Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation.

to destroy microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insects that might be present in the food. Further applications include sprout inhibition, delay of ripening, increase of juice yield, and improvement of re-hydration. Irradiated food does not become radioactive, but in some cases there may be subtle chemical changes.

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Irradiation is a more general term of deliberate exposure of materials to radiation to achieve a technical goal (in this context "ionizing radiation" is implied). As such it is also used on nonfood items, such as medical hardware, plastics, tubes for gas pipelines, hoses for floor heating, shrink-foils for food packaging, automobile parts, wires and cables (isolation), tires, and even gemstones. Food irradiation acts by damaging the target organism's DNA beyond its ability to repair. Microorganisms can no longer proliferate and continue their malignant or pathogenic activities. Spoilage-causing microorganisms cannot continue their activities. Insects do not survive, or become incapable of reproduction. Plants cannot continue their natural ripening processes. The energy density per atomic transition of ionizing radiation is very high; it can break apart molecules and induce ionization, which is not achieved by mere heating. This is the reason for both new effects and new concerns. The treatment of solid food by ionizing radiation can provide an effect similar to heat pasteurization of liquids, such as milk. However, the use of the term "cold pasteurization" to describe irradiated foods is controversial, since pasteurization and irradiation are fundamentally different processes.

resulting in disease. which largely depends on the viral species. which causes glandular fever. latent chickenpox infections return in later life as the disease called shingles. which causes chickenpox. . However. The relative ability of viruses to cause disease is described in terms of virulence. AIDS. Other diseases are under investigation as to whether they too have a virus as the causative agent. and varicella zoster virus. to remain in a dormant state within the human body. the breaking open and subsequent death of the cell. This is called latency and is a characteristic of the herpes viruses including Epstein-Barr virus.Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold. such as the possible connection between human herpes virus six (HHV6) and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. as the presence of the virus can increase immunity against bacterial pathogens. such as Yersinia pestis. avian influenza and SARS are caused by viruses. Many serious diseases such as ebola. Viruses have different mechanisms by which they produce disease in an organism. they may exist relatively harmlessly within an organism. Most people have been infected with at least one of these types of herpes virus. influenza. An example would include the ability of the herpes simplex virus. Persistent viruses may even broaden the evolutionary potential of host species. which causes cold sores. In contrast to acute lytic viral infections this persistence implies compatible interactions with the host organism. chickenpox and cold sores. In populations with a high proportion of carriers. if enough cells die the whole organism will start to suffer the effects. the disease is said to be endemic. On the other hand. as they serve as reservoirs of infectious virus. Although viruses cause disruption of healthy homeostasis. previously thought to cause neurological diseases in horses. There is controversy over whether the borna virus. could be responsible for psychiatric illnesses in humans. Mechanisms at the cellular level primarily include cell lysis. People chronically infected are known as carriers. these latent viruses might sometimes be beneficial. Some viruses can cause life-long or chronic infections. In multicellular organisms. This is common in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections. where the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the host's defence mechanisms.

. Symptoms Main symptoms of AIDS.Herpes virus Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Classification and external resources The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS.

chills. viruses. People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma. and weight loss. Tumors and malignancies Kaposi's sarcoma Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several cancers. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria. and human papillomavirus (HPV). weakness.[12] These infections affect nearly every organ system. fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages. sweats (particularly at night). swollen glands. Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus . Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus8 [HHV-8]). There is increased white (opacity) in the lower lungs on both sides. Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS. Additionally.[29][30] Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients.[13][14] The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives. characteristic of PCP The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus. people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers. The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic. cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).X-ray of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).

diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). see Bacteria (disambiguation). it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin. radioactive waste. especially the mouth. For other uses. For the genus. growing in soil. such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. in all. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas. see Bacillus. gastrointestinal tract. as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. In HIV-infected patients. ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma. acidic hot springs. and deep in the Earth's crust. Burkitt's-like lymphoma. there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients. with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms.(KSHV). but can affect other organs. Bacteria Fossil range: Archean or earlier Recent Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli bacilli The bacteria are a large group of single-celled. KS and aggressive B cell lymphomas confer a diagnosis of AIDS. bacteria have a wide range of shapes.forming much of the world's biomass. Bacteria This article is about the microorganisms. These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis. water. Typically a few micrometres in length.[31] When they occur in an HIV-infected patient. lymphoma often arises in extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. and only about half of the phyla of . However. most bacteria have not been characterized. and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients. prokaryote microorganisms. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. and lungs.

However. and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. In industry. as well as in biotechnology. There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes. antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in agriculture. bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes.bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory. bacteria are important in sewage treatment. with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year. the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation. syphilis. with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora. bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. and a few are beneficial. mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology. a branch of microbiology. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea Hand washing Hand cleaning station at the entrance of the Toronto General Hospital Food safety . including cholera. Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes.[6] In developed countries. so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases. the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections. anthrax. leprosy and bubonic plague.The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes.

for the purpose of removing soil.and airborne diseases. dirt. such as measles. or with the use of soap. if they don't wash their hands before touching their eyes. nose or mouth. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. handwashing protects people poorly or not at all from droplet. influenza. Medical hand hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease. but it is also an important practice for the general public. It protects best against diseases transmitted . coli Hepatitis A Norovirus Parasitic infections Blastocystis Cryptosporidiosis Trichinosis Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleansing the hands with or without the use of water or another liquid. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field. chickenpox. Indeed. People can become infected with respiratory illnesses such as influenza or the common cold. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated: "It is well-documented that one of the most important measures for preventing the spread of pathogens is effective hand washing.Terms Foodborne illness HACCP Critical control point Critical factors FAT TOM pH Water activity (Wa) Pathogens Clostridium botulinum E. and/or microorganisms. for example. and tuberculosis." As a general rule.

the use of alcohol gels is an effective form of killing some kinds of pathogens.through fecal-oral routes (such as many forms of stomach flu) and direct physical contact (such as impetigo). BsnII MICRO-PARA . Salavaria. In addition to hand washing with soap and water. Marlo C.

protozoa. while pathogens of the digestive tract tend to occur in food or water. The viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever. For example. direct and indirect. and infection of the new host. bacteria. Neisseria gohorrhoeae (gonorrhea). or saliva. Epidemiologists group pathogen transmission into two general types of contact. . Pathogen transmission involves three steps: escape from the host. Pathogen transmission by direct contact takes place when an infected host transmits a disease directly to another host. travel to. semen. pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are transmitted via blood. Pathogen transmission occurs in several ways. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). and the pathogen that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. The pathogens that travel this way are extremely sensitive to the environment and cannot be outside of the host for any length of time. are also transmitted by direct contact via the blood. For example. within which there are several mechanisms. respiratory pathogens are usually airborne.Mrs. and fungi that cause disease in humans and other species. such as Ebola. Luz Mallorca Instructor Transmition of pathogens: Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses. usually dependent on the ecology of the organism. Some pathogens responsible for STDs include Tremonema palidum (syphilis).

Pathogens out! Clean to be safe! .

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