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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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notes before attempting the problems 1. This is a closed book exam. Communications between calculators and devices are prohibited. 2. This exam paper has 3 pages (including this cover page). Please count the number of pages before you start and report any discrepancies to the invigilator. 3. Show your work in exam booklets. Work shown on the problem sheets will not be graded. 4. Assume Standard Conditions unless stated otherwise 5. Do not attempt the questions without reading the problems carefully. Formulas that might be needed 1. Temperature, t oC ~ (t + 273.16) K 2. Specific gravity, SG =

fluid , where std = 1000 kg/m3 for liquids and 1.205 kg/m3 for gases std

3. Ideal gas law, p = Rg T 4. Pressure difference between two points in the same fluid at different vertical positions P = - gz =gh Gage pressure, absolute (total) pressure: Pgage=Pabsolute-Patm 5. 6. Hydrostatic force, referring to the coordinate system in the figure Magnitude of the hydrostatic Patm O force: F = ghCG A . Distance between center of hCG F pressure CP (along y-axis) and area centroid along the plate CG I Sin yCP yCG = xx ,CG when Patm CP hCG A is ignored. y 7. For a rectangle, area centroid (CG) at center and Area Moment of Inertia CG at the center 3 bL bL3 Ixx,CG = Ixx,CG = 12 12 x 8. Buoyancy: A body immersed in a fluid L experiences a vertical buoyant force equal CG to the weight of the fluid it (the body) displaces. 9. Volume Flow rates, Q = udA ; Average velocity through a cross section Q area of A, V= A

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Problem 1 (25% in total) As shown in Figure 1, a tank is partially filled with water. On top of the water, the initial volume the trapped air is V0, and the initial gage pressure of the air trapped on top is 0, and 1) (10%) Water drains out the tank through a round tube with a radius of R at the bottom of the tank w. The velocity profile within the round tube r 2 Air is simplified as u = U 0 1 within the tube, R where U0 is a constant, r is the radial position. Determine the volume flow rate (Q) of the water. Water Express you answer in terms of U0 and R. A round tube with radius of R. 2) (15%) Assume the flow rate Q is constant and there is no change in temperature. Find the relationship between gage pressure of the trapped air at any time, t? Express your answer in terms of Patm, Q, t, V0

R r u(r)

Velocity profile in the tube at the bottom Figure 1

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Problem 2 (75%) in total (If needed, density of water is 1000 kg/m3, density of mercury is 13,560 kg/m3) A uniform block of steel with a specific gravity (SG) of h 8.0 is L = 0.1 m wide and w = 0.1 m into the paper. It Fv1 will float at the mercury water interface as in Figure 2. The top surface of the steel block is h below water Water a Steel surface. Denote the vertical components of the block hydrostatic forces on top and bottom surfaces of the b Mercury steel are Fv1 and Fv2 respectively. Ignore the atmosphere pressure. Determine: Fv2 a) (15%) the difference between (Fv2-Fv1) in terms of a and b. Figure 2 b) (15%) the total buoyant force on this steel block, B, in terms of aand b using the principle A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid the body displaces. c) (15%) the ratio of a to b, a/b. d) (15%) the magnitude of resultant force on the left side of the steel block (express your answer in terms of h, a, b) e) (15%) the line though which the resultant force on the left side of the block (express your answer in terms of h, a, b)

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