Teachers UNIT Topic: Materials/resourc es

JULITA L.B ELCHES, W.E.B Dubois High School JUDITH K. BEBORA, Mergenthaler Voc-Tech High School Atomic Structure Splitting the Atoms Materials on activity: A. The Cloud Chamber How Can You See the Footprints of Radiation? • small transparent container with transparent lid • flat black spray paint • blotter paper • pure ethyl alcohol • radioactive source • masking tape • dry ice • styrofoam square • flashlight • gloves or tongs to handle the dry ice B. Using a Geiger Counter How radioactive are different materials?
• •

Geiger counter Radioactive sources such as: o cloisonne jewelry o commercially available source from a science supply house o luminescent clock face Shielding materials such as: o paper o aluminum foil o brick o jar of water o piece of wood o glass pane o sheet of lead

C. Personal Radiation Dose

To find your average annual dose (mrems), use the interactive Personal Annual Radiation Dose Calculator woksheet Other material/s: router, hand-out on nuclear chemistry Resources: KWL chart on Radiation: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2kwl.ht m Video clip on Japan Earthquake: Radiation Effects On Body

(03.14.11) link- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5jfYTsDYxU Radiation Lessons a. Classroom Activity 1 The Cloud Chamber How Can You See the Footprints of Radiation?
b. Classroom Activity 2 Using a Geiger Counter

How radioactive are different materials? c. Personal Radiation Dose http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basicref/teachers/unit1.html#class_activities Calculating the Half-Life of Twizzlers and M&Mium
http://apps.caes.uga.edu/sbof/main/lessonPlan/Calculating%20Halflife%20Twizzlers %20MMs.pdf

24 television series season 6- episode 1-4: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/24_%28season_6%29 Video clip on Atomic and Nuclear Bombs in Action link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmWBY283o5s Podcast activity Splitting the atom – Student E- Sheet: http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php? BenchmarkID=10&DocID=40 Podcast Presentation Rubric: http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/presentation/ National Standards • •

Science is an inquiry. Students will have abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. The atom's nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than electrons. When an element has atoms that differ in the number of neutrons, these atoms are called different isotopes of the element. The nuclear forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together, at nuclear distances, are usually stronger than the electric forces that would make it fly apart. Nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy, and they can release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces. Fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure, and is the process responsible for the energy of the sun and other stars.

Core Learning Goals

• • • • • •

Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions, emitting particles and/or wavelike radiation. The decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate. This predictability can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes. 1.1.1 The student will recognize that real problems have more than one solution and decisions to accept one solution over another are made on the basis of many issues. 4.1.1 The student will analyze the structure of the atom and describe the characteristics of the particles found there. Assessment limits: subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, & electrons –not to include quantum mechanical details of electron configurations) nucleus & electron cloud (definition; no orbitals included) atomic number, mass number, and isotopes (definitions; calculate numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons; notations) atomic mass (qualitative concept of weighted average only; atomic mass unit) neutral atom historical development and/or experimental evidence for the existence and structure of the atom (Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, electron cloud model)

Objectives

Students are expected to: 1. Identify the timeline of atomic development leading to the radiation usage. 2. Identify different applications of radiation. 3. Explain the effects of radiation to human body. 4. Distinguish between natural and man-made radiation. 5. Detect and measure radiation using a Geiger counter. 6. Investigate the "footprints" of radiation using the Cloud Chamber. 7. Describe the principle of half-life of radioactive materials and demonstrate how half-lives can be calculated. 8. Identify and discuss the different types of radiation. 9. Make a podcast to present assigned research topics that are related to radiation

Motivation

Activate students' prior knowledge by asking them what they already Know about RADIATION; then students (collaborating as a classroom unit or within small groups) set goals specifying what they Want to learn; and after viewing students discuss what they have Learned.

KWL format K __ 1 __ 2 __ 3 __ 4 __ 5

W __ 1 __ 2 __ 3 __ 4 __ 5

L After reading the text and "learning" the material, go back to the "K" column and see if any of your prior knowledge was innaccurate. Check any of them that are inaccurate, according to the text. Rewrite any of your statements that were inaccurate so they are correct. Then go to the "W" column and check any of your questions that the text did not answer. Be prepared to bring these unanswered questions up in class, or tell how you will find answers to them and where you will look to get the answers.

Reference:

Read this article: The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age (reference: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/radioactivity.php) After students have read the selection, discuss the concluding paragraph: "Radiation is a two edged sword: its usefulness in both medicine and anthropological and archaeological studies is undisputed, yet the same materials can be used for destruction. Human curiosity drove inquiring scientists to harness the power of the atom. Now humankind must accept the responsibility for the appropriate and beneficial uses of this very powerful tool." Engagement

Watch a video clip about radiation- Japan Earthquake: Radiation Effects On Body (03.14.11) link- http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=S5jfYTsDYxU

Students are asked to write their responses and reactions to what they are reading. Use the graphic organizer to write their responses and reactions: Notes from the video Responses and reactions

Exploration

Emphasize on Concepts on Radiation Let them watch the video: Marie Curie Projects ( The negative Effects of Radium on Health) Reference: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=sEHGP9XkQz8 Activities: d. Classroom Activity 1 The Cloud Chamber How Can You See the Footprints of Radiation?
e. Classroom Activity 2 Using a Geiger Counter

How radioactive are different materials? f. Personal Radiation Dose Reference: http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basicref/teachers/unit1.html#class_activities Calculating the Half-Life of Twizzlers and M&Mium This lesson plan includes two labs designed to teach the concept of half-life. The Twizzler lab is designed to introduce the topic and is best if used before the M&Mium lab. Reference:
http://apps.caes.uga.edu/sbof/main/lessonPlan/Calculating%20Halflife %20Twizzlers%20MMs.pdf

Connections to Homeland Security

Watch the video segments on 24: Season 6 Episodes 1–4: Major plots: Agent Jack Bauer, having been taken prisoner by China 20 months earlier, is released under a deal arranged by

President Wayne Palmer. Jack is immediately asked to sacrifice himself to Abu Fayed, who has offered CTU Hamri Al-Assad, who is believed to be the terrorist mastermind behind the suicide bombings of the last 11 weeks, in exchange for Bauer. Bauer finds out, however, that Assad is actually trying to stop the attacks, and Fayed is the true mastermind. Bauer escapes, rescues Assad, and then prevents a subway bombing in Los Angeles. Bauer & CTU then find out that the bombings of recent weeks were all designed to distract the United States from Fayed's true objective: the detonation of five suitcase nuclear bombs across the United States. At the end of the fourth episode, Jack is forced to kill Curtis Manning to keep Assad alive and one bomb is detonated in Valencia, north of L.A (twelve thousand are killed as a result from the initial explosion. Many more are expected to die from exposure to nuclear radiation.) Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/24_%28season_6%29 Use Cornell notes to identify how bombs affect the safety and security of the country. Topic: Nuclear bombs Directions As you view the video, keep in mind the following questions. After you have finished the video, answer the questions based on what you have learned. Questions 1. Explain the main conflict of the story? 2. Describe how the group of terrorists or individual involved plan to detonate bombs (atomic/nuclear). 3. Explain the effects of detonated bombs to the human race. 4. Explain how government agencies like CTU try to prevent terrorists from detonating the bombs. 5. If you are the director of CTU, what are the 3 things that you will do in order to Notes/Answers

Explanation

ensure the safety of the human population • Show the video clip on Atomic and Nuclear Bombs in Action link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmWBY283o5s

Hand-outs on Nuclear Chemistry. Work with group. Use four-column chart to organize your reading about ____

Four-Column Chart Write headings for each column. Add details to each column. Topic ______________________________________________________

Extension

Next, divide the class into research groups. Each group will do a report on one of the following topics. Each report should contain a 500-word essay, drawings, photographs, or other illustrations. The reports can be done as PowerPoint presentations, desktop published articles, or posters with accompanying essays. Student work should draw upon a variety of contemporary and current sources—including newspapers and periodicals, government documents, personal memoirs, etc. The student E-Sheet will provide links to resources and summaries of the report topics.

Topics for Student Reports using Podcasting

The Curies, who won the Nobel Prize in physics for their research in radioactivity, chose not to exploit their discoveries commercially. In fact, they made radium available to the scientific community so that the nature of radioactivity could be studied further. Why was this important? After Pierre Curie died, Marie Curie continued her research and succeeded despite the widespread prejudice against women in physical science. Describe the obstacles that she faced and provide evidence of her success in spite of those obstacles. Describe the scientific research conducted by the Curies. What steps did they take to produce radium and polonium? What were the results of their research? How did Rutherford's work expand on that of the Curies? Explain his work in defining the planetary model of the atom and how that helped to understand the nature of atomic structure. Describe the use of radioactivity in generating energy, in medicine,

in industry, and in other fields of scientific research. Sources for More Information Students can use these resources to research their report topics. They also can find a wealth of books on the historical and scientific aspects of the discovery of radioactivity and the splitting of the atom.  Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium  Maria Sklodowska-Curie 1867-1934  Marie Curie (1867-1934) from the American Institute of Physics  Marie Sklodowska Curie: Her Life As A Media Compendium  Figures In Radiation History  Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. (Illus.) NY: Simon & Schuster, 1995. 509pp. $30.00. 94-43517. ISBN 0-67167542-7.  Pflaum, Rosalynd. Marie Curie and Her Daughter Irene. (Illus.) Minneapolis: Lerner, 1993. 144pp. $16.13. 92-2453. ISBN 0-8225-4915-8.  Cobb, Cathy, and Harold Goldwhite. Creations of Fire: Chemistry's Lively History from Alchemy to the Atomic Age. (Illus.) NY: Plenum Press, 1995. xv+475pp. $28.95. ISBN 0306-45087-9. Radium: Narrative of a Moral Dilemma is a writing project in which the student plays the role of a character in an ethical reallife dilemma faced by medical researchers and patients whenever there is a breakthrough in the development of a procedure or drug to cure a disease. These resources can be used to enhance the study of the history of the splitting of the atom, including the work of Lise Meitner, Otto Frish, Enrico Fermi, and others.  Figures In Radiation History  Radioactivity: Historical Figures Connections to Homeland Security A. Students can continue to explore some of the social issues involved in the development of nuclear energy and weapons by examining these resources:  The American Experience: Meltdown at Three Mile Island  The American Experience: Race for the Superbomb  Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights Other activity to connect Homeland Security:

a. Present the powerpoint on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Effects of the Atomic Bomb and the Debate Task to do for students: Role play on Nuclear Attack and What to Do Focus on the following considerations: • The three basic ways people can reduce exposure to radiation • Practical Steps (a) People outside when a blast occurs ; (b) People sheltering-in-place (c) People advised to evacuate • Medical Treatment Use rubrics on presentation for grading purposes. • Presentation of students report using powerpoint and grading based upon the presentation rubrics. • To summarize and assess student understanding of the ideas in the central benchmarks, have students put the events surrounding the splitting of the atom into a story map in which students generate a map of its events and ideas. In order to map the story, students must identify the setting, characters, time, and place of the story, the problem, the goal, the action that took place, and the outcome. • • • • • Give instructions both orally and in writing Repeat instructions Allow extra time as needed Pair with more proficient student(s) Visually impaired: preferential seating provided; may use magnifying glass and/or large text

Evaluation

Accommodations and Modifications

STUDENT WORKSHEET

Use the table below and write down your answers on the space provided. Work with your group to complete K- Know about RADIATION; to complete W- Want to Learn (collaborating as a classroom unit or within small groups) set goals specifying what they Want to learn; and after viewing students discuss what they have Learned.

K __ 1 __ 2 __ 1 __ 2

W

L After watching the movie and "learning" the material, go back to the "K" column and see if any of your prior knowledge was innaccurate. Check

__ 3 __ 4 __ 5

__ 3 __ 4 __ 5

any of them that are inaccurate, according to the text. Rewrite any of your statements that were inaccurate so they are correct. Then go to the "W" column and check any of your questions that the text did not answer. Be prepared to bring these unanswered questions up in class, or tell how you will find answers to them and where you will look to get the answers.

Classroom Activity 1 The Cloud Chamber How Can You See the Footprints of Radiation?

While radiation cannot be seen, the cloud chamber allows you to see the tracks it leaves in a dense gas. Materials
• • • • • • • • • •

small transparent container with transparent lid flat black spray paint blotter paper pure ethyl alcohol radioactive source masking tape dry ice styrofoam square flashlight gloves or tongs to handle the dry ice

First, paint the bottom of the container with black paint and let it dry. Then cut the blotter paper into a strip about as wide as the height of the container. Cut two windows in the strip, as shown, and place it against the inside of the container.

Pour enough ethyl alcohol into the cloud chamber to cover the bottom of the container. The blotter paper will absorb most of it. Place the radioactive source in the cloud chamber and seal the lid with tape. Place the cloud chamber on the dry ice to super-chill it. Wait about five minutes. Darken the room. Shine the flashlight through the windows of the chamber while looking through the lid. You should see "puffs" and "trails" coming from the source. These are the "footprints" of radiation as it travels through the alcohol vapor. The vapor condenses as the radiation passes through. This is much like the vapor trail left by high flying jets. Do you see radiation in the cloud chamber? Other Ideas To Explore Try to identify these footprints:
• • •

Alpha: sharp tracks about 1 cm long Beta: thin tracks 3 cm to 10 cm long Gamma: faint, twisting and spiraling tracks

Caution: Dry ice should be handled very carefully! It can burn unprotected skin.

Classroom Activity 2 Using a Geiger Counter How radioactive are different materials? Materials
• •

Geiger counter Radioactive sources such as: o cloisonne jewelry o commercially available source from a science supply house o luminescent clock face Shielding materials such as: o paper o aluminum foil o brick o jar of water o piece of wood o glass pane o sheet of lead

Directions: 1. One at a time, test each item that is a source of radioactivity by placing the source 2 inches from the Geiger counter probe. Which item has the highest reading? The lowest? 2. Place the radioactive source that had the highest reading 2 inches from the Geiger counter probe. One at a time, test each of your shielding materials by placing them between the source and the counter. Do you think the density of the shield is important? Why?

This chart shows that natural sources of radiation account for about 50% of all public exposure while man-made sources account for the remaining 50%. Classroom Activity 3 Personal Radiation Dose We live in a radioactive world and always have. Radiation is all around us as a part of our natural environment. It is measured in millirems (mrems). The annual average dose per person from all sources is about 620 mrems, but it is not uncommon for any of us to receive more than that in a given year (largely due to medical procedures).
Procedure: 1. To find your average annual dose (mrems), use the interactive Personal

Annual Radiation Dose Calculator. Go to this link: http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation/around-us/calculator.html
2. If internet is available, print and download through this link:

http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/teachers/average-doseworksheet.pdf

Reference: http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basicref/teachers/unit1.html#class_activities

Activity Guidelines Calculating the Half-Life of Twizzlers and M&Mium
This lesson plan includes two labs designed to teach the concept of half-life. The Twizzler lab is designed to introduce the topic and is best if used before the M&Mium lab. Primary Learning Outcomes Students will learn the concept of half-life and how it relates to radioactive material. Students will determine, with a hands-on experiment, the half-life of Twizzlers and a “radioactive” element, M&Mium. Students will create and be able to recognize a graph representing the half-life of an element. Students will be able to determine how different factors modify the shape of the half-life graph. Assessed Maryland Standards SCSh4. Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials. SPS1. Students will investigate our current understanding of the atom. SPS3. Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity. Procedures/Activities (Designed to complete both labs in a 90 minute class period) Step 1: Duration 15-20 minutes Prior to class, the instructor should create partitions with 50 M&Ms each. Step: 2 Duration: 20-30 minutes Students will learn the concept of half-life in the first lab to determine and the half-life of a Twizzler. Students will determine the half-life of a Twizzler in terms of number of “halfbites” and in terms of time. Students will graph the amount of Twizzler left after each “half-bite” in order to learn the shape of a half-life curve. Follow procedure outlined in lab handout. Step 3: Duration 50-60 minutes Students will determine the half-life of a “radioactive” element, M&Mium. The half-life is the number of shakes that it takes for half of the M&Mium atoms to decay. Students will plot the data and determine the half-life of M&Mium. Follow procedure outlined in lab handout. Materials and Equipment

Per student/group: 2 individually wrapped Twizzlers, 50 M&Ms, plastic cup, white paper, graph paper Total Duration Teacher prep: 15-20 minutes In class: 80-90 minutes Assessment Students will be assessed on their understanding of half-life via post lab questions and graphs.

Part 1. Half-life: Determining and Graphing the Half-life of a Twizzler
Background: You should know the term “half-life” and know how it is related to radioactive elements. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for half of its atoms to decay into something else. For example, iodine-125 (I-125) has a half-life of about 60 days; therefore, in 60 days, 1g of I-125 will turn into half a gram of iodine-125 and half a gram of something else (the radioactive decay products of radium). After another 60 days have elapsed, only a ¼ of the original 1g of I-125 will remain. Purpose: To determine the half-life of a Twizzler and graph the results. Materials: 2 Twizzlers (1 for Part I and 1 for Part II) pencil/pen 2 sheets of graph paper Procedure: Part I: Amount of Twizzler vs. Bites 1. Hold original Twizzler vertically against the 'y' axis with one end at the origin. Mark the "length". This represents the beginning amount. 2. Wait for further instructions to “Take a ½ bite!” You must eat HALF (and only half) the length of the Twizzler. 3. Repeat step 1, holding the Twizzler a unit from the origin. Mark the new length (this is your y coordinate). 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the class until the instructor tells you to stop. 5. Draw a smooth “Best-Fit” line on your graph.

Procedure: Part II: Amount of Twizzler vs. Time 1. This time the procedure in Part I will be repeated except the instructor will tell you to take a bite every 45 seconds and record your data! Conclusions and Analysis: 1. Did the Twizzler ever completely disappear? Explain. 2. What was the half-life of the Twizzler in Part II? 3. If you had started with a GIANT Twizzler (2X the normal size) how would this have affected the shape of the graph? Explain. Describe the effect on the graph if you took a bite every 90 seconds. PART 2. Half-life: Determining and Graphing the Half-life of M&Mium Background: You should know the term “half-life” and know how it is related to radioactive elements. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for half of its atoms to decay into something else. For example, iodine-125 (I-125) has a half-life of about 60 days; therefore, in 60 days, 1g of I-125 will turn into half a gram of iodine-125 and half a gram of something else (the radioactive decay products of radium). After another 60 days have elapsed, only a ¼ of the original 1g of I-125 will remain. Purpose: To determine the half-life of the element M&Mium. Materials: Bag of M&Mium Isotopes **Radioactive members of this isotope family are easily distinguished via a bold m on the front surface of the atom.** 1 plastic cup pencil/pen white piece of paper 1 sheet of graph paper Procedure: 1. Count the number of M&Mium atoms as you place them in the cup. Record the total number of radioactive atoms you start with in your data table (on the back of your graph paper). 2. Cover and shake/rattle the cup. 3. Carefully pour your atoms onto your white paper. You will see that several of the previously

radioactive atoms in the group have decayed, and the m is no longer visible. This means that they are now considered "safe" and, since they are no longer radioactive, may actually be eaten without fear of any harm to you! Please do so, and as you remove the edible atoms, count them so you may determine the number of atoms that have decayed in that particular shake. (NOTE: You should not eat any of the decayed M&Mium atoms until you are on your 3rd trial) 4. Now you need to continue this pattern until no more radioactive members remain. Remember to record the number of decayed atoms after each shake! Analysis: Using the graph paper provided, construct a graph of N (Number of decayed atoms) as a function of the number of shakes. Use the average of the 3 trials to construct this graph. (Remember to label your x-axis, y-axis, and indicate a title for your graph.) Conclusions: 1. Calculate the half-life of M&Mium? (i.e., What number of shakes are necessary to reduce the radioactive members to one-half?) M&Mium Data Table Shake # Trial 1 # Decayed Trial 2# Decayed Trial 3 # Decayed Total Average

Graph title _____________________________

READING ARTICLE•

The Dawn of the Nuclear Age (reference: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/radioactivity.php)

ACTIVITY GUIDELINES Reference: http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php? BenchmarkID=10&DocID=40

Splitting the Atom

Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906) are perhaps two of the most famous scientists known for their contributions to the study of radioactivity. Pierre was born in Paris and Marie in Poland. In 1895, they were married. They both studied at the Sorbonne, and together made significant contributions to the field of radiation studies. They studied the properties of uranium and thorium and soon discovered polonium. Pierre pursued the study of magnetism acting at high temperatures. Marie Curie continued her studies in chemistry and physics and is the only person ever to receive Nobel Awards in both disciplines. (Environmental Protection Agency, “People and Discoveries” (17 July 2006), U.S. Government.) Radiation has always existed in the natural world, but scientists were unaware of it until the end of the 19th century. The scientist that is perhaps most associated with radiation studies is Marie Curie. In this lesson, you will explore the work of the Curies and other early radiation researchers. Begin by reading The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age.

PODCASTING ACTIVITY- extension activity Check with your teacher before continuing. Your group will do a report on one of the topics listed below. Each report should contain a 500-word essay, drawings, photographs, or other illustrations. The reports can be done as Podcasting presentations,

desktop published articles, or posters with accompanying essays. Your work should draw upon a variety of contemporary and current sources— including newspapers and periodicals, government documents, personal memoirs, etc. Topics for Student Reports

The Curies, who won the Nobel Prize in physics for their research in radioactivity, chose not to exploit their discoveries commercially. In fact, they made radium available to the scientific community so that the nature of radioactivity could be studied further. Why was this important? After Pierre Curie died, Marie Curie continued her research and succeeded despite the widespread prejudice against women in physical science. Describe the obstacles that she faced and provide evidence of her success in spite of those obstacles. Describe the scientific research conducted by the Curies. What steps did they take to produce radium and polonium? What were the results of their research? How did Rutherford's work expand on that of the Curies? Explain his work in defining the planetary model of the atom and how that helped to understand the nature of atomic structure. Describe the use of radioactivity in generating energy, in medicine, in industry, and in other fields of scientific research.

Sources for More Information You can use the following resources to research your report topics. In addition to the ones listed below, you also can find a wealth of books on the historical and scientific aspects of the discovery of radioactivity and the splitting of the atom in your school or public library.
• • • • • • •

Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium Maria Sklodowska-Curie 1867-1934 Marie Curie (1867-1934) from the American Institute of Physics Marie Sklodowska Curie: Her Life As A Media Compendium Figures In Radiation History Quinn, Susan. Marie Curie: A Life. (Illus.) NY: Simon & Schuster, 1995. 509pp. $30.00. 94-43517. ISBN 0-671-67542-7. Pflaum, Rosalynd. Marie Curie and Her Daughter Irene. (Illus.) Minneapolis: Lerner, 1993. 144pp. $16.13. 92-2453. ISBN 0-82254915-8.

Cobb, Cathy, and Harold Goldwhite. Creations of Fire: Chemistry's Lively History from Alchemy to the Atomic Age. (Illus.) NY: Plenum Press, 1995. xv+475pp. $28.95. ISBN 0-306-45087-9.

These resources can be used to enhance the study of the history of the splitting of the atom, including the work of Lise Meitner, Otto Frish, Enrico Fermi, and others.
• •

Figures In Radiation History Radioactivity: Historical Figures

You can continue to explore some of the social issues involved in the development of nuclear energy and weapons by examining these resources:
• • •

The American Experience: Meltdown at Three Mile Island The American Experience: Race for the Superbomb Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights

Reference: RUBRICS You must consider each category below while completing your report. PODCASTING PRESENTATION

Name: ________________________ Date of Presentation: ____________

Teacher: Title of Work: ___________________

Criteria 4 Student presents Audience cannot Audience has Student presents information in understand difficulty information in logical, presentation following logical Organization interesting because there is no presentation sequence which sequence which sequence of because student audience can audience can information. jumps around. follow. follow. Student is Student Student does not uncomfortable Student is at demonstrates have grasp of with information ease with full knowledge Content information; student and is able to content, but (more than Knowledge cannot answer answer only fails to required)with questions about rudimentary elaborate. explanations subject. questions. and elaboration. Student Student used occasional used Visuals related visuals to Student used no visuals that Visuals to text and reinforce screen visuals. rarely support presentation. text and text and presentation. presentation. Presentation has Student's Presentation had no more than presentation had three Presentation has two four or more misspellings no misspellings Mechanics misspellings spelling errors and/or or grammatical and/or and/or grammatical grammatical errors. grammatical errors. errors. errors. Student mumbles, Student incorrectly incorrectly Student's voice Student used a pronounces terms, pronounces is clear. Student clear voice and Delivery and speaks too terms. Audience pronounces correct, precise quietly for students members have most words pronunciation in the back of class difficulty hearing correctly. of terms. to hear. presentation. Total----> Teacher Comments: 1 2 3

Points

____

____

____

____

____

____

Powered by TeAch-nology.com- The Web Portal For Educators! (www.teach-nology.com) Reference: http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/presentation/

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful