UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Mr. Rajvir Singh Jurel (Sr. Faculty)

Project Members:1. ANIL PATEL 2. ANKUR GUPTA 3. ANUJ AGARWAL 4. NIKITA JAIN 5. APARNA VERMA (0706400014) (0706400017) (0706400020) (0706400059) (0706400022)




6. PARAMHANS SINGH (0606400067)


This is certified to be the bonafide work of the students:1. Anil Patel 2. Ankur Gupta 3. Anuj Agarwal 4. Nikita Jain 5. Aparna Verma 6. Paramhans Singh

(0706400014) (0706400017) (0706400020) (0706400059) (0706400022) (0606400067)

In the watershed management project during the academic year 2010-11.

Project Guide Mr. Rajvir Singh Jurel
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Civil Engg. my group have made it possible to enlist the criticism and advice of a number of civil engineers. and field experts for this project. environmental engineers. but also for the insight and perspective that only the real expert can convey. I am particularly indebted for invaluable help with proof reading. Finally. but we trust no one will attribute these to anyone. M. for kind encouragement and sometimes deservedly blunt criticism. It is perhaps inevitable that some errors of fact. I am also grateful to our colleagues and Department of Civil Engineering of our college. and collection of data and reference. To them. AHMAD (HOD. department) who patiently endured the many weekends and evening that were to devoted to research and who gave encouragement when it was needed. or emphasis will be found. Howe ever. RAJVIR SINGH JUREL (project Guide) who taught us whatever I have learned about this project. indexing. We also owe a great deal to MR. checking of problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many may think it foolhardy for a group to attempt to practically. I owe a great deal. interpretation. Faculty) Deptt. Of Civil Engineering. we want to express our deep appreciation to MR. Z. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .(Sr.

2.2 Significance of Watershed 1.2 Based on drainage divides 1. Introduction 1.CONTENT 1.3 What is Watershed management? 2.1.3 Bad Area at glance 4.2.1Based on hydrology 1.1.1 Types of watershed 1.3 Characteristics or parameters of watershed 1.2 What is watershed? 1.3 Based on size of catchment area 1.1 History 1. Objective of Project 3.1. Calculation of Runoff 7. Hydrology and Ground water Potential of project Area 6.2. References Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .2.2 Farah Block at a glance 3.1 Mathura District at a glance 3. Necessity of the Project 5. Project area Detail 3.2.2.

7. Rainfall Pattern in the state 4. Hydrological Cycle 2. Watershed 3. Enclosure LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. 6 8 13 14 16 Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . Satellite view of Project Area 5. Figure Showing Runoff PAGE NO.1 Websites 8.1 Books 7.

The topmost portion of the watershed is known as the “ridge” and a line joining the ridge portions along the boundary of the watershed is called a “ridgeline”.7% of fresh water about 2. All lands on earth are part of one watershed or other. command and delta area of a stream.1. which collects water and drains through a common point by a system of drains. A watershed is thus a logical unit for planning optimal development of its soil. Watershed is considered as a biological. a Command area (Transition Zone) and a Delta area (Discharge Zone).550 Billion hectare meter. economic and social system too. physical. Hence it comprise of a Catchment area (Recharge Zone). Even out of this 2.61% ground water the exploitable ground water up to 800m depth below ground is only 0. out of which only 3750 Billion hectare meter is fresh water.61% is ground water.27%.70 % of the total amount of water. Therefore watershed is the area encompassing the Catchment. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . and only 0. which is estimated as 1. which is 2. In other words watershed is a topographically delineated area draining into a single channel. water and biomass resources. which contributes runoff to a common point. Viewed in another angle watershed is a natural unit of land. Out of this 0. 1.1 History Quantity of water on earth is fixed.03% is contained as polar ice and glaciers. Watershed is thus the land and water area. Introduction Watershed is defined as a geohydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains.38.

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1 Types of watershed: 1.1 What is Watershed? The term watershed is used (especially in North America and Europe) to indicate an area of land from which all water falling as rain or snow would flow toward a single point.2. that is.1. streams and creeks. The boundaries and the area of such a watershed are determined by first specifying geographic point on land.2. The watershed of the Amazon River would include all of the tributaries that flow into it so it would actually contain several hundred smaller watersheds.1. such as rivers. Watershed and drainage basin or catchment are used synonymously and all of them refer to the area of land drained by a river system.1 Based on Hydrology: Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .2. and the underground movement of water. 1. The watershed is thus defined hydrologically. This includes both surface water flow. The watershed area would be the land area within those boundaries. by the specific river or stream. A line is then drawn which connects all of the points of highest elevation immediately adjacent to that point.

2. which empty to the sea and represent the major part of the drainage of all of the continents except Australia.1. • The first is the continental divide.watershed Micro-watershed Mini-watershed 1. and are mainly (but not exclusively) restricted to the arid and semi-arid regions. In these.000 10-100 Classification Watershed Sub-watershed Milli. Oranje and Niger. An example of this situation is shown with the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers 1. • • 1.2.000-10. there are generally three different classifications used to describe them.1. but they do reach the same ocean.000-50.00.2 Based on Drainage Divide: When studying a watershed's drainage divides.Three hydrological types of watershed can be distinguished: • Exorheic watershed.3 Based on Size of Catchment Area: Watershed (ha) 50.000 1. into closed lake basins. which is the region within which no rivers arise (the lower part of the Nile.000-2.2.000 100-1.000 10. Water on each side of these flows into different oceans. For example. Endorheic watershed. are a good examples of this category of basin). which discharge inland. there is a drainage divide between the Yellow River (Huang He) basin and the Yangtze River in China but both have the same outlet. In this situation. • The second is called a major drainage divide. waters on each side of the boundaries do not meet via the same river or stream. Arheic regions. waters separate at the divide but later rejoin. • The final type of drainage divide is called a minor drainage divide. all in Africa.2 Significance of Watershed: Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .

Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . irrigation and industrial activities. e. pear. SHAPE: Different shapes based on morphological parameters like geology and structure. as well as water for recreation. GEOLOGY AND SOILS: Their nature determines size. VEGETATION: Information of species gives a sure ground for selection plants and crops. retained.g. Watersheds are also significant for plants and animals as they provide food and water. hygiene. drained off. PHISIOGRAPHY: Lands altitude and physical disposition.3 Characteristics of Watershed: • • • All characteristics affect the disposal of water. elongated etc. It helps in quantification of water available. shape. SIZE: It helps in computing parameters like precipitation received. wants and wishes are important in managing water. drainage and groundwater conditions. Soils. SLOPE: It controls the rainfall distribution and movement: CLIMATE: It decides the quantitative approach. other researchers and city governments can work to keep them healthy because a small change in one portion of a watershed can drastically affect other parts. It is the watershed that provides drinking water.• • These features are all important when studying watersheds because watersheds themselves are significant to areas worldwide as people depend on water. SOCIOECONOMICS: Statistics on people and their health. 1. DRAINAGE: It determines the flow characteristics and so the erosion behavior. derivative of rocks are the basic to greenery • • • • • • • • • HYDROLOGY: Basic to final goal of growing greenery in a watershed.2. physiographic. HYDROGEOLOGY: Availability of groundwater. By studying the key watershed features in addition to activities along waterways scientists.

The drainage area of the river provides the natural boundary for managing and mitigating human and environmental interactions. poor water quality. Effective watershed management can prevent community water shortages. Related land resources include streams. Surface and groundwater systems have a limited tolerance for stress. Objective of Project: To plan available surface and ground water in such a way so that maximum surface water is utilized in the watershed itself and exploitation of ground water is done in such a way so that there is no appreciable trend of rise and fall of ground water table. Water includes floods and droughts. A watershed is an ecosystem with complex interacting natural components. • It involves management of land. water. industries. energy and greenery integrating all the relevant approaches appropriate to socioeconomic background for a pragmatic development of a watershed. Watershed management is not so much about managing natural resources. and long term problems can develop that are costly and difficult to remediate. Upstream activities influence river flows and water quality downstream. and landowners. The expense of undertaking watershed management is far less than the cost of future remediation.1. but about managing human Activity as it affects these resources. remediation. surface water and groundwater. By understanding the natural functions of a watershed before change Occurs. or improvements can be incorporated into management plans. Because human activity includes actions by Governments. soil. such as a river or lake. water supply and water quality. flooding and erosion.4 What is Watershed Management? A watershed is an area of land that drains into a common water body. groundwater and other natural resources in the watershed. fisheries. watershed management must be a cooperative effort. The premise that “everything is connected to everything else” lies at the heart of watershed management. flora and fauna. forests. A watershed can also be also known as a basin or a catchment. Human activities have a direct influence on the quality and quantity of surface water. By its very nature. Project area Detail: 3. 3. 2. watershed management must be integrated and address both water and the related land resources that affect or are affected by water. • Greening of the watershed through proper management of land water and energy resource. municipalities.1 Mathura District at a glance: Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . wetlands. harmful impacts on the system can be identified so that prevention.

: 911 Ham. 77˚53’ E : 3329. : 155469 Ham. : 21 Ham. 27˚59’N : 77˚15’. : 2677730 Ham. : 137601 Ham. & Govt.40 Sq. : 99041. Km.80 Ham. : 62258.2 Climatology: • • • Average annual rainfall Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature : 620 mm : 45˚C : 1.1.1. : 76.3 Land use: • • Total Forest area Net Sown Area Single Crop Area Total Irrigated Area Canal Irrigation Tube Wells (Pvt.5˚C 3.30 Ham. :3 : 10 • • 3.1.1 General Features: • Location Geographical Area Administrative division Tehsil Block : 27˚ 15’.) Open wells Other Sources : 1479 Ham.81% • • • Ground water Resources: Ground Availability Present Utilization Level of Development Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .3. : 103306 Ham.

2 Farah block at a glance: • • Page Area Population : 272.20 Sq. Km.3. : 99374 W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .

1 Land Use : • Page .• Average annual rainfall : 620 mm 3.37”N. 77˚43’00”E : 7717500 meter2 : 620mm : 45˚C : 2˚C : : W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T • • General Features: Location Geographical Area Climatology : • • • • • : 27˚24’16.3 Bad Area at a glance: 3.1 Average annual rainfall Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature Total Forest Area Net Sown Area Single Crop Area 3.3.

& Govt.1 Depth of Water Table 5.2 Ground water flow Regime : 5.1 • • • 4. Necessity of the Project: 5.• • • Total Irrigated Area Canal Irrigation Tube wells (Pvt.3.98 m **CON M A N A G E M E N T Page SOIL AN RAINWATER W A T E R S H E D .) Open wells Other Sources Ground Water Resources: Ground water Availability Present Utilization Level of Development : : : : : : : : • • 3. Hydrology & Ground water potential of Project Area: 5.60-5.

3 Water Table fluctuation 5. Calculation of Runoff: 6. OR Runoff (RO) is the total amount of water flowing into a stream. DRO = SRO + IF SRO = OF + SOF or DRO = OF+ SOF + IF Surface Runoff (SRO) is the sum of overland flow and saturation excess overland flow. This can be expressed as cm of water over a catchment or total water in cum for given catchment.Evapotranspiration= Runoff (RO) RO = DRO + BF or RO = OF + SOF + IF + BF From here. runoff can be divided into two successively smaller subcategories: Direct Runoff (DRO) is the sum of surface runoff and interflow.5. Precipitation . or the sum of direct runoff and base flow. To determine the amount of annual runoff. subtract the amount of annual evapotranspiration from the annual amount of precipitation. RUN OFF: The runoff of a catchment area in any specified period is the total quantity of water draining into a stream or into a reservoir in that period. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .4 Deeper Aquifers 6.1.

It consists of (a) (b) • Rain intercepted by trees & Plants Depression storage Hygroscopic water (moisture held by capillary water in pore Surface flow Inter flow Surface flow is the portion of water that travels across the ground surface to meet nearest stream. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T .The rainfall is disposed off in following manner(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Basin recharge Direct run off (or run off) Percolation to ground water Evaporation (i) Basin Recharge – (a) (b) (c) Spaces of soil) (ii) Direct run off – The water which reaches the stream just after rain fall.

lakes etc. ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF : The runoff from a catchment can be computed daily.• Interflow is the part of rainfall which infilters the ground and moves laterally through upper crust and reaches the nearest stream. (b) Shape and size of the catchment-fan shaped more run off at a time. Following are the methods of estimation of runoff. monthly or yearly. wind velocity (f) Characteristics of catchment surface – drained/undrained. fern leaf reduced discharge long time. 3. Factors affecting Runoff – The main factors affecting the flow from a catchment area are(a) Precipitation characteristics-intensity duration of rain fall. Types of stream – There are two types of stream. slope. d) Geological characteristics – soil. 2. (b) Effluent stream – which gets water from ground water. (iii) Percolation of ground water (Base flow) The water which percolates deep down ward to meet ground water Table is called base flow. surface smooth or rugged. subsoil permeability. 4. (g) Storage characteristics – Ponds. (a) Influent stream – which recharges the ground water by means of infiltration. natural/cultivated. (e) Meteorological characteristics – Temp. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . (iv) Evaporation – The rain fall which is converted into vapour and go back to atmosphere is called evaporation. (c) Topography.

85 Barlow has also given values of ‘k’ (in percent) for various classified catchments. R = K. farm land.3 Garden apartment – 0.• By Runoff formulae and Table By Infiltration method By unit hydrograph By Rational method ➢ Run off formulae and Tables: • • • Run off coefficient:The runoff and rain fall can be interrelated by runoff coefficient ‘K’ by the expression. Urban .depending on soil – 0.residential Single house – 0.2 4. R – Run off in cm P – Rain fall in cm K – Coefficient or run off There value of ‘k’ depends upon the factors which affect the run off. Parks. Asphalt or concrete pavement – 0. This method should not be used for major storms.05-0. pasture – 0. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . Where. Forest area. The values of ‘k’ are given below – 1.P.3 5.9 3.5 2. Commercial and industrial – 0. Strange’s Tables and curves can be used for run off calculations.05-0. Page W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T . http://www. ‘Fundamentals of Irrigation Engineering’.in 3. wikipedia.B.References: Books: 1. http://www. 2. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd. B. Dr. Nem Chand & Bros. Delhi 3. Roorki Websites: 1. Khanna Publishers. http://www. ‘Irrigation and Water Power Engineering’.ximb. Dr.Lal. Santosh Kumar Garg. Bharat Singh. 2. Pande B. ‘Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures’.up.

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