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To Introduce the topic

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INTRODUCTION The realization of educational goals & objectives in the educative process, is based on the accuracy of the judgments & inferances made by decision makers at every step. To arrive at a good decision the test, measurements & evaluations are being used in all educational situations. Thus evaluation has become a part & parcel of every system of education to determine the achievement of goals by the students in the given period.

TEACHING LEARNING ACTIVITY Lecture

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What are tests?

2 To Definition Standardiz ed test.

5min DEFINITION y It is a device or procedure for confronting a subject with a standard set of questions or task to which the student is to respond independently & the result of which can be treated as a quantitative comparison of the performance of different student. y the test results in a numerical value of characteristics of the students that yields only a verbal description.

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How will you define standardized tests?

y A standardized test is a test that is administered & scored in a consistent or standard manner.

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. y Standardized tests are those tests that are so designed that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures and interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a predetermined standard manner. y Any test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers is a standardized test. y Standardized test are those which allow a fair method in assessing all those who are appearing in the evaluation process. 2min HISTORY The earliest history of standardized testing was in china, where the imperial examinations covered the six arts which included music, archery and horsemanship, arithmetic writing and knowledge of the rituals and ceremonies of both public and private part. Later, the studies (military

To recall the history of standardiz ed tests.

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From where standardized tests started?

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strategies, civil laws, revenues and taxation, agriculture and geography) were added to the testing. In this forum the examinations were institutionalized during the sixth century CE, under the Sui Dynasty. United States The use of standardized testing in the United States is a 20th century phenomenon with its origins in World War I and the Army Alpha and Beta tests developed by Robert Yerkes and colleagues. More recently it has been driven in part by the ease of computergrading of standardized tests, and the comparative difficulty of grading essays by computer. In the United States, the need for the Federal government to make meaningful comparisons across a highly decentralized (locally controlled) public education system has also contributed to the debate about standardized testing, including the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 that required standardized testing in public schools. US Public Law 107-110, known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 further ties public school funding to standardized testing.

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To 5min CHARACTERISTICS Constructed by test experts or specialists. enumerate . Covers broad or wide areas of objectives & the content. characteris Selection of items will be done very carefully tics of and the validity, reliability, usefulness of the test standardiz is ascertained in a systematic way. ed tests. Procedure of administration is standardized. Test has clear directions & it will be motivating, encouraging students. Before finalization, test is tried out and administered on a number of subjects for the expressed purpose of refining its items. Scoring key is provided. Test manual provides norms for the test Standardized Tests Scores The aim of standardized tests is to achieve maximum objectivity while evaluating the answer sheets. Therefore the authorities taking the standardized tests make the rules and regulations of evaluating procedures known to all interested candidates. The scoring procedure of norm referenced tests and criterion tests are very different. While the norm referenced tests measure the score by comparing the score to a sample of peers, criterion referenced tests measure scores on the basis of some specific criterions.

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What are the characteristi c of standardized test?

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To score the standardiz ed tests.

How the tests are scored?

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To describe 2min Importance of Standardized Tests the importance More and more people are taking the international of standardized tests as a good score in some of the standardiz important standardized tests like GRE, GMAT, ed tests. TOEFL can help the students to get themselves enrolled in the educational institutions of their choice. Many institutes, in fact, regard the standardized test scores as reflective of the intelligence quotient needed for the particular courses they are offering. .

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What is the importance of standardized tests?

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To enlist the essentials of standardiz ed test.

5min Goodwin and Driscoll (1980, pp. 59-60) note that standardized tests have the following qualities:
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They provide a "systematic procedure for describing behaviors, whether in terms of numbers or categories." They include specified procedures for administration and scoring. The test items are derived from experience, either by experiment or observation, rather than theory. They have an established format and set of materials. They present the same tasks and require the same response modes from all test takers. They provide tables of norms (see standards for technical qualities) to which the scores of test takers can be compared in order to ascertain their relative standing.

What are the essentials of standardized tests?

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To 10mi ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF STANDARDIZED understand n The essential elements that are the required for a test to be standardized are:essential Validity:elements The accuracy with which a test measures of whatever it is supposed to measure. The accuracy standardiz with which a test reliability measures what is ed tests. relevant.eg.- a test may be valid for specific purpose but not for general. The validity of a test must determinate with reference to the particular use for which the test is being conduct. Reliability:The degree of accuracy, consistency with which an exam, test measures, what it seeks to measures a given variable. A test score is called reliable when we have reasons for believing it to be stable and trustworthy. Objectivity:A test is objective, when the personal judgment does not affect the scoring. It estimates fixed opinion or judgment of the person who scores it. Practicability:The overall simplicity of use of a test for both constructor and for learner. It is an important criterion used for assessing the value of a test. Practicability depends upon various factors like ease of administrability,

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Explain any 5 essential elements of standardized tests.

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scoring, interpretation & economy. This includes the case of administering the test with little possibilities for error in giving directions, timing, ease and economy of scoring without sacrificing accuracy and the ease of interpretation. Relevance:The degree to which the criteria established for selecting the item so that they conform to the aims of the measuring instrument. Equilibrium / equity:Achievement of the correct proportion among questions allocated to each of the objectives and teaching content. Specificity:The items in a test should be specific to the objectives. Discrimination:The basic function of all educational measurements is to place individuals in a defined scale. This suggests that pupils with superior ability should answer the item correctly more often than pupils who do not have such ability.

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Efficiency:It ensures the greater possible number of independent answer per unit of time. Time:The required time to answer items should be provided to avoid hurry, guessing taking risk or chances etc. Length:The number of items in the test should depend upon the objectives and content of the topic. Test usefulness:Grading or ranking of the student can be possible with items in the test. Precise and clear:Items should be precise, clear so that students can answer well and score marks. Comprehensiveness:The total content and objectives has to be kept in mind while preparing items for the test. Adequacy:A measuring instrument should be adequate ie; balance and fair. The test should include items measuring both the objectives and the content. A blue print will be very useful.

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Ease of administrability:Provision should be made for the preparation, distribution, collection of test material. Instructions should be simple, clear & concise. Practice exercise will be illustrated. Ease of scoring:Simple scoring is good. No algebraic manipulations should be required to get the scores. Ease of interpretation:The raw scores of a test should be easily converted into meaningful derived scores. Economy:It should be computed in terms of the validity of the test per unit of cost. Economy refers to the cost as well as the time required for administering and scoring a test. Comparability:A test possesses comparability when scores resulting from its use can be interpreted in terms of a common base that has a natural or accepted meaning. Utility:It serves a definite need in the situation in which it is used.

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To explain 5min ADVANTAGES OF STANDARDIZED TESTS Standardized tests can be very useful for many the reasons. They are. advantages k The results of standardized test can be of empirically documented. standardiz k The results have a relative degree of validity & ed tests. reliability. k The result can be generalizable & replicable. k Standardized tests are useful for admission purposes in higher education, where a school is trying to compare students fromacross the nation or across the world. k A well designed standardized test provides an assessment of an individuals mastery of a domain of knowledge or skill which at some level of aggregation will provide useful information. k Standardized tests are more fair as it gives all test takers the same test under the same(or reasonably equal) conditions. k Thousands of test takers can participate in the test at once. k Scoring can be done quickly using machines.

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What are the advantages of standardized tests?

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To point out the disadvanta ges of standardiz ed test.

5min DISADVANTAGES OF STANDARDIZED TEST. k Standardized test cant measure initiative, creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, curiosity effort, irony, judgment, commitment, commitment, nuance, goodwill, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable disposition and attributes. k They can measure isolated skills, specific facts & functions, content knowledge, the least interesting & least significant aspects of learning. k Overuse & misuse of these tests is having serious negative consequences on teaching & learning. k When the standardized tests are the primary factors in accountability then what is not taught, and how the subject is tested become a model for how to teach the subject. k While it is possible to use a standardized test & not limit curriculum & instruction. This can result in a school putting itself at risk of low productivity, lower test scores with negative political consequences. k to apply knowledge in a stressful situation.

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What are the disadvantage s of standardized tests?

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k Schools are pressurized to bring good score because low test scores means school is labeled in need improvement. k If the test is only method of accountability then parents & the community are less likely to know how well children are learning in untested areas. k Same children do not do well on standardized tests, despite mastery of the material due to testing anxiety or lack of time management or test taking skills. Some says that tests cannot directly measure student knowledge, only the ability of students 10 To classify standardiz ed tests. 5min The Three Basic Kinds of Standardized Tests
Kind of Test Achieveme nt Tests Purpose To assess how much students have learned from what they have specifically been taught. Reliability
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Special Considerations
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Reliability coefficients are often .90 or higher; they are typically higher for secondary students than for elementary students. Coeffici ents may be somewhat lower for subtest scores. Content validity must be

These tests are usually more appropriate for measuring broad areas of achievement than specific knowledge or skills. Useful when comparing the performance of two groups of students. Allows us to follow a

What is the purpose of achievement test?

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determined for each situation. student's progress over time and can alert us to "potential trouble spots".
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Scholastic Aptitude Tests

To assess students general capability to learn; to predict their general academic success over the short run Often called intelligence tests.

Reliability coefficients are often .90 or higher; they are typically higher for secondary students than for elementary students. Predictive validity for academic success ranges from .40 to .70, depending on the situation and student population.

Test scores should not be construed as an indication of learning potential over the long run. Individually administered tests (in which the tester works one-onone with a particular student) are preferable when students verbal skills are limited or when significant exceptionality is suspected. Typically assess how much a student has learned from their everyday lives and experiences.

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To predict how well students are likely to perform in a specific content domain.
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Specific Aptitude Tests

Reliability coefficients are often .90 or higher. Predictive validity for academic success often falls below .50.

Test scores should not be construed as an indication of learning potential over the long run

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To conclude the topic.

2min Conclusion:These are those tests which is given in the same manner to all test takers . these are perceived to as being more fair than non-standardized tests.the consistency also permits more reliable comparison of outcomes across all test takers. 2min Summary: We have discussed the definition, history characteristics, importance of standardized tests qualities ,essential elements of standardized tests, advantages, disadvantages & kinds of standardized tests. Assignment:Construct a 10 item standardized test to assess the interest of a person in nursing profession.

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Topic summarize s.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
SHARMA R.A [2009] TECHNOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION [1ST EDITION] MEERUT: R.LALL BOOK DEPOT. NEERJA K.P [22003] TEXTBOK OF NURSING EDUCATION [1ST EDITION] NEW DELHI: JAYPEE BROTHERS MEDICAL PUBLISHERS (P) LTD. WWW.GOOGLE.COM