allowing excess water to bypass the storage tank. A modification of this design is shown in Figure 5, which illustrates a simple overflow/bypass system. In this system, it also is possible to fill the tank from a municipal drinking water source, so that even during a prolonged drought the tank can be kept full. Care should be taken, however, to ensure that rainwater does not enter the drinking water distribution system. Penggunaan oleh Masyarakat The history of rainwater harvesting in Asia can be traced back to about the 9th or 10th Century and the small-scale collection of rainwater from roofs

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and simple brush dam constructions in the rural areas of South and South-east Asia. Rainwater collection from the eaves of roofs or via simple gutters into traditional jars and pots has been traced back almost 2 000 years in Thailand (Prempridi and Chatuthasry, 1982). Rainwater harvesting has long been used in the Loess Plateau regions of China. More recently, however, about 40 000 well storage tanks, in a variety of different forms, were constructed between 1970 and 1974 using a technology which stores rainwater and stormwater runoff in ponds of various sizes. A thin layer of red clay is generally laid on the bottom of the ponds to minimize seepage losses. Trees, planted at the edges of the ponds, help to minimize evaporative losses from the ponds (UNEP, 1982). Tingkat Keterlibatan dan Ketrampilan Various levels of governmental and community involvement in the development of rainwater harvesting technologies in different parts of Asia were noted. In Thailand and the Philippines, both governmental and householdbased initiatives played key roles in expanding the use of this technology, especially in water scarce areas such as northeast Thailand. Kesesuaiannya dengan Budaya Masyarakat Rainwater harvesting is an accepted freshwater augmentation technology in Asia. While the bacteriological quality of rainwater collected from ground catchments is poor, that from properly maintained rooftop catchment systems, equipped with storage tanks having good covers and taps, is generally suitable for drinking, and frequently meets WHO drinking water standards. Notwithstanding, such water generally is of higher quality than most traditional, and many of improved, water sources found in the developing world. Contrary to popular beliefs, rather than becoming stale with extended storage, rainwater quality often improves as bacteria and pathogens gradually die off. Rooftop catchment, rainwater storage tanks can provide good quality water, clean enough for drinking, as long as the rooftop is clean, impervious, and made from non-toxic materials (lead paints and asbestos roofing materials should be avoided), and located away from over-hanging trees since birds and animals in the trees may defecate on the roof. Spesifikasinya Maintenance is generally limited to the annual cleaning of the tank and regular inspection of the gutters and down-pipes. Maintenance typically consists of the removal of dirt, leaves and other accumulated materials. Such cleaning should take place annually before the start of the major rainfall season. However, cracks in the storage tanks can create major problems and should be repaired immediately. In the case of ground and rock catchments, additional

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care is required to avoid damage and contamination by people and animals, and proper fencing is required. Keuntungannya Rainwater harvesting technologies are simple to install and operate. Local people can be easily trained to implement such technologies, and construction materials are also readily available. Rainwater harvesting is convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption, and family members have full control of their own systems, which greatly reduces operation and maintenance problems. Running costs, also, are almost negligible. Water collected from roof catchments usually is of acceptable quality for domestic purposes. As it is collected using existing structures not specially constructed for the purpose, rainwater harvesting has few negative environmental impacts compared to other water supply project technologies. Although regional or other local factors can modify the local climatic conditions, rainwater can be a continuous source of water supply for both the rural and poor. Depending upon household capacity and needs, both the water collection and storage capacity may be increased as needed within the available catchment area. Kerugiannya Disadvantages of rainwater harvesting technologies are mainly due to the limited supply and uncertainty of rainfall. Adoption of this technology requires a *bottom up* approach rather than the more usual *top down* approach employed in other water resources development projects. This may make rainwater harvesting less attractive to some governmental agencies tasked with providing water supplies in developing countries, but the mobilization of local government and NGO resources can serve the same basic role in the development of rainwater-based schemes as water resources development agencies in the larger, more traditional public water supply schemes. Kesesuaiannya The augmentation of municipal water supplies with harvested rainwater is suited to both urban and rural areas. The construction of cement jars or provision of gutters does not require very highly skilled manpower. Biaya Pembangunannya The capital cost of rainwater harvesting systems is highly dependent on the type of catchment, conveyance and storage tank materials used. However, the cost of harvested rainwater in Asia, which varies from $0.17 to $0.37 per cubic metre of water storage, is relatively low compared to many countries in Africa. Compared to deep and shallow tubewells, rainwater collection systems are more cost effective, especially if the initial investment does not include the

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cost of roofing materials. The initial per unit cost of rainwater storage tanks (jars) in Northeast Thailand is estimated to be about $1/l, and each tank can last for more than ten years. The reported operation and maintenance costs are negligible. Efektivitas Teknologinya The feasibility of rainwater harvesting in a particular locality is highly dependent upon the amount and intensity of rainfall. Other variables, such as catchment area and type of catchment surface, usually can be adjusted according to household needs. As rainfall is usually unevenly distributed throughout the year, rainwater collection methods can serve as only supplementary sources of household water. The viability of rainwater harvesting systems is also a function of: the quantity and quality of water available from other sources; household size and per capita water requirements; and budget available. The decision maker has to balance the total cost of the project against the available budget, including the economic benefit of conserving water supplied from other sources. Likewise, the cost of physical and environmental degradation associated with the development of available alternative sources should also be calculated and added to the economic analysis.

www.waterindia.in/pond.php

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Assuming that rainwater harvesting has been determined to be feasible, two kinds of techniques--statistical and graphical methods--have been developed to aid in determining the size of the storage tanks. These methods are applicable for rooftop catchment systems . Accounts of serious illness linked to rainwater supplies are few, suggesting that rainwater harvesting technologies are effective sources of water supply for many household purposes. It would appear that the potential for slight contamination of roof runoff from occasional bird droppings does not represent a major health risk; nevertheless, placing taps at least 10 cm above the base of the rainwater storage tanks allows any debris entering the tank to settle on the bottom, where it will not affect the quality of the stored water, provided it remains undisturbed. Ideally, storage tanks should cleaned annually, and sieves should fitted to the gutters and down-pipes to further minimize particulate contamination. A coarse sieve should be fitted in the gutter where the down-pipe is located. Such sieves are available made of plastic coated steelwire or plastic, and may be wedged on top and/or inside gutter and near the down-pipe. It is also possible to fit a fine sieve within the down-pipe itself, but this must be removable for cleaning. A fine filter should also be fitted over the outlet of the down-pipe as the coarser sieves situated higher in the system may pass small particulates such as leaf fragments, etc. A simple and very inexpensive method is to use a small, fabric sack, which may be secured over the feed-pipe where it enters the storage tank. If rainwater is used to supply household appliances such as the washing machine, even the tiniest particles of dirt may cause damage to the machine and the washing. To minimize the occurrence of such damage, it is advisable to install a fine filter of a type which is used in drinking water systems in the supply line upstream of the appliances. For use in wash basins or bath tubs, it is advisable to sterilise the water using a chlorine dosage pump. Perkembangan Teknologi Lanjut Rainwater harvesting appears to be one of the most promising alternatives for supplying freshwater in the face of increasing water scarcity and escalating demand. The pressures on rural water supplies, greater environmental impacts associated with new projects, and increased opposition from NGOs to the development of new surface water sources, as well as deteriorating water quality in surface reservoirs already constructed, constrain the ability of communities to meet the demand for freshwater from traditional sources, and present an opportunity for augmentation of water supplies using this technology. THE FARM POND

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Farm ponds are the individual assets created at rainfed lands mainly to harvest the rain water from the catchment. Hence the rainfed cultivation involves lot risk and monsoon rainfall determine the production and productivity, water harvesting structures like farm ponds are necessary structure in safeguarding the crop. Most of the farm ponds are constructed at the low line of particular rainfed land across the slope and/or adjacent to the stream or the channel. The harvested rainwater is being utilized to save life of the raised crop when the crop needs water but no rain at all. Farm ponds were designed based on the size of the landholdings and water requirements of the crop at the worst conditions. The farmers are also using the farm ponds for fishculture as additional activity to get supplementary source of income. Depending up on the water holding or filling capacity, farmers select the crops such as paddy, groundnut, floriculture, vegetables and horticulture plantations.

www.brackstonebuilders.com/project_showcase.html

EMBUNG PERTANIAN
Air merupakan sumber daya dan faktor determinan yang menentukan kinerja sektor pertanian, karena tidak ada satu pun tanaman pertanian dan ternak yang tidak memerlukan air. Meskipun perannya sangat strategis, namun pengelolaan air masih jauh dari yang diharapkan, sehingga air yang semestinya merupakan sehabat petani berubah menjadi penyebab bencana bagi petani.

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Indikatornya, di musim kemarau, ladang dan sawah sering kali kekeringan dan sebaliknya di musim penghujan, ladang dan sawah banyak yang terendam air. Secara kuantitas, permasalahan air bagi pertanian terutama di lahan kering adalah persoalan ketidaksesuaian distribusi air antara kebutuhan dan pasokan menurut waktu ( temporal) dan tempat ( spatial). Persoalan menjadi semakin kompleks, rumit dan sulit diprediksi karena pasokan air tergantung dari sebaran curah hujan di sepanjang tahun, yang sebarannya tidak merata walau di musim hujan sekalipun. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan teknologi tepat guna, murah dan aplicable untuk mengatur ketersediaan air agar dapat memenuhi kebutuhan air ( water demand) yang semakin sulit dilakukan dengan cara-cara alamiah ( natural manner). Teknologi embung atau tandon air merupakan salah satu pilihan yang menjanjikan karena teknologinya sederhana, biayanya relatif murah dan dapat dijangkau kemampuan petani. Embung atau tandon air merupakan waduk berukuran mikro di lahan pertanian ( small farm reservoir) yang dibangun untuk menampung kelebihan air hujan di musim hujan. Air yang ditampung tersebut selanjutnya digunakan sebagai sumber irigasi suplementer untuk budidaya komoditas pertanian bernilai ekonomi tinggi ( high added value crops) di musim kemarau atau di saat curah hujan makin jarang. Embung merupakan salah satu teknik pemanenan air ( water harvesting) yang sangat sesuai di segala jenis agroekosistem. Di lahan rawa namanya pond yang berfungsi sebagai tempat penampungan air drainase saat kelebihan air di musim hujan dan sebagai sumber air irigasi pada musim kemarau. Sementara pada ekosistem tadah hujan atau lahan kering dengan intensitas dan distribusi hujan yang tidak merata, embung dapat digunakan untuk menahan kelebihan air dan menjadi sumber air irigasi pada musim kemarau. Secara operasional sebenarnya embung berfungsi untuk mendistribusikan dan menjamin kontinuitas ketersediaan pasokan air untuk keperluan tanaman ataupun ternak di musim kemarau dan penghujan. Pembuatan embung untuk pertanian bertujuan antara lain untuk : 1. Menampung air hujan dan aliran permukaan ( run off) pada wilayah sekitarnya serta sumber air lainnya yang memungkinkan seperti mata air, parit, sungai-sungai kecil dan sebagainya. 2. Menyediakan sumber air sebagai suplesi irigasi di musim kemarau untuk tanaman palawija, hortikultura semusim, tanaman perkebunan semusim dan peternakan. Persyaratan Lokasi EMBUNG 1. Daerah pertanian lahan kering/perkebunan/ peternakan yang memerlukan pasokan air dari embung sebagai suplesi air irigasi. 2. Air tanahnya sangat dalam.

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3. Bukan lahan berpasir. 4. Terdapat sumber air yang dapat ditampung baik berupa air hujan, aliran permukaan dan mata air atau parit atau sungai kecil. 5. Wilayah sebelah atasnya mempunyai daerah tangkapan air atau wilayah yang mempunyai sumber air untuk dimasukkan ke embung, seperti mata air, sungai kecil atau parit dan lain sebagainya.

bebasbanjir2025.wordpress.com/.../embung/

Konstruksi pembangunan embung dilakukan oleh pelaksana yang telah ditunjuk (kelompok tani) dan dilaksanakan secara padat karya agar petani mampu mengembangkan embung dan merasa ikut memiliki sejak dini. Pelaksanaaan pembuatan embung dilakukan dalam beberapa tahap antara lain : Bentuk permukaan embung a. Bentuk permukaan embung disesuaikan dengan kondisi di lapangan b. Volume galian merupakan volume air yang akan ditampung. Besaran volume yang dibuat minimal 170 m3. Besaran volume embung ini akan tergantung kepada konstruksi embung yang akan digunakan atau ada partisipasi dari masyarakat. Embung dengan kontruksi sederhana (tanpa memperkuat dinding) dimungkinkan akan lebih luas dari volume minimal tersebut.

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Membuat pelimpas air/saluran pembuangan ( outlet). Pelimpas air sangat diperlukan bagi embung yang dibuat pada alur alami atau saluran drainase. Hal ini untuk melindungi bendung sekaligus mengalirkan air berlebih. Demikian pula pembuatan saluran pembuangan bagi embung. Secara skematis embung dapat direpresentasikan pada gambar berikut:

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Gambar Desain Sederhana Embung

EMBUNG KOLAM PENAMPUNG AIR
Salah satu cara untuk menanggulangi kekurangan air di lahan sawah tadah hujan adalah dengan membangun kolam penampung air atau embung. Embung adalah kolam penampung kelebihan air hujan pada musim hujan dan digunakan pada saat musim kemarau. TUJUAN PEMBUATAN EMBUNG: • Menyediakan air untuk pengairan tanaman di musim kemarau. • Meningkatkan produktivitas lahan, masa pola tanam dan pendapatan petani di lahan tadah hujan.

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Mengaktifkan tenaga kerja petani pada musim kemarau sehingga mengurangi urbanisasi dari desa ke kota. • Mencegah/mengurangi luapan air di musim hujan dan menekan resiko banjir. • Memperbesar peresapan air ke dalam tanah.

PERSYARATAN LOKASI Beberapa syarat yang harus diperhatikan sebelum melaksanakan pembuatan embung yaitu: Tekstur tanah: Agar fungsinya sebagai penampung air dapat terpenuhi, embung sebaiknya dibuat pada lahan dengan tanah liat berlempung. Pada tanah berpasir yang porous (mudah meresapkan air) tidak dianjurkan pembuatan embung karena air cepat hilang. Kalau terpaksa, dianjurkan memakai alas plastik atau ditembok sekeliling embung. KEMIRINGAN LAHAN Embung sebaiknya dibuat pada areal pertanaman yang bergelombang dengan kemiringan antara 8 – 30%. Agar limpahan air permukaan dapat dengan mudah mengalir kedalam embung dan air embung mudah disalurkan ke petak-petak tanaman, maka harus ada perbedaan ketinggian antara embung dan petak tanaman. Pada lahan yang datar akan sulit untuk mengisi air limpasan ke dalam embung. Pada lahan yang terlalu miring (> 30%), embung akan cepat penuh dengan endapan tanah karena erosi. LOKASI Penempatan embung sebaiknya dekat dengan saluran air yang ada disekitarnya, supaya pada saat hujan, air di permukaan tanah mudah dialirkan kedalam embung. Lebih baik lagi kalau dibuat di dekat areal tanaman yang akan diairi. Lokasinya memiliki daerah tangkapan hujan. UKURAN EMBUNG Embung bisa dibangun secara individu atau berkelompok, tergantung keperluan dan luas areal tanaman yang akan diairi. Untuk keperluan individu dengan luas tanaman (palawija) 0,5 hektar, misalnya, embung yang diperlukan adalah panjang 10 m, lebar 5 m dan kedalaman 2,5 m – 3 m. JENIS TANAMAN DAN CARA PENGAIRAN

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Umumnya embung digunakan untuk mengairi padi musim kemarau, palawija seperti jagung, kacang tanah, kedelai, kacang hijau, kuaci dan sayuran. Mengingat air dari embung sangat terbatas, maka pemakaiannya harus seefisien mungkin. Sebaiknya teknik pengairan dilakukan dengan cara irigasi tetesan terutama untuk palawija dan irigasi pada sela-seta larikan. Apabila air embung akan digunakan untuk mengairi padi dianjurkan untuk mengairi hanya pada saat-saat tertentu, seperti pada stadia primordia, pembungaan dan pengisian bulir padi. Sedangkan setiap kali mengairi tanah, cukup sampai pada kondisi jenuh air. PEMBUATAN EMBUNG Bentuk Bentuk embung sebaiknya dibuat bujur sangkar atau mendekati bujur sangkar, hal tersebut dimaksudkan agar diperoleh Wiling yang paling pendek, sehingga resapan air melalui tanggul lebih sedikit. Penggalian tanah Setelah diketahui letak, ukuran dan bentuk embung yang diinginkan tahapan selanjutnya adalah penggalian tanah yang dapat dikerjakan secara gotong royong. Cara penggaliannya adalah sebagai berikut : Untuk memudahkan pemindahan tanah, maka tanah digali mulai dari batas pinggir dari permukaan tanah.Untuk menghindari masuknya kotoran kedalam embung terbawa air limpasan, maka keliling tanggul dibuat lebih tinggi dari permukaan tanah. Saluran pemasukan air limpasan dan pembuangan dibuat sedemikian rupa, sehingga air embung tidak penuh/meluap. Jarak saluran pembuangan dari permukaan tanggul berkisar 25 – 50 cm. Pelapisan tanah liat Supaya tanggul tidak mudah bobol, sebaiknya dilakukan pemadatan secara bertahap dengan cara : tanah liat (lempung) dibasahi dan diolah sampai berbentuk pasta, lalu ditempel pada dinding embung setebal 25 cm, mulai dari dasar kemudian secara berangsur naik ke dinding embung. Sambungan tanah yang berbentuk pasta tersebut dibuat menyatu sehingga air embung tidak mudah meresap ke tanah. Untuk menekan kelongsoran, pelapis dinding embung dipapas sampai mendekati kemiringan 70° – 80° atau dibuat undakan. Pada tanah berpasir resapan air kebawah (perkolasi) maupun melalui tanggul agak cepat. Oleh karena itu dinding embung perlu dilapisi, bisa dari plastik, tembok atau campuran kapur dengan tanah liat. Campuran kapur tembok dan tanah liat untuk memperkeras dinding embung

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dibuat dengan perbandingan 1 : 1 dengan cara kapur dibasahi dan dicampur dengan tanah liat sampai berbentuk pasta. Pasta tersebut ditempelkan pada dinding dan dasar embung hingga mencapai ketebalan 25 cm.

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