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Introduction

Introduction Scope Using the Finite Element Method A Simple Problem

**2. Overview of the Nastran Input & Output Files
**

Case Control Section Bulk Data Section

**3. Grid Points, Scalar Points, and Coordinate Systems
**

Introduction to Degrees of Freedom Grid Points Coordinate Systems User-Defined Coordinate Systems CORD1R and CORD2R CORD1C and CORD2C CORD1S and CORD2S

**4. Introduction to Nastran Elements
**

Scalar Elements One-Dimensional Elements Two-Dimensional Elements Three-Dimensional Elements

5. One, Two, & Three - Dimensional Elements

**5.1 One – Dimensional Elements
**

The CROD Element The CBAR Element The CBEAM Element

**5.2 Two – Dimensional Elements
**

The CQUAD4 Element The CTRIA3 Element

**5.3 Three – Dimensional Elements
**

The CTETRA Element – (Scope of Training) The CHEXA Element – (Not in Scope) The CPENTA Element – (Not in Scope)

6. Material Properties

Introduction to Material Properties Isotropic Material (MAT1)

7. Constraints

Introduction to Constraints Single-Point Constraints (SPC, SPC1) – Scope of Training Enforced Displacements at Grid Points (SPCD, SPC) – (Not in scope)

**8. Introduction to Static Loads
**

Loads on Grid Points and Scalar Points Distributed Loads on Line Elements PLOAD1

**9. R-Type Constraint Elements
**

The RBE2 and RBE3 Elements

10. Diagnostic Tools

Weight Checks (PARAM, GRDPNT, WEIGHTCHECK) Mechanisms and Singularities Applied Loads Check Reaction Load

Exercise 1 – SOL 101 (Linear Static Analysis) Exercise 2 – SOL 105 (Buckling Analysis) Exercise 3 – SOL 103 (Normal Mode Analysis) Exercise 4 – One Dimensional Exercise 5 – Two Dimensional Exercise 6 – Three Dimensional Exercise 7 – Assembly with connection

. it is common to find individuals who spend the majority of their time performing dynamic analysis. Likewise. However. When performing static analysis using the finite element method. . Performing structural analysis using the finite element analysis is no exception. Think of these elements as building blocks from which you can construct a model of the actual structure. The tube has an outer diameter of 20 mm and a wall thickness of 0. Rather. Traditionally. the applied loads. it is useful to examine how you might use the finite element method to solve an engineering problem. The loading consists of a transverse force of 1000 N acting on a ring 10 mm in width located in the centre of the tube. The better your understanding of the structure. It is not unusual to find individuals who spend the majority of their time performing static finite element analysis and little or no time performing dynamic analysis. yet cost-effective model.1. the purpose of this discussion is giving you some insight into how and why you would use the finite element method. the stiffness of the whole structure is approximated. i. The loads on the structure are represented as forces acting on the elements or on the boundary of the elements. the size and number of elements. structural analysis applications are divided into two areasstatic and dynamic analyses. you must apply your engineering knowledge to the structure being analysed. One of the most common applications of the method is to solve structural analysis problems. you should find the material in this guide worthwhile regardless of your specialty area. Next you must decide how much detail to put in your model. and the Nastran solution process. To use the finite element method effectively. More detail in the model results in a more accurate solution but it costs more in terms of computer resources. Using the Finite Element Method Before discussing the specifics of the finite element method using Nastran.e. The tube is attached at both ends to a thick bracket which is fixed rigidly to the wall. the more effective you will be in finding solutions to your problems. This guide deals exclusively with static analysis. Both the tube and the bracket are made of aluminium.5 mm. Using the properties of these individual building blocks (the elements). the structure is represented as a collection of discrete elements. The discussion in this section is quite general and is not meant to show you the specifics of generating and running a finite element computer model. The goal is to create an accurate. Suppose you have to design a circular tube as shown in Figure 1-1 and you are considering using Nastran. The finite element method is used in a wide variety of disciplines and engineering applications.

In the example. you expect the displacement and stress distribution to be similar to that of a classical fixed-fixed beam with a centre load. The answer to these questions dictates how much detail is needed in your model. A good first step in any analysis is to estimate the output quantities that you are trying to determine. The load for this structure consists of a force applied to the stiff ring at the centre. Once you have an estimate. Another concern may be that of the tube buckling. However. and what failure criteria should be used? 4. you cannot look in a handbook for a formula. If yielding is of concern. or yielding may be a secondary concern and your main concern may be deflection. Having a good estimate. What is our design criterion? You may be concerned that the applied load causes local yielding of the material. 3. ask the following questions: 1. you can always make some simplifying assumptions and obtain a crude estimate. assume that the primary design criteria are to have an adequate margin of safety and a critical buckling load that is at least three times the applied load. Assuming that the tube behaves as a classical beam. Is the structure displacement considered small? If the displacement is not small compared to the dimensions of the tube.Before starting a computer model. is it necessary to perform a nonlinear analysis? Planning ahead as to what additional analyses may be necessary can reduce the time necessary to convert the input file to a nonlinear analysis if needed. the output quantities are the stresses and displacements of the tube. 2. For many engineering problems. . From the geometry of the tube. simplifies the model checkout Figure 1-2. you can identify modelling errors quickly. where are the higher stresses expected to occur. Furthermore. then the stresses and displacements can be found using standard engineering formulas. 5. What are the load paths for this structure? Knowing the load path for the structure provides insight regarding what part of the structure needs to be modelled in detail. what independent checks can be made to ensure that the answers are reasonable? Returning to the tube structure. knowing how the loads are transmitted to the structure helps you to understand and verify the results. How can the results of the finite element analysis be verified? In other words. The stiff ring prevents the tube from crushing locally where the force is applied.

If the structure cannot be modelled using beam theory. The deflection of the tube is slightly larger for the finite element model because shear flexibility is included in the finite element model. To represent the stiff ring at the centre. and a torsional constant. As can be seen. The properties represent the physical properties of the tube and must be entered for each element.34 mm. Associated with each of the CBAR elements is a property entry with the following properties: the cross-sectional area. Each of the short sections is represented as a single CBAR element.To model the structure with CBAR elements. The results of the one-dimensional CBAR model are similar to those generated with the hand calculation-the maximum stress is 429 and the centre deflection is 2. The CBAR elements are connected to their neighbour elements at points known as grid points. the maximum stress will be the same. Having reviewed the results of the CBAR model. and the properties of the elements in this section are chosen to represent a very stiff section. suppose you think that the thin tube may bend such that the beam theory is no longer a valid assumption. the tube . a more detailed model is required such as the one shown in Figure 1-3. the CBAR element at the centre is given the same length as the ring width. The material properties--consisting of the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio--are entered on a material entry. If less elements are used. divide the tube into several short sections along the length of the tube. The physical locations of the grid points determine the length of each of the CBAR elements. but the deformed shape will not be as smooth (this is true only for simple 1-D elements). two area moments of inertia. Twenty-five elements are chosen primarily for plotting purposes.

Typically. To keep the equations to a reasonable size. Figure 1-5 shows the basic steps that Nastran follows when solving a linear statics analysis.g. the finite method is discussed from the opposite point of view. These components of motion . . however. and directions). the X.Refer: X drive\CECIPL/Tube/ Tube. In this section. it will only add complexity in the relationships between the physical structure and the equations. a simple two-element model is used. As shown in the figure. Y. an examination of the steps performed by Nastran to solve a linear statics problem. a sample engineering problem was presented that showed how a Nastran model can fit an engineering project. . remembering that both the location of the grid points and the number of grid points determine the size and number of elements in your model. namely. you develop a model of your structure by dividing your structure into small but discrete elements.. Z. Associated with each of the grid points in the model are six components of motion-namely. Apply Load and Constrains solve in Nastran check the results with analytical method. Each element is connected to its neighbouring elements at the grid points (commonly referred to as “nodes” in many textbooks). there was no discussion of the internal processing. A larger model will not help in understanding the method. you lay out the pattern of grid points first and connect the grid points by the elements. Figure 1-4 Modeled using ANSA Preprocessor tool Same Exercise Try by yourself with CQUAD4 with the Help of ANSA Trainer !!! A Simple Problem In the last section.dat root directory for the 1D model using ANSA Figure 1-4 –. the translations and rotations in the three perpendicular directions (e.

These different load types may be combined to form a single load vector. The terms in the element stiffness matrix are based on user input such as the material type. All of the element stiffness matrices are assembled into a single matrix called the “global stiffness matrix. Actually. All of the loads that you apply to the model are combined to form the load vector. and the element geometry. These applied loads can be in the form of point forces and moments applied directly to the grid points. are computed using those displacements on an elementby-element basis. surface loads applied to two. any desired outputs. commonly referred to as the “element stiffness matrix. The stiffness of each element is represented internally in matrix form. a process based on the Gauss elimination method is used. the element properties. which is the same as saying that the loads are applied simultaneously. After the constrained stiffness matrix and the load vector are generated. the process of inverting a matrix is too time consuming. the static equilibrium matrix equation given by Equation (1-1) is solved as follows: The unknowns in Equation (1-1) are the displacements at the grid points in the model. strains. a singular matrix. therefore. If the specified boundary conditions do not adequately constrain the model in all directions. The physical meaning of a singular stiffness matrix is that the whole structure or part of the structure can displace as a free body without producing any internal forces in the members. Once the displacements at the grid points are known. or plotted. . Once the boundary conditions are applied to the model appropriately. The element geometry is determined by the location of the grid points to which the element is connected. line loads applied along the length of one-dimensional elements. or body loads such as gravity. therefore. and stresses. In static analysis. adequate boundary conditions must be applied to the model in order to prevent any rigid body motion of your structure.and three-dimensional elements. Determining the displacements involves the equivalent of inverting the stiffness matrix and multiplying it by the force vector. the structure’s stiffness matrix remains singular and the run terminates with an error message.” The size of the element stiffness matrix is dependent on the element type. You also have the option of applying multiple load vectors within a single run. You can control what type of output is generated and whether the output is printed.” This global stiffness matrix represents the total structural stiffness before the boundary conditions are considered.are referred to as “degrees of freedom. in general. Connected between the grid points are the elements. the global stiffness matrix is reduced to a non-singular stiffness matrix representing the constrained structure.” The collection of all of the degrees of freedom in your model makes up the global displacement set. punched to a file. The resulting displacements are the same--the solution process is just faster. such as element forces. the global stiffness matrix is.

The structure consists of two circular columns of equal length but different diameters. The lower member is fixed and a 10000 pound load is applied at the top so that both members are placed in compression.Figure 1-5 – Process Flow Nastran approach FEA Solution To help understand the procedure described. The goal is to determine the displacement at the ends of each member and the stresses within the members. consider the simple two-element structure shown in Figure 1-6. Figure 1-6 Two-Member Structure under Axial Load .

the element matrices are larger without providing any additional insight. one-dimensional elements with two degrees of freedom are sufficient. the element stiffness matrices are given by 3. Using the CBAR element for this example is acceptable. The two elemental stiffness matrices are assembled together by simply combining the matrices at the appropriate degrees of freedom associated with the rows and columns in the matrices as shown in Equation (1-4).Following the procedure shown in Figure 1-5: 1. For this example. . The element stiffness matrix for our one-dimensional element is given by Equation (1-2). The simple element used in this example is similar to the Nastran CROD element described in the next chapter but without the torsional stiffness. Using the cross-sectional area . and material. Represent the structure as three grid points connected by two discrete elements. geometry. Figure 1-7 Exploded View of the Finite Element Model 2. Assemble the two stiffness matrices into a global stiffness matrix. The first task involves assigning identification numbers to the elements (element IDs) and to the grid points (grid point IDs) as shown in Figure 1-7. and the length for each element in Equation (1-2). however. Young’s modulus . This structure can be effectively modelled using two simple one-dimensional elements. Formulate the element stiffness matrices from the element properties.

Apply the fixed boundary condition by constraining grid point 1. 5.4. The resulting matrix equation and solution is given by Equation (1-7). Apply the fixed boundary condition to grid point 1. . 6. which is attached to ground. Partitioning the matrix is achieved by removing rows and columns from one matrix to create a smaller matrix. Solve the matrix equation. The constrained degree of freedom (grid point 1) is partitioned out of the load vector in the same manner that it is partitioned out of the global stiffness matrix as shown in Equation (1-6). This constraint is accomplished by partitioning row 1 and column 1 out of the assembled global stiffness matrix as shown in Equation (1-5). Apply the 10000 pound load to the model. The total load on the structure consists of the 10000 pound acting at grid point 3 as shown in Figure 1-6. Note that the reaction force at grid point 1 is not an applied load and is not included in the loading vector.

respectively.) performed in this example is included to show the internal processing in Nastran. Combining the Displacement of grid point 1 (which is 0. partitioning. . matrix assembly. Although this is a very simple model.Solving the matrix equation yields the displacement at grid points 2 and 3.. Therefore. The matrix operations (i.dat. the stresses are -5000 psi and -6667 psi for members 1 and 2. Calculate the element forces and stresses from the displacement of the grid points. etc. 7.e. These operations are performed automatically. The axial stresses in the rods are computed using Equation (1-9).0 because it is constrained) to the other grid points yields the complete displacement vector for the entire model as shown in Equation (1-8). it does demonstrate the approach followed by all static solutions. If you want to see the Nastran input for the given problem Refer: X drive\CECIPL\Intro\Intro.

.f06 output file. The SPC = 11 command instructs Nastran to apply the constraints defined by the SPC1 entry with an ID of 11 in the Bulk Data Section. and STRESS = ALL commands. subtitles and labels for documenting the analysis. a title. FORCE = ALL. constraints. Printed displacements for all the grid points and the forces and stresses within each member are requested with the DISPLACEMENT = ALL. By default. these output requests are printed to the .1 Case Control Section Immediately following the CEND statement is the Case Control Section. • Make selections from the Bulk Data Section (e. Overview of the Nastran Output Files Listing 2. subtitle. • Specify output requests.. The LOAD = 10 command instructs Nastran to apply the loading defined by the FORCE entry with an ID of 10 in the Bulk Data Section. loading and boundary conditions).f06 output file. .g.). These labels are printed on each page of the. loads. • Define titles.g. and label are defined. etc. Case Control commands are used to • Define subcases (e. For the truss example.2.

and loads. If any of these required delimiters are not present. the units for the crosssectional area. but the dimensions used for the grid point locations in the input file are entered in inches. torsional stiffness. However. In the truss example. the grid point and element entries are included in the model no matter what the Case Control Section specifies. you can control which load and constraint entries specified in the Bulk Data Section are actually used in a given analysis. In this example. The start of the Bulk Data Section is denoted by the BEGIN BULK delimiter (Figure 2. elements. constraints. the origin is located at grid point 1. The last entry in Bulk Data Section must be an ENDDATA delimiter. load and constraint entries are selected in the Case Control Section. to provide flexibility to the user. The locations of the grid points for this example are given in what is known as the basic coordinate system. a fatal error message results when the job is submitted. . which is the default coordinate system in Nastran. the load and constraint entries in the Bulk Data Section are included in the analysis only if they are specified in the Case Control Section. but these entries are not used in the analysis and hence do not affect the results.2). Most of the entries in the Bulk Data Section do not need to be selected by a Case Control command in order to be included in the model. The truss model consists of four grid points that represent the joints of the structure. Bulk Data Section The Bulk Data Section is used to define the analysis via the grid points. and Young’s modulus are also entered in inches. For consistency. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the units for all of the input are consistent. Having loads and constraint entries in the Bulk Data Section that are not specified in the Case Control Section is allowed. You should note that the dimensions given for the truss structure in Listing 2-1 are given in feet. The ENDDATA delimiter also signifies the end of the Nastran input file. In other words. This way.The end of the Case Control Section is denoted by the BEGIN BULK delimiter.

are included in the analysis because they were called out in the Case Control Section by their ID number. The PROD entry specifies a material ID of 22 (field 3).dat Set of Execution Statements in the control cards area. 3. it is sufficient to say that an isotropic material requires only two constants to fully describe the material. The SPC1 entry specifies that all six degrees of freedom are constrained at grid points 1 and 2. 4. the cross-sectional area of 4. The MAT1 entry is defined formally in. . you are encouraged to copy the truss model “truss1.This notation also makes it convenient when trying to find a description of a particular element in the since they are all ordered alphabetically under the C’s.27 in4.dat” into your working directory and submit it as a Nastran job.3. The IDs of the CROD elements in the truss example are 1. The material ID of 22 refers to a MAT1 entry. 2. but for now. The FORCE entry in this example specifies a point load of 1000 pounds acting at grid point 4 in the -Y direction. The MAT1 entry defines an isotropic material. All material entries start with “M”. The FORCE and SPC entries. as mentioned previously. In this case the material property is described as having a Young’s modulus of 30 x 106psi and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. which is the property definition of the CROD elements. If you have not performed an Nastran run before. and 5. Each of the CROD entries refers to the PROD entry 21 (Field 3). All elements in the input file must have a unique ID with respect to all the other elements. and the torsional stiffness coefficient of 1. All property entries begin with “P”.0in2. Refer: X drive\CECIPL\Truss\Truss1.

Output files which are generated in Nastran after solving. . you will find the any of above files in that location!!! If you have any Clarification or Doubts request CECIPL Trainer. Check the output directory of Truss1.dat after completed the calculation.

Referring to Figure 3-1. The unknowns in the matrix equation are the displacements in the model. Scalar Points. Grid Points. the displacements at the grid points and the scalar points are referred to as the degrees of freedom of the model. CBEAM warping. In general. A vector taken from G1 to G2 defines the Zaxis. multipoint constraints (MPCs). you are creating a mathematical model which representing your structure in matrix form. together with this Z-axis.3. it is simply an additional degree of freedom that you can define in your model. Grid Points The Bulk Data entry GRID is used to identify a grid point. specify the location of the grid point in space with respect to a reference coordinate system. Finally. G2. assign permanent constraints. The format of the grid point entry is as follows: CORD1R and CORD2R Defining a rectangular coordinate with the Bulk Data entry CORD1R Requires three reference grid points: G1. Section is devoted to the several types of coordinate systems available in Nastran. This chapter describes only grid points. defines the XZ plane. and other applications. The format of the CORD1R is as follows: . and define the directions of motions at the grid point. However. The X-axis is defined to be in this XZ plane and perpendicular to the Z-axis. and Coordinate Systems Introduction to Degrees of Freedom When you create a finite element model of a structure. Grid point G3. the Y-axis is generated from the X. A scalar point is similar to a grid point in the way that it is assembled into the matrix equation. grid point G1 defines the origin of the coordinate system.and Z-axes using the right hand rule. Scalar points are useful for modelling with scalar elements. a scalar point has no spatial orientation. These displacements consist of the six components for each of the grid points and also one component for each of the scalar points. and G3.

If you want to know regard Cylindrical Coordinate system asks your CECIPL Trainer!!! .

2. masses. Typical applications for the one-dimensional element include truss structures. consist of the springs. . Ø CBAR . are used to represent areas in your model where one of the dimensions is small in comparison to the other two. don’t look for detail understanding. CELAS3. CMASS4 . also referred to as zero-dimensional elements. CMASS3. and viscous dampers. The scalar dampers are not used in static analysis. CBUSH . however. CELAS2. There are more 1D elements are available other than CROD.Scalar Spring Elements • CMASS1. Ø CBEAM . Introduction to Nastran Elements Scalar Elements Scalar elements. CMASS2. stiffeners. A list of the one-dimensional elements discussed in this chapter includes Ø CROD .Scalar Mass Elements Just to get the Idea of what are scalar Elements available in Nastran. CBAR.A straight prismatic element with axial. they are useful when you need to model a concentrated mass in one direction. and torsional stiffness. beams. A truss example was used to introduce Nastran because the CROD element is the simplest of all the structural elements. and many others. As shown in Figure 4-1. commonly referred to as plate and shell elements. For static analysis. bending. the thickness is substantially less than dimensions a or b. it will divert you to different direction!!! One-Dimensional Elements 1. the scalar spring is the most commonly used scalar element. A one-dimensional element is one in which the properties of the element are defined along a line or curve. & CBEAM These three elements are sufficient for the basic structural analysis!!! Two-Dimensional Elements Two-dimensional elements. such as variable cross-section. The scalar mass elements are used less frequently. All of the scalar elements are defined between two degrees of freedom in your model or between one degree of freedom and ground. shear centre offset from the neutral axis and others. 3.An element with axial stiffness and torsional stiffness about the axis for the element. CELAS4. The scalar elements used in static analysis consist of the following: • CELAS1.4 & 5.An element similar to the CBAR but with additional properties.

Typical engineering applications of solid elements include engine blocks. you need to use one or more of the three-dimensional elements. CPENTA. . This family of elements are the most commonly used 2-D elements in the Nastran element library.General-purpose plate elements capable of carrying inplane force. and CTETRA . The threedimensional elements are commonly referred to as solid elements.General-purpose solid elements. and transverse shear force. CTRIA3 . bending forces. There are more 2D elements are available other than CQUAD4 & CTRIA3 These Two elements are sufficient for the basic structural analysis!!! Refer: X drive\CECIPL\Bracket_2D\bracket. and gears. This family of elements is recommended for most solid model applications.dat Three-Dimensional Elements Whenever you need to model a structure that does not behave as a bar or plate structure under the applied loads.CQUAD4. brackets. CHEXA.

dat . try to solve within 1D & 2D!!! Refer: X drive\CECIPL\\Blade_3D\blade.Never approach the problem by using 3D element other than special case.

and . Therefore. The GE is a material damping that has no significance for static analysis. Material Properties Introduction to Material Properties Nastran supports isotropic. and are used to develop a material matrix for the element. All of the examples up to this point have involved isotropic material properties only. G. and G is the shear modulus for torsion and transverse shear if it is present in the element. G. The format of the Bulk Data entry MAT1. they are useful for model checkout with any loading condition (of course. The material definitions discussed in this chapter include: Isotropic materials (MAT1 entry) -. but remember.An isotropic material property is defined as a material having the same properties in each direction. Furthermore. Isotropic Material (MAT1) The isotropic material. defined by the MAT1 entry. The mass properties are only required in static analysis when a gravity loading or rotating force is used. orthotropic and anisotropic materials. The MAT1 entry may also be used to define the mass density. You may specify all three of these constants if desired. and stress limits. the third is computed from the following relationship: If you enter all three constants and they do not satisfy this relationship. E. . E is the modulus of elasticity. It is recommended that you only input two of the three constants. is the most commonly used material property. The purpose of this chapter is to describe all of the material property types that are available to you for linear static analysis. When you enter only two constants. they are very important for dynamic analysis). but that may not be your intention. a warning message is printed indicating that the isotropic relationship has been violated. the isotropic material is fully described by only two material constants. For line elements. however. Note that GE shown in field 9 was not described. These two constants may be any combination of E. For plate and solid elements. An isotropic material is defined as a material that has the same material properties in any direction.6. all three constants are used. coefficient of thermal expansion. This material may be used with all Nastran linear elements. it only takes two of the constants to define the material.

Screen Shot Material Card definition in ANSA Window .

1 The SPC and SPC1 Bulk Data entries are recommended if you need to apply different sets of boundary conditions in different subcases. performing a static analysis requires that all rigid body displacements be removed prior to solving the static equilibrium equations.e. SPC1) A Single-Point Constraint (SPC) is a constraint that is applied to a single degree of freedom. the sets can be merged into combined sets by the SPCADD Bulk Data entry. are Not connected to any structural elements or otherwise joined to the structure). When you apply a single-point constraint to remove a singularity. This process involves specifying the appropriate boundary conditions for your model. . shown in Figure 7.1. that permit unrestrained motion at point G in any direction perpendicular to the axis of the rods. Consider the pair of colinear pin-connected rods. which may be either a component of motion at a grid point. which can be specified in the Case Control Section. As a further convenience. To remove degrees of freedom that are not used in the structural analysis (i. To tie a structure to ground. Typically.7. several degrees of freedom (at least six) are constrained to ground using either SPC Bulk Data entries or the PS field of the GRID entry. Figure 7. it is highly recommended). it is not required for the restrained component of motion to be aligned exactly with the singular direction of motion (however. 2. Single-Point Constraints (SPC. Boundary conditions are imposed in the form of constraints on selected degrees of freedom on the model.. The primary applications for single-point constraints are as follows: 1. The constraints specified on the SPC and SPC1 entries belong to sets identified by set identification numbers (SIDs) that must be selected in the Case Control Section to be used. Constraints Introduction to Constraints As discussed in this chapter.

.

Send your request to CECIPL Help Desk for more detail regard PLOAD entry.g. A load is applied to the model only if it is specifically called out in the Case Control Section. d. FORCE2 and MOMENT2 entries -. CQUAD4. Each of the load types discussed may be applied to your structure individually or in any combination. . regard STATIC LOAD. If.Concentrated forces and moments.Concentrated forces and moments. which are applied directly to a grid point. FORCE1. There are no error or warning messages indicating that there is no load being applied.A distributed load applied to a line element (e. FORCE and MOMENT entries -.Defines a pressure load applied to a surface in terms of three or four grid points (Not in Scope). CBEAM). CBAR.Defines a pressure load applied to a two-dimensional element (e. Loads on Grid Point Concentrated forces can be applied directly to the grid points with the FORCE. f. FORCE1 and MOMENT1 entries -. g. The Bulk Data entry FORCE allows you to specify the magnitude and direction of a force vector in any coordinate system as shown below. and FORCE2 entries. which are applied directly to a grid point.. For reasons discussed earlier. e. The direction of the load is defined by a line joining two grid points. PLOAD entry -. The direction of the load is determined by a cross product of two vectors that are defined using four grid points. a. however. An indication of this problem is when all of the displacements and stresses come out to be zero. The FORCE entry is the most commonly used entry and is the one used in most of the examples up to this point.. PLOAD1 entry -. PLOAD2 entry -. CTRIA3) (Not in Scope). PLOAD4 entry -. which are applied directly to a grid point. Mandatory to read below paragraph completely. Introduction to Static Loads This chapter describes the static loads available when performing a linear static analysis. b. the problem will be solved with zero loads applied.8.g.General-purpose pressure and/or traction loads applied to a two-dimensional element or the surface of a solid element (Not in Scope). c. Forgetting to specify a load request in the Case Control Section can be a common mistake many new users make. The direction and magnitude is defined by entering the components of a vector. Having a load entry in the Bulk Data Section does not mean that the load will necessarily be applied to the structure. this provides you with greater versatility. you forget to request any load in the Case Control Section.Concentrated forces and moments.

“FY” or “FZ”: Force in the x-. . The PLOAD1 entry can be used for both concentrated and linearly distributed forces. times the magnitude of the vector defined in fields 6 through 8. or z-direction of the basic coordinate system. or z-direction of the basic coordinate system. Distributed Loads on Line Elements PLOAD1 To apply a distributed load to a CBAR. or CBEND element. 2. the linearly distributed loads are restricted to linearly varying forces and moments between the end points. SID Load set identification number. CBEAM. For example. entered in field 5. y-. TYPE Load type.The magnitude of the applied force is the scale factor. 5. “FX”. EID CBAR. “MY” or “MZ”: Moment in the x-. The format of the Bulk Data entry PLOAD1 is as follows: 1. 4. and CBEAM element identification number. y-. you use the PLOAD1 entry. “MX”. the force applied with the following two FORCE entries is the same. the linearly distributed force may be applied between any two locations on the element (or off the element if you wish.) For the CBEND element. For the CBAR and CBEAM elements. 3.

1 The type of load which is entered in field 4 may define either a concentrated force or moment in the basic or element coordinate system. and. or z-direction of the element’s coordinate system. “FR” (fractional). 12. then Pi values are the load intensities per unit length of the element. Using the “LE” or “LEPR” methods. y-. the xi values are the ratios of the distance along the axis to the total length. “MYE” or “MZE”: Moment in the x-. SCALE Determines scale factor for X1. the load will be taken as a linearly varying load between X1 and X2. If both X1 and X2 are input. 10. Figure 8. If the applied load is to be a concentrated load. the xi values are the actual distances along the element axis. if . respectively. 11. P2 Load factors at position X1 and X2. “LEPR” (length projected). CBEAM. or CBEND element axis from end A. you specify the actual start and end positions of the load as measured from end A of the element. X2 Distances along the CBAR. “MXE”. There are two ways to define the location of the load on the CBAR and CBEAM elements using field 5 of the PLOAD1 entry. the xi values are the actual distances along the element axis. “LE” (length). X2. 7. “FXE”. and (if )the distributed load is input in terms of the projected length of the element. leave fields 8 and 9 blank and the concentrated load will be applied at the X1 location. or z-direction of the element’s coordinate system. When using . y-.6. 9. X1. P1. and (if ) Pi values are the load intensities per unit length of the element. 8. “FYE” or “FZE”: Force in the x-. 13.

For the projected loads.1.0 defines end B. as shown in Figure 8. you also have the option of specifying whether the applied load is to be a direct load (scale “LE” and “FR”) or a projected load (scale “LEPR” or “FRPR”). not the element coordinate system (Figure 8.2 Refer: X Drive:\CECIPL\Distrib\distrib. “FZ”.2.3.this method. For both methods of describing the location of the loads. or “MZ”). in which case you specify the percent (using “X/XB”) along the element where the load starts and ends. The effect of using projection is illustrated later with an example.dat Figure 8. “FY”. Figure 8.3 Refer: X Drive:\CECIPL\Snow\Snowload. are in the same units as the dimensions used for the model.2).0 defines end A.dat . The second way to define the location of the load is using “FR” or “FRPR”. while a value of 1. then the projected angle is with respect to the basic coordinate system. “MX”. The first example demonstrating the use of the PLOAD1 entry consists of applying a direct linearly varying load to the three-bar structure shown in Figure 8. the distances X1 and X2. distributed loads are entered in terms of the projected length of the element as shown in Figure 8. Again. the start of the load is measured from end A. It is important to remember that if the loads are being input in terms of the basic coordinate system (“FX”. “MY”. A value of 0.

The simplest way to describe this is to say that the motion of a dependent degree of freedom is expressed as a linear combination of one or more of the independent degrees of freedom. however. You should note that multiple RBARs or an RBE1 can be used wherever an RBE2 is used.dat . There are many R-Type Elements are available in Nastran Element library. But we are going see only RBE2 and RBE3 for basic structural analysis. Description of the R-Type Elements When using an R-type element. The RBE2 Element The RBE2 provides a very convenient tool for rigidly connecting the same components of several grid points together. The format for the Bulk Data entry RBE2 is as follows: Refer: X Drive:\CECIPL\Torque\torque. it is your responsibility to define which degrees of freedom are dependent and which are independent.9. they may not be as convenient.

Unlike the RBAR and RBE2 discussed in the previous sections.The RBE3 Element The RBE3 element is a powerful tool for distributing applied loads and mass in a model. Forces and moments applied to reference points are distributed to a set of independent degrees of freedom based on the RBE3 geometry and local weight factors.dat . the RBE3 does not add additional stiffness to your structure. The format of the Bulk Data entry RBE3 is as follows: NON Uniform Pressure applied through RBE3 Refer: X Drive:\CECIPL\Pressure\pressure.

Nastran considers two types of singularities: 1. a partition of the stiffness matrix for each of the three translational and three rotational DOFs is solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the principal stiffnesses. Reaction Load Are the reaction loads correct? This is a fundamental equilibrium check. Diagnostic Tools Weight Checks (PARAM. PARAM.x entry.i where “i” is an integer value defining a reference point. Again. The GPWG is activated with the parameter GRDPNT in the Bulk Data or Case Control Sections.GRDPNT. Mechanisms and Singularities When performing the solution to a system of linear equations. Grid point singularity that is identified by considering the stiffness terms of only one grid point. or if it is set to zero. the reference point is the origin of the basic coordinate system. Refer: X Drive:\CECIPL\Reaction\reaction. A mechanism type of singularity that requires the consideration of the stiffness terms of more than one grid point. It consists of seven lines of output per load case. The value of “i” can be any grid point in the model. This operation is known as the SPCFORCE RESULTANT output and this output is obtained if the SPCFORCES output is requested.10.GRDPNT.GRDPNT.GRDPNT. singularities lead to conditions in which a unique solution is not possible. this summation is performed about the origin of the basic coordinate system. there are two checks available in Nastran for this purpose. the grid point singularities are detected.WEIGHTCHECK) Is the weight of my model correct? This question can be answered by activating the Grid Point Weight Generator (GPWG).dat . 2. At each grid point. If PARAM. After matrix assembly. The first one is the summation of the total reaction loads about the reference point specified on the PARAM.x is not specified. Singularities cause ill-conditioned matrices that can be detected in several phases of the Nastran execution.

C0 Mixed Layerwise Quadrilateral Plate Element with Variable in and Out-Of-Plane Kinematics and Fixed D.O.F.

by International Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)

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