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PREFACE Page 3
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Overview of the redevelopment of urban brownfields 1.3 The value of a comparativ study 1.4 Methodology 2. NATIONAL POLICY
5 5 5 6 7 8 8 14 16 19 19 19 20 21 24 25 25 27 28 32 32 32 34 35 37 38 38 38 41
2.1 Policy framework for urban redevelopment 2.2 Financial arrangements 2.3 Actors
3. CASE STUDIES
3.1 Céramique Maastricht 3.1.1 Background 3.1.2 Specifications 3.1.3 Description 3.1.4 Results 3.2 CiBoGa Groningen 3.2.1 Background 3.2.2 Specifications 3.2.3 Description 3.2.4 Results 3.3 De Wolfsdonken ’s Hertogenbosch
3.3.1 Background 3.3.2 Specifications 3.3.3 Description 3.3.4 Results 4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
4.1 Main policy aspects 4.2 Lessons from the case studies
APPENDIX: List of contact persons
This report gives a short review about the policy on urban brownfields in the Netherlands. The Dutch policy on contaminated sites is shortly explained with some examples of the daily practice. The review has been written by the bureau Zandvoort Planning & Advice by/in order of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment and will be used by the OECD for an international study of policies and projects to redevelop urban brownfields.
1 Introduction BACKGROUND In the first half of 1997 the OECD decided. these activities have become obsolete.000 hectares of industrial sites are obsolete in the Netherlands. 1. in cooperation with the EPA and the ICMA.000 and 11. derelict. The paper outlines Dutch policy with regard to the development of urban brownfield sites. such as in Amsterdam. tobacco. By way of restructuring and urban economic development the position of these inner city sites can be strengthened. economic and spatial structure. i. The area of land occupied by these industrial activities in or near 1 According to a recent study commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. with actual soil contamination or risk of soil contamination". underused lots in urban areas. central government. urban brownfield sites are areas in towns and cities where in the past industrial activity has taken place but which have since fallen into disuse. After a period of prosperity. between 9. highlighting particularly those features which characterise Dutch policy.e. In such areas often there is a combination of a weak social. An important aspect of policy on the development of brownfield sites is its integrated nature. sites which have been extensified and (former) gasworks. paint and printing industries. This is mainly due to the long planning tradition and the relatively high demand for space in urban areas in the Netherlands. 5 . This paper is the Dutch contribution to this comparative study. some autonomous and some complementary to one another. Urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands mostly are industrial sites which have fallen into disuse. formerly occupied by industries which have become obsolete or undergone radical change 1.2 OVERVIEW OF THE REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN BROWNFIELDS The OECD defines urban brownfield sites as "vacant. the needs of present generations have changed and decline has set in. The number and scope of the Dutch brownfield sites is in comparison with other countries in general much more restricted. shipyards and (obsolete) dockyards. There are three levels of government in the Netherlands. the provinces and the municipalities.I 1. The description of policy will be illustrated by means of three examples of successful urban development sites. Rotterdam and Zaanstad. Each has its own responsibilities and tasks. mining. metals. to carry out a comparative study of policy on urban brownfield sites. such as textile. Dutch context In the Dutch context.
spatially less well situated sites is generally less expensive. major hazard. The soil has had to bear not only many localised instances of contamination due to point sources. have a considerable negative spin-off. Furthermore combining functions here often brings along environmental impediments. Sites with high development costs offering relatively poor returns initially remained undeveloped. Failure to renew these areas often also influences the environmental quality of the surrounding area. The first such sites to be tackled were generally the least financially risky. there has to be reckoned with environmental zones (noise. inner city sites with development potential often lie strategically adjacent to the city centre. which can greatly increase their potential gains. From the late seventies onwards Dutch policy makers have started to work structurally with urban brownfield sites4.old town centres is generally quite small. the environmental consequences of our actions were generally only poorly understood.3 THE VALUE OF A COMPARATIVE STUDY Improving the quality of urban life figures high on the agenda not only in EU member states but also 2 3 4 In introducing new functions. crime. etc. because of their situation. Making towns compact has a positive effect on reducing transport needs and means fighting urban sprawl3. On the other hand. Development of these. which can help to enhance the quality of urban life and is consistent with the goal of increasing sustainability. but also starting from the assets as described above. These were either sites with enormous potential where costs were low or sites which were very strategically situated in the existing urban area. The issue At the time when industrial activities were developing in towns. but their location can have. activities of this kind often have led to environmental damage. deterioration of the quality of life. Partly as a consequence of this. This was not only because of the risks associated with these areas. 1. There are also disadvantages associated with the compact city: see section 2. 2. odour) around or in relation to existing functions. In the end this can create a negative spiral of mutually reinforcing processes. The redevelopment of inner city sites is as a rule costly because of the high land prices and the costs of removing soil contamination. 6 . but also large-scale diffuse contamination. The development of new undeveloped sites at the urban edges is often more attractive than restructuring the existing urban area. Thereby leads the development of inner cities to (further) intensification. Adverse social and economic phenomena occur which lead to physical decline. This can eventually sap the vitality of the city as a whole.
1. including that for related (sectoral) policy areas. increasing density). increasing density.elsewhere in the world. The description focuses particularly on developments over the last ten years. the legal standards for the cleanup of contaminated land. In the Netherlands large scale redevelopment has been taking place already for several decades. The second step aims to describe three examples which illustrate the Dutch policy (as presented in the first step). These projects are examples of innovative approaches taken in the Netherlands rather than being representative of redevelopment projects as a whole. CiBoGa in Groningen (functional change. In developing or redirecting policies in this field countries can learn from one another. De Wolfsdonken in 's-Hertogenbosch (functional change. The issues considered are the structure of Dutch policy. improvement). decision-making structure. improvement). Differences of this kind mean that policy with regard to the redevelopment of urban brownfield sites is not everywhere at the same level. 7 . administrative culture. The present approach also provides for the interchange of experience between the various actors involved. There are considerable differences however in the approach depending on the instruments available and the actors involved. improvement. These examples were selected with regard to three processes as part of the transformation. namely: functional change. The following three examples were selected: Céramique Maastricht (functional change. during which there has been an upsurge of policy interest in urban regeneration. The examples were chosen so as to achieve a geographical spread over the Netherlands and various provinces.4 METHODOLOGY The first step of the study is to describe in both technical and organisational terms the Dutch policy framework for the development of urban brownfield sites. the details of policy and the financing of restructuring projects. At present it is characterised as an integrated approach with an eye for the diversity of actors involved and their interests. Some countries have already made considerable progress in developing policy in this area while others are still in an early stage. etc. bearing in mind the differences in historical background. There are also differences in the way policies in this field are shaped. The approach adopted has evolved considerably over the years.
in which central government. Second Transport Structure Plan (V&W and VROM. Spatial Planning and the Environment ('VROM'). the Ministry of Housing. Integration is therefore effected not only at the strategic policy-making level. The policy set out in the various policy documents is elaborated not only in further policy documents and legislation. Their policies are set out in a number of policy documents. Urban regeneration policy. 1989). Many of these instruments provide extra links between the various policy fields. Central government policy concerning the restructuring of towns is a matter for. 1993). the provinces and the municipalities have very different responsibilities and tasks. The main national policy guidelines relevant for urban brownfield sites are set out in: The policy document 'Housing in the 1990s' (VROM. is now as well supported by the environmental policy . 1990). Public Works and Water Management ('V&W').1 National policy POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN REDEVELOPMENT Policy structure In solving problems related to urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands is chosen for an integrated approach. which originated from housing and spatial planning policy. but also in a variety of financial schemes and implementation programmes. This means that efforts are made to produce a coherent solution drawing from various policy sectors and from different administrative levels. LNV5. Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Finance). This helps foster integration in policy development and implementation. The National Environmental Policy Plan 3 (VROM. EZ. amongst others.2 2. but also in its implementation. 1997). VINEX update (VROM and Ministry of General Affairs. The main instruments are described below. The Ministry of Transport. 8 . The result is a veritable policy patchwork quilt. 1995). V&W. the Ministry of Economic Affairs ('EZ') and the Ministry of the Interior ('BIZA') now also greatly contribute. The Supplement to the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning (referred to as 'VINEX' VROM. 'Space for the regions' (EZ. many of which are drawn up jointly.
to a lesser extent. Breda. Arnhem/ Nijmegen. work and recreational areas and service amenities in or as close as possible to larger towns. The Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning designated the following nodal towns: Amsterdam. 's-Hertogenbosch. Next to urban renewal the concept of urban restructuring is also important. green spaces. the policy aims to achieve also an mixing of functions and an increasing differentiation within functions. Tilburg. Urban restructuring seeks to achieve a greater differentiation of the quality of housing and work where the general well being is under pressure. In the mid-1990s the Ministry of the Interior devised a policy specifically to deal with the four largest8 and 21 medium-sized towns 9 in the Netherlands: the major cities policy. Schiedam. Groningen. which originated mainly from the housing and economic departments. urban regeneration stresses to create a good living and production environment. Helmond. commercial/industrial premises and recreational facilities. Zwolle. leisure and care. As well as urban concentration. employment. It also involves the infrastructure. Rotterdam. In the late eighties spatial planning policy concerning urban development has been focused on 13 socalled nodal towns7. In practical terms this has led to the designation of so-called 'VINEX' locations 6. Leiden. 9 . Nijmegen. Breda and Tilburg. The policy. In recent years spatial planning policy has been aimed at such a development whereby the daily functional relationships in terms of living. The policy aim in developing urban regions is to locate new residential. Rotterdam. Almelo. These are locations designated by central government for the large-scale construction of new housing and. Amsterdam. Hengelo. Leeuwarden. The aim was to bring about the physical improvement of the built environment. The emphasis is on 'strengthening the strong'. Heerlen. Leeuwarden. not only physically but also socio-culturally and economically. working and care are able to operate at the level of the urban region. working. Eindhoven. economic activities and other neighbourhood facilities. by utilising the existing assets in the field of housing. Urban regeneration goes beyond simply modifying the housing stock and the immediate (living) surroundings. Utrecht. Eindhoven. Maastricht. Groningen. During the 1990s this policy was widened into one of urban regeneration. Maastricht/Heerlen. Arnhem. Haarlem. and by mixing these functions. On behalf of maintaining and improving the spatial conditions needed to ensure the proper functioning of towns.Main policy elements The Netherlands formally launched its urban approach with the Urban and Rural Regeneration Act in 1985. (‘GSB’-policy) It aims among others on strengthening the economic structure and the vitality of the (larger) towns concerned. 5 6 7 8 9 Ministry of Agriculture. The Hague and Utrecht. Dordrecht. production and living environments in the built up area from before 1970. Enschede/Hengelo. This policy aims at strengthening the role of these towns as service centre for the surrounding region by concentrating amenities and improving accessibility. Enschede. Deventer. The Hague. Nature Management and Fisheries. Formally its purpose was to eliminate the quality deficits of the residential. was aimed at urban renewal.
Within the framework of the second and third National Environmental Policy Plans. * Key projects (‘Sleutelprojecten’) The key projects approach was launched in 1988 as part of the central government policy implementation strategy. Key projects spatial development are specific investment projects for urban areas. * City & Environment (‘Stad & Milieu’) Concentrating activities in cities has disadvantages as well as advantages10. Within this policy concern is both for the relationship between investment in the physical and the social infrastructure and the relationship between urban renewal and well being and safety in towns. management and maintenance. The ‘GSB’ policy is meant for the city as a whole. Many different sectors of government contribute to the urban regeneration and ‘GSB’ (larger towns) policy described above. The Dutch authorities have been pursuing an active environmental policy since the late 1980s. Dutch policy on urban brownfield sites is increasingly characterised by an integrated approach. infrastructure and the relevant environmental technology which are of strategic importance for the spatial development of the Netherlands. This is referred to as the 'paradox of the compact city'. aimed at creating a more sustainable development. Policy implementation As mentioned earlier. The essence of the approach is that municipalities 10 Venlo. They contribute significantly to the implementation of major features of spatial planning. traffic and transport. by way of a site oriented approach. Zwolle. For this purpose various programmes have been developed by the different policy sectors. The road chosen is projectwise accelerating and coordinating of decisionmaking on investment.tackling disadvantage and strengthening the social structure. The starting line of the project that under the primary responsibility of the local administration an excellent living and working climate in towns is created. The policy with regard to the soil is to achieve and maintain a sustainable soil quality. housing and economic policy. The main ones are summarised below. environmental. 10 . Contaminated land is one of the central themes of this policy. This theme involves site based approach aiming at prevention. the City and Environment project looks at both sides. The key project approach is designed to further the realisation of some (key) projects.
In cases where the current environmental standards and procedures stand in the way of a good integrated assessment the municipalities are permitted to relax them in exceptional cases. and applies only to the 24 experiments approved by the Minister. * Contaminated soil cleaning policy (‘BEVER' project) Urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands are characterised by various environmental problems. The programme is directed not only at planning and implementation but also at support and building expertise amongst those involved in implementation. The project seeks. Central in the project is the exchange of knowledge between central and local government. A special Experiment act provides the legal basis for departure from the statutory standards and procedures. Soil contamination is generally the most severe problem. function-oriented rather than multifunctional clean-up. will qualify for central government subsidy. 11 . In spring 1998 public bodies and private organisations will be allowed to submit projects which. These are intended to acquire ideas for implementing spatial policy as set forth in the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning.get greater freedom and responsibility to assess integrally all assets and values concerned. Objective is stressed the integration of spatial. by way of 24 experiments. All is about innovative ideas capable of being used by other actors such as municipalities. in the daily practice the optimum integration of spatial planning and environmental policy with in mind (integral) implementation. * Another tool by which central government policy is being implemented is the model plans of the National Spatial Planning Agency. * Stimulation programme Intensive Use of space VROM recently has formulated a new instrument to promote the efficient use of land. The goal of this programme is the improvement of spatial quality by providing for spatial resources in cities to be used more intensively. market partners and designers and interest groups. if awarded model status. * Promoting policy synergy The project 'Quality on Site' stands for integrating the various qualities of urban areas. Six trends have been designated which form this policy renewal: integrated rather than sectoral approach. environmental and housing quality at VINEX locations. Central government is currently in the process of renewing its soil contamination policy. the so called Stimulation programme Intensive Use of space (‘StIR’).
In this context.known as function-oriented remediation. This will allow more rapid progress to be made in cleaning up contaminated land in an environmentally sound manner while keeping down the costs. rail and aircraft noise. Mid-1997. The Noise Nuisance Act regards noise sensitive functions such as houses. This change of policy is intended to increase both the societal and the environmental benefits. road. To try to give a further impulse to market dynamics a change is considered to the adoption of a system of mixed financing. decentralised rather than centralised. 'new' means cases where there is as yet no approved municipal destination plan. the government intends to take financial. An important principle is “Doing locally what can be done locally”. legal and fiscal measures which make it more attractive for the private sector to invest in remediation of contaminated land. private sector rather than public sector. sharing values rather than imposing values. There are also different sets of standards for existing and new situations. schools. Policy on noise is set to change drastically in the near future. in which objectives set at all three administrative levels will play an important role. as had hitherto been the objective. * Policy on noise The Dutch Noise Nuisance Act distinguishes between industrial. In addition. This means that the ambition to restore the multifunctionality of the soil. the process of renewal policy in this field has led to the Cabinet decision to radically change the direction of policy on soil contamination to allow more sites to be cleaned-up more quickly. In certain areas certain functions may not be located. in such cases is abandoned11. To new situations apply more stringent standards than to existing situations. hospitals etc. The spatial rendering of inner city areas is. For example offices and other businesses are not regarded as being noise-sensitive. In the future noise policy municipalities will 12 .- process-oriented rather than project-oriented. as a consequence of the Noise Nuisance Act strongly influenced. The project Updating Instruments Noise policy (‘MIG’) is based upon a new steering philosophy. The intention is that the remediation of land already contaminated from now on will be adapted to the future use of the soil .
this Act established a duty of care for the soil. policy and standards for their own activities. In 1994 new regulations were drawn up for cases of contaminated soil which already existed before the Soil Protection Act came into force (1 January 1987). This risk can be reduced through zoning.formulate their own noise objectives and decide on the measures needed to meet them. When it came into force in 1987. which can differ for different areas. It is a general principle in Dutch environmental policy that measures should first be taken at the source. Legal standards on clean-up of contaminated land The legal standards on the clean-up of contaminated land are laid down in the Soil Protection Act. The provinces and the central government will set their own objectives. There are specific guidelines applying to certain categories of companies. The individual risk represents the probability of a fatality occurring at a given point due to a specific activity. Municipalities will themselves set their own limit values. Municipalities assess whether the gain in environmental quality justifies the costs involved (the ALARA principle 12). Only thereafter is effect mitigation appropriate. The proposals lead to a more custom made and flexible approach and fit in with the pursuit of a more integrated environment policy. Societal risk represents an estimate of the probability of a disaster occurring which might cause a given number of fatalities. imposing a statutory clean-up requirement for contamination resulting from certain activities defined in the Act. Contamination is defined in a Ministerial Circular as severe if the intervention value is exceeded. Policy on major hazard makes use of two measures: individual risk and societal risk13. * Policy on major hazard Policy with regard to major hazard requires that there should be a physical separation between sensitive functions and activities involving hazardous substances. 13 . The soil quality must be restored to its original (pre-1987) state. Small-scale construction within existing urban areas does not increase societal risk because this is assumed to be compensated by the reduction in mean household size. ALARA = As Low As Reasonably Achievable. These regulations provide a legal and financial framework for tackling severe and environmentally urgent cases of contaminated land. Higher concentrations of nearby residents are associated with higher societal risk. The intervention value is the concentration level in the soil above which there is a serious or potentially 11 12 A change in the law will be required to achieve this.
In principle the party responsible for causing the contamination is liable for the costs of clean-up. it will have a supporting rather than a lead role. 2. temporary measures need to be taken to ensure that the contamination does not spread. Many of these are associated with the various policy programmes mentioned above 15. The 'ICM criteria' (Isolate.2 FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS Government grants for urban regeneration The investment costs needed for urban regeneration can largely be met out of the benefits it brings. Monitor) apply in such cases. do business and visit. There are several government grants schemes to cover the shortfall in funding for redevelopment projects. The competent authority sets a term for the cleanup. whether or not it is to be treated as environmentally urgent. but a deadline need not be set. Quality on Site. For example: BELSTATO urban renewal fund (approximately NLG 800 million per year available over the period 1990-2005). work. The Soil Protection Act provides that in a case of severe contamination. the competent authority (usually the province) will indicate. the clean-up requirement remains. by means of an order. dependent on the degree of urgency involved14. but even then. Where the costs are not fully covered by the benefits. whereas for societal risk it is advisory. however. It will no longer bear the brunt of the investment costs. and the 14 . Government policy is to leave it increasingly to the private sector to tackle urban areas. Programme to promote more intensive use of spatial resources. In some of these cases. flora and fauna. If a case of contaminated land is not deemed to be in urgent need of clean-up. given the present use of the land. Control.serious impairment of the functional properties of the soil for humans. 13 14 15 16 That for individual risk is a strict value. A number of other specific sources of funding are also available. These are generally linked to a particular characteristic or component of the project concerned16. The government contribution will generally be directed towards increasing amenity and the attractiveness of the areas concerned as places to live. Public Works and Water Management. A decision in this regard is based on the present risks associated with the current level of contamination. the owner/leaseholder is responsible for the contaminated site. for example because the responsible party cannot be traced. the government will provide a safety net. For example the Intrafonds of the Ministry of Transport. The clean-up regulations make a clear distinction between cases where remediation is effected by the party concerned and where it is the authorities who have the work done. in accordance with the polluter pays principle. If this proves impossible.
shared industrial premises and commercial property in deprived areas. location-related subsidies for housing and infrastructural investments. This is the case. encouraging other policy sectors to accept greater responsibility for the environment and the costs associated with the environment. have already included provisions for the clean-up of contaminated land in their project cost estimates. where relevant to sectoral development or implementation. If the party who caused the problem or the owner/leaseholder refuses to carry out the necessary remedial work. for example. the government can resort to coercion. the urban renewal fund. In 17 18 19 VINEX covenants (approximately NLG 900 million budgeted for 1995-2005 for contaminated land). Agreements in this regard have been made between industry and government for industrial sites currently in use. who is responsible for investigating the problem. A sum of NLG 75 million is available under StiREA over the period 1996-1999 for the Netherlands as a whole. The Soil Protection Act includes provisions relating to the costs of cleaning up contaminated land18.5 million for new projects. and which therefore has to bear the costs. A multiplicity of specific activities which strengthen the economic structure of cities would qualify for subsidies.Schemes such as StiREA17 and subsidies granted under the major cities policy are intended specifically to promote commercial activity in cities.1). The provinces are responsible for coordinating soil clean-up activities under the Soil Protection Act.e. Many sectoral policy documents and programmes. of which one-third for the four large cities. 'Room for Economic Activity' Incentive Scheme. i. Where a site is severely contaminated and is deemed to be environmentally urgent. 15 . Government grants for tackling contaminated land For several years the government's environmental policy has been directed towards 'external integration'. A single project can often obtain funding from a number of different financial schemes which relate to different aspects of the plan. for StiREA. and otherwise the owner/leaseholder. such as the construction and revitalisation of industrial estates. A sum of NLG 3 million per project is available for restructuring and NLG 7. In some cases it is a public body which caused the contamination or which owns the land. for example. A total of about NLG 500 million is available each year. it is firstly the party who caused the contamination. drawing up a remediation plan and carrying out the necessary measures (and who also bears the costs)19. As mentioned earlier (section 2. The government will act as safety net and carry out the work itself only where the clean-up is not performed or funded by a third party and the case is environmentally urgent. the clean-up is assumed in principle to be the responsibility of the parties concerned.
2. These extra resources. the number of sites requiring clean-up far exceeds the available budget. within the context of the national soil clean-up policy. who has to consider whom and when.3 ACTORS This section looks at the various roles.their soil clean-up programmes the provinces indicate which sites will be tackled from the government budget each year.). Municipalities are being given more latitude to implement national policy at the local level in an integrated manner. municipalities can. In practice this means that only urgent projects are tackled quickly under the Soil Protection Act. tasks and responsibilities of the different actors involved in the redevelopment of urban brownfield sites. It is acknowledged that local policy means more than simply implementing the policy determined by central government. municipal land-use plans have involved reconciling the interests of the 16 . can be allocated integrally. etc. because no guarantees can be given in advance about the size of future budgets and grants. However. Policy is increasingly being developed at the level at which the problem is felt and can be solved. and to adapt it to local circumstances20. with the agreement of the province. The relationships between the various actors are also considered (who takes the ultimate decisions. The public authorities At present the Dutch are engaged in further decentralisation and deregulation. to be provided within the context of the Soil Protection Act. In order to resolve this problem. etc. The present policy on urban restructuring leaves the responsibility for implementation to the local parties. This possibility is limited however. Since the Town and Country Planning Act of 1962. Their job is to orchestrate and oversee the entire 20 This has long been the case in some policy fields. to substantially increase public spending on contaminated land. The interaction between policy-makers within the various administrative strata is becoming an increasing focus of attention. The municipalities have a key role in this. such as spatial planning. Although this philosophy has not yet been fully applied in all areas of policy. area-specific policy. start projects in advance of Soil Protection Act funds being made available if they cover the initial financing. 'tailor-made policy'. A decision has been taken. subject to current priorities and the contributions made by other departments and private organisations. a shift can nevertheless be discerned towards what might be described as 'arms-length management'. and provided that the contamination involved is severe and environmentally urgent or has a high societal priority. Priorities for tackling sites based on environmental criteria often do not correspond with the desired planning for the development of urban brownfield sites.
developers. The sectors involved include housing. it is therefore important that the costs are reduced or that there are ways in which the return can be improved. which is crucially important in restructuring projects. spatial planning. all those involved can bring their own interests. intensive cross-sectoral cooperation between different policy departments is needed and is indeed occurring. Private companies look at a project in cost-benefit terms. They will only be interested in participating in a project if they think it has some market potential. private investors will be more inclined to follow. e.process. is fostered by the Town and Country Planning Act. housing associations and the market to assume the roles expected in this process. Furthermore. Private sector The redevelopment of urban brownfield sites can involve many different private organisations. potential investors are increasingly being involved early in the planning process. housing associations and other private bodies. there is a clear trend at different levels towards a more integrated approach to urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands. This cooperation. if the redevelopment is set about in an effective manner it can give rise to a process of self-regeneration which will automatically draw in other parties. so that they can help to control costs and/or maximise the potential return. 17 . The municipalities will also have to create the conditions which encourage the other parties. etc. and the way they participate in the process will also vary. companies occupying or wishing to locate on the site. various actors involved. If the public authorities show confidence in a project by investing in it. When the government cooperates with the private sector on a redevelopment project. creativity and knowledge to bear to create a realistic and financially sound development which can count on the support of both public and private parties. location policy. to invest in the same neighbourhoods. investors. which provides for relevant policy sectors to be formally involved in the development process. economic affairs and transport infrastructure. In practice. This means that within each level. These parties will obviously have very different interests in relation to the redevelopment of the site. have regard to the desires and interests of local residents and businesses and to monitor the relationship between the interventions being made and the development of the town or city and the surrounding area. landowners.g. Public investment should create a climate which induces others. including transport companies. As we have said. the environment. If the private sector is to be brought into a project.
A large-scale study by the ICES21 into private sector (user. The Town and Country Planning Act provides for the involvement of local residents. investor. and the policy instruments which need to deployed to facilitate or increase private sector involvement. identifying the stages in which private sector involvement should be promoted. A study is currently being conducted of the various stages needed in the redevelopment process. 18 . such as the siting of stations on the high-speed rail network and underground construction projects. There is a statutory requirement for some involvement of interested parties. The ICES study is also looking at the redevelopment of industrial sites in inner cities in view of the large number of sites and high costs involved22. when land-use plans are being prepared or revised. Stakeholders Restructuring and revitalisation projects in the Netherlands increasingly seek the close involvement of at least the local business community. Projects involving changes in and the development of urban areas can have differing consequences for the various stakeholders involved. residents. and any interested natural or legal person in a relevant municipality. and at major infrastructure on a local and regional scale. developer and financier) involvement in the development and use of major infrastructural projects will be completed very shortly. contracts and covenants. workers and interest groups. The thinking underlying this is that major projects of this kind demand funding on a scale too large for the relevant public authorities to bear on their own. 21 22 Interdepartmental Committee for the Economic Structure.Public-private partnerships of this kind are becoming increasingly common. The study is looking both at projects of national importance. and the various stages of the development process are often regulated through agreements.
Since the middle of the last century this site of some 23 hectares had been the centre of the ceramics industry. For this and other reasons the site formed a physical barrier separating the outlying areas behind it and the old centre.000 m2 for catering and retail. The building plans include the following: 1600 homes.000 m2 (gross floor area) offices and other establishments.000 m2 for cultural and other non-commercial purposes. 70. On 10 June 1987 Sphinx gave the municipality the opportunity to purchase the entire site. Since the advent of the ceramics industry. Right from the outset ABP indicated that it wished to be involved in the project. The development of the site will restore the relationship between these two areas. with three property developers.3 3. This time purchase could go ahead with the help of the ABP pension fund.1. Catalyst The area forms an important link between the districts of Wyck and Randwyck. ABP therefore concluded contracts. 20. Until 1990 it was used by the company NV Koninklijke Sphinx. 5. Plans to buy it up and develop it came to nothing because of the high price of the land. 20.400 parking spaces (the majority underground/covered). The last remaining divisions of this company relocated to other sites in the city in 1990.1 Background History The Céramique site is situated at the edge of downtown Maastricht between the historic quarter of Wyck and the new Randwyck commercial centre. which the municipality could not afford on its own. in consultation with the municipality.1 Case studies CERAMIQUE MAASTRICHT 3. this site had been isolated from the rest of the city by high perimeter walls. This is one of the reasons why the municipality of Maastricht has for some time been interested in the Céramique site.000 m2 hotel accommodation. 4. 19 . based on the shared objective of a high-quality development of the site.
The municipality has been actively pursuing a policy of urban regeneration for the last 20 to 30 years.2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The overall policy objective of the municipality of Maastricht is actively to enhance and strengthen the city of Maastricht by building on its specific characteristics and qualities. The Ministry of Housing. which designated Maastricht (with a complementary role for Heerlen) as one of the urban nodes outside of the Randstad conurbation in the West of the Netherlands with excellent economic potential. introduced to allow central government to develop its policy in a project context. A number of sub-projects have now been completed or are in progress. Potential There is growing national and international interest in the potential of Maastricht as a residential and economic centre. which will have a major knock-on effect for Maastricht and the surrounding area. whose proximity to the German and Belgian borders should be exploited. The South Limburg Structure Plan (formally adopted 19 February 1987) recognised 20 . and NLG 1. Work started on the plans in late 1991. In physical terms this is one of the final large-scale stages in the process of regenerating the inner city and Maastricht as a whole. The project is one of the first urban regeneration projects to implement the thinking in the ViNo.5 billion has been spent over the last ten years on regeneration projects.1. The plans will permit some of this potential to be realised.In addition a number of supra-local facilities will be built. high-quality district in the heart of Maastricht in a broad and forwardlooking context. central government has largely confined its involvement to monitoring progress. The PPP model projects were subsequently incorporated into the so-called 'key project approach'. 3. and the scheme is expected to be completed around the year 2002. The development of the Céramique site accords well with the objectives of the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning (the 'ViNo'). but should not be seen in isolation. The development of the Céramique site is consistent with this objective. So far. a market hall and various traffic access schemes. with the aim of fostering the development of public-private partnerships for urban regeneration projects. This site offers the opportunity to develop a new. Spatial Planning and the Environment designated the project a model project for public-private partnerships (PPP). such as a bridge over the river Maas for pedestrians and cyclists.
The province contributed NLG 15 million from a budget for supraregional infrastructural projects established under the Memorandum on the Prospects for South Limburg23. directly adjacent to Wyck. The province also commissioned a new site for the Bonnefanten Museum. demanding an integrated approach to ensure that the desired quality is achieved. The main features of this partnership are as follows: acquisition of the necessary land and premises. agreements relating to the legal aspects of the project. and forming a single indivisible construction sub-project in technical and financial terms 24.3 Description Legal The formula chosen for the development and realisation of the project was one of public-private partnership between ABP and the municipality of Maastricht. former workshops to be converted into a theatre. and is related to the status of the project as a model PPP project.1. The Ministry of the Interior made a contribution of NLG 11 million to the public component of the Northern complex in the framework of the 1994 employment initiative. Funding Central government has allocated NLG 20 million to the project under a scheme for subsidising largescale construction projects. referring to it as a key element. It is the most complex component of the project. infrastructure. restored buildings of historical interest such as fortifications dating from the 14th and 16th centuries and a director's residence. 21 . international activity centre with facilities for international organisations and a European information centre.the crucial importance of this site for the city. shops and car-parks. 23 24 These funds were earmarked to help finance the restructuring of South Limburg following the closure of the coal mines. The award of this subsidy was conditional on the municipality and the province presenting it jointly. offices. including the Eastern abutment of the Céramique bridge with the necessary walkways and stairways and a pedestrian's route to Wyck. with major ramifications for supraregional development. homes. The Northern complex comprises the following elements: municipal library/archives. 3. This complex is situated on the North side of the Céramique site.
The approach adopted nevertheless adhered to the guidelines laid down in this Act. it did not fall formally within the purview of the Soil Cleanup (Interim Measures) Act25. 22 . The land-use plan incorporates a certain flexibility in order to allow for economic and social developments which may occur at any time during the process. Since the contamination in the soil has virtually no public health or environmental implications. execution of the construction work. and cannot leach out. so that no heavy metal contamination of the groundwater has occurred. The precise basis on which the risks are apportioned was clearly specified in the 1994 protocol to the original agreement. adopted at the end of 1989 and approved by the province of Limburg in June 1990. laying the necessary building site infrastructure. The glazing of the fragments contains heavy metals. Responsibility for the clean-up rested with the municipality. The development of the land is regulated by a land-use plan. and resulted in a substantial acceleration in the rate of progress. The land was acquired by ABP. The agreement on cooperation was amended in 1994 by means of a protocol which dealt with matters such as the planning and scheduling. These heavy metals are bound to the glazing. which will be responsible for financing the exploitation of the building site. however. however. The financial risks associated with the Céramique project are being shared by the two parties. A further NLG 50 million will be forthcoming for the construction of the library/municipal buildings. Finance and risk The entire project is worth NLG 900 million. As a result. The amendment was designed to ensure that the buildings were realised within the desired quality specifications. agreements on the apportionment of risks and responsibilities. Clean-up procedures and standards The surface of the Céramique site consisted of a mixture of ceramic fragments and soil. The municipality of Maastricht has initially contributed NLG 19 million towards the realisation of the project. the development and realisation of the various project modules and quality. the site was not included in the provincial programme for the remediation of contaminated land.- establishment of the financial framework for the exploitation of the site.
Economic regeneration The development of new economic activity on the site will create new jobs. Multifunctionality. A strong relationship has consciously been established between the planning and specifications on one hand and their actual realisation in the design on the other. 25 Part of the scheme for tackling contaminated land added to the Soil Protection Act in 1994.A function-oriented approach was adopted for the remedial work. The relevant comments from the consultation exercise were taken on board in the land-use plan. In addition. The principle was to ensure the presence of a buffer layer between the contaminated soil and human activity. 23 .40 metres in depth would be laid on public spaces. Integrated approach In developing the Céramique site. The site will combine various different functions (see programme). density and quality The development of the Céramique site will contribute to a more intensive use of the spatial resources of the city. An 'after-care' plan has also been developed which considers what needs to be done in the event of the future development of the site (with regard to the buffer layer and the presence of slightly contaminated soil). This overall concept must address and resolve both structural and spatial issues. The soil under buildings and car-parks is remediated to an acceptable level which safeguards public health. An information centre was set up on the Céramique site and detailed news-sheets were produced to keep the community abreast of developments during the process. This was reinforced by the early appointment of a supervisor with both urban planning and architectural expertise. residents were able to take advantage of their right to make their views known in the statutory consultation on the land-use plan. A layer of clean soil 1. Community involvement Information evenings were held for those living in Maastricht at an early stage in the planning procedure. an architectural approach has been adopted in which the overall concept in particular is important. The development will also help to strengthen the economic position of both the existing shops in Wyck and the new Randwyck commercial centre.
however. This initial investment in public infrastructure ensured that the Céramique site was immediately integrated into the city. 26 ABP then itself entered into contracts with three property developers for the execution of the building work.1. Sphinx was liable for a contribution of up to NLG 2 million and also for making landfill facilities available. 24 . it was possible to reduce the costs somewhat. despite the fact that the development still had a long way to go. The sum reserved in the development budget for this purpose was only NLG 5 million. The company did not meet its obligations in this regard. One of the first elements of the plan to be realised was the Avenue Céramique. An overblown project organisation with politicians and officials from a whole range of different disciplines was shunned in favour of a small core group of representatives and officials. thus restoring the relationship between the two districts at an early stage in the project. 3. In the event of this figure being exceeded. Many of the subprojects have now been completed or are in progress. A proper mandate for the parties and good contact were decisive factors in the speed of the decision-making process.New policy approach In developing the Céramique site. This also provided the opportunity to convince investors and local residents early on that the development would be of high quality. The agreement stipulated that ABP and the municipality would be jointly liable for any excess costs.4 Results Current status The Céramique project is currently in full swing. ABP was approached to take an active role right away in the planning process as the ultimate investor 26. This method provided the best possible guarantee that the plans would be brought to a successful conclusion. partly due to the general rise in the costs of disposing of contaminated soil. This clearly enhanced the willingness of the private sector to invest in the area. Remediation costs eventually rose to NLG f 10 . By treating/excavating the non-chemically contaminated soil from the site and using it as a cover/separation layer in the municipal landfill site. By providing a landfill the municipality discharged its part of the liability. which connects Randwyck with Wyck and the city centre. This led to a deadlock which was resolved when the municipality made landfill facilities available. The soil clean-up programme has already been completed. a fast-track procedure was adopted with short lines of decisionmaking.15 million. Rather than choose the normal project development route.
It is not yet possible to make an evaluation of the comprehensive. offices and infrastructure.2 CIBOGA GRONINGEN 25 . based on a long-term vision and long-term agreement. Opting for a rapid procedure and short lines of decision-making produced good results. Other lessons learned from the project are: Early investment in public infrastructure helps to generate support in the community and boosts investment by the private sector. 3. Contingency planning early on in the planning process before the contract phase can help to avert unanticipated setbacks.Evaluation and assessment Considerable determination. the fast-track planning process. Comprehensive external communications on the part of the municipality helps to ensure the sustained support of politicians and the community for the plan. definitive plan. Lessons for the future The Céramique project is acting as a national demonstration project in relation to: partnership with private enterprise. This support is indispensable for a plan of this magnitude. The factors which appeared to be decisive in ensuring rapid decision-making were that the parties were properly mandated and that good contacts were maintained between the parties involved. It was eventually possible to draw up contracts which adequately formulated the agreed quality standards and guarantees necessary for the actual execution of the overall project. the intermixing of different functions. The Céramique project was one of the very few such projects in the Netherlands at that time which succeeded. as not all the elements have yet been completed. energy and creativity are needed to convert the intention to work with private enterprise on an urban development and regeneration project into binding contractual obligations on how it is to be implemented. its innovative approach to a large construction project. the high quality of the homes.
but was used twice a year as a fairground and circus. a park which forms a green lung in the inner city. which had lain derelict or seen only makeshift use. Boden and the Gasworks (hence CiBoGa). was (and still is) basically a parking area. After the site had lost its function part of it came into the possession of the expanding University Hospital and the University. Because construction was not continued at this site. This area. The area was never developed. In consequence.3. local residents and businesses were keen to consider how the area could best be developed. CiBoGa could form an important link between the inner city and the suburbs in the northeast of the city and between the University Hospital and the Hortusbuurt neighbourhood. The Circus ground. Between 1940 and 1970 the area was used as a storage depot for goods destined for the central part of the city. Most of the CiBoGa site was occupied by the gasworks which had been there since 1853. Property developers. The Boden site acquired its present form when the Korreweg and Oosterpark estates were laid out in the 1920s and 1930s. The area is also close to three major centres of employment: the city centre area. occupying a total of some 14 hectares. the city's largest employers. The area forms part of the former fortified city walls of Groningen. investors and housing associations had already been showing interest in the area for some time. it became a kind of buffer between the old city and the new residential neighbourhoods. As a result of its former function the gasworks site is severely contaminated. The planning process attempted to bring all these 26 . With the advent of natural gas in the 1960s. It is within walking distance of many of the main features and facilities of the city. Catalyst CiBoGa is the last major inner city site at which inner city housing can be realised in accordance with the VINEX targets for Groningen. occupying the most northerly part of the plan area. After the walls were demolished over a century ago. production was discontinued.2. had long blighted the neighbourhood and the local business climate. The site is situated centrally amongst various residential districts and runs along the Noorderplantsoen. it formed a broad wasteland containing only the gasworks.1 Background History The Ciboga site to the northeast of Groningen city centre actually consists of three separate sites abutting on one another: the Circus ground. the University Hospital and Groningen University.
in particular commuter traffic.e. Even the more heavily burdened sites which were ignored for 27 . The influx of new residents will also increase demand for local facilities in the northeastern part of Groningen. CiBoGa has enough space for over 900 homes. Apart from its contaminated soil the environmental quality of the CiBoGa is good for a city-centre location. In early 1998 the minister of VROM signed a covenant on the clean-up of the soil. energy and waste collection. The clean-up operation will begin in October. intended for functions linked to the University Hospital. 7000 homes) within the existing city limits. The question of whether it is possible to satisfy this need is currently being studied. two supermarkets (3000 m2) and 6000 m2 of large-scale retail facilities. The object is to create a sustainable district with restricted car-use and good spatial quality.2. making an integrated approach possible. It is seeking to meet 40% of the VINEX target (i. Potential The development of CiBoGa will have major knock-on effects on neighbouring areas.2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The policy of the City of Groningen is to increase its urban density. The area has been designated as the north eastern access zone.different parties together. the integration of the new and the old. The draft urban development plan also reserves 20.000 m2. The emphasis will be on compact construction (an average of 70 homes/hectare). New opportunities will be created for the present west-side shopping centre. The space available for this purpose is limited and must be used optimally. During the consultation exercise it transpired that this space will not be sufficient: the hospital will need 50. with large-scale retail facilities and car parking for the city centre. It is important that this environmental quality should be preserved and further enhanced with the development of the site. The fact that the site lies within the city limits means that its development can help to reduce car-use. 3. and flexible buildings and public spaces. 1300 underground parking places (of which only 500 will be residential). The CiBoGa site will also have a strategic significance in relation to the city centre. giving the go-ahead for the construction of the new CiBoGa district.000 m2 for offices and commercial space. sustainable building using new forms of construction. Special attention will be given to ecology.
The sites concerned are suitable for intensive construction and presently house a range of different functions. The conjunction of above-ground and underground development.years are now being given priority. In 1995 the project was further designated a 'synergy project' under the VINEX 'Quality on Site' project. which might be applicable in other cases. As far as soil remediation costs are concerned. the ecological aspirations and the difficult inner city situation interface well with the 'Stad & Milieu' objectives.3 Description Legal A study phase was inaugurated on the basis of a declaration of intent made between the municipality of Groningen and the private sector participants. The municipality was also able to avail itself of subsidies totalling NLG 25 million from various schemes for the above-ground development of the CiBoGa site. Groningen also has a progressive transport policy. This was a result of the chosen strategy of taking an integrated approach to the quality options and shortening the development period. The objective is to contain the growth of car traffic to no more than 30% by 2010.2.000 towards the costs of preparing the project in the framework of the VINEX project 'Quality on Site'. The CiBoGa site fulfils these requirements admirably.5 million). the municipality was able to draw on both the Soil Protection Act budget (NLG 10 million) and project funds established under the Act (NLG 12. Since the development involves compact housing at an urban location with excellent public transport access.4 million. Funding VROM contributed NLG 200. The CiBoGa development is also one of the national projects that form part of the 'Stad & Milieu' programme. in 1990 the area was designated a model project within the framework of the Second Transport Structure Plan. 3. The province itself contributed NLG 1. objectives relating to sustainable development. The favourable position of the CiBoGa site should help to limit car-use. Various studies were carried out to formulate the 28 .
When the Groningen Drenthe Energy Company acquired the municipal energy company. The studies resulted in a draft urban development plan. which with accrued interest now amounts to NLG 9 million. By recalculating on present prices and by means of ingenious planning which integrated the soil remediation work and preparatory sitework prior to construction the CiBoGa team was able. A preparatory decision has been taken and the revision will be completed by the middle of the year. and if possible the open market and the energy sector. The market will make a substantial contribution of NLG 5 million by accepting a higher land price. the rest of the costs will be met by central government grants under the Soil Protection Act and a grant from the province of Groningen. VROM indicated that it would not be able. With the adoption of the plan the agreement came to an end.8 million.4 million. which will therefore have to be revised. to be set aside. The CiBoGa plans cannot be accommodated within the existing land-use plans for the area.9 million towards this total. within the foreseeable future. Financing and risks At the beginning of the project the province and municipality appeared to be facing soil clean-up costs for the site of the former gasworks of about NLG 80 million. The municipality will itself contribute NLG 11. When a decision comes to be taken on the draft plan. The parties involved in developing the CiBoGa site are determined that the financial burden imposed 29 . working methods and organisation. an agreement on future cooperation will be submitted to the Council. This brought the total costs for clean-up for the entire CiBoGa site down to NLG 49. corresponding to the statutory municipal contribution of 10% of the estimated total clean-up costs at the time of NLG 70 million (excluding value-added tax).objectives and identify the constraints and relevant issues for the CiBoGa development. were willing to invest. the sites and buildings remained the property of the municipality of Groningen. Rehabilitation and development would only be possible if both the municipality and the province. to provide any financial support to the municipality and the province. The 1993 contract governing this transaction provided for a sum of NLG 7 million. in consultation with the provincial soil remediation team. As mentioned earlier. to reduce overall clean-up costs for the former gasworks site to NLG 31. This amount. in which the cooperating parties will present their responsibilities. is also to be used to help defray the soil clean-up costs.
This allowed nearby residents and the business community to make their contribution to the planning process. A more balanced distribution of the costs between the various parties was secured by swapping costs between underground and above-ground work. and will have to be dealt with by the municipality itself. panels of residents and business people were set up at an early stage at city district level to provide a forum for structured discussion. The gasworks site is severely contaminated. The Circus and Boden sites are contaminated with PAH and mineral oil. chromium. mainly involving PAH and mineral oil. By way of an experiment. 30 . by co-financing and by phasing the work. the Circus site. The investment of NLG 110 million should help guarantee this quality. Clean-up procedures and standards Within the CiBoGa boundaries there are four sites which are subject to the Soil Protection Act: the gasworks site. Apart from the four Soil Protection Act cases there are several other contaminated sites within the plan area. Almost half of these costs will be met by receipts from the sale of the land. Cordes is heavily contaminated with lead and. and the groundwater under both these sites is contaminated with PAH. These sites do not qualify for subsidies under the Soil Protection Act scheme. zinc and copper.5 million to the above-ground developments. The development of the integrated plan for the area is heavily influenced by the magnitude of the contamination at the former gasworks site. An open planning procedure was adopted for this purpose. mineral oil and aromatics. both in the area itself and in adjacent areas. The groundwater here is slightly to moderately contaminated locally with C3 and C4 benzene isomers. reflecting their particular positions. Community involvement Special attention is being paid in the project to arranging contacts with residents and the business community. with above-ground and underground structures being coordinated on an ongoing basis with the plans for cleaning up the soil. The clean-up operation will be kept as lean and efficient as possible so as to save costs. the municipality will contribute NLG 32. The groundwater is severely contaminated by benzene and cyanide. the Boden site and Cordes. The lead content is related to the quantities of rubble in the soil. In addition. A decision was taken to integrate the soil clean-up with the construction activities. particularly by PAH (tar) and cyanide.by the need to clean up the soil should not jeopardise the high quality planned for the development. to a lesser extent.
Economic development/ Multifunctionality.The open planning procedure preceded the formal consultations required by the Town and Country Planning Act. Underground car-parks will be built in those places where the soil is most contaminated. subject to a number of rules. an open planning procedure was adopted in which all the relevant parties participated. with residents and business persons from the surrounding neighbourhoods participating in a personal capacity. density and quality The CiBoGa site is expected to breathe new economic life into the nearby shopping centre as well as the city centre. retail outlets and offices/commercial space. combined with car parks. Contaminated water will be purified. The statutory basis for this was provided by a Consultation Ordinance enacted by the municipality of Groningen. panels were set up during the investigation period. 31 . In places where the walls of the underground car-park are laid the contaminated soil will be excavated to a depth of 3. This will eliminate any risk to the residents and also reduce remediation costs. The development mainly involves the construction of housing. and these will form buffers between the housing and the deep residual contamination. Building on this inner city site will also bring about a further consolidation of the inner city urban fabric.5 metres. the objective is to achieve a high construction density (an average of 70 homes per hectare) and good environmental and spatial quality. These panels were given the opportunity to work alongside the professionals involved in the project. Integrated approach The municipality of Groningen has developed an integrated plan in which the above-ground and underground redevelopment of the CiBoGa site is linked to the soil clean-up operations. Central government was also involved in the planning through the 'Quality on Site' project. New policy approach In order to build a wide support base for the CiBoGa project. In developing the CiBoGa site. Slightly contaminated soil can be re-used and heavily contaminated soil can be removed and cleaned. In order to increase public involvement. There is therefore a certain intermixing of functions.
4 Results Current status The preparatory work has now been completed and work will commence shortly. however. Evaluation and assessment Many different parties were involved in the development of the plan. The estate occupies an area of some 20 hectares.3. and is very mixed in character.the contamination of the soil .3. An open planning process increases support for the project and helps to enhance the overall quality of the area. 3. with restricted car access. an integrated plan will first be drawn up in order to ensure good coordination between these clean-up activities and the further development of the area.3 DE WOLFSDONKEN 'S-HERTOGENBOSCH 3. Since the execution of the plan has yet to be started. This resulted in a plan of high quality which not only devised an integrated solution to the main obstacle which had thwarted the development of the area for years .2. Compact housing with excellent access to public transport allows a car-restricted neighbourhood to be created.but also provided for the development of a sustainable neighbourhood of high spatial quality. Lessons for the future Considerable cost savings can be made by taking an integrated approach to soil clean-up and site development. evaluation and assessment would be as yet premature. 32 . Before work starts on cleaning up the soil. The willingness of the various stakeholders to contribute to the development of the area made an integrated approach possible.1 Background History De Wolfsdonken is an obsolete industrial estate which lies to the west of the centre of 's-Hertogenbosch. The presence of serious contamination in the soil does not have to frustrate the achievement of a high environmental quality.
odours and major hazard. one-third for businesses offering employment and one-third to be determined later. To its west a concentration of educational establishments occupies the site of a former sports complex. The plan also provides for 450 homes and a park.5 billion for new buildings and NLG 350 million for road and rail infrastructure and public spaces. To the north of De Wolfsdonken lies 'La Gare'. 65.000 m2 29. The redevelopment of De Wolfsdonken will start in 1998 and will last six to ten years.000 m2 of office and similar space. including 2500 to 3000 homes. the first of which will be completed around the year 2000. hotels and catering establishments. The land-use plan provides for 70.containing modern and outdated businesses. Arising from the desire of the municipality "to extend the city centre onto the other side of the tracks". Catalyst De Wolfsdonken adjoins a railway track27 and the Central Station. offices and educational facilities. The low intensity of usage at the site is underscored by the presence of the burnt-out buildings belonging to one of the companies.000 m2 of office and similar space.000 to 250. Present ideas are that the latter will be made up of social facilities and/or urban facilities and/or enterprises offering employment. De Wolfsdonken is strategically situated within the existing city of 's-Hertogenbosch and can be readily accessed both by public transport and by car. and is within walking distance of the city centre. The investments for the area as a whole total NLG 1. The centre of 's-Hertogenbosch has grown considerably. The programme consists of at least one-third of the floor area for housing. Overall. the De Wolfsdonken industrial estate will also undergo a radical restructuring and functional renewal. noise nuisance. It forms part of the 'Railway District' in 's-Hertogenbosch. an area where restructuring started in the mid-1990s. 33 . which is being completely redeveloped (and is partially completed) 28. The area has a capacity of some 200. in terms both of 27 28 The Utrecht-Eindhoven and Tilburg-Nijmegen line. a district hospital with 800 beds and a new station. Between 700 and 1250 homes will be built. both small and large. depending on specific designs and market forces. and forms the intersection of the north-south links with the towns of North Brabant. The Railway District is being transformed from an industrial estate into an area of mixed functions. 200. A concentration and mixing of functions on this site will contribute to its sustainable development. To the south former barracks are being transformed into an area containing housing.000 m2 for educational establishments. The site is also exposed to contaminated soil and groundwater. The city has developed as a commercial and service centre. Potential 's-Hertogenbosch is strategically situated within the southern flank of the ring of cities in the central part of the Netherlands. a conference centre. An academy of art is also located on the site. The 'urban facilities' would probably consist of training centres. the area has a forsaken feel about it.
2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The current land-use plans covering the area are somewhat outdated30. New law-courts were recently completed. allowing it to relieve some of the pressure on the centre. and will give a major impulse to the development of the area. Otherwise. 27 March 1946. A partial revision affecting the western section was adopted by the municipal council on 13 December 1954. so it was decided to draw up a new land-use plan for De Wolfsdonken. Plan for extending city by sections.3 29 30 Description Excluding facilities constructed for cars . thereby fulfilling the first policy objective for the development of De Wolfsdonken. intended to generate ideas for developing different aspects of spatial policy. 3.3. 3. Urban regeneration will have the effect of making this formerly peripheral district 'on the wrong side of the tracks' part of the city centre.population and jobs. and now forms part of an integrated transport interchange where train.3. February 1998. The development of De Wolfsdonken follows on logically from these earlier developments. bus. Discussions are currently being held with the province about applying for central government cofinancing of the costs of cleaning up the site in so far as they cannot be recovered from former owners. The station has been modified to accommodate evolving requirements. Funding The move of the law courts into a neighbouring area will contribute indirectly but significantly to De Wolfsdonken. cars and bicycles converge. approved by the North Brabant provincial executive. The Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning provides for the drawing up of these model plans. The completely new station has a new entrance and a new footbridge. The municipality recently 31 issued a first draft of the new plan. 34 31 32 . In 1993 a plan for the De Wolfsdonken industrial estate intended to serve as a model exemplifying particular aspects of location policy was issued32. no major state funding was available for the project33. The purpose of this plan was to curb the growth in car use. and will shortly be occupied.
A closed soil balance is proposed whereby the slightly contaminated soil excavated during the building work will be used for terracing work elsewhere on the site. PAH and mineral oil. 35 . In view of the severity of the contamination the methods to be used must be approved by the province. 33 Because 's-Hertogenbosch has not been designated a 'nodal town'. The contamination needs to be dealt with in accordance with the Soil Protection Act because it falls within the severe and urgent category. and a Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Following the site investigation. Contaminated groundwater has also migrated into neighbouring areas. In both cases the municipality sells the land. and will take several years. Financing and risks The cooperation with the private sector proved to be very important. whereby the private sector and the municipality bear the risks and erect the buildings jointly. The redevelopment process was only made possible by the fact that an integrated plan was drawn up for the area. a cooperation agreement and an area development agreement. It will involve cleaning up hot spots and preventing the further spread of contamination. and locally with mineral oil. A development corporation was set up. An integrated approach will have to be taken to cleaning up the groundwater of De Wolfsdonken and the surrounding area. The costs must be recovered where possible from the polluter and/or the owner. The discussions between the authorities and the private parties culminated in three formal agreements: a declaration of intent.Legal The plan was formally adopted as a land-use plan. The groundwater is in part severely contaminated with volatile organic compounds. A small area is severely contaminated. and takes care of the planning procedures. Clean-up procedures and standards The soil is slightly to severely contaminated by heavy metals. The site clean-up investigation has already been completed. cooperation agreements and development agreements. Both these forms of cooperation were formalised in declarations of intent. In the case of a PPC the parties pay 8% of the expected receipts from the land to the 'major works' fund. It was established through two devices: a Public-Private Cooperation (PPC). The development of 'costly' plots could be offset by the development of 'cheap' plots. ideas have developed about how the clean-up should be tackled. in which the private sector bears the risks and erects the buildings. if it is in its possession. and the soil there will probably be removed.
offices. partly by intermixing functions. The spatial plan was only drawn up after the environmental problems had been assessed. housing. The master plan consists 36 . financiers and the municipality. a declaration of intent was drawn up.Community involvement The plan area is virtually uninhabited. procedure and content proceeded in tandem. A master plan was then drafted and a feasibility study carried out. thus boosting the local economy. This allowed environmental considerations to be fully integrated into the planning of the development. Integrated approach An integrated approach was taken in developing De Wolfsdonken. in both technical and procedural terms. After an initial exploratory phase involving discussions between developers. This permitted the development of De Wolfsdonken and the wishes of the various parties concerned to be properly coordinated. During the project development. allowing it to be optimally integrated into its wider setting. and discussions were held with them. Economic development One of the aims in developing De Wolfsdonken is to increase the concentration of employment. Multifunctionality. Other community involvement in the development of De Wolfsdonken is provided for in the spatial planning procedures (in particular those relating to consultation). social amenities. Those with a direct interest in the planning are the nearby businesses. etc. density and quality One of the key concepts in developing the area is to increase the urban density. but were novel at the time (early 1990s). The development of De Wolfsdonken will form part of the development of the Railway District as a whole. Various different functions will be combined in the area. urban facilities. New policy approach The process-oriented approach and the direct cooperation with the private sector were crucial to the success of the project. including industry.
Good communications with the administration. since any loss in exploiting the land can be offset by the return on the buildings.3. Spreading risk between a number of parties opens up many opportunities. This was the point at which the partners were able to take a decision to continue their cooperation. The municipality would not have been able to embark on a project of this magnitude without private sector participation. Cooperation with fixed partners. environmental considerations.of scenarios for the physical and functional development. residents and other stakeholders. etc. Lessons for the future Joint planning or consent by municipality and private sector. Support and enthusiasm on the part of the administration are indispensable. 37 . The municipality must demonstrate its willingness to invest. contractually regulated. Evaluation and assessment Since the execution of the plan has yet to be started.4 Results Current status The preparatory work was completed with the signing of the cooperation agreement. The draft landuse plan is the first step in the actual implementation of the project. e. The master plan was developed into a draft land-use plan. evaluation and assessment would be premature at this stage. Not dependent on external subsidies.g. 3. Linking the exploitation of the land and the buildings permitted greater risks to be taken. The feasibility study gave an idea of the project's financial viability. based on urban planning principles. central government funding: self-reliant. Spread of risk through PPP device.
the unity in policy is (ever) increasing. 4. In the approach adopted there has been over the years a strong development. legislation. The result is a veritable policy patchwork quilt. implementation programmes. Policy is elaborated not only in various secondary policy documents. The cooperation of the municipality with the private sector should be as much as possible be fixed in 38 . joint or not.2 LESSONS FROM THE CASE STUDIES Planning process In urban redevelopment projects it is important that the municipality cooperates with the various parties involved. The Netherlands are currently in a phase in which these implementation instruments. An open planning process is a good way of doing this. an integrated approach becomes possible. Because it has become increasingly common for the policy documents which deal with the development of urban brownfield sites to be drafted jointly by different departments and in dialogue with the other actors involved. The three case studies illustrate this shift in vision and approach.1 Summary and conclusions MAIN POLICY ASPECTS The redevelopment of derelict land has been on the political agenda of the public authorities in the Netherlands for decades because of among others the long planning tradition in the Netherlands and the relative pressure on urban space. If the various stakeholders are willing to participate in the development of the area concerned. Early on a relatively piecemeal sectoral approach was en vogue. economic and environmental aspects. after having been tried in real life situation. stressing the physical environment not relating social. Soon the need became evident for greater coherence in and coordination of the range of policies aimed at redevelopment. Since then. and. efforts are being made to produce a coherent contribution from the various policy approaches and from the different administrative levels. in which central government. the provinces and the municipalities have very different responsibilities and tasks. They show how in a creative way redevelopment can be undertaken with quality-of-life and affordability as paramount concerns. In this process there is an open eye for integration of contents (different policy fields) but also of procedures (coordination of the interests of the various levels of government. are being made more suitable for an integrated approach. the private sector and the public) and between content and procedures. financial schemes.4 4.
For the redevelopment of these areas collaboration between the municipality and the private sector is often essential because it leads to risk sharing. In order to expedite the decision-making process. 39 . Support To be able to implement large-scale projects of this kind is support of political parties and the general public of utmost importance. Generally speaking municipalities are unable to bear the costs on their own. economic and/or spatial quality. it is important that the participants be properly mandated and that good contacts be maintained between the parties involved. By using an integrated approach of the development(s) additional benefits can be gained. This need not necessarily thwart area development. (main) investors are often ready to follow. Support can be created through vast external communication. By incorporating ‘bad weather’-scenarios in an early stage of the planning process it becomes possible up to a certain extent to foresee and avert. Planning Urban brownfield sites are often ‘famous’ because of severe soil contamination. When the soil clean up and the site development are embarked upon integrally this can lead to considerable savings. The government has in recent years established a number of financial schemes to help fund inner-city redevelopment projects. When the government shows itself willing to invest. Linking land and building exploitation may as well help to limit risks in such a way that losses in land exploitation can be offset by positive returns on the buildings. The development of inner city sites can considerably contribute to the quality of the immediate urban areas. Next to that prior investment in (quality of) public space can also assist in this process by providing an early image of the future quality of the proposed developments.(written) contracts. These schemes should first be seen as secundary funding only. Other specific action by the authorities. in the field of environmental. however. unanticipated setbacks and thus limit risk. Such collaboration needs to be statutorily arrangement. It is not wise to make the development of an area totally dependent on external subsidies of this kind. before the signing of contracts. Risks There are considerable risks associated with (large-scale) inner-city redevelopment. for instance designation as a model project by central government and/or initial investment by the municipality can give impulses to further investment.
Appendix LIST OF CONTACT PERSONS Maastricht municipality (Céramique): Mr. Peuscher Spatial Planning and Economic Affairs Department (Project Secretary) 's-Hertogenbosch municipality (De Wolfsdonken): Mr. L. H. Wouters Project bureau (Project Manager) Project bureau Groningen municipality (CiBoGa): Ms. M. J. Notten Mr. Daalderop Spatial Planning and Town Planning Department 40 .
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