UNIT 18 TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
Structure
18.1 Introduction
Obj,lecIlvt?s
18.2 Basic Feasible Solution of a Transportation Problem 18.3 Modified Distribution (MODI) Method 18.4 Stepping Stone Method 18.5 Unbalanced Transportation Problem 18.6 Degenerate Transportation Problen~ 18.7 Transhipment Problem 18.8 Maximisation in a Transportation Problem 18.9 Solution of an Assignment Problem
1 8.10 Unbalanced Assignn~ent Problem
18.1 1 Problem with Some Infeasible Assignments 18.12 Maximisation in an Assignment Problem 18.13 Crew Assignment Problem
1 8.14 Summary
18.15 Key Words 18.16 Answers to SAQs
18.1 INTRODUCTION
The tra~isportation probleni is a special type of linear programming problem where the objective is to minimise the cost of distributing a product from a number of sources o r origins to a number of destinations. Because of its special structural format, the usual simplex method is unsuitable for solving transportation problems, These problems require a special method of solution. The special features of a transportation problem are illustrated with the help of the examples. The assignment problem in the general form can be stated as follows : Given n facilities, n jobs and the effectiveness of each facility for each job, the problem is to assign each facility to one and only one job i n such a way that the measure of effectiveness is optimized (Maximised or Minimised). Several problems of management has a structure identical with the assignment problem. A departmental head may have five people available for assignment and five jobs to fill. He may like to know which job should be assigned to which person so that all these tasks can be accomplished in the sliortest possible time. Likewise a truck company may have an empty truck in each of the cities 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 and needs an empty truck in each ofthe cities 7. 8.9, 10, I 1, 12. It would like to ascertain the assignment of trucks to various cities so as to minimise the total distance covered. In a marketing set up by making an estimate of sales performance for different salesmen as well as for different territories one could assign a particular salesrnan to a particular territory with a view to rnaxirnise overall sales.
It may be noted that with n facilities and n jobs there are n! possible arrangements. One way of finding an optimum assignment is to write all the n! possible arrangements, evaluate their total cost (in terms of the given measure of effectiveness) and select the assignment with minimum cost. The method leads to a computational problem of formidable size even when the value of n is moderate. Even for n = 10 the possible
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Operations Research Applicatioris
nuniber of arrangements is 3628800. It is thus, necessary to devclop a suitable computation procedure to solve an assignment problem. The regular simplex method or special methods that take advantage of the form of transportation problem can be used to solve the assignment problem. Since the solution would necessarily satisfy the integer restriction on all x,,. However, a special method called the Hungarian Method has been developed which takes advantage of the further restriction on the transportation problem.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to formulate a transportation problem, locate a basic feasible solution of a transportation problem by various methods, ascertain minimum transportation cost schedule by Modified Distribution (MODI) Method and Stepping Stone Method, discuss appropriate method to convert an unbalanced transportation problems into a balanced transportation problem, deal with degenerate transportation problenls, formulate and solve transshipment problem, discuss suitable method when the problem is to maximise the objective function instead of minimizing it, formulate an assignment problem, use Hungarian method for solving an assignment problem, choose appropriate method for balancing and solving an unbalanced assignment problem, introduce appropriate modification when some of the assignments are infeasible, modify the assignment problem when the objective is to maximize the objective function, and
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formulate and solve the crew assignment problenl.
Example 18.1
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Consider a manufacturer who operates three factories and dispatches his products to five different retail shops. The Table 18.1 indicates the capacities of the three factories, the quantity of products required at the various retail shops and the cost
Factory
1
2
3
Capacity
4
5
The Table 18.1 is usually referred to as Transportation Table provides the basic data regarding the transportation problem. The capacity of factories 1, 2,3, is 50, I00 and 150 respectively. The requirenient at retail shops 1, 2, 3,4, 5 is 100, 70, 50,40 and 40 respectively. The quantities in the bordered rectangle are known as unit transportation cost. The cost of transportation of one unit from factory 1 to retail shop 1 is I , factory 1 to retail shop 2 is 9 and so on. A transportation probleni can be fonnulated as a llnear procrrani~ninn problem using variables with two subscripts. Let
.Y, I =
Transportation Problem
Amount to be transported from factory 1 to retail shop I
.rlz= Aniount to be transported from factory 1 to retail shop 2
. r 3 = Aniount to be transported from factory 3 to retail shop 5. ~ Let the unit transportation costs be denoted by C l l ,CI2,..., C35,i.e..CII= 1, C I 2= 9 and so on. Let the capacities of the three factories be denoted by a1 = 50, a ? = 100, a3 = 150. The requirement of the retail shop are bl = 100, b2 = 70, b3 50, b4 = 40 and b5 = 40.

Then. the transportation problem can be formulated as follows : Mini~nise Subject to : CII XI I
+ c X12 + 1 2
. .  + c35 dx35
~ 1 + ~ 2 + X j 2 = b2 2 2
.xl 3
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+ x23 + ~ 3 = b3 3 .XI 4 + ~ 2 + ~3~ = b4 4 .rl5 + ~ 2 + . x = b5 5 ~ ~
XI,
2 0 , X 1 22 0, . . . , X35 2 0
Thus, tlie probleni has 8 constraints and 15 variables. It will be unwise, if not impossible, to solve such a problem using siniplex method. This is why, a specific coniputational procedure is necessary to solve transportation probleni. In tlie next section, a number of procedures have been presented to derive an in basic feasible solution of the problem.
SAQ 1
Fill LIPthe blanks : (a) (b) (c) The objective of a transportation problem is to ................ the transportation. The constraints of a transportation problem are ................ If a transportation probleni has m factories and n retail shops the number of variables is ........... and the number of constraints is
the obtained solution is a basic feasible solution. The reduced Transportation Matrix is given in Table 18.3. allocations are made starting from the northwest (upper left) comer completely disregarding the transportation cost. We observe that CII = 1 which is the minimum transportation cost in the entire transportation Table 18.2.1 the computation of an initial bask feasible solution of a transportation problem.Operatiuns Research Applicatio~is
18. Thus.2
The value of bl is reduced to 50 in the revised transportation table as 50 units have already been supplied in retail shop I from factory 1 . the problem has in fact seven constraints and fifteen variables.1. The following methods are available for the computation of an initial basic feasible solution. Any basic feasible solution thus has at most seven nonzero x p In general. Although the problem has eight constraints and fifteen variables. We now allocate 50 units to the northwest comer of the revised transportation table. minimum in the is entire transportation table.2 BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION OF A TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
We illustrate with the help of an example introduced in Section 18.1 nonzero x . x 33 = 50. x I I = 50 and the first row is eliminated from any further allocation.
1x50+24x50+12x50+35x20+1x50+23x40+26x40=4520. The last value of xu eliminates both a row and a column. x 32 = 20.. Hence. Thus.1. If there are two or more minimum costs then we should select the row and the column corresponding to the lower numbered row. if the transportation problem has m origins and n destinations. Hence. using the north west comer rule. ~ . In the present problem. 2 The corresponding transportation cost is given by. A row or a column is dropped and the same procedure is repeated with the reduced transportation cost matric. we have derived a basic feasible solution with seven nonzero xk
Matrix Minimum Method We look for the row and the column corresponding to which Ci.Thus. any basic feasible solution of a transportation problem with nt origirzs (such as factories) and n destinations (such as retail shops) has at most nt + n . Hence. a feasible solution computed by the northwest corner rule can have at most m + n 1 positive x u. a row or a column is elinhated from further consideration. x 34 = 40. x2l = 50. m = 3 and n = 5. By applying northwest corner rule to the transportation problem of Section 1 8.4 + bS. We choose the value of the correspondingx. The reduced transportation table becomes as Table 18.
. x 35 = 40. Eliminating the first row as the first factory is unable to supply any more. The method is illustrated with the help of the transportation problem presented in Section 18. Proceeding in this way. we obtain ~ 2 = 50.
The North West Corner Rule
In the North West Comer Rule.1. one of the constraints can be eliminated since nl + ~2 + a3 + = 61 + 62 + b3 + 6. as much as possible subject to capacity and requirement constraints.
Table 18. It they appear ie the same row we should select the lower numbered column. we obtain x l = 50 as the capacity of factory 1 is 50.
It is clear that as soon as a value of x i j is determined.
Cz5 I is 1. So um x 25 = 40. = 50.111: ~ l ~ i o i n ~transportation cost in the reduced transportation table.
or columns are equal.4
. Vogel Approximation Method (VAM) Vogel Approximation Method (VAM) for tinding an initial basic feasible solution involves the following steps :
lowest cost element in the same row (column).3

Transportatio~~ Problem
The minimum transportation cost obtained by using matrix method is much lower transportation cost while choosing the values of the basic variables.
Table 18. x 3 . s 32 = 10.
I x50+I x40+1x50+12x60+14x50+33xl0+23x40=2810.4 Table 18. The basic feasible solution developed by the matrix minimum method has a transportation cost. Proceeding in this way we observe that x 33 = 50. we select the topn~ost and the extreme left row (c) We select xii as a basic variable if Cii is the minimum cost in the row
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Consider the transportation probIem presented in the Table 18. x 22 = 60. x 34 = 40.
.v method provides a minimum cost solution to the transportation problem. . we get x14 80.5 : Computation of Penalty for VAM
The highest penalty occurs in the second column. The steps involved in the Modified Distribution Method are as follows :
. in this column is C12 22.. X24 = 30. Table 18. the VAM provides a basic feasible solution whose associated cost is quite closer to the minimum transportation cost. . . x 1 = 10. .
Applications
The Table 18.. Hence. = 40 = 2 I Proceeding in this way. Find an initial basic feasible solution of the transportation problem by using : (a) (b) (c) Nonthwest corner rule Matrix minimum method Vogel approximation method Table 18.6
18. X23 = 30.. .
. X ~ = 50. The minimum C.6. also known as MODI method or u . The transportation cost corresponding to this choice of basic variables is Generally.
.5 shows the computation of penalty for various rows and columns.3 MODIFIED DISTRIBUTION (MODI) METHOD
The modified distribution method. x12= and the second column is eliminated. .
associated unit transportation costs are presented in Table 18..
1 given in Table 18. If there are n? origins and n destinations.u i _ vj and allocate as niuch as possible subject to the row and the column constraints.
~ 3= 2
50.ui _ vj < 0. v4.1) nonzero xi. It is also to be noted that as the primal constraints are equations. One of the dual variables can be chosen arbitrarily.
(b)
The dual variables u l . ~ 3 = 5 1
50... The to values of the dual variables should be determined from the following
Transportation Prublem
(b)
(c)
Any basic feasible solution of the transportation problem has (rrt + n .u2. 2.. If xii = 0.ui .
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1
Origin
i
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2
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3
4
l
5
i
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Availability
1
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(a)
The initial basic feasible solution by matrix minimum method is
X I1 =
50.
(d)
If all Cii. Let us consider the transportatiori problem of Example 18. it can be shown that the corresponding solution of the transportation problem is optimum.(a)
Find out an initial basic feasible solution of the transportation problem using one of the three methods described in the Section 18. (e) A fresh set of dual variables are computed that entire procedure is repeated. ~ 10. we take. the dual variables computed in step 3 are conipared with the Ci. then by an application of complementary slackness theorem. we choose the cell with least value of CU.7 with a basic feasible solution coniputed bv Matrix Minimum method. xjq = 40.. the dual variables are unrestricted in sign. v2. there will be rn + n . n). ~
2= 2 3= 3
60.1 equations to determine I + n dual n variables. We introduce dual variable corresponding to the row constraints and the column constraints. Thus. u3 and v . then there will co~responding colunin constraints are denoted by vj (j'= 1. If one or niore of Cu. 2 0. u3= 0 as it occurs niost often in the equations. The allocation of a number of adjacent cell are adjusted so that a basic variable becomes nonbasic. vs can be computed from the corresponding Cuvalues
(c)
Since one of the dual variables can be chosen arbitrarily. v. The values of the dual variables are
.2. v3. ~
2 = 40. . .
vj 2 0 except for cell (1. we have to reduce one unit in cells (3.V ] = . in the next iteration x 1 2 will be a basic variable changing one orthe present basic variables nonbasic. A basic feasible solution with rn origins and n destinations is said to be degenerate if the number of nonzero basic variables is less than rn + n . The revised basic feasible solution is
X I I = 40. 1).] . Thus.
It can be verified that the new set of dual variables satisfy the optimality condition.2) will be negative.r.ui. the minimum cost transportation schedule is
= 40. Thus.1 1.2).Operations Research
(c)
We now compute Cii . The net reduction in the transportation cost for each unit of such reallocation is 33l+9+14=11 The maximum that can be allocated to cell (1.
~ 3 l =
XI^=
3 = 3
lo. ~ 40.vjvalues for all the cells wlierc . ~
50.
2 . 2) is 10.1. Step (c) is performed with all the empty cells till no further reduction in the transportation cost is possible. If the net result of such re.2) where C.6. A number of adjacent cells are balanced so that the row and the column constraints are not violated. ~
2
60.
that the solution presented is the optimum solution. When a transportation problem is degenerate it has to be properly modified. ~
3= 4
The corresponding tlansportation cost is 2700 which is about 4% less than the transportation cost arrived a t by matrix niinimum method.U. Each empty (nonallocated) cell is now examined for a possible decrease in the transportation cost.ui. X Z~~ = 2 40. x 2 2 = 60. XI^=
~ 3 = 3
lo. This has been included in Section 18. Next check for degeneracy.adjustment is a decrease in the transportation cost.
(c)
(d)
. We also observe that for allocating one unit in cell (1.4 STEEPING STONE METHOD
Steeping Stone Method is another method for finding the optimum solution of the
(a) (b)
Find an initial basic feasible solution of the transportation problem.
60.: = 0. 1) and increase unit in cell (3. All the Cg.
50. One unit is allocated to an empty cell.. ~ 3 4 = 4 0 .2) and (I. If there is another allocation with zero increase or decrease in the transportation cost than the transportation problem has multiple solutions.j ~X ~ = I
40.
6. otherwise the allocation in cell (3. we include as many units as possible in the selected empty cell and cany out the necessary readjustment with other cells.
18.
Table 18. (d) The result of reallocating one unit to cell CD is indicated in Table 18. The result of allocating one unit along with the necessary adjustment in the adjacent cells is indicated in Table 18.9
Table 18.4 . Thus. such a reallocation is unnecessary. This indicates that every unit allocated to route BD will neither increase nor decrease the transportation cost.E 7
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Table 18.9 Factory Depot
D I E \
1
F
I
G
Capacity
I Requirement 1
400
450
350
1
500
1
1700
The figures in the parenthesis indicate the allocation in the corresponding cells.8 (cost in Rupees).
Table 18.1 = 6 .3
Transportation Probleni
Consider the transportation problem given in Table 18.
Factory
1.11 Factory Depot
D I E I
F
I c
Capacity
I Requirement 1
400
1
450
1
350
1
500
1
1700
1
. .10.Example 18.
(b)
The solution is not degenerate as the number of nonzero basic variables is nt + n .8 Depot F I G Capacity
C Requirement
3 400
9
6 350
5 500
600 1700
450
(a)
We compute an initial basic feasible solution of the problem by NorthWest Corner Rule as presented in Table 18.10 Factory Depot
(c)
D I E /
F
G
Capacity
Requirement
400
/
450
350
500
1700
The net increase in the transportation cost per unit quantity of reallocation in cell BD is 3 + 6 . The cell BD is empty.1 1.5 = 0.
~ 2 = 50. the present allocation is optimum. ~ 2 = 350. ~ 1 = 400.
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The minimum transportation cost is
4x300+6x400+5x50+2x350+3x100+5x500=7350
The transportation schedule is.13
This procedure is repeated with remaining empty cells CE.
Table 18.13
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Unoccupied Cell
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Increase in Cost per Unit o f Reallocation
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Since reallocation in any other unoccupied cell cannot flirther decrease the transportation cost. The maximum amount that can be allocated in CD is I 00 and this will make the: oumnt basic variable corresponding to cell CF napbasic. not unique as there are a number of unoccupied cells with zero increase in transportation cost. The results are summarized in the Table 18. CF. 2 2 3 x3l=
100. the new route would be beneficial to tpe coqpany.
= 300.
Tabls 1P. Table 18.12 shows the transportation table after the reallocation. AG and BG. Thus.
XI. however.4 '5 i 6 = .13.14
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Table 18.
SAQ 4
Solve the transportation problem given in Table 18. ~
3 4 500..14 by stepping stone methad. aThus. AF.Operations Rcsear~h Applications *
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The net increase in the qqnsp~rtation per unlt quantity of reallocation in coyt ceil C& is 3 + 4 i. we get.
if the total demand is more than {he tqfql supply an additional row i~ jntrpduced in the table which represents unsqtisfieg dprnaq with transportatioq east zem. The balancipg of an u~balanced lranspo~tation prqhlem i.
Transportafion Problem
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plant
h i
Warehouses WareQpusep Wl
Table 18. Thus.
As for illustration the transportation problem presented in Section 18.
0
Available
Unsatisfied
0 300 300
1
1
300 1100
I Requirement 1
(
500
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Now the problem can be worked out as discussed in previous sections.TRANSPORT~TIQN PROBLFY .. If we apply modified distribution method. Computational difficulty will also arise while applying stepping stone method to a degenerate transportation problem. The degeneracy in a result (Mustafi.5 is degenerate as
. 1988) : transportation problem can be identified through the foll~wing
A degenerate basic feasible solution In a transportation problem exists if and only if
some partial sum of availabllities (row) Is equal to a partial sum of requirements (column).15
Available
Plant
I
1
1
w 3
I
w.
Example 18.
It is thus necessary to identify a degenerate transportation problem at the very beginning and take appropriate step to avoid any computational difficulty. Likewise. degeneracy does not cause any serious difficulty.6 DEGENERATE TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
If a basic feasible solution of a transportation problepl with m origins and n destinations has {ewer than m + n .rir)bions.4
In Table 1 8. the total requirement is 1 100 wh~reas total supply 800. .
We solved the various [ran@porta{i@n proRlevs with t h qasq~ption the total supfly ~ that at the origins ir equal to the total rgquirev~nt the deqf. they are uneqval the at If problem is known as an unbalqnoed tmv~porlafi~fl preblen.s illustrated in tile foliowi!g example.
While in the simple computation.
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18.1 positive xu (occupied cells) the problem is said to be a dege~erate transportation problem. you will be unable to locate one or more CUvalue which should be equated to corresponding ui + 9. the we introduce an addition21 row with transportation cost zgro indicating the unsatisfied demand as shown in Table 18. values of the basic variables.5 UNBALANCED . it can cause computational dificulty in a transportation problem. If the problem is dogenprate.16..15.18. Ift& total supnlj is ?lor$ than the total demand. then the dual variables ui and q are obtained from the C. we introduce an a d d i t i ~ ~~ j~ { g ~ f yil)indicate g whi~hi gu1pl~g supply with transportation cost zero.
is equal to a partial sum of b.17.
+ md
d >o
This modified problem has been constructed in such a manner that no partial sum of a. There could be a situation where it might be economical to transport items in several stages: First within certain origins and destinations and finally the reform to the ultimate' receipt points. It is not uncommon to maintain dumps for central storage of certain build material. Similarly.7 TRANSHIPMENT PROBLEM
In a transportation problem consignments are always transported from an origin to a destination'. the distinction between an origin and destinations is dropped so that from a transportation problem with nz origins and n destinations. Thus. . Then. The perturbed problems have been presented in Table 18. m
a: = b.. AAer the problem is solved.5 (after the introduction of the additional row).road and railways or between stations connected by broad gauge and meter gauge lines will necessarily require transhipment. 2. movement of material involving two different modes of transport .
Table 18. m = 3.Operations Research
Perturbation Technique
The degenerate basic solutions of the transportation problem can be avoided if we ensure that no partial sum of ai and bj are the same. for the purpose of transhipment. consider the transportation problem presented in Section 18.
SAQ 5
Solve the perturbed problem given in Table 18. For illustration.. we take d = 0 to obtain the solution of the original problem. Here. n = 3. The formulation and solution of a transhipment problem is illustrated with'the help of the following example.
18. we put d = 0 leading to the optimum solution of the original problem. .17
The problem can be solved using any of the methods described before.
. We set up a new problem where a: = ai + d i = 1.17. we obtain a transhipment problem with m + n destinations...
Table 18.18 Plant Depot
X
Y
z
When each plant is also considered a destination and each depot is also considered an origin. Some additional cost data are also necessary. These are presented in the following Tables. 1 8.22 :Transhipment Table
A buffer stock of 450 which is the total capacity and total requirement in the original transportation problem is added to each row and column of the transhipment problem. we obtain the transportation formulation of the transhipment problem.18
Table 18. On 'solving the transportation problem presented in
.21. The resulting transportation probleni has tn + n = 5 origins and In + n = 5 destinations.18. there are altogether five origins and five destinations.20 and 18.19 From Plant
A
To Plant A
0
1
To Plant B
65
R
0
Table 18. capacity at the plants and the requirements at the depots are indicated in Table 18.
Table 18. 18.19.21 : Unit Transportation Cost From Depot to Plant Depot
X Y
Plant A
3 25
45
Plant B
15
3
z
55
From Tables 18.Example 18.20 : Unit Transportatioil Cost From Depot to Depot From Plant
X Y Z
To Depot X
0
1
To Depot Y
23
0
To Depot Z
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3
0
65
3
Table 18. The unit transportation costs.5
Transportation Problem
Consider a transportation problem where the origins are plants and destinations are depots.
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Example 18. then the objective function is Maximisc
q l x l l+ r . . 2 + r j 3 x 1 3 + .t35= 15d.
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The description of the transhipment problem is given below : (a) Ttansport xzI= 300 units from plant B to plant A . 700 and 90D units per month respectiyely. . h33 = 300. + r 3 4 ~ 3 4
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18.8 MAXIMISATION IN A TRANSPORTATION
PROBLEM


There are certain types of transportatioti prablems where the objective'function is to be maximized instead of being minimised.
SAQ 6
s o h e the transportation problem given in Table 18. the minimum transportation cost s~hedule x13 1SO. = ld0.
Table 18. The production capacities of these factories are 1000. These problem6 osln be solved by converting the maximisation problem into a minimisation problem.ar4= 150. = i5d3jCl3=500. Thus.
xzz= 450. If xVdenotes the number of units to be dispatched from the ith city to the jth dealer ru be the corresponding return.x2.. however.xi2 * I50 with a minimum cost is = of 3450. City B and City C and supplies goods to four dealers spread all over the country.
(b)
(c)
A trtllispdrt x l j= 300 te depot . This increases the iivaildbijlt$ at pldflt A to 450 units including the 150 units originally a+aiiabid ftdm A.22 (TTratlshipment problem) eising the modified distribution method. . and xI4= 150 to depot Y. $21 = 300. The net return per unit product varies for different combinations of dealers and factories which is given in Table 18. the conslghments are transported from plants A and B to depots X. The formulation and solution of this class ofproblems are illustrated with the help of the following example. u Ftbm 300 uiliis titrailable! at depot X transport x3$ 150 units to =
Ftom deoot . ! i
The total transhipmetit cost Is 1 x 300 + 3 x 1SO + 1 x 300 + 1 x 1350 = 1200.A&= 450. k3$= 450.6
A firm has three factories located in City A.
xi.23. If.23
Determine a suitable allocation to maximise the total net return. 2 x .18.Y and 2 only accordittg to the transpaitatiort Table 18.Wt obtain. transhibfnent reduces the cost of cargo movement in this case. .
.d and make readjustnient in some of the other basic variables: The revised values are as follows :
XI 1
= 200 + d. + ( 8 .12 + .r34 xj4 is minil x12 the objective function in a more convenient form we obsewe that the per unit corresponding to r j 4 with u traltle 8. .. v .. = 900.The value of decision variables x.d. v2= 3. Table 18.d. . the function to be minimised is

. X ~ = 400 + 3d.+ (8r33)x33 +(8r34)x34
Hence. = 2. ~ 3 = 500 2d. ~ 3 = 500 3 3
and
xj4 = 400 + 3d.25. If we add and slrbtraet return is ~iiaximum 8 x 2600.
Transportation Problem
But 2600 = xl
+ x12+ .
The dual variables must satisfy the conditions. +(8r.
( 8 .. X Z = 700 . ul + v2 = 2. .~32600x8 +( ~ + 4
This is identical to minimise the objective function
( Y . On verifying the optimality condition. ) x .
1
Taking ul = 0. we observe that
C 1 1 . Hence.. x.. the minlmisation problem will remain unchanged.24
As the partial sum a3 = b3 + b4. v3= 0. we obtain ul = 0.. . ~
2 = 700 1
.
u 2 + lJ3 4 . ~ 3 3 J Using modified distribution method. u 3 + v 4 = 0 .u l vz<O.
We allocate x12= 700 . + xj3 x
~ Hence. u2 + vz = 6.24.obtain. u3= 1 .1 i ~ ) x ~8 . =
Taking u l = 0 arbitrarily. We consider the corresponding perturbed problem in Table 18. the function to be minimised is ~ .q 2 ) x I 2 + . ~ 2 = 2d.d. . u3+ v3=I. ~
2 = 2.rl2= 800. we have a revised transportation problem given in Table 18. the problem is degenerate.q 3 ) ~ 3 3 (8~34). . U I + vl = 2. Table 18. we. XI^= 100 + d.r 1 2 . arbitrarily
.)n. . which maximise the objective function are also the values where r~ X I I .r .25
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1
(
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The initial basic feasible solution by matrix minimum method is.c32 U3v2
<O
I
:3d. u2= 4.
A separate computational device is required to solve the assignment problem. ~ X ~ .
x. + xirz= I x . x33 = 500.. Since it has been assumed that all the cost
. It is also assumed that the overall measure of effectiveness is to be miniminsed (such as total time taken to accomplish all the jobs)... As in the case of transportation problem we introduced
assigned to only one person. . .26 :Table of an Assignment Problem
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The assignment problem is thus a special case of transportation problem where m = 12 and a. n
j=1.
+ .
Suppose c0 is the measure of effectiveness when ith person is assigned jth job. = bi = I . The objective function is Minimise
C . . 1988) : If a constant is added to every element of a row or a column of the cost matrix of an
This result can be used in two different ways to solve the assignment problem. 2 .. + xni = I +
xi.. It may however be easily observed that any basic feasible solution of an
problem become very inefficient.. x l z= 800...
. +. xzl = 700.26 Table 18.+ C.xl... x 4 = 400. ..c I 2 x I 2
i = 1 . we have. 3
The maximum net return is
6x200+6x800+4x700+7x500+8x400=15500.xi2 + . 2 0
in Table 18...2. ~ x. n
+
+ .the problenl is X I
= 200. we may convert them into an
feasible solution which has zero assignment cost after adding suitable constants to the elements of various rows and colun~ns. If in on assignment problenl some cost elements are negative. The basic result on which the solution of an assignment problem is based can be stated as follows (Mustafi.
there will be atleast one zero in each row of this new table. covering all the zeros in the following way. If for a row and for a column. called the First Reduced Cost Table. please go to step 5. case you had chosen a zero cell In arbitrarily. the Exaniine the checked (4) columns. Hungarian Method The method is listed below in the form of a series of computational steps.
Step 5
Draw a set of lines equal to the number of assignments made in Step 3. (d) The above process may be continued until every zero cell is either assigned (boxed) or crossed out. there may be an alternate optimum. Subtract this smallest cost element from each element in that row. Draw lines through all unchecked rows and through all checked columns. As a result of this. when the objective function is that of minimization type. if the number of assigned cells equals the number of rows (and col~~mns).
(c)
(d)
(e)
. If no optimunl solution is found (some rows or columns without an assignment).
Step 3
Determine an assignment as follows : For each row or column with a single zero value cell that has (a) not been assigned or eliminated. (a)
(b)
4 to Mark check ( ) those rows where no assignment has been made. this assignment must be optimum. If the number of origins are not equal to the nuniber of destinations.
Step 4
An optimal assignment is found. If any zero cell occurs in those rows.
Step 1
Trarrspurtalion Problerl~
Find out the cost table from the given problem. Subtract this smallest cost element from each element in that column. choose the assigned zero cell arbitrarily. If any assigned zero occurs in those columns. check (4) the respective rows that contain those assigned zeros. (b) For every zero that becomes assigned.3). The process may be repeated until no more rows or column can be checked. there are two or more zero and (c) one cannot be chosen by inspection.
Step 2
Find the smallest cost in each row of the cost table. Therefore. Based on this principle a coniputational technique known as Hungarian Method is developed which is discussed below. a dummy origin or destination must be added (For details. check (4) respective columns that contain those zeros. cross out all other zeros in the same row and for column.elemcnts are uonnegative. each row and colunin now has atleast one zero value in the second reduced cost table. box that zero value as an assigned cell.
Examine the checked (4) rows. Find the sniallest element in each colunin of the reduced cost table. please refer Section 18.
Only one man can work on any one job. Choose the smallest of these elements and subtract this smallest from all the elements that do not have a line through them. The cost of assigning each man to each job is given in Table 18. Examine row A of Table 18. The resulting matrix is a new revised cost tableau. Table 18.
Table 18. The objective is to assign men to jobs such that the total cost of assignment is a minimum.27. Step 2 Find the first and second reduced cost tableau (Table 18.27
Men
Solution Step 1 Find out the cost tableau (table 18. Crossout all other zeros in the boxed column.28 : First Reduced Cost Tableau
Table 18. This way you can eliminate cell B1. You will find that it has only one zero (A 1).29 : Second Reduced Cost Tableau
Step 3 Determine an Assignment.29.28 and 29).Opcr~tiunr Research
step 6
Examine those elements that are not covered by a line. Example 18.27). Add this smallest element to every that lies at the intersection of two lines. Box this zero.
.7
A job shop has four men available for work on four separate jobs.
Examine those elements that are not covered by a line in Table 18. since colunln 1 has an assigned zero in row A. since three assignmonts were made. By subtracting 1 from the uncovered cells and adding 1 to elements (CI and Dl) that lie at the intersection of two lines.3 1.
Step 5
Cover all the zeros of Table 18.
Table 18. the checked column.31. Box this zero. (Refer Table 18. therefore. 4 Therefore. This is how cell D2 gets eliminated. This is 1 (one) in our case. Therefore.32. Check (4) row B since it has no assignment. Take the smallest element.
There is one zero in column 3. This is shown in Table 18. We then check (4) A.30 :Assignment of Jobs
Transportatiun Problem
Step 4
The solution obtained in Step 3 is not optimal. we can box (assign) or eliminate all zeros. D3 gets boxed and this enables us to eliminate cell D4.31
Step 6
Develop the new revised tableau. You may draw three lines through unchecked rows C and D column 1. Eliminate all the zeros in the boxed column. This is because we were able to make three assignments when four were required.
Table 18.30). You find that it has one zero (C2).
Table 18. we get the new revised cost tableau as given in Table 18.30 with three lines.Nou examine row C. we check (4) column 1.32 :New Revised Cost Tableau
. Please note that row B has a zero in column 1. row Please note that no other rows or columns can be checked.
10 UNBALANCED ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
The number of persons to be assigned and the number of jobs were assumed to be the same in the previous section. D3. This balanced problem can be solved using the method developed in the previous section. We introduce one o r more dummy job of zero duration to make the assignment problem balanced. row B (B4) and column 3 (D4) has one zero. Thus.. Thus.33. all zeros are either boxed or eliminated in Table 18. Dz. Remember that we had chosen a zero cell arbitrarily. Such an assignment problem is known as a balanced Assignment problem. How should be the cars be assigned to the customers so as to minimize the total distance covered?
18. an alternate optimum solution exists and is given by A3. Step 8 ~ e t e ~ m i an assignment. You may please verify it yourself. These are boxed and cell D4 is eliminated. The distances in kilometers between the depots and the cities are given in the Table 18. B1.depots Dl. and a customer in each of the five cities C.33 is optimal. the assignment in Table 18. D5. If the number of jobs is less than the number of persons. CZ.C3. C2 and D4. Choose a zero arbitrarily. C5. cell A3 and B1 get eliminated. Table 18. C4. some of them cannot be assigned any job. The persons
.34. say A1 and box this cell. ne
note that all the remaining rows and columns have two zeros. The total cost of this assignment is 78. If the number of persons is different from the number of jobs. the assignment problem is said to be unbalanced. D4.33 : An Optimal Assignment
Since the number of assignments equal the number of rows (columns). Therefore.Go to step 3 and repeat the procedure until you arrive at an optimal assignment.
SAQ 7
A tourist car rental firm has one car in each of the five.
Operator 6 to job 3. Operator 3. cannot be assigned. We solve this balanced assignment problem and the jobs assigned to the dummy persons are left out.
Example 18.
Exatnple 18. Operator 2 to job 1. Operator 4 to job 5 .to whom llie durli~iiy jobs arc assigned are left out of assignment. Likewise.
Table 18. the
Table 18.
Table 18.9
The personnel manager of a company wants to assign Mr. The revised assignment problem is given in Table 18. Two examples have been presented to illustrate the solution of unbalanced assignment problems. therefore.37
.35
Solution
Since the number ofjobs is less than the number of operators we introduce a dummy job with duration zero. Z to regional offices . ~fthe number of persons is less than the number ofjobs we introduce one or more dummy persons with duration time zero to make the assignment problem balanced. Operator 5 to job 2. X.Mr. Operator 3 to duniniy 6 .37.36.Delhi. Calcutta and Madras. Y and Mr. The cost of relocation (in Rupees) of the three officers at the four regional offices are given in Table 18.8
'I'ransportntioi~~ r o h ~ c n ~
Solve the followi~~g unbalanced assignment problem given in Table 18. Bombay. The total minimum conipletion tinie is 16.36
Using the Hungarian Method described in the previous section the assignment leading to minimum cost is : Operator 1 to job 4.35 for minim~sing total tinie for performing all the jobs.
18.39. TIiese have been shown by X in the cost matrix in Table 18. Tlie revised Assignment Problem is given in Table 18. T h ~ can be achieved by assigning a very high cost to the cells where s assig~iments prohibited. Because of specific job requirement and machine specifications certain jobs cannot be done on certain niach~nes. X Mr. The cost of relocation for this assig~iment Rs. The cost matrix gives the cost of processing each job on each machine. Table 18. The solution of the assignment problem sliould take into account these restrictions so that the infeasible assignments can be avoided. The method of solution is illustrated using the following are example.1 1 PROBLEM WITH SOME INFEASIBLE ASSIGNMENTS
It is sometimes possible that a particular person is incapable of doing certain work or a specific job cannot be performed on a particular machine. Mr.39
. Z
16000 10000 10000 0
Dunimy
0
Using Hungarian Method of solution. Z to Delhi.36. The assignnient ofjobs to machine must be done on a one to one basis. The objective is to assign the jobs to the machines so as to minimize the total cost within the restrictions mentioned above. Y to Madras and Mr.Opcratiuiis Research
Solution Since there are fewer persons than offices.8. Table 18. 48000. is
SAQ 8
(a) (b) Work out the various steps of the solution of the Example 18. we ~ntroduce d ~ ~ n i m y a person with a relocation cost zero. the minimum relocation cost is given by Durnnly (no one) to Calcutta. Example 18.9. Mr. Y
Mr.38 Ofticers
Delhi
Offices Mumbai
22000 32000 20000 0
Calcutta
24000 26000
46000
Chennai
20000 I6000 30000 0
Mr. X to Bombay.10 A metal shop has five jobs to be done and has give machines to do them. Work out the various steps of the solution of the Exaniple 18.
p. this problem can be formulated as
xi.. . .40
(
Machines
1
Solving the revised assignment problem we allot Job 1 to Machine 3.12 MAXIMISATION IN AN ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
There are proble~ns where certain facilities have to be assigned to a number of jobs so as to maximize the overall performance of the assignment. x.p12x12.Because certaln jobs cannot be done on certain machines we assign a high cost the (say 500) to these cells and ~iiodify cost matrix before solution.40. .2.. Using notations as in Section 8. Suppose. .p . the assignn~ent which minimises n P ...p.. The minimum cost of assignment is 220.. is to be maximised is the assignment where.p l I xl I . + . n
The objective function is
Where pii is the perfoni~ance corresponding to the assignment of the ith facility to the jth job.
I
1
18. we take P as the maximum of all the performance indices Pii. . x.p 1 2. . x.. Then. The revised Assignment probleni is given in Table 18. Furthermore. The problem can be converted into a ~nininlization problem and Hungarian Method can be used for its solution.. .
. . The assignment where the objective function pl I xl + . Job 3 to Machine 4..rill = 1
i = l . .. x. 2 .
Now. . ..x12 .. . . also xflf1 minimises . .. + p .pItfr .. .
. Job 2 lo Machine 5. Job 4 to Machine 2 and Job 5 to Machine 1.p12xI2.pl xl .
'Transportation Prob1e111
Table 18. where P is a constant. is to be minimised. we have...
SAQ 9
Give the stepbystep solution of the Example 18.10 given in this section. + xi2 +.

A
E
37

40 27 33 40
41
28 21 30 36 34
40 36 35 36 39
2
3
40
40
24 32 38 62
25 5 29
Find out the maximum profit possible through optinla1 assignment. Thus. Job 3 to n~achine Job 4 to Machine B.29 .
Table 18. The revised assignment Table is given in Table 18... the maximization of performance is identical \vitl1 n~inimizationof cost.42
Job
1
Machine
A
B
C
D
E
22 26 27 26 23
32 22 22 37
33
25
22 35 22 21
34 41 32 26 28
2
3
4
38
24
0
3 0 .
5
1
We now apply Hungarian Method to obtain the minimum cost assignment of the revised problem. assignment is 214.
18.. The solution is to assign Job 1 to Machine C. The technique is illustrated
.41. We subtract each profit value from 62.42.
Table 18. The maximum profit through this A. we have to construct a new table of assignment costs with "P p.
Example 18." values and apply the standard ~nelhod solution. Job 2 to Machine E. The procedure is illustrated with the help of the of following example. \vliere the cost corresponding to the assignment of ith facility to theith job is given by P p.13 CREW ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
The method of solution discussed in this unit can be utilized to plan the assignment of crew members in different locations by a transport company.1 1.41
Job

Machine
B C D
.Olwr:~tio~~s liesenrrl~
Applictrtio~~s
Hence.11
Five different 111achinescan do any of the required five jobs with different profits resulting from each assignment as shown in Table 18.
Solution
The highest profit in the assignment Table is 62.
SAQ 10
Verify the solution of the assignment problem presented in Example 18.
A trip from Madras to Bangalore takes six hours by bus. Similarly.00
e
5
The cost of providing this service by the transport company depends upon the time spent by the bus crew (driver and conductor) away froni their places in addition to service times. Its cost is thus M.44
Route
a
4
1
2
21
3 M
5
12
17.30 01 .5
6.30
1200 13. a3 is an infeasible assignment.30
l ~ from Bangalore
05.
Table 18. Thus the crew of Route a reaching % a ~ Z o r e 12 Noon are unable to take the minimum stipulated rest at of four hours if they are asked to leave by Route 3. Thus.
(b)
Table 18.00
21 .OO
2
c
d
3
4
19. Hence.
(a)
As the service time 1s constant for each line it does not appear directlgin the computation.00 15.00 hours.30 00.5 hours.00
~
u
~

a
07.45
I
Route
I

1
2
3
4
777
. the crew after arriving at Bangalore at 12 Noon start 5. There are five crews. There is a constraint that every crew should be provided with more than 4 hours of rest before the return trip again and should not wait for more than 24 hours for the return trip. If the entire crew resides at Chennai then the waiting tiilies in hours at Bangalore for different route connections are glven in Table 1 8.44.30 09.00 00.OO 06.5


If Route a IS combined with Route 1. Some of the assignments are infeasible.43.45. Route 3 leaves Bangalore at 15. a large positive number. Find which line of service be connected with which other line so as to reduce the waiting time to the minimurn. if the crew are assumed to reside at Bangalore then the waiting times of the crew in hours at Chennai for different route combinations are given in Table 18. the waiting tinie is 17.30
00.30
b
15.30 06.00 18.30
1 1.30 next morning.
Table 18.30 17. The company has residential facilities for the crew at Chennai as well as at Bangalore. A typical time table of the bus service in both directions is given in Table 18.43
lloute Number Cliennai r for Bangalore
1
~
r
i
v a Number
1
Chennai
11.
48 : Second Reduced Cost Tableau
Step 3 Determine an Assignment.48.46. we box e2.46). minimum waiting time from the above operation can be computed for different route combination by choosing the minimum of the two waiting times. There is no other
86
. we find that it has only one zero (dl). Step 2 Find the first and second reduced cost tableau (Tables 18. There is no other zero in the boxed column. This way you can eliminate cell b4. Now examine row e. Examine row a of Table 18.(c)
As the crew can be asked to reside either at C'henna~or at Bangalore. Table 18. It has only one zero (c5).48). Suppose.
Table 18. There is no other zero in the boxed column. This is presented in Table 18. Box this zero. It has two zeros (e2 and e3). Box this zero. Examine row c.46
Solution Step I The cost tableau in terms of waiting time (Table 18. Cross out all other zeros in the boxed column. otherwise they are based at Bangalore. We box one of the two zeros arbitrarily. On examining row d. Box this zero. The asterisk marked waiting times indicates that the crew are based at Chennai. You will find that it has only one zero (a4).47 and 18.
i.5 in our case. Examine those elements which are not covered by a line in Table 18.
Table 18. all the zeros of Table 8.5 1.1 .e3 gets crossed out.
Trans11ol.5 5.49
Step 4
The solution obtained in Step 3 is not optimal as the number of assignn~ents are less than the number of rows or column. since column 4 has an assigned zero in row a.e. Take the smallest element.
Step 5
Cover all zeros of Table 18. since four assignments were made.
Route 3 4 5 .48 get boxed or eliminated (refer Table 18. the other zero in the same row. We then check (4) row a. By subtracting 3.tation Problc111
Table 18. d4. and e4) that lie at the intersection of two lines. That is 3.5 to elements (c4. we check colunln 4. Note that row b has a zero in column 4. Check (4) row b since no assignment was made in this row. This way.2 a
8.50
Route
I I I
1
1
2
I
3
1 
4
1
5
I
I
Step 6
Develop a new revised tableau.0
1
. therefore.0
0 0 3.zero in Lhe boxed column. we get the new revised tableau is given in Table 1 8.49 with four lines.50.5 from the uncovered cells and adding 3. However.49).
5 . Likewise. b .53.3. c and d have only one zero.52 : An Optimal Assignment
Since the number of assignnlents are equal to the number of rows (columns) in the problem. Referring back to Table 18.51.
Table 18. A certain amount of a particular consignment is available in each origin.Ol~cr"io~iIte\rarrl~ \ Applications
Step 7
Go to stcp 3 and repeat the procedure until an optin~al assignment is arrived at. We note that all zeros are either boxcd or eliminated in Table 18. the . we box e2 and eliminate e3. The same has been indicated in Table 18.5 hours. we can box a3.2.
Step 8
Deternine an assignment. each destination has a certain requirement.
Therefore. a transportation problem has a number of origins and a number of destinations.5
The minimum total wailing time is tl~us 33.
'Table 18.5
4.
By examining each of the rows in Table 18. c .
We note that column 2 has only one zero in row e. Siniplex method is 11otsuitable for the solution of a transportation problen~.issignnlent in Table 18. the other hand the On transportation problem has a special structure which may be utilized to develop efficient computational techniques for its solution. we find that rows b. we box b4.' and e . Now. Since b4 is boxed.
Jn the most general form.
18. Therefore.52. we can I now obtain the waiting tlmes of these assignments as well as the residcnce of the crew.53
1
a3
b4
Bangalore Chennai
1
d5 d. Therefore.5
1
9. The transportation problem indicates the amount of consignment to be transported from various origins to different
. c5 and d I . d .52 IS optimal.3 .46.1
e2
1
Bangalore Chennai Bangalore
~ ~
1
9
5
I
I
5. a4 gets eliminated.14 SUMMARY
Transportation Problem is a special type of linear programming problem. 111eroutes to he palred to achieve the ~~~~~~~~~~1 waiting time are (1 .
The decision variables xii of a transportation problem indicate the amount to be transported from the ith origin to the jth destination. the assignment probleni is said to problem can be converted into a balanced be unbalanced. the Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM) provides an initial basic feasible soltition whose associated cost is quite closer to tlie minimum transportation cost. the corresponding cost or con~pletion time is taken as very large which autoniatically prevents such an assignment.destinations so that the total tiansportation cast is minimised without violating the availability constraints and the requirement constraints. A problem having a structure similar to that of a transportation problem where the objective function is to be maximised can also be solved by the techniques developed in this unit with the slight modifications. A transhipment problem can be formulated as a transportation problem with an increased number of origin and destinations. The original cost matrix can be reduced to another cost matrix by adding constants to the elements of rows and columns where the total cost or the total completion time of an assignment is zero.out a particular job.. it is solved by a special method known as Hungarian Method because of its special structure. Since the optiinunl soIution remains unchanged after this reduction. this assignment is also the optimum solution of the original problem. This may result in an economy of transportation in some cases. Hungarian Method can be applied to a revised cost matrix obtained from the original cost matrix.1 positive basic variables. A degenerate transportation problem can be suitably modified by the perturbation method so that the problem cal. be solved without any difficulty. it is referred to as a Cost matrix. if one or luore basic variables are zero the solution is said to be degenerate. If tlie number ofjobs is different from the number of persons. If the objective is to maximise a performance index through assignment. the assignment. These are the North.
Transportation Probleni
. optimum solution of a transportation problem can be obtained from Modified Distribution (MODI) Method or Stepping Stoue Method.
. Further. Although an assignment problem can be formulated as a linear programming problem. Sometimes the total available consignment at the origins is different from the total requirenient at the destinations. The method of solution can also be utilised for allocating crew members to various stations of transport organisation. Such a transportation probleni is said to be unbalanced. The Hungarian Method is based on tlic principle that if a constant is added to every element of a row and/or a is column of cost matrix the optimum solution of the resulting assignment proble~li the same as the original problem and viceversa. The assignment problem considers the allocation of a nuniber of jobs t o a number of time is iiiinimised. Generally. An unbalanced assign~iient assignment problem by introducing a duniniy person or a dummy job with zero completion time. Various ramifications of the assignment problem are possible.probleni is said to be balanced. However. If the nuniber of persons is tlie persons so that the total co~npletion same as the number ofjobs. If the times of completion or the costs corresponding to every assignmelit is written in a matrix fornl. A number of techniques are available for computing an initial basic feasible solution of a transportation problem. Transportatio~i problem can be generalised into a transhipment problem where shipment is possible from origin to origin or destination as well as from destination to origin or destination. An unbalanced transportation problem can be made balanced where the total available consignment at the origins is equal to the total requirement at the destinations by introducing an additional row or column with zero transportation cost. Matrix Minimum method and Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM). Two subscripts arc necessary to describe these decision variables. The basic feasible solutions of a transportation probleni with rn origins and n destinations should have rn + rt . West Corner Rule. If a person is unable to carry.
: The transhipment problem is a transportation problem where shipment is possible from an origin to an origin or a destination as well as from a destination to an origin or a destination.
variables.
: Stepping Stone Method is a method of computing optimum solution of a transportation problem. top left comer. i.v method is a method of coniputing optimum solution of transportation problem.
: The unbalanced transpoltation problem is a
transportation problem where the total availability at the origin is different from the total requirement at the destinations.
'
. : The Modified Distribution Method also known as u . Unit Transportation Cost
: The unit transportation cost is the cost of
transporting one unit of the consignment from an
North West Corner Rule
: The northwest corner rule is a method of computing an initial basic feasible solution of a transportation problem where basic variables are selected from the northwest comer.The Origin
: The origin of a transportation problem is the location from which the shipments are dispatched to the destination.e. : The matrix niininium nlethod is neth hod of con~puting initial basic feasible solution of a an
The Matrix Minimum Method
transportation. Perturbation Technique
: The perturbation technique is a niethod of modifying a degenerate transportation problem so that the degeneracy can be resolved.
: Assignment problem is a special type of linear
Transhipment Problem
Assignment Problem
programming problem where the objective is to minimise the cost or the time of completing a number of iobs bv a number of Dersons. Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM) Stepping Stone Method Modified Distribution (MODI) Method Unbalanced Transportation Problem
: The Vogel's Approximation Method (VAM) is an
iterative procedure of computing an initial basic feasible solution of the transportation problem.
: The destination of a transportation problem is the
The Destination
location to which the shipments are transported frdm origin.
x12=22.Balnnccd Assignment Problem
: Balanced assignment problem is an assignment
l'ransportstion Problem
/
problem where the number of persons is equal to the number of jobs. . x33= 30. x22= 20. X ~ ~ = . Vogel Approximation Method X I J = 15.D4 . x23= 200.
SAQ 5
XI^= 300.j ) of
the assignment cost matrix if ith person is unable to performjth job. x42 = 6. Cost Matrix Minimunl Method x 13 = 15.
An Infeasible Assignment
: An infeasible assignment occurs in the cell (i. xq3 4.
18. X ~ ~ = ~ ~ . 2.
OT
X I .
: Hungarian Method is a technique of solving
assignment problems. X 16. X ~ ~ = ~ . ~ 3=. Mininlise distance is 450 km.
. x 33 = 30.D3 . x22 = 20.CS.x2.x21= I O .x43=35.=3. X ~ ~ = I X
Minimum Transportation Cost is 173.
xu = 4. 2 =
Minimum Cost = 668.
112
+ n.Vll
=
10. = O .
SAQ 4
.
North WestComerRulexlI= 15.C1.
Unbalanced Assignment Problem Hungarian Method A Dumrny Job
: Unbalanced assignment problem is a type of an
assignment problem where the number of persons is not equal to the number of jobs.x33= 14. x 4. X ~= 300.C3. X ~ J =18.
SAQ6
1
i
i
DI .
SAQ 3
All C .C2.16 ANSWERS TO SAQs
SAQ 1
(a) (b) (c)
SAQ 2
lninimse equations
mn.u .~ ~ 2 0 .C402 . The solution is optimum.DS. 3
~
Minimuni Transportation Cost is 13200.
: A dummy job is an imaginary job with zero cost or
time. This is introduced to make an unbalanced assignment problem balanced. = 25. ~ Minimum Cost = 538. ~ I
I
3
300. . .15 ~ ~ = ~ . ~O ~ ~ = Minin~u~n = 668.
4 = 6. = 25. x4.