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PREFACE Page 3
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Overview of the redevelopment of urban brownfields 1.3 The value of a comparativ study 1.4 Methodology 2. NATIONAL POLICY
5 5 5 6 7 8 8 14 16 19 19 19 20 21 24 25 25 27 28 32 32 32 34 35 37 38 38 38 41
2.1 Policy framework for urban redevelopment 2.2 Financial arrangements 2.3 Actors
3. CASE STUDIES
3.1 Céramique Maastricht 3.1.1 Background 3.1.2 Specifications 3.1.3 Description 3.1.4 Results 3.2 CiBoGa Groningen 3.2.1 Background 3.2.2 Specifications 3.2.3 Description 3.2.4 Results 3.3 De Wolfsdonken ’s Hertogenbosch
3.3.1 Background 3.3.2 Specifications 3.3.3 Description 3.3.4 Results 4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
4.1 Main policy aspects 4.2 Lessons from the case studies
APPENDIX: List of contact persons
This report gives a short review about the policy on urban brownfields in the Netherlands. The Dutch policy on contaminated sites is shortly explained with some examples of the daily practice. The review has been written by the bureau Zandvoort Planning & Advice by/in order of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment and will be used by the OECD for an international study of policies and projects to redevelop urban brownfields.
to carry out a comparative study of policy on urban brownfield sites. central government. 1. formerly occupied by industries which have become obsolete or undergone radical change 1. such as textile. Dutch context In the Dutch context. metals. After a period of prosperity. the needs of present generations have changed and decline has set in. such as in Amsterdam.000 and 11. urban brownfield sites are areas in towns and cities where in the past industrial activity has taken place but which have since fallen into disuse. with actual soil contamination or risk of soil contamination".000 hectares of industrial sites are obsolete in the Netherlands. There are three levels of government in the Netherlands. shipyards and (obsolete) dockyards. underused lots in urban areas. Each has its own responsibilities and tasks. the provinces and the municipalities. The description of policy will be illustrated by means of three examples of successful urban development sites. This is mainly due to the long planning tradition and the relatively high demand for space in urban areas in the Netherlands.1 Introduction BACKGROUND In the first half of 1997 the OECD decided. economic and spatial structure. This paper is the Dutch contribution to this comparative study. tobacco. in cooperation with the EPA and the ICMA. In such areas often there is a combination of a weak social. these activities have become obsolete. The number and scope of the Dutch brownfield sites is in comparison with other countries in general much more restricted. highlighting particularly those features which characterise Dutch policy. An important aspect of policy on the development of brownfield sites is its integrated nature. By way of restructuring and urban economic development the position of these inner city sites can be strengthened. paint and printing industries.e. Rotterdam and Zaanstad.2 OVERVIEW OF THE REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN BROWNFIELDS The OECD defines urban brownfield sites as "vacant. sites which have been extensified and (former) gasworks. Urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands mostly are industrial sites which have fallen into disuse. some autonomous and some complementary to one another.I 1. The paper outlines Dutch policy with regard to the development of urban brownfield sites. i. The area of land occupied by these industrial activities in or near 1 According to a recent study commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. mining. 5 . derelict. between 9.
etc. The first such sites to be tackled were generally the least financially risky. inner city sites with development potential often lie strategically adjacent to the city centre. Sites with high development costs offering relatively poor returns initially remained undeveloped. Development of these. The redevelopment of inner city sites is as a rule costly because of the high land prices and the costs of removing soil contamination. This can eventually sap the vitality of the city as a whole. Furthermore combining functions here often brings along environmental impediments. deterioration of the quality of life. which can help to enhance the quality of urban life and is consistent with the goal of increasing sustainability. the environmental consequences of our actions were generally only poorly understood. major hazard. activities of this kind often have led to environmental damage. On the other hand. This was not only because of the risks associated with these areas. Partly as a consequence of this. have a considerable negative spin-off. which can greatly increase their potential gains. In the end this can create a negative spiral of mutually reinforcing processes. but also large-scale diffuse contamination. Adverse social and economic phenomena occur which lead to physical decline. These were either sites with enormous potential where costs were low or sites which were very strategically situated in the existing urban area. there has to be reckoned with environmental zones (noise. From the late seventies onwards Dutch policy makers have started to work structurally with urban brownfield sites4. Thereby leads the development of inner cities to (further) intensification. but also starting from the assets as described above. Failure to renew these areas often also influences the environmental quality of the surrounding area. The soil has had to bear not only many localised instances of contamination due to point sources. because of their situation.3 THE VALUE OF A COMPARATIVE STUDY Improving the quality of urban life figures high on the agenda not only in EU member states but also 2 3 4 In introducing new functions. but their location can have. odour) around or in relation to existing functions. The development of new undeveloped sites at the urban edges is often more attractive than restructuring the existing urban area. The issue At the time when industrial activities were developing in towns. 1. There are also disadvantages associated with the compact city: see section 2. 2.old town centres is generally quite small. spatially less well situated sites is generally less expensive. 6 . Making towns compact has a positive effect on reducing transport needs and means fighting urban sprawl3. crime.
CiBoGa in Groningen (functional change. In the Netherlands large scale redevelopment has been taking place already for several decades. There are also differences in the way policies in this field are shaped. At present it is characterised as an integrated approach with an eye for the diversity of actors involved and their interests. The issues considered are the structure of Dutch policy. In developing or redirecting policies in this field countries can learn from one another. improvement. improvement). increasing density). improvement). 1. The present approach also provides for the interchange of experience between the various actors involved. namely: functional change. De Wolfsdonken in 's-Hertogenbosch (functional change. increasing density. 7 . the details of policy and the financing of restructuring projects. Some countries have already made considerable progress in developing policy in this area while others are still in an early stage.elsewhere in the world. There are considerable differences however in the approach depending on the instruments available and the actors involved. etc. decision-making structure. the legal standards for the cleanup of contaminated land.4 METHODOLOGY The first step of the study is to describe in both technical and organisational terms the Dutch policy framework for the development of urban brownfield sites. The second step aims to describe three examples which illustrate the Dutch policy (as presented in the first step). The description focuses particularly on developments over the last ten years. The examples were chosen so as to achieve a geographical spread over the Netherlands and various provinces. The following three examples were selected: Céramique Maastricht (functional change. including that for related (sectoral) policy areas. administrative culture. The approach adopted has evolved considerably over the years. bearing in mind the differences in historical background. These projects are examples of innovative approaches taken in the Netherlands rather than being representative of redevelopment projects as a whole. These examples were selected with regard to three processes as part of the transformation. during which there has been an upsurge of policy interest in urban regeneration. Differences of this kind mean that policy with regard to the redevelopment of urban brownfield sites is not everywhere at the same level.
The main instruments are described below. 1989). 'Space for the regions' (EZ. VINEX update (VROM and Ministry of General Affairs.2 2. The Ministry of Transport. Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Finance). The Supplement to the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning (referred to as 'VINEX' VROM. Central government policy concerning the restructuring of towns is a matter for. 1993). 1990). 1995). in which central government. This means that efforts are made to produce a coherent solution drawing from various policy sectors and from different administrative levels. 1997). Many of these instruments provide extra links between the various policy fields. the provinces and the municipalities have very different responsibilities and tasks. the Ministry of Economic Affairs ('EZ') and the Ministry of the Interior ('BIZA') now also greatly contribute.1 National policy POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN REDEVELOPMENT Policy structure In solving problems related to urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands is chosen for an integrated approach. but also in its implementation. amongst others. This helps foster integration in policy development and implementation. The main national policy guidelines relevant for urban brownfield sites are set out in: The policy document 'Housing in the 1990s' (VROM. 8 . EZ. The policy set out in the various policy documents is elaborated not only in further policy documents and legislation. is now as well supported by the environmental policy . V&W. which originated from housing and spatial planning policy. Integration is therefore effected not only at the strategic policy-making level. The National Environmental Policy Plan 3 (VROM. The result is a veritable policy patchwork quilt. many of which are drawn up jointly. but also in a variety of financial schemes and implementation programmes. Second Transport Structure Plan (V&W and VROM. Spatial Planning and the Environment ('VROM'). Urban regeneration policy. the Ministry of Housing. Public Works and Water Management ('V&W'). Their policies are set out in a number of policy documents. LNV5.
Breda and Tilburg. Enschede/Hengelo. Dordrecht. Hengelo. Tilburg. The Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning designated the following nodal towns: Amsterdam. In the late eighties spatial planning policy concerning urban development has been focused on 13 socalled nodal towns7. not only physically but also socio-culturally and economically. Breda. Urban regeneration goes beyond simply modifying the housing stock and the immediate (living) surroundings. In the mid-1990s the Ministry of the Interior devised a policy specifically to deal with the four largest8 and 21 medium-sized towns 9 in the Netherlands: the major cities policy. leisure and care. Groningen. Utrecht. The Hague. Helmond. Leeuwarden. Eindhoven. In practical terms this has led to the designation of so-called 'VINEX' locations 6. Rotterdam. It also involves the infrastructure. Amsterdam. The emphasis is on 'strengthening the strong'. The aim was to bring about the physical improvement of the built environment. In recent years spatial planning policy has been aimed at such a development whereby the daily functional relationships in terms of living. the policy aims to achieve also an mixing of functions and an increasing differentiation within functions. green spaces. to a lesser extent. 9 . The policy aim in developing urban regions is to locate new residential. Schiedam. which originated mainly from the housing and economic departments. was aimed at urban renewal. Heerlen. (‘GSB’-policy) It aims among others on strengthening the economic structure and the vitality of the (larger) towns concerned. As well as urban concentration. The Hague and Utrecht. Arnhem/ Nijmegen. Zwolle. Arnhem. Deventer.Main policy elements The Netherlands formally launched its urban approach with the Urban and Rural Regeneration Act in 1985. Rotterdam. During the 1990s this policy was widened into one of urban regeneration. and by mixing these functions. Eindhoven. Nijmegen. employment. by utilising the existing assets in the field of housing. Leiden. Maastricht. 5 6 7 8 9 Ministry of Agriculture. Almelo. Groningen. These are locations designated by central government for the large-scale construction of new housing and. Maastricht/Heerlen. On behalf of maintaining and improving the spatial conditions needed to ensure the proper functioning of towns. The policy. Enschede. Leeuwarden. Nature Management and Fisheries. Next to urban renewal the concept of urban restructuring is also important. urban regeneration stresses to create a good living and production environment. Haarlem. Urban restructuring seeks to achieve a greater differentiation of the quality of housing and work where the general well being is under pressure. Formally its purpose was to eliminate the quality deficits of the residential. working. production and living environments in the built up area from before 1970. commercial/industrial premises and recreational facilities. work and recreational areas and service amenities in or as close as possible to larger towns. working and care are able to operate at the level of the urban region. This policy aims at strengthening the role of these towns as service centre for the surrounding region by concentrating amenities and improving accessibility. 's-Hertogenbosch. economic activities and other neighbourhood facilities.
environmental. * City & Environment (‘Stad & Milieu’) Concentrating activities in cities has disadvantages as well as advantages10. This theme involves site based approach aiming at prevention. Policy implementation As mentioned earlier. Dutch policy on urban brownfield sites is increasingly characterised by an integrated approach.tackling disadvantage and strengthening the social structure. The policy with regard to the soil is to achieve and maintain a sustainable soil quality. The road chosen is projectwise accelerating and coordinating of decisionmaking on investment. Key projects spatial development are specific investment projects for urban areas. Within the framework of the second and third National Environmental Policy Plans. the City and Environment project looks at both sides. by way of a site oriented approach. infrastructure and the relevant environmental technology which are of strategic importance for the spatial development of the Netherlands. traffic and transport. They contribute significantly to the implementation of major features of spatial planning. 10 . Many different sectors of government contribute to the urban regeneration and ‘GSB’ (larger towns) policy described above. management and maintenance. For this purpose various programmes have been developed by the different policy sectors. The ‘GSB’ policy is meant for the city as a whole. housing and economic policy. The starting line of the project that under the primary responsibility of the local administration an excellent living and working climate in towns is created. aimed at creating a more sustainable development. * Key projects (‘Sleutelprojecten’) The key projects approach was launched in 1988 as part of the central government policy implementation strategy. Contaminated land is one of the central themes of this policy. The essence of the approach is that municipalities 10 Venlo. The key project approach is designed to further the realisation of some (key) projects. Within this policy concern is both for the relationship between investment in the physical and the social infrastructure and the relationship between urban renewal and well being and safety in towns. The main ones are summarised below. This is referred to as the 'paradox of the compact city'. Zwolle. The Dutch authorities have been pursuing an active environmental policy since the late 1980s.
The project seeks. These are intended to acquire ideas for implementing spatial policy as set forth in the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning. function-oriented rather than multifunctional clean-up. by way of 24 experiments. Soil contamination is generally the most severe problem. The programme is directed not only at planning and implementation but also at support and building expertise amongst those involved in implementation. market partners and designers and interest groups. Central government is currently in the process of renewing its soil contamination policy. The goal of this programme is the improvement of spatial quality by providing for spatial resources in cities to be used more intensively. * Contaminated soil cleaning policy (‘BEVER' project) Urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands are characterised by various environmental problems. * Another tool by which central government policy is being implemented is the model plans of the National Spatial Planning Agency. if awarded model status. Central in the project is the exchange of knowledge between central and local government. will qualify for central government subsidy. In cases where the current environmental standards and procedures stand in the way of a good integrated assessment the municipalities are permitted to relax them in exceptional cases. Objective is stressed the integration of spatial.get greater freedom and responsibility to assess integrally all assets and values concerned. in the daily practice the optimum integration of spatial planning and environmental policy with in mind (integral) implementation. In spring 1998 public bodies and private organisations will be allowed to submit projects which. 11 . environmental and housing quality at VINEX locations. * Promoting policy synergy The project 'Quality on Site' stands for integrating the various qualities of urban areas. A special Experiment act provides the legal basis for departure from the statutory standards and procedures. and applies only to the 24 experiments approved by the Minister. the so called Stimulation programme Intensive Use of space (‘StIR’). * Stimulation programme Intensive Use of space VROM recently has formulated a new instrument to promote the efficient use of land. Six trends have been designated which form this policy renewal: integrated rather than sectoral approach. All is about innovative ideas capable of being used by other actors such as municipalities.
* Policy on noise The Dutch Noise Nuisance Act distinguishes between industrial. Policy on noise is set to change drastically in the near future. road. An important principle is “Doing locally what can be done locally”. Mid-1997. The project Updating Instruments Noise policy (‘MIG’) is based upon a new steering philosophy. 'new' means cases where there is as yet no approved municipal destination plan. legal and fiscal measures which make it more attractive for the private sector to invest in remediation of contaminated land. This means that the ambition to restore the multifunctionality of the soil. To new situations apply more stringent standards than to existing situations. in such cases is abandoned11. hospitals etc. For example offices and other businesses are not regarded as being noise-sensitive. In addition. In certain areas certain functions may not be located. There are also different sets of standards for existing and new situations. sharing values rather than imposing values. In the future noise policy municipalities will 12 . In this context. in which objectives set at all three administrative levels will play an important role. as a consequence of the Noise Nuisance Act strongly influenced. The spatial rendering of inner city areas is. The Noise Nuisance Act regards noise sensitive functions such as houses.known as function-oriented remediation. The intention is that the remediation of land already contaminated from now on will be adapted to the future use of the soil . the government intends to take financial. as had hitherto been the objective. This change of policy is intended to increase both the societal and the environmental benefits. the process of renewal policy in this field has led to the Cabinet decision to radically change the direction of policy on soil contamination to allow more sites to be cleaned-up more quickly. To try to give a further impulse to market dynamics a change is considered to the adoption of a system of mixed financing. schools. This will allow more rapid progress to be made in cleaning up contaminated land in an environmentally sound manner while keeping down the costs. private sector rather than public sector. rail and aircraft noise.- process-oriented rather than project-oriented. decentralised rather than centralised.
* Policy on major hazard Policy with regard to major hazard requires that there should be a physical separation between sensitive functions and activities involving hazardous substances. 13 . Only thereafter is effect mitigation appropriate. In 1994 new regulations were drawn up for cases of contaminated soil which already existed before the Soil Protection Act came into force (1 January 1987). Municipalities assess whether the gain in environmental quality justifies the costs involved (the ALARA principle 12). which can differ for different areas. When it came into force in 1987. policy and standards for their own activities. The provinces and the central government will set their own objectives. Municipalities will themselves set their own limit values. These regulations provide a legal and financial framework for tackling severe and environmentally urgent cases of contaminated land. The individual risk represents the probability of a fatality occurring at a given point due to a specific activity. Policy on major hazard makes use of two measures: individual risk and societal risk13. imposing a statutory clean-up requirement for contamination resulting from certain activities defined in the Act. ALARA = As Low As Reasonably Achievable.formulate their own noise objectives and decide on the measures needed to meet them. The soil quality must be restored to its original (pre-1987) state. There are specific guidelines applying to certain categories of companies. It is a general principle in Dutch environmental policy that measures should first be taken at the source. Societal risk represents an estimate of the probability of a disaster occurring which might cause a given number of fatalities. Contamination is defined in a Ministerial Circular as severe if the intervention value is exceeded. The intervention value is the concentration level in the soil above which there is a serious or potentially 11 12 A change in the law will be required to achieve this. The proposals lead to a more custom made and flexible approach and fit in with the pursuit of a more integrated environment policy. this Act established a duty of care for the soil. This risk can be reduced through zoning. Legal standards on clean-up of contaminated land The legal standards on the clean-up of contaminated land are laid down in the Soil Protection Act. Higher concentrations of nearby residents are associated with higher societal risk. Small-scale construction within existing urban areas does not increase societal risk because this is assumed to be compensated by the reduction in mean household size.
Control. Public Works and Water Management. Government policy is to leave it increasingly to the private sector to tackle urban areas. Many of these are associated with the various policy programmes mentioned above 15. In principle the party responsible for causing the contamination is liable for the costs of clean-up. The competent authority sets a term for the cleanup. These are generally linked to a particular characteristic or component of the project concerned16. For example: BELSTATO urban renewal fund (approximately NLG 800 million per year available over the period 1990-2005). dependent on the degree of urgency involved14.2 FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS Government grants for urban regeneration The investment costs needed for urban regeneration can largely be met out of the benefits it brings. but even then. If a case of contaminated land is not deemed to be in urgent need of clean-up. In some of these cases. temporary measures need to be taken to ensure that the contamination does not spread. It will no longer bear the brunt of the investment costs. A number of other specific sources of funding are also available. The government contribution will generally be directed towards increasing amenity and the attractiveness of the areas concerned as places to live. but a deadline need not be set. for example because the responsible party cannot be traced. however. Quality on Site. in accordance with the polluter pays principle. it will have a supporting rather than a lead role. given the present use of the land. Programme to promote more intensive use of spatial resources. A decision in this regard is based on the present risks associated with the current level of contamination. the government will provide a safety net. flora and fauna. by means of an order.serious impairment of the functional properties of the soil for humans. the competent authority (usually the province) will indicate. The clean-up regulations make a clear distinction between cases where remediation is effected by the party concerned and where it is the authorities who have the work done. the owner/leaseholder is responsible for the contaminated site. and the 14 . 2. 13 14 15 16 That for individual risk is a strict value. If this proves impossible. whereas for societal risk it is advisory. The 'ICM criteria' (Isolate. the clean-up requirement remains. For example the Intrafonds of the Ministry of Transport. whether or not it is to be treated as environmentally urgent. The Soil Protection Act provides that in a case of severe contamination. do business and visit. Where the costs are not fully covered by the benefits. Monitor) apply in such cases. work. There are several government grants schemes to cover the shortfall in funding for redevelopment projects.
In some cases it is a public body which caused the contamination or which owns the land. encouraging other policy sectors to accept greater responsibility for the environment and the costs associated with the environment.Schemes such as StiREA17 and subsidies granted under the major cities policy are intended specifically to promote commercial activity in cities. A sum of NLG 75 million is available under StiREA over the period 1996-1999 for the Netherlands as a whole. it is firstly the party who caused the contamination. i. As mentioned earlier (section 2. If the party who caused the problem or the owner/leaseholder refuses to carry out the necessary remedial work. where relevant to sectoral development or implementation. the clean-up is assumed in principle to be the responsibility of the parties concerned. 15 . and which therefore has to bear the costs. for example. This is the case. A sum of NLG 3 million per project is available for restructuring and NLG 7. The government will act as safety net and carry out the work itself only where the clean-up is not performed or funded by a third party and the case is environmentally urgent. who is responsible for investigating the problem. Many sectoral policy documents and programmes. A multiplicity of specific activities which strengthen the economic structure of cities would qualify for subsidies. Government grants for tackling contaminated land For several years the government's environmental policy has been directed towards 'external integration'.e. The provinces are responsible for coordinating soil clean-up activities under the Soil Protection Act. for example. Where a site is severely contaminated and is deemed to be environmentally urgent. Agreements in this regard have been made between industry and government for industrial sites currently in use. have already included provisions for the clean-up of contaminated land in their project cost estimates. the urban renewal fund. In 17 18 19 VINEX covenants (approximately NLG 900 million budgeted for 1995-2005 for contaminated land). the government can resort to coercion. A single project can often obtain funding from a number of different financial schemes which relate to different aspects of the plan. location-related subsidies for housing and infrastructural investments. The Soil Protection Act includes provisions relating to the costs of cleaning up contaminated land18.1). A total of about NLG 500 million is available each year. such as the construction and revitalisation of industrial estates. and otherwise the owner/leaseholder. shared industrial premises and commercial property in deprived areas. of which one-third for the four large cities. drawing up a remediation plan and carrying out the necessary measures (and who also bears the costs)19.5 million for new projects. 'Room for Economic Activity' Incentive Scheme. for StiREA.
start projects in advance of Soil Protection Act funds being made available if they cover the initial financing. because no guarantees can be given in advance about the size of future budgets and grants. to be provided within the context of the Soil Protection Act. such as spatial planning. The interaction between policy-makers within the various administrative strata is becoming an increasing focus of attention. Priorities for tackling sites based on environmental criteria often do not correspond with the desired planning for the development of urban brownfield sites. It is acknowledged that local policy means more than simply implementing the policy determined by central government. However. Their job is to orchestrate and oversee the entire 20 This has long been the case in some policy fields. etc. Since the Town and Country Planning Act of 1962. area-specific policy. 'tailor-made policy'. can be allocated integrally.their soil clean-up programmes the provinces indicate which sites will be tackled from the government budget each year. Policy is increasingly being developed at the level at which the problem is felt and can be solved. The present policy on urban restructuring leaves the responsibility for implementation to the local parties. 2.). to substantially increase public spending on contaminated land. the number of sites requiring clean-up far exceeds the available budget. Although this philosophy has not yet been fully applied in all areas of policy. The municipalities have a key role in this. This possibility is limited however. a shift can nevertheless be discerned towards what might be described as 'arms-length management'. who has to consider whom and when. The public authorities At present the Dutch are engaged in further decentralisation and deregulation. municipal land-use plans have involved reconciling the interests of the 16 . A decision has been taken. with the agreement of the province. subject to current priorities and the contributions made by other departments and private organisations. These extra resources. and provided that the contamination involved is severe and environmentally urgent or has a high societal priority. The relationships between the various actors are also considered (who takes the ultimate decisions. municipalities can. and to adapt it to local circumstances20. within the context of the national soil clean-up policy.3 ACTORS This section looks at the various roles. etc. Municipalities are being given more latitude to implement national policy at the local level in an integrated manner. In practice this means that only urgent projects are tackled quickly under the Soil Protection Act. tasks and responsibilities of the different actors involved in the redevelopment of urban brownfield sites. In order to resolve this problem.
various actors involved. landowners. economic affairs and transport infrastructure. These parties will obviously have very different interests in relation to the redevelopment of the site. They will only be interested in participating in a project if they think it has some market potential. including transport companies. This means that within each level. e. Private companies look at a project in cost-benefit terms. is fostered by the Town and Country Planning Act. This cooperation. As we have said.g. which is crucially important in restructuring projects. If the public authorities show confidence in a project by investing in it. developers.process. the environment. creativity and knowledge to bear to create a realistic and financially sound development which can count on the support of both public and private parties. which provides for relevant policy sectors to be formally involved in the development process. intensive cross-sectoral cooperation between different policy departments is needed and is indeed occurring. If the private sector is to be brought into a project. and the way they participate in the process will also vary. location policy. private investors will be more inclined to follow. 17 . housing associations and other private bodies. it is therefore important that the costs are reduced or that there are ways in which the return can be improved. to invest in the same neighbourhoods. Public investment should create a climate which induces others. The municipalities will also have to create the conditions which encourage the other parties. all those involved can bring their own interests. The sectors involved include housing. In practice. if the redevelopment is set about in an effective manner it can give rise to a process of self-regeneration which will automatically draw in other parties. potential investors are increasingly being involved early in the planning process. Private sector The redevelopment of urban brownfield sites can involve many different private organisations. housing associations and the market to assume the roles expected in this process. there is a clear trend at different levels towards a more integrated approach to urban brownfield sites in the Netherlands. companies occupying or wishing to locate on the site. When the government cooperates with the private sector on a redevelopment project. have regard to the desires and interests of local residents and businesses and to monitor the relationship between the interventions being made and the development of the town or city and the surrounding area. so that they can help to control costs and/or maximise the potential return. spatial planning. investors. Furthermore. etc.
The Town and Country Planning Act provides for the involvement of local residents. when land-use plans are being prepared or revised. identifying the stages in which private sector involvement should be promoted. A large-scale study by the ICES21 into private sector (user. Stakeholders Restructuring and revitalisation projects in the Netherlands increasingly seek the close involvement of at least the local business community. The ICES study is also looking at the redevelopment of industrial sites in inner cities in view of the large number of sites and high costs involved22. workers and interest groups. There is a statutory requirement for some involvement of interested parties. and any interested natural or legal person in a relevant municipality. contracts and covenants. The study is looking both at projects of national importance. The thinking underlying this is that major projects of this kind demand funding on a scale too large for the relevant public authorities to bear on their own. residents. and the policy instruments which need to deployed to facilitate or increase private sector involvement. developer and financier) involvement in the development and use of major infrastructural projects will be completed very shortly. such as the siting of stations on the high-speed rail network and underground construction projects. A study is currently being conducted of the various stages needed in the redevelopment process. and at major infrastructure on a local and regional scale.Public-private partnerships of this kind are becoming increasingly common. 18 . investor. and the various stages of the development process are often regulated through agreements. 21 22 Interdepartmental Committee for the Economic Structure. Projects involving changes in and the development of urban areas can have differing consequences for the various stakeholders involved.
5. 20.000 m2 for catering and retail. Catalyst The area forms an important link between the districts of Wyck and Randwyck.1. The development of the site will restore the relationship between these two areas.3 3. Right from the outset ABP indicated that it wished to be involved in the project. which the municipality could not afford on its own. this site had been isolated from the rest of the city by high perimeter walls. Plans to buy it up and develop it came to nothing because of the high price of the land. in consultation with the municipality. Since the middle of the last century this site of some 23 hectares had been the centre of the ceramics industry. with three property developers. On 10 June 1987 Sphinx gave the municipality the opportunity to purchase the entire site. 70. The last remaining divisions of this company relocated to other sites in the city in 1990. 20.400 parking spaces (the majority underground/covered). ABP therefore concluded contracts.000 m2 hotel accommodation. For this and other reasons the site formed a physical barrier separating the outlying areas behind it and the old centre. Until 1990 it was used by the company NV Koninklijke Sphinx.000 m2 (gross floor area) offices and other establishments. This is one of the reasons why the municipality of Maastricht has for some time been interested in the Céramique site. 19 . based on the shared objective of a high-quality development of the site.000 m2 for cultural and other non-commercial purposes.1 Background History The Céramique site is situated at the edge of downtown Maastricht between the historic quarter of Wyck and the new Randwyck commercial centre. This time purchase could go ahead with the help of the ABP pension fund. 4. Since the advent of the ceramics industry.1 Case studies CERAMIQUE MAASTRICHT 3. The building plans include the following: 1600 homes.
The plans will permit some of this potential to be realised. The municipality has been actively pursuing a policy of urban regeneration for the last 20 to 30 years. So far. and the scheme is expected to be completed around the year 2002. The PPP model projects were subsequently incorporated into the so-called 'key project approach'. The project is one of the first urban regeneration projects to implement the thinking in the ViNo. This site offers the opportunity to develop a new. The Ministry of Housing. high-quality district in the heart of Maastricht in a broad and forwardlooking context. with the aim of fostering the development of public-private partnerships for urban regeneration projects. 3. which will have a major knock-on effect for Maastricht and the surrounding area. introduced to allow central government to develop its policy in a project context. Work started on the plans in late 1991. such as a bridge over the river Maas for pedestrians and cyclists. a market hall and various traffic access schemes.1.5 billion has been spent over the last ten years on regeneration projects. The South Limburg Structure Plan (formally adopted 19 February 1987) recognised 20 . but should not be seen in isolation. Potential There is growing national and international interest in the potential of Maastricht as a residential and economic centre. The development of the Céramique site accords well with the objectives of the Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning (the 'ViNo').In addition a number of supra-local facilities will be built. The development of the Céramique site is consistent with this objective. In physical terms this is one of the final large-scale stages in the process of regenerating the inner city and Maastricht as a whole. which designated Maastricht (with a complementary role for Heerlen) as one of the urban nodes outside of the Randstad conurbation in the West of the Netherlands with excellent economic potential. whose proximity to the German and Belgian borders should be exploited. A number of sub-projects have now been completed or are in progress. and NLG 1.2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The overall policy objective of the municipality of Maastricht is actively to enhance and strengthen the city of Maastricht by building on its specific characteristics and qualities. central government has largely confined its involvement to monitoring progress. Spatial Planning and the Environment designated the project a model project for public-private partnerships (PPP).
including the Eastern abutment of the Céramique bridge with the necessary walkways and stairways and a pedestrian's route to Wyck. and forming a single indivisible construction sub-project in technical and financial terms 24. with major ramifications for supraregional development. infrastructure. agreements relating to the legal aspects of the project. The main features of this partnership are as follows: acquisition of the necessary land and premises. offices. The province also commissioned a new site for the Bonnefanten Museum. This complex is situated on the North side of the Céramique site. and is related to the status of the project as a model PPP project. former workshops to be converted into a theatre. demanding an integrated approach to ensure that the desired quality is achieved. 21 . Funding Central government has allocated NLG 20 million to the project under a scheme for subsidising largescale construction projects. It is the most complex component of the project. international activity centre with facilities for international organisations and a European information centre. The Northern complex comprises the following elements: municipal library/archives. restored buildings of historical interest such as fortifications dating from the 14th and 16th centuries and a director's residence. homes. The award of this subsidy was conditional on the municipality and the province presenting it jointly.the crucial importance of this site for the city.1. The Ministry of the Interior made a contribution of NLG 11 million to the public component of the Northern complex in the framework of the 1994 employment initiative. 3. referring to it as a key element. The province contributed NLG 15 million from a budget for supraregional infrastructural projects established under the Memorandum on the Prospects for South Limburg23.3 Description Legal The formula chosen for the development and realisation of the project was one of public-private partnership between ABP and the municipality of Maastricht. directly adjacent to Wyck. shops and car-parks. 23 24 These funds were earmarked to help finance the restructuring of South Limburg following the closure of the coal mines.
adopted at the end of 1989 and approved by the province of Limburg in June 1990. The approach adopted nevertheless adhered to the guidelines laid down in this Act. the development and realisation of the various project modules and quality. The precise basis on which the risks are apportioned was clearly specified in the 1994 protocol to the original agreement. A further NLG 50 million will be forthcoming for the construction of the library/municipal buildings. which will be responsible for financing the exploitation of the building site. Finance and risk The entire project is worth NLG 900 million. The agreement on cooperation was amended in 1994 by means of a protocol which dealt with matters such as the planning and scheduling. however. The development of the land is regulated by a land-use plan. The land was acquired by ABP. so that no heavy metal contamination of the groundwater has occurred. These heavy metals are bound to the glazing. As a result. however. 22 . The land-use plan incorporates a certain flexibility in order to allow for economic and social developments which may occur at any time during the process. Responsibility for the clean-up rested with the municipality. The glazing of the fragments contains heavy metals. The municipality of Maastricht has initially contributed NLG 19 million towards the realisation of the project. execution of the construction work. Clean-up procedures and standards The surface of the Céramique site consisted of a mixture of ceramic fragments and soil. Since the contamination in the soil has virtually no public health or environmental implications. The amendment was designed to ensure that the buildings were realised within the desired quality specifications.- establishment of the financial framework for the exploitation of the site. and resulted in a substantial acceleration in the rate of progress. the site was not included in the provincial programme for the remediation of contaminated land. The financial risks associated with the Céramique project are being shared by the two parties. agreements on the apportionment of risks and responsibilities. and cannot leach out. laying the necessary building site infrastructure. it did not fall formally within the purview of the Soil Cleanup (Interim Measures) Act25.
An information centre was set up on the Céramique site and detailed news-sheets were produced to keep the community abreast of developments during the process. The relevant comments from the consultation exercise were taken on board in the land-use plan.40 metres in depth would be laid on public spaces. A layer of clean soil 1. This was reinforced by the early appointment of a supervisor with both urban planning and architectural expertise. In addition. The development will also help to strengthen the economic position of both the existing shops in Wyck and the new Randwyck commercial centre. Integrated approach In developing the Céramique site. The soil under buildings and car-parks is remediated to an acceptable level which safeguards public health. Community involvement Information evenings were held for those living in Maastricht at an early stage in the planning procedure. Economic regeneration The development of new economic activity on the site will create new jobs. density and quality The development of the Céramique site will contribute to a more intensive use of the spatial resources of the city. The principle was to ensure the presence of a buffer layer between the contaminated soil and human activity. This overall concept must address and resolve both structural and spatial issues. An 'after-care' plan has also been developed which considers what needs to be done in the event of the future development of the site (with regard to the buffer layer and the presence of slightly contaminated soil). Multifunctionality. 23 . A strong relationship has consciously been established between the planning and specifications on one hand and their actual realisation in the design on the other.A function-oriented approach was adopted for the remedial work. an architectural approach has been adopted in which the overall concept in particular is important. The site will combine various different functions (see programme). residents were able to take advantage of their right to make their views known in the statutory consultation on the land-use plan. 25 Part of the scheme for tackling contaminated land added to the Soil Protection Act in 1994.
One of the first elements of the plan to be realised was the Avenue Céramique.4 Results Current status The Céramique project is currently in full swing. Sphinx was liable for a contribution of up to NLG 2 million and also for making landfill facilities available. The sum reserved in the development budget for this purpose was only NLG 5 million. This method provided the best possible guarantee that the plans would be brought to a successful conclusion. A proper mandate for the parties and good contact were decisive factors in the speed of the decision-making process. 24 .New policy approach In developing the Céramique site.15 million. This clearly enhanced the willingness of the private sector to invest in the area. In the event of this figure being exceeded. despite the fact that the development still had a long way to go. ABP was approached to take an active role right away in the planning process as the ultimate investor 26. Remediation costs eventually rose to NLG f 10 . The soil clean-up programme has already been completed. Rather than choose the normal project development route. a fast-track procedure was adopted with short lines of decisionmaking. The company did not meet its obligations in this regard. 26 ABP then itself entered into contracts with three property developers for the execution of the building work. This initial investment in public infrastructure ensured that the Céramique site was immediately integrated into the city. thus restoring the relationship between the two districts at an early stage in the project. This led to a deadlock which was resolved when the municipality made landfill facilities available. it was possible to reduce the costs somewhat. partly due to the general rise in the costs of disposing of contaminated soil. Many of the subprojects have now been completed or are in progress.1. By treating/excavating the non-chemically contaminated soil from the site and using it as a cover/separation layer in the municipal landfill site. By providing a landfill the municipality discharged its part of the liability. An overblown project organisation with politicians and officials from a whole range of different disciplines was shunned in favour of a small core group of representatives and officials. The agreement stipulated that ABP and the municipality would be jointly liable for any excess costs. 3. however. which connects Randwyck with Wyck and the city centre. This also provided the opportunity to convince investors and local residents early on that the development would be of high quality.
Lessons for the future The Céramique project is acting as a national demonstration project in relation to: partnership with private enterprise. definitive plan. Opting for a rapid procedure and short lines of decision-making produced good results.2 CIBOGA GRONINGEN 25 . It is not yet possible to make an evaluation of the comprehensive. Contingency planning early on in the planning process before the contract phase can help to avert unanticipated setbacks. its innovative approach to a large construction project. the high quality of the homes. The factors which appeared to be decisive in ensuring rapid decision-making were that the parties were properly mandated and that good contacts were maintained between the parties involved. Other lessons learned from the project are: Early investment in public infrastructure helps to generate support in the community and boosts investment by the private sector. based on a long-term vision and long-term agreement. the intermixing of different functions. This support is indispensable for a plan of this magnitude. as not all the elements have yet been completed. energy and creativity are needed to convert the intention to work with private enterprise on an urban development and regeneration project into binding contractual obligations on how it is to be implemented. The Céramique project was one of the very few such projects in the Netherlands at that time which succeeded. the fast-track planning process. offices and infrastructure.Evaluation and assessment Considerable determination. 3. It was eventually possible to draw up contracts which adequately formulated the agreed quality standards and guarantees necessary for the actual execution of the overall project. Comprehensive external communications on the part of the municipality helps to ensure the sustained support of politicians and the community for the plan.
but was used twice a year as a fairground and circus. production was discontinued. the city's largest employers. The site is situated centrally amongst various residential districts and runs along the Noorderplantsoen. This area. After the walls were demolished over a century ago. The Boden site acquired its present form when the Korreweg and Oosterpark estates were laid out in the 1920s and 1930s. Boden and the Gasworks (hence CiBoGa).1 Background History The Ciboga site to the northeast of Groningen city centre actually consists of three separate sites abutting on one another: the Circus ground. Because construction was not continued at this site. investors and housing associations had already been showing interest in the area for some time. As a result of its former function the gasworks site is severely contaminated. The Circus ground. the University Hospital and Groningen University. it formed a broad wasteland containing only the gasworks. it became a kind of buffer between the old city and the new residential neighbourhoods. After the site had lost its function part of it came into the possession of the expanding University Hospital and the University. Most of the CiBoGa site was occupied by the gasworks which had been there since 1853. In consequence. a park which forms a green lung in the inner city.2. With the advent of natural gas in the 1960s. The planning process attempted to bring all these 26 . The area is also close to three major centres of employment: the city centre area. occupying a total of some 14 hectares. The area forms part of the former fortified city walls of Groningen. CiBoGa could form an important link between the inner city and the suburbs in the northeast of the city and between the University Hospital and the Hortusbuurt neighbourhood. was (and still is) basically a parking area. Between 1940 and 1970 the area was used as a storage depot for goods destined for the central part of the city. which had lain derelict or seen only makeshift use. occupying the most northerly part of the plan area. local residents and businesses were keen to consider how the area could best be developed. Catalyst CiBoGa is the last major inner city site at which inner city housing can be realised in accordance with the VINEX targets for Groningen. had long blighted the neighbourhood and the local business climate.3. The area was never developed. Property developers. It is within walking distance of many of the main features and facilities of the city.
with large-scale retail facilities and car parking for the city centre. The space available for this purpose is limited and must be used optimally. It is seeking to meet 40% of the VINEX target (i. Even the more heavily burdened sites which were ignored for 27 . The object is to create a sustainable district with restricted car-use and good spatial quality. two supermarkets (3000 m2) and 6000 m2 of large-scale retail facilities. in particular commuter traffic. During the consultation exercise it transpired that this space will not be sufficient: the hospital will need 50.000 m2. The influx of new residents will also increase demand for local facilities in the northeastern part of Groningen.2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The policy of the City of Groningen is to increase its urban density. The fact that the site lies within the city limits means that its development can help to reduce car-use. The question of whether it is possible to satisfy this need is currently being studied. sustainable building using new forms of construction.000 m2 for offices and commercial space. Apart from its contaminated soil the environmental quality of the CiBoGa is good for a city-centre location. The CiBoGa site will also have a strategic significance in relation to the city centre. 7000 homes) within the existing city limits. energy and waste collection. the integration of the new and the old. The area has been designated as the north eastern access zone.e. New opportunities will be created for the present west-side shopping centre. Potential The development of CiBoGa will have major knock-on effects on neighbouring areas. It is important that this environmental quality should be preserved and further enhanced with the development of the site. The draft urban development plan also reserves 20. In early 1998 the minister of VROM signed a covenant on the clean-up of the soil. making an integrated approach possible. The emphasis will be on compact construction (an average of 70 homes/hectare). Special attention will be given to ecology.2. The clean-up operation will begin in October.different parties together. and flexible buildings and public spaces. 1300 underground parking places (of which only 500 will be residential). 3. giving the go-ahead for the construction of the new CiBoGa district. intended for functions linked to the University Hospital. CiBoGa has enough space for over 900 homes.
Since the development involves compact housing at an urban location with excellent public transport access. The municipality was also able to avail itself of subsidies totalling NLG 25 million from various schemes for the above-ground development of the CiBoGa site. 3. in 1990 the area was designated a model project within the framework of the Second Transport Structure Plan. As far as soil remediation costs are concerned. The CiBoGa development is also one of the national projects that form part of the 'Stad & Milieu' programme. which might be applicable in other cases. The objective is to contain the growth of car traffic to no more than 30% by 2010. Various studies were carried out to formulate the 28 . The province itself contributed NLG 1. The conjunction of above-ground and underground development. The sites concerned are suitable for intensive construction and presently house a range of different functions.2. Funding VROM contributed NLG 200. In 1995 the project was further designated a 'synergy project' under the VINEX 'Quality on Site' project. the ecological aspirations and the difficult inner city situation interface well with the 'Stad & Milieu' objectives. objectives relating to sustainable development. The favourable position of the CiBoGa site should help to limit car-use. Groningen also has a progressive transport policy. the municipality was able to draw on both the Soil Protection Act budget (NLG 10 million) and project funds established under the Act (NLG 12. The CiBoGa site fulfils these requirements admirably.000 towards the costs of preparing the project in the framework of the VINEX project 'Quality on Site'.3 Description Legal A study phase was inaugurated on the basis of a declaration of intent made between the municipality of Groningen and the private sector participants.4 million. This was a result of the chosen strategy of taking an integrated approach to the quality options and shortening the development period.years are now being given priority.5 million).
an agreement on future cooperation will be submitted to the Council. the sites and buildings remained the property of the municipality of Groningen. were willing to invest. When a decision comes to be taken on the draft plan. which with accrued interest now amounts to NLG 9 million. As mentioned earlier. working methods and organisation. in consultation with the provincial soil remediation team. VROM indicated that it would not be able.9 million towards this total. to reduce overall clean-up costs for the former gasworks site to NLG 31. Rehabilitation and development would only be possible if both the municipality and the province.8 million. A preparatory decision has been taken and the revision will be completed by the middle of the year. to be set aside. within the foreseeable future. The municipality will itself contribute NLG 11.objectives and identify the constraints and relevant issues for the CiBoGa development. The CiBoGa plans cannot be accommodated within the existing land-use plans for the area. By recalculating on present prices and by means of ingenious planning which integrated the soil remediation work and preparatory sitework prior to construction the CiBoGa team was able. The 1993 contract governing this transaction provided for a sum of NLG 7 million. corresponding to the statutory municipal contribution of 10% of the estimated total clean-up costs at the time of NLG 70 million (excluding value-added tax). This brought the total costs for clean-up for the entire CiBoGa site down to NLG 49. in which the cooperating parties will present their responsibilities. Financing and risks At the beginning of the project the province and municipality appeared to be facing soil clean-up costs for the site of the former gasworks of about NLG 80 million. to provide any financial support to the municipality and the province. The parties involved in developing the CiBoGa site are determined that the financial burden imposed 29 . the rest of the costs will be met by central government grants under the Soil Protection Act and a grant from the province of Groningen. The market will make a substantial contribution of NLG 5 million by accepting a higher land price. When the Groningen Drenthe Energy Company acquired the municipal energy company. With the adoption of the plan the agreement came to an end. and if possible the open market and the energy sector. The studies resulted in a draft urban development plan.4 million. is also to be used to help defray the soil clean-up costs. This amount. which will therefore have to be revised.
The gasworks site is severely contaminated. Apart from the four Soil Protection Act cases there are several other contaminated sites within the plan area. The investment of NLG 110 million should help guarantee this quality. mineral oil and aromatics. particularly by PAH (tar) and cyanide. mainly involving PAH and mineral oil. Community involvement Special attention is being paid in the project to arranging contacts with residents and the business community. the Boden site and Cordes. The groundwater here is slightly to moderately contaminated locally with C3 and C4 benzene isomers. The development of the integrated plan for the area is heavily influenced by the magnitude of the contamination at the former gasworks site. The Circus and Boden sites are contaminated with PAH and mineral oil. reflecting their particular positions. This allowed nearby residents and the business community to make their contribution to the planning process. chromium. A more balanced distribution of the costs between the various parties was secured by swapping costs between underground and above-ground work. Clean-up procedures and standards Within the CiBoGa boundaries there are four sites which are subject to the Soil Protection Act: the gasworks site. Almost half of these costs will be met by receipts from the sale of the land. An open planning procedure was adopted for this purpose. with above-ground and underground structures being coordinated on an ongoing basis with the plans for cleaning up the soil. panels of residents and business people were set up at an early stage at city district level to provide a forum for structured discussion. 30 . to a lesser extent. zinc and copper. The clean-up operation will be kept as lean and efficient as possible so as to save costs. the Circus site. and the groundwater under both these sites is contaminated with PAH. These sites do not qualify for subsidies under the Soil Protection Act scheme. and will have to be dealt with by the municipality itself. The groundwater is severely contaminated by benzene and cyanide.5 million to the above-ground developments. In addition. Cordes is heavily contaminated with lead and.by the need to clean up the soil should not jeopardise the high quality planned for the development. The lead content is related to the quantities of rubble in the soil. A decision was taken to integrate the soil clean-up with the construction activities. both in the area itself and in adjacent areas. By way of an experiment. by co-financing and by phasing the work. the municipality will contribute NLG 32.
retail outlets and offices/commercial space. an open planning procedure was adopted in which all the relevant parties participated.The open planning procedure preceded the formal consultations required by the Town and Country Planning Act. and these will form buffers between the housing and the deep residual contamination.5 metres. 31 . In places where the walls of the underground car-park are laid the contaminated soil will be excavated to a depth of 3. There is therefore a certain intermixing of functions. New policy approach In order to build a wide support base for the CiBoGa project. The statutory basis for this was provided by a Consultation Ordinance enacted by the municipality of Groningen. The development mainly involves the construction of housing. Central government was also involved in the planning through the 'Quality on Site' project. Integrated approach The municipality of Groningen has developed an integrated plan in which the above-ground and underground redevelopment of the CiBoGa site is linked to the soil clean-up operations. In developing the CiBoGa site. the objective is to achieve a high construction density (an average of 70 homes per hectare) and good environmental and spatial quality. panels were set up during the investigation period. density and quality The CiBoGa site is expected to breathe new economic life into the nearby shopping centre as well as the city centre. combined with car parks. This will eliminate any risk to the residents and also reduce remediation costs. with residents and business persons from the surrounding neighbourhoods participating in a personal capacity. Building on this inner city site will also bring about a further consolidation of the inner city urban fabric. In order to increase public involvement. Slightly contaminated soil can be re-used and heavily contaminated soil can be removed and cleaned. subject to a number of rules. Economic development/ Multifunctionality. Contaminated water will be purified. These panels were given the opportunity to work alongside the professionals involved in the project. Underground car-parks will be built in those places where the soil is most contaminated.
4 Results Current status The preparatory work has now been completed and work will commence shortly. The estate occupies an area of some 20 hectares.2. The presence of serious contamination in the soil does not have to frustrate the achievement of a high environmental quality. Before work starts on cleaning up the soil. The willingness of the various stakeholders to contribute to the development of the area made an integrated approach possible.1 Background History De Wolfsdonken is an obsolete industrial estate which lies to the west of the centre of 's-Hertogenbosch. 3.but also provided for the development of a sustainable neighbourhood of high spatial quality. Lessons for the future Considerable cost savings can be made by taking an integrated approach to soil clean-up and site development. Since the execution of the plan has yet to be started.3. Evaluation and assessment Many different parties were involved in the development of the plan. An open planning process increases support for the project and helps to enhance the overall quality of the area.the contamination of the soil . with restricted car access. This resulted in a plan of high quality which not only devised an integrated solution to the main obstacle which had thwarted the development of the area for years .3 DE WOLFSDONKEN 'S-HERTOGENBOSCH 3. evaluation and assessment would be as yet premature. and is very mixed in character. 32 . Compact housing with excellent access to public transport allows a car-restricted neighbourhood to be created. an integrated plan will first be drawn up in order to ensure good coordination between these clean-up activities and the further development of the area. however.3.
000 m2 29. The site is also exposed to contaminated soil and groundwater. An academy of art is also located on the site. which is being completely redeveloped (and is partially completed) 28.000 m2 of office and similar space.5 billion for new buildings and NLG 350 million for road and rail infrastructure and public spaces. The redevelopment of De Wolfsdonken will start in 1998 and will last six to ten years. in terms both of 27 28 The Utrecht-Eindhoven and Tilburg-Nijmegen line. The land-use plan provides for 70. To the north of De Wolfsdonken lies 'La Gare'. Potential 's-Hertogenbosch is strategically situated within the southern flank of the ring of cities in the central part of the Netherlands. To the south former barracks are being transformed into an area containing housing. 200. The investments for the area as a whole total NLG 1. a district hospital with 800 beds and a new station.containing modern and outdated businesses. the De Wolfsdonken industrial estate will also undergo a radical restructuring and functional renewal. The plan also provides for 450 homes and a park. The city has developed as a commercial and service centre. odours and major hazard. The programme consists of at least one-third of the floor area for housing. Present ideas are that the latter will be made up of social facilities and/or urban facilities and/or enterprises offering employment. The low intensity of usage at the site is underscored by the presence of the burnt-out buildings belonging to one of the companies. A concentration and mixing of functions on this site will contribute to its sustainable development. noise nuisance.000 to 250. 65. The centre of 's-Hertogenbosch has grown considerably. an area where restructuring started in the mid-1990s. Between 700 and 1250 homes will be built. The 'urban facilities' would probably consist of training centres. The area has a capacity of some 200. a conference centre.000 m2 for educational establishments. and is within walking distance of the city centre. Catalyst De Wolfsdonken adjoins a railway track27 and the Central Station. offices and educational facilities. one-third for businesses offering employment and one-third to be determined later. Overall. depending on specific designs and market forces. both small and large. the first of which will be completed around the year 2000. De Wolfsdonken is strategically situated within the existing city of 's-Hertogenbosch and can be readily accessed both by public transport and by car. 33 . To its west a concentration of educational establishments occupies the site of a former sports complex. Arising from the desire of the municipality "to extend the city centre onto the other side of the tracks". and forms the intersection of the north-south links with the towns of North Brabant. It forms part of the 'Railway District' in 's-Hertogenbosch. The Railway District is being transformed from an industrial estate into an area of mixed functions. hotels and catering establishments. the area has a forsaken feel about it.000 m2 of office and similar space. including 2500 to 3000 homes.
A partial revision affecting the western section was adopted by the municipal council on 13 December 1954. 27 March 1946. Urban regeneration will have the effect of making this formerly peripheral district 'on the wrong side of the tracks' part of the city centre. The Fourth Policy Document on Spatial Planning provides for the drawing up of these model plans. thereby fulfilling the first policy objective for the development of De Wolfsdonken. The purpose of this plan was to curb the growth in car use. no major state funding was available for the project33. In 1993 a plan for the De Wolfsdonken industrial estate intended to serve as a model exemplifying particular aspects of location policy was issued32. Funding The move of the law courts into a neighbouring area will contribute indirectly but significantly to De Wolfsdonken. cars and bicycles converge. so it was decided to draw up a new land-use plan for De Wolfsdonken.population and jobs. New law-courts were recently completed. The station has been modified to accommodate evolving requirements. 34 31 32 . and will give a major impulse to the development of the area.2 Specifications Relation to policy and regulations The current land-use plans covering the area are somewhat outdated30.3 29 30 Description Excluding facilities constructed for cars .3. allowing it to relieve some of the pressure on the centre.3. February 1998. bus. The completely new station has a new entrance and a new footbridge. and now forms part of an integrated transport interchange where train. Plan for extending city by sections. 3. approved by the North Brabant provincial executive. intended to generate ideas for developing different aspects of spatial policy. The municipality recently 31 issued a first draft of the new plan. and will shortly be occupied. Otherwise. 3. The development of De Wolfsdonken follows on logically from these earlier developments. Discussions are currently being held with the province about applying for central government cofinancing of the costs of cleaning up the site in so far as they cannot be recovered from former owners.
Clean-up procedures and standards The soil is slightly to severely contaminated by heavy metals. ideas have developed about how the clean-up should be tackled. Contaminated groundwater has also migrated into neighbouring areas. 33 Because 's-Hertogenbosch has not been designated a 'nodal town'. 35 . and takes care of the planning procedures. in which the private sector bears the risks and erects the buildings. Financing and risks The cooperation with the private sector proved to be very important. A development corporation was set up. A small area is severely contaminated. It will involve cleaning up hot spots and preventing the further spread of contamination. An integrated approach will have to be taken to cleaning up the groundwater of De Wolfsdonken and the surrounding area. In the case of a PPC the parties pay 8% of the expected receipts from the land to the 'major works' fund. a cooperation agreement and an area development agreement. and will take several years. and locally with mineral oil. Both these forms of cooperation were formalised in declarations of intent. It was established through two devices: a Public-Private Cooperation (PPC). whereby the private sector and the municipality bear the risks and erect the buildings jointly. and a Public-Private Partnership (PPP). The discussions between the authorities and the private parties culminated in three formal agreements: a declaration of intent. A closed soil balance is proposed whereby the slightly contaminated soil excavated during the building work will be used for terracing work elsewhere on the site. The development of 'costly' plots could be offset by the development of 'cheap' plots. cooperation agreements and development agreements. if it is in its possession.Legal The plan was formally adopted as a land-use plan. In view of the severity of the contamination the methods to be used must be approved by the province. The contamination needs to be dealt with in accordance with the Soil Protection Act because it falls within the severe and urgent category. The groundwater is in part severely contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The redevelopment process was only made possible by the fact that an integrated plan was drawn up for the area. In both cases the municipality sells the land. Following the site investigation. and the soil there will probably be removed. The costs must be recovered where possible from the polluter and/or the owner. The site clean-up investigation has already been completed. PAH and mineral oil.
a declaration of intent was drawn up. in both technical and procedural terms. Multifunctionality. procedure and content proceeded in tandem. Economic development One of the aims in developing De Wolfsdonken is to increase the concentration of employment. partly by intermixing functions. During the project development. This permitted the development of De Wolfsdonken and the wishes of the various parties concerned to be properly coordinated. After an initial exploratory phase involving discussions between developers. New policy approach The process-oriented approach and the direct cooperation with the private sector were crucial to the success of the project. including industry. density and quality One of the key concepts in developing the area is to increase the urban density. Various different functions will be combined in the area. This allowed environmental considerations to be fully integrated into the planning of the development. The master plan consists 36 . and discussions were held with them.Community involvement The plan area is virtually uninhabited. housing. The development of De Wolfsdonken will form part of the development of the Railway District as a whole. allowing it to be optimally integrated into its wider setting. Integrated approach An integrated approach was taken in developing De Wolfsdonken. financiers and the municipality. thus boosting the local economy. urban facilities. social amenities. offices. The spatial plan was only drawn up after the environmental problems had been assessed. Those with a direct interest in the planning are the nearby businesses. but were novel at the time (early 1990s). Other community involvement in the development of De Wolfsdonken is provided for in the spatial planning procedures (in particular those relating to consultation). A master plan was then drafted and a feasibility study carried out. etc.
The municipality must demonstrate its willingness to invest. evaluation and assessment would be premature at this stage. The feasibility study gave an idea of the project's financial viability.4 Results Current status The preparatory work was completed with the signing of the cooperation agreement.of scenarios for the physical and functional development. Spread of risk through PPP device. Not dependent on external subsidies. Lessons for the future Joint planning or consent by municipality and private sector. This was the point at which the partners were able to take a decision to continue their cooperation. residents and other stakeholders.3. etc. environmental considerations.g. The draft landuse plan is the first step in the actual implementation of the project. The municipality would not have been able to embark on a project of this magnitude without private sector participation. Evaluation and assessment Since the execution of the plan has yet to be started. e. based on urban planning principles. since any loss in exploiting the land can be offset by the return on the buildings. Cooperation with fixed partners. The master plan was developed into a draft land-use plan. 37 . 3. contractually regulated. Good communications with the administration. Spreading risk between a number of parties opens up many opportunities. Linking the exploitation of the land and the buildings permitted greater risks to be taken. central government funding: self-reliant. Support and enthusiasm on the part of the administration are indispensable.
economic and environmental aspects.4 4. after having been tried in real life situation. In this process there is an open eye for integration of contents (different policy fields) but also of procedures (coordination of the interests of the various levels of government. the private sector and the public) and between content and procedures. Because it has become increasingly common for the policy documents which deal with the development of urban brownfield sites to be drafted jointly by different departments and in dialogue with the other actors involved. Policy is elaborated not only in various secondary policy documents. 4. They show how in a creative way redevelopment can be undertaken with quality-of-life and affordability as paramount concerns. If the various stakeholders are willing to participate in the development of the area concerned.1 Summary and conclusions MAIN POLICY ASPECTS The redevelopment of derelict land has been on the political agenda of the public authorities in the Netherlands for decades because of among others the long planning tradition in the Netherlands and the relative pressure on urban space. in which central government. an integrated approach becomes possible. the unity in policy is (ever) increasing. An open planning process is a good way of doing this. The Netherlands are currently in a phase in which these implementation instruments. implementation programmes. efforts are being made to produce a coherent contribution from the various policy approaches and from the different administrative levels. the provinces and the municipalities have very different responsibilities and tasks. and. Since then. The cooperation of the municipality with the private sector should be as much as possible be fixed in 38 . The result is a veritable policy patchwork quilt. The three case studies illustrate this shift in vision and approach. Early on a relatively piecemeal sectoral approach was en vogue. In the approach adopted there has been over the years a strong development. Soon the need became evident for greater coherence in and coordination of the range of policies aimed at redevelopment. stressing the physical environment not relating social. are being made more suitable for an integrated approach. legislation. financial schemes.2 LESSONS FROM THE CASE STUDIES Planning process In urban redevelopment projects it is important that the municipality cooperates with the various parties involved. joint or not.
(main) investors are often ready to follow. In order to expedite the decision-making process. When the soil clean up and the site development are embarked upon integrally this can lead to considerable savings. before the signing of contracts. It is not wise to make the development of an area totally dependent on external subsidies of this kind. Planning Urban brownfield sites are often ‘famous’ because of severe soil contamination. economic and/or spatial quality. When the government shows itself willing to invest.(written) contracts. This need not necessarily thwart area development. however. For the redevelopment of these areas collaboration between the municipality and the private sector is often essential because it leads to risk sharing. Linking land and building exploitation may as well help to limit risks in such a way that losses in land exploitation can be offset by positive returns on the buildings. Risks There are considerable risks associated with (large-scale) inner-city redevelopment. in the field of environmental. Other specific action by the authorities. Next to that prior investment in (quality of) public space can also assist in this process by providing an early image of the future quality of the proposed developments. 39 . unanticipated setbacks and thus limit risk. These schemes should first be seen as secundary funding only. Support can be created through vast external communication. Such collaboration needs to be statutorily arrangement. The development of inner city sites can considerably contribute to the quality of the immediate urban areas. Support To be able to implement large-scale projects of this kind is support of political parties and the general public of utmost importance. for instance designation as a model project by central government and/or initial investment by the municipality can give impulses to further investment. it is important that the participants be properly mandated and that good contacts be maintained between the parties involved. By incorporating ‘bad weather’-scenarios in an early stage of the planning process it becomes possible up to a certain extent to foresee and avert. By using an integrated approach of the development(s) additional benefits can be gained. The government has in recent years established a number of financial schemes to help fund inner-city redevelopment projects. Generally speaking municipalities are unable to bear the costs on their own.
Notten Mr. J. Peuscher Spatial Planning and Economic Affairs Department (Project Secretary) 's-Hertogenbosch municipality (De Wolfsdonken): Mr. Daalderop Spatial Planning and Town Planning Department 40 . H. M. L.Appendix LIST OF CONTACT PERSONS Maastricht municipality (Céramique): Mr. Wouters Project bureau (Project Manager) Project bureau Groningen municipality (CiBoGa): Ms.
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